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Dynamics Applications:

Dynamics of 1-DOF Systems

Dynamics Applications: 1-DOF Systems

Model, indexer, energy flow, electric motor, flywheel, lumped-parameter model,

free-body diagrams, Lagrange equation, Simulink model, numerical example.

Model, position analysis, kinematic analysis differential approach,

kinematic analysis algebraic approach, kinetic energy, potential energy,

DAlembert equations, Lagrange equation, numerical example.

Single-track model, vehicle kinematics, DAlembert equations, energy equation,

motor torque, numerical example.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Model

Consider an intermittent-motion drive composed by:

a gearmotor, which comprises:

an induction motor, with angular position, velocity and acceleration given by:

, = , =

a gear reducer, with gear ratio:

Rotary table

= =

Gearmotor

an indexer, which transforms the

continuous motion of the output

shaft of the reducer into the

intermittent motion of a follower.

a rotary table, subject to external load Indexer

but its own inertia.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Indexer

Motion law

While the driver of the indexer is supposed to move at an almost constant

speed, = , the follower must start, move in one direction and stop at

regular intervals, with a periodic motion law ( ) characterized by:

an advancement (or lift or rise) angle in a time interval ;

a dwell time ;

a period = + .

( )

( )

( )

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

is the production time, since, as the table dwells, some production operations

are performed over the workstations located around the table.

The number of workstations determines the rise angle :

2 2

= =

workstations

rotary table

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

interest in making it as small as possible, thus decreasing the period and

increasing the production frequency:

1 1

= =

+

However, as decreases, the table velocity and acceleration become larger, thus

increasing the dynamical stress on the transmission, in particular on the indexer.

The indexer motion law ( ) must be chosen so as to both meet the application

specifications and optimize the dynamic performances.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

The displacement of the indexer follower is only a function of the driver rotation ,

and it may thus be represented in the plane:

geometrical design of the indexer, namely on profile of the cam mounted on the

indexer driving link.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

= = =

Hence, the indexer transmission ratio is:

= =

Since only depends on the geometrical design of the indexer, so does

, which is thus also called geometric velocity.

Notice that the time-velocity of the follower depends not only on the

indexer design, through , but also on the speed of the driver link

(and on its possible fluctuations).

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

= = = + = + = +

, which is thus called geometric acceleration:

indexer design, through , and the speed fluctuations of the driver link,

through and .

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

If the motor rotates with constant speed, so does the indexer driving link, and

the follower motion is unambiguously determined by the indexer geometry:

= =

= . = = .

= =

the (rigid-body) motion law of the follower is altered:

= , = +

due to the system compliance, the risk of triggering mechanical vibrations boosts,

further decreasing motion accuracy and hindering the overall performances.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

In order to limit the problems caused by the motor-speed oscillations, the

coefficient of cyclic irregularity must be kept under a suitable threshold,

depending on the application at hand:

, ,

= =

,

where:

, + ,

,

2

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Energy flow

Energy required by the rotary tables intermittent motion

The inertia torque acting on the rotary table is:

where is the mass moment of inertia of all components that are coupled

with the indexer follower, including the shafts and the rotary table.

The corresponding power of inertia forces is:

= =

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Assuming, for the time being, that no energy loss occurs within the indexer,

the driving link must supply enough power so as to counteract the inertia torque

acting on the follower:

+ = 0 = =

( )

( )

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Since the elementary work performed by the tables inertia forces is the opposite

of the elementary variation of the table kinetic energy, namely:

= =

the energy supplied by the driving link equals the followers kinetic energy:

( ) ( )

1

= = =

2

In fact:

1

= = = = =

2

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

The maximum energy fed into the indexer matches to highest kinetic energy

attained by the table:

1

, = = = ,

2

= = , = = ,

1

1

2

2

= =

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Since the followers kinetic energy at the end of the cycle is zero, the net energy

supplied by the driving link over a cycle is zero too, namely:

= = + =0

=

,

,

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

If no energy dissipation occurs, the energy that the table receives while it accelerates

from a dwell to its maximum velocity is returned back when the table decelerates

from its maximum kinetic energy to the next dwell.

