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Mechanical Engineering

1.Plain Washers, Black : Metric Series:

Non-preferred sizes in brackets().

(Dimensions in Millimetres)
Internal External
Designation Thickness
Diameter Diameter
(Thread d1 d2 s
Diameter) Max Min Max Min Max Min
M5 5.8 5.5 10.0 9.2 1.2 0.8
M6 7.0 6.6 12.5 11.7 1.9 1.3
(M7) 8.0 7.6 14.0 13.2 1.9 1.3
M8 9.4 9.0 17.0 16.2 1.9 1.3
M10 11.5 11.0 21.0 20.2 2.3 1.7
M12 14.5 14.0 24.0 23.2 2.8 2.2
(M14) 16.5 16.0 28.0 27.2 2.8 2.2
M16 18.5 18.0 30.0 29.0 3.6 2.4
(M18) 20.6 20.0 34.0 32.8 3.6 2.4
M20 22.6 22.0 37.0 35.8 3.6 2.4
(M22) 24.6 24.0 39.0 37.8 3.6 2.4
M24 26.6 26.0 44.0 42.8 4.6 3.4
(M27) 30.6 30.0 50.0 48.8 4.6 3.4
M30 33.8 33.0 56.0 54.5 4.6 3.4
(M33) 36.8 36.0 60.0 58.5 6.0 4.0
M36 39.8 39.0 66.0 64.5 6.0 4.0
(M39) 42.8 42.0 72.0 70.5 7.0 5.0
M42 45.8 45.0 78.0 76.5 8.2 5.8
M45 48.8 48.0 85.0 83.0 8.2 5.8
M56 63.0 62.0 92.0 90.0 9.2 6.8
(M60) 67.0 66.0 110.0 108.0 10.2 7.8
M64 71.0 70.0 115.0 113.0 10.2 7.8
(M68) 75.0 74.0 120.0 118.0 11.2 8.8
2. Comparison of Hardness on Various Scales:

Vickers Brinell Rockwell Shore


HV HB HRC C
200 200 - 28
210 210 - 29
220 220 - 30
230 230 19.2 31
240 240 21.2 33
250 250 23.0 34
260 260 24.7 35
270 270 26.1 36
280 280 27.6 37
290 290 29.0 39
300 300 30.3 40
310 310 31.5 41
320 320 32.9 42
330 330 33.8 43
340 340 34.9 44
350 350 36.0 45
360 359 37.0 46
370 368 38.0 47
380 373 38.9 48
390 385 39.8 49
400 393 40.7 50
410 400 41.5 51
420 407 42.3 52
430 416 43.2 53
440 423 44.0 54
450 429 44.8 55
460 435 45.5 56
470 441 46.3 57
480 450 47.0 58
490 457 47.7 59
500 465 48.3 60
510 474 49.0 61
520 482 49.6 62
530 489 50.3 63
540 496 50.9 64
550 503 51.5 65
560 511 52.1 66
570 520 52.7 67
580 527 53.3 68
590 533 53.8 69
600 538 54.4 70
610 543 54.9 71
620 549 55.4 72
630 555 55.9 73
640 561 56.4 74
650 568 56.9 75
660 574 57.4 75
670 581 57.9 76
680 588 58.4 77
690 595 58.9 78
700 602 59.3 79
710 609 59.8 80
720 616 60.2 81
730 622 60.7 82
740 627 61.1 83
750 633 61.5 83
760 639 61.9 84
770 644 62.3 85
780 650 62.7 86
790 656 63.1 86
800 661 63.5 87
810 666 63.9 87
820 670 64.3 88
830 677 64.6 89
840 682 65.0 89
850 - 65.3 90
860 - 65.7 90
870 - 66.0 91
880 - 66.3 91
890 - 66.6 92
900 - 66.9 92

3. Circumferential Speeds for High Speed Twist Drills:


Ft./min. M./min.
Ferrous Materials

Non Alloy Steels


(a) Upto 0.40% Carbon Content 80-100 24-30
(b) 0.40% to 0.70% Carbon Content 60-80 18-24
(c) Over 0.70% Carbon Content 40-60 12-18

Alloy Steels
(a) Upto 60 tons Tensile 50-70 15-21
(b) 60-80 tons Tensile 30-50 9-15
(c) Over 80 tons Tensile 15-30 4.5-9

