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LTE/EPC Overview

Slide 1

NokiaEDU
LTE/EPC Overview

LTE Radio Planning Essentials Course

RA41202EN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

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LTE/EPC Overview

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LTE/EPC Overview

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Index

LTE/EPC Overview
LTE Air Interface
Air Interface Overheads
RRM overview
LTE Link Budget
Radio Planning Coverage Planning & Cell Range
Radio Planning Capacity Planning
LTE Performance Simulations
Nokia Flexi Multiradio 10 LTE Solution
Initial Parameters Planning

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Module Objectives

After completing this module, the participant will be able to:


List the LTE/SAE main requirements
Underline the LTE/SAE key features
Describe the LTE Network Architecture
List the key functionalities of the evolved NB
Describe the protocol stack implemented on EUTRAN interfaces
Identify the LTE Terminals categories
LTE Advanced features

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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What are the LTE challenges?


The Users expectation ..leads to the operators challenges

Best price, transparent flat rate reduce cost per bit


Full Internet provide high data rate
Click-bang responsiveness provide low latency
User experience will have an Price per Mbyte has to be reduced
impact on ARPU to remain profitable

Throughput Latency
Cost per MByte

HSPA LTE HSPA LTE UMTS HSPA I-HSPA LTE

LTE: lower cost per bit and improved end user experience

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LTE Main Requirements


Next step for
GSM/WCDMA/HSPA
Networks, but also for A true global roaming technology
cdma2000 operators
FDD & TDD Modes
Peak data rates to
exceed 100 Mbps in DL Enhanced consumer experience
/ 50 Mbps in UL
Low latency 10-20 ms

Scalable bandwidth: from Easy to introduce on any


1.4MHz up to 20 MHz frequency band

OFDM technology
Spectral efficiency increased (2-4
times compared with HSPA Rel6) Decreased cost / GByte
Flat Architecture, optimized PS
IP based interfaces
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Evolution Path to LTE


Opens up future service perspectives for new entrants and CDMA operators

90+% of world radio access market Enabling flat broadband architecture


migrating to LTE

Leverage GSM/WCDMA handset base


I-HSPA LTE / SAE R8

W-CDMA/
HSPA

GSM/
(E)GPRS TD-SCDMA

Greenfield / cdma2000

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Schedule for 3GPP releases

Next step for


GSM/WCDMA/HSPA A true global roaming technology
and cdma2000

Specification:
HSUPA HSPA+
UMTS/ HSDPA LTE-A
MBMS LTE Studies
WCDMA IMS studies LTE-A
WLAN IW LTE & EPC

3GPP Rel. 99/4 Rel. 5 Rel. 6 Rel. 7 Rel. 8 Rel. 9 Rel. 10

2000 2003 2005 2007 2008 2009 2011 year

LTE have been developed by the same standardization organization. The target has been simple multimode implementation
and backwards compatibility.
HSPA and LTE have in common:
Sampling rate using the same clocking frequency
Same kind of Turbo coding
The harmonization of these parameters is important as sampling and Turbo decoding are typically done on hardware due to
high processing requirements.
WiMAX and LTE do not have such harmonization.

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Comparison of Throughput and Latency (1/2)

Enhanced consumer experience:


Peak data rates to - drives subscriber uptake
exceed 100 Mbps in
DL / 50 Mbps in UL - allow for new applications
- provide additional revenue streams

Max. peak data rate


350

300
Downlink
250 Uplink 173 Mbps in DL
57 Mbps in UL
200
Mbps

150

100

50

0
HSPA R6 Evolved HSPA LTE 2x20 MHz LTE 2x20 MHz
(REL. 7/8, 2x2 (2x2 MIMO) (4x4 MIMO)
MIMO)

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Following settings and requirements apply when obtaining LTE max bit rate in Downlink:
173 Mbps on the physical layer
FDD with 20MHz bandwidth carrier
2x2 MIMO (2 antennas for TX, 2 Antennas for RX)
64QAM modulation
The bit rate refers to User plane only, meaning that it is already excluded:
Control overhead (7.1%)
Reference symbol overhead (7.7%)