The system steady-state motion, then, may be sustained by any device that is able to

store energy and exchange it with the indexer, i.e.:

to receive and store energy when the table decelerates;

to give energy back to the table when it accelerates.

The aforementioned device is, typically:

an electric motor;

a flywheel (working as an kinetic spring).

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Eectric motor

The electric motor has several roles, namely:

it brings the system to a periodic steady-state;

it compensates energy losses;

it exchanges energy with the rotary table.

If energy losses are disregarded and only the speed oscillation of the rotary table

is considered, the power provided by the motor at the steady state equals the

power received by the indexer:

MOTOR REDUCER DRIVER FOLLOWER/TABLE

= = = =

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

When the table accelerates, i.e. > 0, it receives energy by the electric machine,

which operates as a motor, i.e. > 0 and > 0:

,

ACCELERATION: MOTOR FOLLOWER/TABLE = ,

When the table decelerates, i.e. < 0, it provides energy to the electric machine,

which works as a generator, i.e. < 0 and < 0:

,

DECELERATION: GENERATOR FOLLOWER/TABLE = ,

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

An ideal electric machine has a vertical mechanical characteristic ( ),

thus being able to provide any required positive or negative torque at a

constant speed .

)

the motion law of the rotary table coincides ,

with the geometric law imposed by the

indexers cam design;

all rotors comprised between the motor and

the indexers driver have uniform motion and

,

constant kinetic energy, thus not affecting the

energy exchange between the electric machine

and the rotary table.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

The actual mechanical characteristic of an induction machine, however, though very

steep, is not vertical. The machine cannot vary the provided torque without changing

the rotor velocity around the synchronous speed :

the higher the positive torque, the smaller the angular speed w.r.t. ;

the smaller the negative torque, the higher the angular speed w.r.t. ;

the mechanical characteristic is approximated, around , by a straight line.

,

= ( )

, ,

,

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

provided by the electric machine, the minimum and maximum angular speeds

that are reached are:

,

, =

= =

,

, =

, , , ,

=

,

where:

,

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

the motion law of the rotary table coincides no longer with the geometric law

imposed by the indexer, thus being affected by the motor-speed oscillation;

all rotors comprised between the motor and the indexers driver vary their

kinetic energy, thus affecting the energy exchange between the electric machine

and the rotary table.

Since bigger motors have steeper mechanical characteristics, the cyclic irregularity

may be decreased by choosing more powerful actuators:

, ,

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Flywheel

The flywheel stores kinetic energy, thus working as a kinetic spring:

the kinetic energy of the fly-wheel is transferred to the table when the table

accelerates (as the flywheel, thus, decelerates);

when the table decelerates, its kinetic energy is transferred back to the

flywheel, which thus accelerates.

,

ACCELERATION: FLYWHEEL FOLLOWER/TABLE = , <0

,

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

If the flywheel is mounted on the motor shaft, with mass moment of inertia , then:

, + ,

= , , = , ,

2 2

If the flywheel is the only responsible of the energy exchange with the table, then:

,

,

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

If a flywheel with mass moment of inertia is mounted on the output shaft of the

gear reducer, then:

= = , ,

2 2

Hence:

,

,

The flywheel mounted on the slow shaft of the reducer has the same effects on the

cyclic irregularity than a flywheel mounted on the motor shaft as long as:

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

In practice, the motor and the flywheel work together, both exchanging energy

with the indexer.

The cyclic irregularity is mitigated both by the steepness of the motor

characteristic and by the inertia of the flywheel.

When is not constant, all rotating components of the mechanism undergo

periodic variation of their kinetic energy, besides the flywheel and the rotary table,

and the corresponding inertial effects must be taken into account.

There is energy dissipation throughout the cycle: the energy that flows from the

motor to the table in direct motion is higher than the energy that flows back in

inverse motion.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Lumped-parameter model

, ,

Rotary table

Gearmotor

=

Indexer

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

transmission block, where speed variations and energy losses are concentrated:

,

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

, ,

Symbols:

If a flywheel is mounted on the motor shaft, must be replaced by + .

