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THE SEVEN AGES OF MAN Even in the cannons mouth.

And
Then the justice
(From: As You Like it) by: W. Shakespeare
In fair the round belly with a good
Capon lined
All the worlds a stage With eyes severe and beard of
And all the men and women
Formal out,
Merely players
Full of wise saws, and modern instances
They their exists and entrances
And so he plays his part. The six ages shifts
And one man in his time plays
Into the lean and slippered pantaloons
Many parts
His acts being seven age. At
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side
First the infant,
His youthful hose well saved, a
World too wide
Mewling and puking in the nurses arms
For his shrunk shank, and his big
And then the whining school boy,
Manly voice,
With his satchel
Turning again toward childish treble pipes
And shining morning face, creeping
And whistles in his sound. Last
Like a snail
scene of all,
Unwillingly to school. And then the lover
That ends this strange eventful
Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad
history
In second childishness and more
Made to his mistress eyebrow
oblivion
Then a soldier
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste,
Full of strangers oath, and bearded
sans everything
Like the pard
Jealous and honor, sudden and quick
In quarrel
Seeking the bubble reputation
MOTHER TO SON
(BY: Langston Hughes)
COMMON PATTERNS OF
PARAGRAPH
Well, son, Ill tell you
Life for me aint been no crystal stair. ORGANIZATION
Its had tacks in it,
And splinters,
And boards torn up, 1.SIMPLE LISTING
And places with no carpet on the floor --The paragraph presents listing of information.
Changing the order does not change the meaning
Bare of the paragraph.
But all the time Example
Ise been a-climbin on
Red is considered a color of celebration and his
And reachin landins
considered lucky or fortunate in china. Pink and
And turnin corners, yellow typically mean prosperity. On the other
And sometimes goin in the dark hand , white, gray, black, are funeral colors.
Where there aint been no light.
2. GENERALIZATIONS AND EXAMPLE
So boy, dont you turn back.
Dont you set down on the steps --The author express one central through and
Cause you finds its kinder hard. follows it with examples to clarify.
Dont you fall now --Look for the central through/ main idea and then
For Ise still goin, honey, for supporting details.
Ise still climbin,
Examples:
And life for me aint been no crystal stair.
Senator Lacson said that Mr. Matobato is not
telling the truth about his accusations about
President Duterte and his son Paolo. Lacson cite
instances of inconsistency on Matobato`s
statements specially on the places and dates
where the killings had happened
Frequency in textbook. Reading on entire
paragraph is defining a complete and then further.
3.SEQUENCE OF EVENTS Expanded with example and statements.
Author lists details in order which they occurred.
Signal words : when, then, first second; finally,
lastly. ADVERBS
Example Adverb are modifiers. They tell something about
verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
Here is a four step method which can help you
prevent your mind from wondering while reading.
First, before you attempt to read anything; look
over the length of the materials to see if you have
time to read it; if not, mark a spot where you
CLASSIFICATION OF
intend to stop second ADVERBS
1.ADVERBS OF MANNER-tells how the action
4.COMPARISON AND CONTRAST is being done. They usually end with-ly.
(Gracefully , rapidly, carefully)
Author relates ideas/ objects to one another by
showing how they are alike and how they are Example: Eula walks slowly down the street.
different. 2.ADVERBS OF TIME Tells when the
5.CAUSE AND EFFECT action/event took place (after, already, during,
finally, just, last, later, next, recently, soon, them,
Author uses one item as having produced an yesterday)
element. Author explains why something occurred
or what happened as a result of something. Example: The girls recently ad their assessment.

6.DESCRIPTION 3.ADVERB OF FREQUENCY- Tells how often


the action took place.
It is like listing that characters that make up a
description are no more than a simple listing of Example: They found the puppy downstairs.
details. 4.ADVERB OF PLACE- Indicates location or
7.DEFINITION where the action took place.
Example:
LINEAR AND NON-LINEAR
A. She is always on time.
TEXT
B. She always come on time.
C. She will always come on time.
LINEAR Traditionally how a book was written left
to right.
The adverbs never, always ,sometimes,
frequently ,and usually come after the verbs is,
are, was and were as in the A example. They CHARACTERISTICS
come before a simple word verb as in B example ; *Comes from the word line
and they come between members of a verb
phrase as in C in example. *the reading text are presented within the straight
lines.
*focus on the arrangement of words.
5.ADVERB OF DEGREE Tells to what event the
action / event has been done. *reading path is sequential.
Example:
She is very shy Examples
She is shy to perform on stage Story, speech, essay, editorial, news, reports
The adverb very is used to modify
adjectives and adverbs; the adverbs too is
NON LINEAR - Usually contains abstracts
generally used to modify adverbs which are
information
followed by infinitive