Following settings and requirements apply when obtaining LTE max bit rate in Uplink:
57 Mbps on the Physical layer (just user plane)
Single stream transmission with 64QAM assumed
Reference symbol overhead (14.3%), already excluded
FDD with 20 MHz bandwidth carrier

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Comparison of Throughput and Latency (2/2)


Enhanced consumer experience:
Reduce Latency: - drives subscriber uptake
User Plane 10-20 ms
Control Plane < 100 ms - allow for new applications
- provide additional revenue streams

USER PLANE Latency: CONTROL PLANE Latency:


Latency (Roundtrip delay)*

GSM/
EDGE

HSPA ACTIVE
Rel6 IDLE ECM_
ECM_Idle Connected
HSPAevo
(Rel8) (no (EPS Bearer
resources) allocated)
LTE
min max

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 ms

DSL (~20-50 ms, depending on


* Server near RAN operator) < 100 ms

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Scalable Bandwidth
Scalable bandwidth
Easy to introduce on any
Scalable bandwidth: frequency band: Frequency
from 1.4MHz up to Refarming
20 MHz (Cost efficient deployment on lower
frequency bands supported)

Urban
2.6 GHz LTE
2.1 GHz UMTS
or
2.6 GHz LTE
LTE
2.1 GHz UMTS

2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020

Rural
900 MHz GSM UMTS
LTE
or

900 MHz GSM LTE

2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020


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Scalability of bandwidth

Urban areas:
Most likely LTE will be deployed.
Stepwise deployment in UMTS 2.1 bands will be possible at a later stage.

Rural areas:
Option 1: Deploy UMTS in 900 MHz band.
Advantage: rollout can start now.
Disadvantage: a block of 5 MHz need to be taken out of the GSM band. Not a lot of
operators can afford to take out this much of spectrum due to heavy usage in this
band.
Option 2: Introduce LTE in 900 MHz band.
Advantage: reuse of GSM 900 Sites. Step by step introduction of LTE with smaller
granularity (1.4 / 3 / 5 /MHz).

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Increased Spectral Efficiency

OFDMA technology LTE target is to increase 2-4 times


increases Spectral the HSPA R6 spectral efficiency
HSPA R7 and WiMAX have Similar
efficiency Spectral Efficiency

All cases assume 2-antenna terminal reception


HSPA R7, WiMAX and LTE assume 2-antenna BTS transmission (2x2 MIMO)

2.0 ITU contribution from


Downlink WiMAX Forum shows
1.8 downlink 1.3 and uplink 0.8
Uplink
1.6 bps/Hz/cell
1.4
bps/Hz/cell

1.2
1.0
0.8 Simulations show LTE can
0.6 provide:
0.4 >3 times HSPA R6
0.2 spectral efficiency in DL
0.0 >2 times HSPA R6
spectral efficiency in UL
HSPA R6 HSPA R6 + HSPA R7 WiMAX LTE R8
UE
equalizer

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Reference:
- HSPA R6 and LTE R8 from 3GPP R1-071960
- HSPA R6 equalizer from 3GPP R1-063335
- HSPA R7 and WiMAX from NSN/Nokia simulations

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Simpler Architecture to reduce OPEX

Optimized PS Domain only


Flat Architecture: 2 nodes architecture

IP Based Interfaces: IP widely used as the


Reduce Network Cost network layer in the protocol stack of all
interfaces (both for the control and user plane)
Inter-working with legacy systems is an
integral part of service continuity
Re-use of existing equipment as much as
possible

Flat, IP based architecture


Access Core Control

MME IMS HLR/HSS

Internet
Evolved Node B Gateway

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Cost per MByte decreases with introduction of new technologies.


From HSPA to LTE, the cost per MByte will reduce with more than 70%.