Austenitic Stainless Steels


Non Magnetic

Magnetic Stainless
Steel Magnetic 40-60 12-18

Alloyed Cast Iron 50-70 15-21

Grey Cast Iron 80-100 24-30

12-14% Manganese Steels 12-14 3.5-4.5

Non Ferrous Materials

Bronze Ordinary 100-200 30-60

Brass 200-250 60-75

Copper 65-70 19-21

Magnesium & Magnesium 200-300 60-90

Alloys

Monel Metal 20-50 6-15

Nimonic Alloys 20-30 6-9

Nickel 30-50 9-15

Zinc base Alloys(mazac) 150-250 45-75


4.Arc Cutting Speeds with Carbon Electrodes:

Material Current
Sr.No. Cutting Speed (mm/minute)
Thickness (mm) (Amp)
1 6 400 375
2 10 400 300
3 12 400 250
4 15 400 175
5 19 400 100
6 25 600 80
7 38 600 60
8 50 600 45
9 75 600 27.5
10 100 600 17.5
11 150 800 10
12 200 800 7.5
13 250 800 5
14 300 800 3.75
15 350 1000 2.5
16 400 1000 1.5

5.Arc Cutting Speeds with Covered Metal Electrodes :

Plate Cutting Speed (mm./min.)


Sr.No. thickness 4.5 mm
4 mm electrode 6 mm electrode
(mm) electrode
1 6 300 375 525
2 12 175 225 275
3 29 105 140 165
4 25 60 90 115
5 30 40 60 80
6 38 25 40 55
7 45 15 30 45
8 50 M10 25 35

6.Steels for Hardening and Tempering (IS : 5517-1969) :

Properties in
hardened and
tempered
condition
Normalizin
Designatio Hardening Quenchin Tempering
g
n Temperatu g Temperatu Typical Applications
Temperatu
of Steel Tensile Yield re oC medium re oC
re oC
strengt stress
h Min.
kgf/m kgf/m
m2 m2

Water or These wrought


C 30 60-75 40 860-890 860-890 550-660
oil unalloyed and alloyed
steels in the form of
C 35 Mn Water or billets and bars for
60-75 40 850-880 840-880 530-760
75 oil general engineering
C40 60-75 38 830-860 830-860 Water or 550-660 purposes are used in
oil the hardened and
tempered condition.
C 45 60-75 38 830-860 830-860 Water or 530-670
oil

C 50 80-95 54 810-840 810-840 Oil 550-660

C 55 Mn 80-95 54 810-840 810-840 Oil 550-660


75

40 S 18 70-85 48 830-860 830-860 Oil 550-660

40 Mn 2 S 60-75 40 840-870 840-870 Oil 550-660


12

20 Mn 2 60-75 44 860-900 860-900 Water or 550-660


oil
Water or
27 Mn 2 70-85 46 840-880 840-880 550-660
oil

35 Mn 2 100-
80 - 840-860 Oil 550-660
Mo 45 115

55 Cr 70 90-105 66 800-850 800-850 Oil 500-700

40 Cr 1 80-95 60 850-880 850-880 Oil 550-700

40 Cr 1 Mo
80-95 60 850-880 850-880 Oil 550-720
28

40 Cr A 1 I
90-105 70 - 850-890 Oil 550-700
Mo 18

40 Ni 3 90-105 70 830-860 850-860 Oil 550-650

35 Ni 1 Cr Water or
90-105 70 - 820-850 550-660
60 oil

30 Ni 4 Cr 120-
130 - 810-830 Air or oil upto 250
1 135

40 Ni 2 Cr 120-
130 - 830-850 Oil 550-660
1 Mo 28 135

31 Ni 3 Cr 120-
100 - 830-850 Oil upto 660
65 Mo 55 135

120-
40 Ni 3 Cr 130 830-850 830-850 Oil upto 660
135
65 Mo 55

7.Shrinkage of Materials :

(Differene of Volume of the Moulde Compared with


Volume of Casting after cooling, in Per cent)

Material Shrinkage Material Shrinkage

Grey cast iron 1% Brass 1.5%


Cast steel 2% Copper 1%
Malleable iron 1.6% Tin, lead 1%
Bronze 1.5% Zinc alloys 1.5%
Gun metal 1.5% Al, Mg alloys 1.25%