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CHAPTER III

METHODS AND PROCEDURES

This chapter provides information on the research methods, the


instrument, and the data gathering procedures to be used by the researchers
to fulfill the goals of the study. The survey method that will be used by the
researchers is elaborated along with the statistical treatment that will be
utilized to analyze the data.

Research Method/Design

This study will be utilizing survey as the research method to gather the
students preference on effective ESL teacher qualities. The sample was
drawn from the population of ITL high school students from Grade 7 to 10.
Survey is one of the most common instruments used by many educational
researchers. According to De Vaus (2001), surveying is a method of data
collection that involves gathering data from a sample of individuals through
a series of responses to questions posed by the researcher. It involves
researchers asking a large group of people sets of question about a particular
topic or issue. This method, according to Essene (2009), is important,
especially for seeking individuals opinions, attitudes and perceptions in their
natural setting. This entirely puts out the overall aim of this study. Since
students are directly involved in the teaching and learning process and have
interacted with their teachers long enough they will offer a meaningful
description and judgment on the qualities of their teachers. This method in
which they are tested, and the questions which they will be asked will place
them as an active member of a specific setting rather than in a subject
controlled lab setting. It is each participants perceptions and experiences
that ultimately lead the researchers into discovery of answers to the
research questions, and understanding of the phenomena. Thus, the role of
participants, the students, in this study is highly valued.

The Sample and Sample Technique

The researchers target population is all Grade 7 to 10 students in PNU-


ITL taking up English as one of their subjects for the school year 2016-2017.

The sample size comprises all high school students who are enrolled
during the time the study will be conducted. The stratified random with equal
proportions formula was used to compute for the sample from the total
population of 237 high school students. In specific, the sample size drawn
from Grade 7 are 43; a similar size of 31 in both Grades 8 and 9, and a total
of 39 in Grade 10.

These students were chosen because they are direct participants in the
teaching and learning process. Thus, they can provide necessary information
for the conduct of the study.

For the pilot testing, the researchers selected five students out of each
grade level, making a sum of 20 students. The students who were pilot-
tested came from the same population, the researchers used non-probability
sampling, under which is the convenience sampling, to determine the
students who will participate in the actual survey. The students who
participated for the pilot testing were the most easily obtained and most
readily available respondents, as per recommendation of their English
teachers.

The students who participated in the pilot testing were asked and were
excluded in the testing on the actual day of testing.
Instrumentation

The instrument that will be used in this study is a survey questionnaire


composed of three parts. The students will be required to fill out their grade
level on the background information section since the studys concern is the
student preference on ESL teacher qualities affected by their grade level.

A paper and pencil questionnaire comprising three sections, a


respondents profile, a survey administered by a Likert scale, and an open-
ended question, was developed by the researchers after a thorough review of
the literature about teacher characteristics. The data regarding the empirical
work for this study will be collected through a four-point Likert scale (4 =
high preference; 3 = medium preference; 2 = low preference; and 1 = not
preferred). This part is structured to generate the participants responses
towards their perceived preferences of the qualities of an effective ESL
teacher.

The questionnaire is composed of three parts, namely: 1) I prefer an


English teacher who (Pedagogical Knowledge and Practice), 2) My
ideal English teacher is someone who (English Language Competence),
and 3) I want my English teacher to interact with me by (Socio-affective
skills) which are the three domains the researchers have categorized and
wherein the conceivable traits are placed under. Students will be asked to
read the items in each category and rate each characteristic in terms of
importance to their learning. The Likert scale questionnaire was anchored at
one end by high preference and at the other end by not preferred, meaning
that a high rating indicated strong endorsement of the item.

This method is strong because researchers will gain explicit data


showing which characteristics participants rated high or low. A limitation to
this method is that participants are given constructs to rate but might have
other ideas that are not measured. Nonetheless, the researchers use of an
open-ended question, where participants write about characteristics they
associate with an effective ESL teacher based on the past or present
teachers they have, will provide multi-layered and deeper insights on
participants preferences. The open-ended question part will help the
researchers explore more closely on students views on the qualities of an
effective ESL teacher. They will be asked to write in their own words the
characteristics of their teacher that make the students consider them as
effective. The questionnaire given to students can be seen in the Appendix
section.

To ensure the validity of research instrument, the researchers will


consult experts for their assistance in developing the instrument. The
researchers intend to ask from a research professor, an English professor of
the Faculty of Arts and Languages (FAL), and a former teacher in the PNU-ITL
and now a current professor of the Faculty of Education and Sciences from
the Philippine Normal University. For the pilot testing, five students per grade
level from Grades 7 to 10 will be asked to participate. In total, 20 students
will be asked for their participation.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers will ask permission from the school director of PNU-ITL
to conduct the research. After so, the cover letter and parent consent form
will be given to the class representatives of each section per grade level
prior to the administration of the testing. The cover letter will inform the
participants about the purpose and relevance, and basic information
regarding the study. Meanwhile, the parent consent form will confirm their
parents agreement on their participation; since most of the students, if not
all, are still under the consent age. The researchers contact details are
indicated for the participants to contact in case of inquiries. These will be
found in the Appendix section.

The exact date for the administration of survey questionnaire and the
retrieval of them will be set by the researchers. The timescale of the
research procedure is visualized through the use of Gantt chart (Table 1).

October Novemb
Methodology er
7 10 11 14 17 18 3 4 7 8
Validation of
Instruments
Cover and consent
letters
Dissemination
Retrieval
Direct
administration
Table 1. Gantt chart of research timescale

Statistical Treatment

For the first specific problem, the variable being tested is the student
preference, and shall be interpreted using (what specific treatment). The
researchers will measure the gathered data, the rating scale responses,
using means and standard deviations to describe the items and for variability
based on the highest preference to see how important a certain quality is to
the students. For the second specific problem, the variable being tested is
also the student preference and the grade level, which is analyzed using
One-Way ANOVA to test whether there is significant difference among the
preferences per year level. Lastly, the third problem requires no statistical
test to measure since the responses to the questions are descriptive in
nature, and is therefore non-statistical. Meanwhile, for the open-ended
question which asks for students personal preference, the researchers used
the thematic analysis for analyzing the data gathered.