The reasons are:


Flat architecture.
All-IP transmission network
Increased spectral efficiency > bits per Hz per cell for LTE (2X2 MIMO) ~ 1.7
Reuse of spectrum > Refarming of existing 900 MHz band in rural areas possible. For
urban larger bandwidth expected in 2.6 GHz.

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LTE/SAE Requirements Summary


1. Simplify the RAN:
Reduce the number of different types of RAN nodes, and their complexity.
Minimize the number of RAN interface types.
2. Increase throughput: Peak data rates of UL/DL 50/300 Mbps (R8)
3. Reduce latency (prerequisite for CS replacement).
4. Improve spectrum efficiency: Capacity 2-4 x higher than with Release 6 HSPA
5. Frequency flexibility & bandwidth scalability: Frequency Refarming
6. Migrate to a PS only domain in the core network: CSFB, SRVCC
7. Provide efficient support for a variety of different services. Traditional CS services will be supported via
VoIP, etc: EPS bearers for IMS based Voice
8. Minimise the presence of single points of failure in the network above the eNBs S1-Flex interface
9. Support for inter-working with existing 3G system & non-3GPP specified systems.
10. Operation in FDD & TDD modes
11. Improved terminal power efficiency
A more detailed list of the requirements and objectives for LTE can be found in TR 25.913.

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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LTE Radio Interface Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
(EUTRAN)
SAE-GW
MME Packet
Data
Network
eNode-B Serving PDN
GW GW

LTE Radio Interface Key Features


Retransmission Handling (HARQ/ARQ)
Spectrum Flexibility
FDD & TDD modes
Multi-Antenna Transmission
Frequency and time Domain scheduling
Uplink (UL) Power Control

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EUTRAN Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
(EUTRAN)
SAE-GW

MME Packet
Data
Network
eNode-B Serving PDN
GW GW

EUTRAN Key Features:


Evolved NodeB
IP transport layer
UL/DL resource scheduling
QoS Awareness
Self-configuration

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EUTRAN Key Features


Evolved NodeB
No RNC is provided anymore
The evolved Node Bs take over all radio management functionality.
This will make radio management faster and hopefully the network architecture simpler
IP transport layer
EUTRAN exclusively uses IP as transport layer
UL/DL resource scheduling
In UMTS physical resources are either shared or dedicated
Evolved Node B handles all physical resource via a scheduler and assigns them dynamically to users and channels
This provides greater flexibility than the older system
QoS awareness
The scheduler must handle and distinguish different quality of service classes
Otherwise real time services would not be possible via EUTRAN
The system provides the possibility for differentiated services
Self configuration
Currently under investigation
Possibility to let Evolved Node Bs configure themselves
It will not completely substitute the manual configuration and optimization.

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EPC Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
(EUTRAN)
SAE-GW

MME Packet
Data
Network
eNode-B Serving PDN
GW GW

EPC Key Features:


IP transport layer
QoS Awareness
Packet Switched Domain only
3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option
Prepare to connect to non-3GPP access networks

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EPC Key Features


IP transport layer
EUTRAN exclusively uses IP as transport layer
QoS awareness
The scheduler must handle and distinguish different quality of service classes
Otherwise real time services would not be possible via EUTRAN
The system provides the possibility for differentiated services
Packet Switched Domain only
No circuit switched domain is provided
If CS applications are required, they must be implemented via IP
Only one mobility management for the UE in LTE.
3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option
The EPC can be based either on 3GPP GTP protocols (similar to PS domain in UMTS/GPRS) or on IETF Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)
Non-3GPP access
The EPC will be prepared also to be used by non-3GPP access networks (e.g. LAN, WLAN, WiMAX, etc.)
This will provide true convergence of different packet radio access system

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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Network Architecture Evolution


HSPA Direct tunnel I-HSPA LTE

HSPA R6 HSPA R7 HSPA R7 LTE R8

GGSN GGSN GGSN SAE GW

SGSN SGSN SGSN MME/SGSN

RNC RNC

Node B Node B Node B + Evolved


(NB) (NB) RNC Node B
Functionality (eNB)