: moment of inertia of all masses rotating with angular velocity .

If a flywheel is mounted on the reducer output shaft, must be replaced

by + .

: moment of inertia of all masses rotating with angular velocity .

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

, ,

Symbols:

: motor torque.

, : input and output torques of the gearbox.

, : input and output torques of the indexer.

, : transmission ratio and efficiency of the gearbox.

, : transmission ratio and efficiency of the indexer.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Free-body diagrams

Moment equilibrium of the motor shaft:

=

= =

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Power balance of the gear reducer:

,

= =

the power flow from the input to the output shaft is reduced by a factor equal

to the direct-motion efficiency ;

the power flow from the output to the input shaft is reduced by a factor equal

to the inverse-motion efficiency .

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Efficiency function:

direct motion: ( )

0 :

=

0 :

inverse motion:

<0

=

<0

0

in general:

=

where:

, if 0

=

1 , if <0

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Power balance of the gear reducer when dissipations are taken into account:

= = = =

= = =

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

= = =

where:

, if 0

=

1 , if <0

,

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

= = = = +

= = = = +

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

, ,

Motion equation:

=

=

=

=

= +

+ + =0

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

and numerically integrated:

= = ( ),

+ +

where:

and are functions of ;

angles and are related so as:

= = = + .

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Lagrange equation

The motion equation may be obtained directly by relying on the Lagrange

equation of 1-d.o.f. systems:

1

1

= + = 2

2

where:

= + +

( ) ( )

= = 2 =2

where motion is direct or inverse depending on whether 0 or < 0,

respectively.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

By considering that:

= , =

=

= = ( ), = ( ),

+ +

= ( ),

=

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Simulink model

Numerical integration of the motion equation:

( ),

= = = = ( ),

( )

+ +

= ( ), = + + ( ),

( ),

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Results

[alpha]

Efficiencies

, 1 [w]

s

Integrator tau

[w]

1 0: 2 [alpha]

s

Integrator

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Function ( ), = :

[etai]

[etar] Product

alpha beta2

[alpha] beta2

tau^3*J_b

From8

alpha beta1 Product8

Gain6

beta1 Product5

u2

Product10 ,

[b1] Cm

Math

Goto5 Function

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Function ( ) = + + :

Jm

J_a*tau^2

Constant5

Constant6

[etar]

From3 Product4

( ) [etai]

From4 Product1

Function1

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Function ( ), = :

( ),

( ),

( )

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Integrations:

1

omega

s

Integrator To Workspace

[w]

tau

Gain1

Goto

lightBlue

1

alpha alpha2pi alpha

s

Integrator1 [0:2pi] To Workspace3

[alpha]

Goto1

Function 0: 2 bounds such that [0,2 ].

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Results:

Cmot To Workspace1

From11

[Cr1] Goto6

[etar]

From6

Cr2 To Workspace2

Jm

1/tau

Gain2

Constant7

J_a*tau C_a To Workspace5

Gain3

[etai] [C_a] Goto8

From12

[C_a] C_b To Workspace6

From14 [b1]

From13

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Efficiencies:

etar

Constant

[Cr1] [etar]

1/etar1 etar

Constant1

etai

Constant3

[C_a] [etai]

etami

1/etai1

Constant4

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Block examples:

From and Go to:

[alpha] [alpha]

From8

Goto1

blocks go to and from are used to pass a signal within the model.

To workspace

alpha

To Workspace3

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Gain:

tau

Gain1

constant values can be provided via workspace.

Jm + +

J_a*tau^2

Constant5

Constant6

Product4 Sum

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Integrator:

= , 1

s

Switch:

etar

it passes the 1st or the 3rd input through the block, depending on the value of

the 2nd input (control input);

the condition under which the first input is passed is defined inside the block

(e.g. control input > threshold).