CHARACTERISTICS

*graphical
*text combined Bring Brought Brought
With visual Elements. Catch Caught Caught
*reading text are not presented within long
straight lines.
GROUP3: Add n or en to the past form to make
*reading path is non-sequential. this past participle.
Examples Example:
Graphs , Charts, Tables, Concept, Map, Pictures, Bear Bore Borne
Flow Charts.
Break Broke Broken
GROUP4: Changing the middle vowel from I in
FIVE GROUPS OF the present to a in the past participle.
Example:
IRREGULAR VERBS
Begin Began Began
Sing Sang Sung
GROUP 1: Are the verbs that have the same form
in all principal parts. GROUP5: Verbs which are different from the
present past and past participle form of the verb.
Examples:
Examples:
Cost Cost Cost
Come Came Come
Hurt Hurt Hurt
Do Did Done
Set Set Set
Go Went Gone
Eat Ate Eaten
GROUP2: Composed of verbs that have same
form for the past and past participle.
Example: CONDITIONALS
A conditionals sentence is a sentence containing
the word if. There are three common types of
English speakers choose one of the three
conditional sentence.
conditional structures as follow.
1.if clause-present simple tense: main
clause>future tense(will)
1. Conditional one-to express a simple
*If you help me, I will helf you
statement of fact or intent.
*If I win the lottery, I will buy a new car
*I will buy a new car if I win the lottery
*If it knows tomorrow, we will go skiing
*I will go home if you dont stop criticizing me
2.if clause-past simple tense :main clause>would
*You will fail your exams if you dont start working
*If you knew her ,you would agree with me harder
*If I won the lottery, I would by a new car *She will lose all her friends if she continues to
talk about them behind their backs
*If it snowed tomorrow, we would skiing
2.Conditional two-to refer a present unreal
3. if clause-past perfect tense: main clause>would situation or to a situation In the future that the
have speaker think is unlikely to happen
*If you had me, I would have helped you *If I had a lot of money, I would buy a new car(but
*If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a I dont have a lot of money)
new car *If I were you, I would tell him youre sorry (but I
*If it had snowed yesterday, we would have skiing am not you)

Of course, it is possible to start conditional *If I won the lottery, I would by a new house (but I
sentence with the main clause. dont expect to win the lottery)

*I will buy a new car if I win the lottery 3. Conditional three-to refer to the past and
situation that did not happen.
* If would buy a new car if I won the lottery
*If I had snowed yesterday, we would have gone
*I would have bought a new car if I had won the skiing (but it didnt snow, so we didnt go skiing)
lottery
*If you had studied harder you would have past Example: my hobby is swimming
your test(but you didnt study hard so you didnt
His job, teaching is fun
pass your test)
5.SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT/PREDICATE
*If I had known that I would have told you(but I
NOMINATIVE
didnt know so I didnt tell you)
Example: His hobby is swimming
*If she had been driving slowly, she would have
had an accident (but she was driving slowly so she Her job is teaching
didnt have an accident.)

INFINITIVE
GERUND
Gerunds are used as nouns .They always end in
in-ing. The INFINITIVE is the verbal whose symbol is TO-V.
The symbol to stands for the preposition and
1.SUBJECT OF VERB V for verb.
Examples: Typing can be tiresome.
Exercising is good of our health. *As a noun, it is used in the sentence as:
2.OBJECT OF A VERB/DIRECT OBJECT
Examples: They are dancing 1.Subject-to win is our goal in joining.
I enjoy singing 2.Object of verb-that boy always wants to fight.
3.OBJECT OF PREPOSITION 3.Predicate nominative-my ambition is to go
abroad.
Example: By singing ,I became a member
of a choir 4.Oppositives-my ambition to be a nurse was
not realized.
I allowed him in doing his homework
4.OPPOSITIVES
PARTICIPLE TWO VOICES OF VERBS
ACTIVE VOICE-the verb is in the active voice if
-is always used as an adjective. They are several
the subject is the does of the action.
forms of it.
Examples: Lola picks the flower.
Present : Playing
Lola picked the flowers.
Past : Played Active Perfect: Having
Played Lola will pick the flowers.

Passive Perfect: Having been played Lola has picked the flowers.

*The present participle always ends in ing.


PASSIVE VOICE-the verb is in the passive voice if
Example:
the subject is the receiver of the action.
Running she managed to reach the station on
Examples: The flowers are picked by Lola.
time.
The flowers were picked by Lola.
*The past participle modifies is a noun or pronoun.
The flowers will be picked by
Example: Lola.
Frightened the watchman could not explain the The flowers have been picked by
accident. Lola
Past perfect
Example: Having read the book he fell
asleep(active)
CORRECT USAGE OF
MODALS
Modals are words used with verbs. Modals are
VOICES OF VERBS actually helping verbs which modify or change
the meaning of the main verb.
The voice of the verbs indicate whether the
subject is does of the receiver of the action Some commonly are modals are:
1.Can-means power or ability. 1.I have a nice dress(procession)
2.could-is something considered more polite that 2.We had a happy moment(experience)
can. This also the past tense of can and may
3.I had a letter this afternoon (reception)
mean permission.
4.My son had his have cut(cause and effect)
3.Must-denotes necessity.
5.You have to submit it now(necessity)
4.May-indicates permission
-denotes possibility.
5.Might-past tense of may. MODALS OF GOOD
6.Will-use to denotes. MANNERS
7.Would-past tense of will.
8.Should-past tense of shall. 1.To express a polite request.
-denotes obligation, condition, possibility. 2.To ask question.
9.Ought-to must and have denotes obligation. 3.To issue an invitation.
10.Am to-implies an arrangement for agreement. 4.To order a magazine by mail.
11.Let-denotes a wish and suggestion and its
means allow. TABLE OF CONTENTS
12.Hope-implies a greater possibility.
13.Wish-a statement contrary to fast.
First Grading
14.Have-may be an auxiliary verb. As
independent verb it has several meaning such as The Seven Ages of Man
possession experience an act of receiving cause
Types of Sentence According to Function
to be done and necessity.
(Mother and Son)
Examples
Second Grading Gerund
Common Patterns of Paragraph Organization Infinitive
Adverbs
Linear & Non-Linear Text Fourth Grading
Diphthongs Participle
Voices of Verbs
Third Grading Correct Usage of Modals
Five Groups of Irregular Verbs
Conditionals