- Flat architecture: single network element in user plane in radio network and User plane
core network Control Plane

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SAE: System Architecture Evolution


SAE GW: Serving Gateway +PDN Gateway

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Evolved Packet System (EPS) Architecture -


Subsystems
The EPS architecture goal is to optimize the system for packet data transfer.
There are no circuit switched components. The EPS architecture is made up of:
EPC: Evolved Packet Core, also referred as SAE
eUTRAN: Radio Access Network, also referred as LTE
EPS Architecture
LTE or eUTRAN SAE or EPC
EPC provides access to
external packet IP networks and
performs a number of CN
related functions (e.g. QoS,
security, mobility and terminal
context management) for idle
and active terminals
eUTRAN performs all radio
interface related functions

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LTE/SAE Network Elements


Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.: TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


HSS
eNB Mobility
Management
Entity Policy &
Charging Rule
S6a
Function
MME S10
X2
S7 Rx+
PCRF
S11

S1-U S5/S8 SGi


PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Evolved Node B
Gateway Gateway
LTE-UE (eNB)
SAE
Gateway

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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Evolved Node B (eNB)


eNB Functions
Only network element defined as
Inter-cell RRM: HO, load balancing between cells part of eUTRAN.
Radio Bearer Control: setup , modifications and Replaces the old Node B / RNC
release of Radio Resources combination from 3G.
Connection Mgt. Control: UE State Management, Terminates the complete radio
MME-UE Connection interface including physical layer.
Radio Admission Control
Provides all radio management
functions
eNode B Meas. collection and evaluation
To enable efficient inter-cell radio
Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) management for cells not attached to
the same eNB, there is a inter-eNB
IP Header Compression/ de-compression interface X2 specified. It will allow to
coordinate inter-eNB handovers
Access Layer Security: ciphering and integrity
protection on the radio interface without direct involvement of EPC
during this process.
MME Selection at Attach of the UE

User Data Routing to the SAE GW

Transmission of Paging Msg coming from MME

Transmission of Broadcast Info (e.g. System info,


MBMS)

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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LTE Radio Interface & the X2 Interface


NAS
LTE-Uu interface
Protocol Air interface of LTE
(E)-RRC User PDUs .. User PDUs Based on OFDMA in DL & SC-FDMA in UL
PDCP
FDD & TDD duplex methods
Scalable bandwidth: 1.4MHz - 20 MHz
RLC TS 36.300
MAC
X2 interface
eNB
LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA) Inter eNB interface
X2AP: special signaling protocol (Application
LTE-Uu Part)
X2-UP Functionalities:
(User Plane) In inter- eNB HO to facilitate Handover and
X2-CP
provide data forwarding.
(Control Plane)
User PDUs In RRM to provide e.g. load information to
neighboring eNBs to facilitate interference
TS 36.423 X2-AP GTP-U management.
X2
SCTP UDP TS 36.424 Logical interface: doesnt need direct site-to-
TS 36.422 site connection, i.e. can be routed via CN as
IP IP well
TS 36.421 L1/L2 L1/L2 TS 36.421

TS 36.420

eNB

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S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces


S1 interface is divided into two parts: S1-MME
S1-MME interface (Control Plane)

Control Plane interface between eNB & MME NAS Protocols


MME
S1AP:S1 Application Protocol TS 36.413 S1-AP

MME & UE will exchange NAS signaling via eNB TS 36.412 SCTP
through this interface ( i.e. authentication, tracking IP
area updates) L1/L2 TS 36.411
S1 Flex: an eNB is allowed to connect to a
S1-U
maximum of 16 MME. (LTE2, RL20) (User Plane)
S1-U interface User PDUs

User plane interface between eNB & Serving eNB GTP-U Serving
Gateway. TS 36.414 Gateway
UDP
Pure user data interface (U=User plane) IP
TS 36.411 L1/L2

TS 36.410

LTE4: Multi-Operator Core Network (MO-CN): An eNB can be connected simultaneously to the different
Evolved Packet Cores (EPCs) of different operators, and shared by them.

