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# Caraga State University

## College of Engineering and Information Technology

Ampayon, Butuan City 8600

## GE 105 Theory of Errors and Adjustments

STRENGTH OF FIGURE
with CASIO fx-991 es plus Calculator Technique

Lecture 5

## ENGR. BRODDETT B. ABATAYO, GE, REA

Part-time Lecturer GE division, CEIT, CSU, Ampayon, Butuan City
Research Assistant Phil-LiDAR 2 Project, CSU, Ampayon, Butuan City
Proprietor BPA ABATAYO Land Surveying Services
1
STRENGTH OF FIGURE FORMULA

## STRENGTH OF FIGURE FACTOR

STRENGTH OF FIGURE

## A and B are the logarithmic differences

corresponding to 1 for the distance-angles A and B
STRENGTH of FIGURE
FACTOR (F)
STRENGTH OF FIGURE FACTOR

A B

Where:
P = number of stations
L = number of lines

D P =4
C
L =6

F = 0.6
STRENGTH OF FIGURE FACTOR

.
A

Where:
P = number of stations
C . . B
L = number of lines

P =3
L =3

F = 0.75
STRENGTH OF FIGURE FACTOR

A B

. Where:
P = number of stations
L = number of lines

D
C P =5
L =8

F = 0.64
STRENGTH OF FIGURE FACTOR

A
. .B
.
F Where:
P = number of stations
L = number of lines
E . .
.D C P =6
L = 10

F = 0.67
STRENGTH OF FIGURE FACTOR

G . . A

. . B
F
.
H Where:
P = number of stations
L = number of lines

. . C
E
.
D
P =8
L = 14

F = 0.69
DIFFERENT ROUTES WITHIN A QUADRILATERAL

Using ABD and ADC with AD as the common side. Using ABC and ADC with AC as the common side.
A Known side B A B
Known side
54 44 54 44
38 56 38 56

CD=1.231 AB CD=1.492 AB
26 26
44 44
68 30 30
68
C C
D D

Using ABD and BCD with BD as the common side. Using ABC and BCD with BC as the common side.
A Known side B A Known side B
54 44 54 44
38 56 38 56

CD=1.650 AB
CD=1.439 AB
26 26
44 44
30 68 30
68
C C
D D
DISTANCE ANGLE

Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and common side of the first
triangle and angle opposite to the common and required side of the second triangle.

## Using ABC and ADC with AC as the

Known side B common side.
A
54 44 For triangle ABC:
38 26 and 100
56
For triangle ADC:
112 and 38

44 26

68 30
D Required side
C
DISTANCE ANGLE

Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and common side of the first
triangle and angle opposite to the common and required side of the second triangle.

## Using ABD and ADC with AD as the

Known side B common side.
A
54 44 For triangle ABD:
38 44 and 44
56
For triangle ADC:
30 and 38

44 26

68 30
D Required side
C
DISTANCE ANGLE

Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and common side of the first
triangle and angle opposite to the common and required side of the second triangle.

## Using ABD and BCD with BD as the

Known side B common side.
A
54 44 For triangle ABD:
38 44 and 92
56
For triangle BCD:
56 and 56

44 26

68 30
D Required side
C
DISTANCE ANGLE

Distance Angle is the angle opposite to the known and common side of the first
triangle and angle opposite to the common and required side of the second triangle.

## Using ABC and BCD with BC as the

Known side B common side.
A
54 44 For triangle ABC:
38 26 and 54
56
For triangle BCD:
68 and 56

44 26

68 30
D Required side
C
Using ABD and ACD with AD as the common side.

ABC
A Known side B
distance angle of AB = 44
54 44 distance angle of AD = 44
38
= 14.26

ADC

44 distance angle of AD = 30
distance angle of DC = 38
68 30
D Required side
= 30.39
C

## = 14.26 + 30.39 = 44.65

Using ABD and ADC with AD as the common side.

R=F
F = 0.60
= 44.65

R = 26.78
Respective differences of sines

## Using ABC and ADC with AC as the ABC

common side.
distance angle of AB = 26
A Known side B distance angle of AC = 100
54 44
= 17.17
38 56

ADC
distance angle of AC = 112
26 distance angle of DC = 38
44

68 30 = 5.69
D Required side
C

## = 17.17 + 5.69 = 22.86

Using ABC and ADC with AC as the common side.

R=F
F = 0.60
= 22.86

R = 13.72
DIFFERENT ROUTES WITHIN A QUADRILATERAL
Using ABD and ADC with AD as the common side. Using ABC and ADC with AC as the common side.
A Known side B A B
Known side
54 44 54 44
38 56 38 56

CD=1.231 AB CD=1.492AB
26 26
44 44
68 30 R = 26.78 68 30 R = 13.72
C C
D D

Using ABD and BCD with BD as the common side. Using ABC and BCD with BC as the common side.
A Known side B A Known side B
54 44 54 44
38 56 38 56

CD=1.650 AB
CD=1.439 AB
26 26
44 44
30 R = 6.39 68 30 R = 18.92
68
C C
D D