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JMO 2014

16+3(1)5-5(1)4-15(1)3+4(1)2+12(1)+3

=1+3-5-15+4+12+3 =3

Which is not a perfect square

On putting n=2

26+3(2)5-5(2)4-15(2)3+4(2)2+12(2)+3

=64+96-80-120+16+24+3

=3

Which is not a perfect square

On putting, n=3

36+3(3)5-5(3)4-15(3)3+4(3)2+12(3)+3

=729+729-405-405+36+36+3

=723

Which is not a perfect square

On putting, n=4

46+3(4)5-5(4)4-15(4)3+4(4)2+12(4)+3

=4096+3072-1280-960+64+48+3

=5043

Which is not a perfect square.

For all value of n the unit digit of expression ends with 3

A number is a perfect square if and only if, the unit digit ends with 0,1,4,5,6 or 9

:. For no integer n, n6+3n5-5n4-15n3+4n2+12n+3 is a perfect square.

ALTERNATE SOLUTION

n^6 + 3n^5 - 5n^4 - 15n^3 + 4n^2 + 12n

= n^5(n+3) - 5n^3(n+3) + 4n(n+3)

= (n^5 - 5n^3 + 4n)(n+3)

= n(n+3)(n^4 - 5n^2 + 4)

= n(n+3)(n^2-4)(n^2-1)

= (n-2)(n-1)n(n+1)(n+2)(n+3)

= Product of 6 consecutive integers

= A multiple of 6!

= Unit digit is 0

Thus,

Unit digit of n^6 + 3n^5 - 5n^4 - 15n^3 + 4n^2 + 12n + 3 is 3.

Now, unit digit of a square can be one of 0,1,4,9,6.

Thus, the given expression can never be a perfect square.

Solution:

We proceed by contradiction. Let the probability of rolling an i be p_i and q_i in the two

dice, with i=1,2,...,6. For the first part of the question we have E= {2,3,4,...,12}. Here are

probabilities of rolling each member of E.

Sum Probability

12 p_6q_6

11 p_5q_6+q_5p_6

10 p_5q_5+p_4q_6+q_4p_6

9 p_3q_6+q_3p_6+p_4q_5+q_4p_5

8 p_4q_4+p_2q_6+q_2p_6+p_3q_5+q_3p_5

7 p_1q_6+q_1p_6+p_2q_5+q_2p_5+p_3q_4+q_3p_4

6 p_3q_3+p_1q_5+q_1p_5+p_2q_4+q_2p_4

5 p_1q_4+q_1p_4+p_2q_3+q_2p_3

4 p_2q_2+p_1q_3+q_1p_3

3 p_1q_2+q_1p_2

2 p_1q_1

Due to the symmetry of the table we must have for some

constants f,g,h,m,n that p_6=fq_6=gq_5=hq_4=hq_3=gq_2=fq_1=mp_5=np_4=np_3=mp_2=

p_1 ... ....(*)

Since the probabilities in the table are "homogeneous", we may assume thep_i,q_i are scaled

by some factor. For convenience assume them to be scaled so that p_6=p_1=1 . Thus we are

not dealing with probabilities anymore but merely with a system of equations. Now note that

thef,g,h,m,n cannot be nonpositive, otherwise we get a nonpositive probability somewhere in

(*). Thusf,g,h,m,n>0 . Now consider the probability of rolling a 12 from the table above,

i.e. p_6q_6=q_6 . Using (*) this becomes1/f . As all the probabilities in the table must be

equal for the proposition to hold, it follows they are all=1/f . Now consider the probability of

rolling a7 , i.e. (after

substituting p_6=p_1=1 ) q_6+q_1+p_2q_5+q_2p_5+p_3q_4+q_3p_4=1/f . Substituting in

the p_i,q_i values from (*), this becomes,2/f+2/mg+2/nh=1/for1/f+2/mg+2/nh=0 . But this

contradicts the fact thatf,g,h,m,n>0 .

Thus, it is not possible for the proposition to hold, i.e. to load the dice such that all members

of E are equally likely.