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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LTE UE Categories
Downlink Uplink
Peak rate in Maximum number Maximum number
UE 3GPP Maximum number Maximum number Maximum number
Mbps of DL-SCH transport of bits of a DL-SCH Total number of soft of supported layers
of UL-SCH transport of bits of an UL-SCH
Support for Total layer 2
Category Release block bits transport block
DL / UL block bits received transport block channel bits for spatial 64QAM in UL buffer sizes
transmitted within a transmitted within a
within a TTI (Note) received within a TTI multiplexing in DL
TTI TTI

1 8 10 / 5 10296 10296 250368 1 5160 5160 No 150 000


2 8 50 / 25 51024 51024 1237248 2 25456 25456 No 700 000
3 8 50 / 100 102048 75376 1237248 2 51024 51024 No 1 400 000
4 8 150 / 50 150752 75376 1827072 2 51024 51024 No 1 900 000
5 8 300 / 75 299552 149776 3667200 4 75376 75376 Yes 3 500 000
75376 (2 layers) 2
6 4 10 300 / 50 301504 3654144 51024 51024 No 3 300 000
149776 (4 layers) 4
75376 (2 layers) 2 102048
7 4 10 300 / 100 301504 3654144 51024 No 3 800 000
149776 (4 layers) 4 (UL MIMO)
8 5 10 3000 / 1500 2998560 299856 35982720 8 1497760 149776 Yes 42 200 000
75376 (2 layers) 2
9 6 4 11 450 / 50 452256 5481216 51024 51024 No 4 800 000
149776 (4 layers) 4
75376 (2 layers) 2 102048
10 7 4 11 450 / 100 452256 5481216 51024 No 5 200 000
149776 (4 layers) 4 (UL MIMO)

NOTE: In carrier aggregation operation, the DL-SCH processing capability can be shared by the UE with that of MCH received from a serving cell. If the total eNB
scheduling for DL-SCH and an MCH in one serving cell at a given TTI is larger than the defined processing capability, the prioritization between DL-SCH and MCH is
left up to UE implementation.
NOTE: Rel 8 = [1 .. 5], Rel 10 = [6 .. 8], Rel 11 = [9 .. 10]
A UE Cat 9 transmits Rel 11 UE category 9 + Rel 10 transmits Cat 6 UE Cat 9 + Rel 8 transmits Cat 4

NOTE: A UE indicating category 10 shall also indicate category 7 and 4. A UE indicating category 9 shall also indicate category 6 and 4. A UE indicating category 8
shall also indicate category 5.
Power Tx Power Tolerance (dB)
Class (dBm)
1 [+30]
2 [+27]
3 +23 +/-2 dB
4 [+21]

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Slide 34

Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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Slide 35

LTE becomes LTE-Advanced with 3GPP Rel 10


LTE-Advanced Goals

Meet and exceed capabilities requested for


LTE-A fulfills or exceeds the IMT-Advanced
requirements of
IMT-Advanced defined by ITU Meet 3GPP operators requirements for LTE
evolution

Mobility Enhance macro network performance

Enable efficient use of small cells

More Bandwidth available

Able to achieve higher data rates ( up to 1


Gbps in downlink for stationary users)

Enhance the coverage by increasing data rates


on the cell edge
Data rates

Backward compatibility

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System Performance Requirements

Peak data rate


- 1 Gbps data rate will be achieved by 4-by-4 MIMO and transmission
bandwidth wider than approximately 70 MHz
Peak spectrum efficiency
- DL: Rel. 8 LTE satisfies IMT-Advanced requirement
- UL: Need to double from Release 8 to satisfy IMT-Advanced requirement

Rel. 8 LTE LTE-Advanced IMT-Advanced


DL 300 Mbps 1 Gbps
Peak data rate 1 Gbps(*)
UL 75 Mbps 500 Mbps
Peak spectrum efficiency DL 15 30 15
[bps/Hz] UL 3.75 15 6.75

*100 Mbps for high mobility and 1 Gbps for low mobility

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LTE-Advanced: First features standardized in 3GPP


Release10
Key aspects in
3GPP Rel.10
Carrier Aggregation
Carrier Bandwidth extension by carrier aggregation
..
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n
Downlink: Up to 100 MHz bandwidth with 2 Release 8 carriers
from different frequency bands
Uplink: Only single band carrier aggregation
8x MIMO 4x
New codebook for downlink (DL) 8TX MIMO
Feedback enhancements for DL 2TX/4TX Multiuser MIMO

Coordinated Multipoint 2TX/4TX Uplink Single/Multiuser MIMO


Coordinated multipoint transmission (CoMP), also known as
cooperative system
Receiving transmission from multiple sectors (not
necessary visible for UE)
Relaying
Single Relay Node architecture based on self-backhauling eNB
Simple intercell interference coordination in time domain
Enhancements for office Femto handovers

Heterogeneous
networks

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Support wider bandwidth


Carrier aggregation to achieve wider bandwidth
Support of spectrum aggregation
Peak data rate, spectrum flexibility
Advanced MIMO techniques
Extension to up to 8-layer transmission in downlink
Introduction of single-user MIMO up to 4-layer transmission in uplink
Peak data rate, capacity, cell-edge user throughput
Coordinated multipoint transmission and reception (CoMP)
CoMP transmission in downlink
CoMP reception in uplink
Cell-edge user throughput, coverage, deployment flexibility
Further reduction of delay
AS/NAS parallel processing for reduction of C-Plane delay
Relaying
Type 1 relays create a separate cell and appear as Rel. 8 LTE eNB to Rel. 8 LTE UEs
Coverage, cost effective deployment

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LTE/EPC Overview

Slide 38

Bandwidth Extension by Carrier Aggregation

Key aspects in
3GPP Rel.10 Carrier Aggregation

.. up to 100 MHz
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n
Flexible component carrier aggregation
different frequency bands
8x MIMO 4x
asymmetric in UL/DL Component Carrier
(LTE rel. 8 Carrier)
Mobility

Coordinated Multipoint 20 MHz 10 MHz

Aggregated BW: 30MHz

20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz


Relaying in June 2009
Aggregated BW: 5x20MHz = 100MHz

300Mbps 300Mbps 300Mbps 300Mbps 300Mbps


Heterogeneous
networks
1.5Gbps

38 RA41202EN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

RA41202EN160GLA0 36
LTE/EPC Overview

Slide 39

MIMO Extension

Key aspects in Carrier Aggregation


3GPP Rel.10
..
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n

8x MIMO 4x

Coordinated Multipoint

Relaying

Heterogeneous
networks

39 RA41202EN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

Uplink MIMO for up to 4 UE antennas


Increase peak data rate, and average and the cell edge throughput
Fall back to TX diversity available for data and control (use the power
amplifiers of all antennas even if multi-stream doesnt work)
Advancements in reference signal structure, channel sounding and
feedback
DL MIMO for 8 TX antennas
Increase peak data rate, and average and the cell edge throughput
Release 8 LTE UEs support up to 4 TX antennas (which are actually
combinations of the 8 physical antennas)
Improved reference signal design, scheduling and feedback schemes

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LTE/EPC Overview

Slide 40

Coordinated Multipoint Transmission (CoMP)

Key aspects in Carrier Aggregation


3GPP Rel.10
..
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n

8x MIMO 4x

Coordinated Multipoint
Cooperation of antennas of
multiple sectors / sites
Interference free
by coordinated
Relaying transmission /
reception
Highest
performance
Heterogeneous potential
networks
Service Area

40 RA41202EN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

Joint Processing (JP):


data is available at each cell in the CoMP set
As if all sites formed a single multi antenna base station

Coordinated Scheduling/Beamforming (CS/CB):


data only at the serving cell
scheduling coordinated among cells

Standardization will be done in Rel. 11


Utilizing enhanced reference schemes introduced for MIMO enhancements, which were
already done forward looking to CoMP applications