Solution:

b = cos(x) + cos(y) = 2cos((x+y)/2)cos((x-y)/2) - (2)

= 2(1 + cos(x-y)) = 2(1 + 2cos^2((x-y)/2) -1)

= 4 cos^2((x-y)/2) - (3)

Now:

= (8sin((x+y)/2)cos((x-y)/2))/(4 cos^2((x-y)/2) + 4cos((x+y)/2)cos((x-y)/2))

= (2 sin((x+y)/2))/(cos((x-y)/2) + cos((x+y)/2))

= 2(sin(x/2)cos(y/2) + sin(y/2)cos(x/2))/(2cos(x/2)cos(y/2))

= tan(x/2) + tan(y/2) - (4)

Also:

= (a^2+b^2-2b)/(a^2+b^2+2b)

= (4 cos^2((x-y)/2) - 4cos((x+y)/2)cos((x-y)/2))/(4 cos^2((x-y)/2) + 4cos((x+y)/2)cos((x-y)/2))

= (cos((x-y)/2) - cos((x+y)/2))/(cos((x-y)/2) + cos((x+y)/2))

= (2sin(x/2)sin(y/2))/(2cos(x/2)cos(y/2))

= tan(x/2)tan(y/2) - (5)

From (4) and (5)

Thus, and are tan(x/2) and tan(y/2).

Thus, these are the required solutions of the given equation.

B C

a

Then angle A=2 AC=b

Applying sin rule

a=k sin 2

b= k sin

c= k sin (180-3 )=k sin

To prove:

a2=b(b+c)

RHS =k sin (k sin + k sin 3 )

= k2 sin2 +k2sin sin3 )

=k2(sin2 +sin (3sin -4sin3 ))

=k2(4sin2 -4sin4 )

=4 k2sin2 (1-sin2 )=4k2sin2 cos2

=k2sin22

= a2

Hence proved.

Q.No. 5

Q.No. 6

Solution:

since

A1A2=A2A3=a,

A1A3=2a cos(

/n),

Since the polygon A1A2.An is regular, its vertices lie on a circle. In particular, the

quadrilateral A1A2A3A4 is cyclic

By Ptolemys theorem,

Since = +

Therefore,

= +

2cos(

8cos^3 (

x=cos

8x3-4x2-4x+1=0 ---------------(i)

Let 7 .

cos 4 =cos[(2n+1) -3

(cos +1)[8cos^3

Now(ii) is satisfied by

cos

Cos 3

Since equations(i) and (iii) are the same, therefore the roots of (i) are cos

Q.No. 7 Solution:

X

+ -

- + -

3-b

must be rational

must be rational

must be rational

.e. - =0

ab=6 -----------(1)

3a - must be rational,

from (1)

3k2.2m2=6

km =1

So, now we have

km=1

k=

So, a = 3k2

= 3/ m2

& b = 2m2

The expression =

+m

m +

+m

m and m 0,

i.e,

a= and b =2m2

is a rational number.

Question No.

Let the four roots be v,x,y,z.

According to question

vx=(-31).

here a=1, b=-18, c=k and d=174.

e= -2015.

Product of all roots=c/a.

vxyz=-2015/1.

yz(-31) =-2015.

yz=+2015/+31

yz=65

sum of product of roots taken 3 at a time =-d/a.

xyz +vxy+vyz+xvz = - 174/1

65x+(-31)y +65v+(-31)z=-174.

65(x+v)-31 (y+z) = -174. (i)

Sum of roots = -b/a.

x+v+y+z = -(-18)

x+v =18-y-z.

Putting value of x+v in eq. (1)

65 (18-y-z)-31(y+z)=-174.

1170-65y-65z-31y-31z=-174.

-65(y+z)-31(y+z)=174-1170

(y+z)(-96) =1344

y+z =14.

x+y =18-(y+z).

x+y =18-14

=4

Sum of product of roots taken 2 at a time =c/a.

xy +yz +xv+xz+zv+vy =k/a

-31 +65 +x (y+z) +v (y+z) = k

34+(y+z) (x+v)=k

34 +(14) (4) =k

34+56 =k

So, k=90

The value of k is 90

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