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LTE/EPC Overview

Slide 41

Relaying

Key aspects in Carrier Aggregation


3GPP Rel.10
..
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n

8x MIMO 4x
Fast deployment
Coverage with low
infrastructure costs
Coordinated Multipoint

Relaying

Heterogeneous
networks

41 RA41202EN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

Not Part of RL60

RA41202EN160GLA0 39
LTE/EPC Overview

Slide 42

Heterogeneous Network

Key aspects in Carrier Aggregation


3GPP Rel.10
..
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n

8x MIMO 4x

Coordinated Multipoint Heterogeneous Networks The


Combined Benefit of Wide & Local Area

Wide Area sites

Relaying Medium Medium


area sites area sites

Local Local Local Local Local


area area area area area

Heterogeneous WLAN WLAN


networks

WLAN
WLAN
WLAN

42 RA41202EN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

The term Heterogeneous Networks does not necessarily refer to a specific technology or
feature as such, but is instead used to describe networks that have both wide area and local
area (small cell) deployments. In many expected deployment scenarios, heterogeneous
networks spread across multiple radio access technologies. Autonomous or automated
interference coordination and handover optimization in such hierarchical network architectures
are key aspects of heterogeneous networks. Other coordination technologies like self-
configuration and self-optimization have been covered under Self Organized/Optimized
Networks (SON) and Minimized Drive Testing (MDT) related study and work items since Release
8.

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LTE/EPC Overview

Slide 43

Heterogeneous Networks The Combined Benefit of


Wide & Local Area
Majority of cell sites today
Wide Area sites > 300 m Macro
> 5 W output power

Medium area Medium area Share of sites growing


sites sites 100 300 m
Micro
15W

Share will grow in future


Local Local Local Local Local
10 100 m,
area area area area area
< 500 mW
Pico, Femto

License exempt growing & Secondary


WLAN WLAN services emerging
10-100 m
< 100 mW Access
Points
WLAN WLAN
WLAN

Benefits of Multi-Layer Deployment Tradeoffs involved with Multi-Layer


Coverage improvement from local area cells in edge or Co-channel deployment needs no additional
shadowed regions spectrum but creates interference between the
Capacity increase from more transmission points in a layers and within the same layer >> this
given area interference needs to be controlled for QoS

43 RA41202EN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

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LTE/EPC Overview

Slide 44

LTE-A Improving the Radio Performance

Peak rate Average rate Cell edge rate Coverage


(capacity) (interference) (noise limited)

Carrier aggregation ++ + ++ +

MIMO enhancements ++ ++ ++ o
(o) (+) (+)

CoMP o + + ++

Heterogeneous o ++ ++ +
networks

Relays o o + ++

= clear gain = moderate gain

44 RA41202EN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

LTE-A enables a smooth and backward compatible evolution of LTE towards true 4G
performance
LTE-A comprises of various tools to enhance mobile broadband user experience and network
efficiency
There are serious interdependencies between network implementation and the various
tools of LTE-A, which require an experienced partner when planning and implementing LTE-
A
Nokia Solutions and Networks has always been at the forefront of LTE-A research and
development, with a strong focus on real operator opportunities in terms of efficiency and
user experience

RA41202EN160GLA0 42
LTE/EPC Overview

Slide 45

LTE: What is new?

- new radio transmission schemes: new network architecture:


OFDMA in DL More functionality in the base
station (eNodeB)
SC-FDMA in UL
Focus on PS domain
MIMO Multiple Antenna Technology
Flat architecture (2-nodes)
All-IP
- New radio protocol architecture:
Complexity reduction
Important for Radio Planning
Focus on shared channel operation,
Frequency Reuse 1
no dedicated channels anymore
No need for Frequency Planning
No need to define neighbor lists in
LTE

45 RA41202EN160GLA0 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

RA41202EN160GLA0 43
LTE/EPC Overview

Slide 46

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