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Subsystem:

it computes operations between inputs and returns outputs;

for example, function 0: 2 is defined via a 1 input 1 output subsystem

(floor is a rounding function):

1 1

alpha alpha2pi

= 2

2 2*pi

1/(2*pi) floor

= ( )

Rounding Function

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

[alpha]

From8

1 1

alpha beta1

Switch

f(u)

>7/8

f(u) 7/8

>1/8 & <7/8

f(u) 1/8

<1/8

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

user-defined functions:

km*(w0-u) ( )

memory:

etar

[Cr1] [etar]

1/etar1

in order to avoid an algebraic loop, efficiency is computed by using values

from the previous integration time step.

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Numerical example

Application characteristics

number of workstations: =4

cycle frequency and period: 38.5 cyclesmin , = 1.56 s

workstations production time: 1 s

rotary tables moment of inertia: = 5.89 kg m

Induction motor

moment of inertia: = 6.90 10 kg m

synchronous speed: = 1500 rpm = 157.07 rad/s

torque constant: = 0.191 N m s

Gear reducer

moment of inertia (reduced to the input shaft): = 0.05 10 kg m

efficiency: = = 0.95

transmission ratio: = 139

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Indexer:

rise angle: =2 = 90

indexing angle: = 120 = 2 3 rad

notice that:

1

, 38.46 rpm 1.56 s

2

= = = = 1 1.56 s 1.04 s

2 2 3

moment of inertia of the driver: negligible

efficiency = = 0.95

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Indexer displacement diagram: piecewise cycloidal motion

[]

2 ( ) ( ) 100

80

1.5 ( )

60

1

40

= 90

0.5 20

0 0

7

-0.5 8 8

-1

-1.5

-2

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 []

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

7

1 cos 4 , 0< < ; < <

4+ 8 8

= 4 7

1 3 cos + , < <

4 + 3 3 8 8

0, >

4 7

sin 4 , 0< < ; < <

4+ 8 8

= 4 4 7

sin + , < <

4+ 3 3 8 8

0, >

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

= + = 5.904 kg m

case 1: no flywheel

= + = 6.95 10 kg m

= 0.03kg m

= + + = 0.0307 kg m

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

case 1: no flywheel

=0

=0

= = = 45.6 kg m

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

Results 1700

Cyclic irregularity: 1650

no flywheel

slow-shaft flywheel

no flywheel motor-shaft flywheel

1600

= 0.23

[rpm]

1550

= 1.040 s

1500

motor-shaft flywheel

= 0.10 1450

= 1.035 s 1400

= 0.10

1300

= 1.035 s 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

[s]

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

4

[N ] no flywheel

3 slow-shaft flywheel

motor-shaft flywheel

2

-1

-2

-3

-4

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 [ ]

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

A flywheel mounted on the gearbox slow shaft reduces the torque on this shaft

too, but its inertia is bigger (!) than inertia of the rotary table:

150

[N ] no flywheel

100 slow-shaft flywheel

motor-shaft flywheel

50

-50

-100

-150

-200

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 [ ]

1 Dynamics of an intermittent-motion drive

The inertia of the flywheel causes the mechanism to reach its steady-state

motion after a longer transient:

1800

[rpm]

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600 no flywheel

slow-shaft flywheel

400 motor-shaft flywheel

200

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 [ ]

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Model

/////

independent (actuated) variable: motor torque:

dependent variables: , resistant torque:

weights (the -axis points upward

in the vertical direction).

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Position analysis

+ = + =

+ = =

right solution: the four-bar linkage

admits two assembly configurations! *3

**

3

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Kinematic analysis

Velocity analysis

First-order kinematic coefficients (transmission ratios) of the dependent

configuration variables:

= = =

= = =

= = , = 2,3

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Acceleration analysis

Second-order kinematic coefficients of the dependent configuration variables:

+

= = =

+

= = =

= + , = 2,3

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Centres of mass

Position, velocity and acceleration of the centre of mass of the th link ( = 1,2,3):

=

= =

= = +

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

=

= = +

=

=

= =

=

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Kinetic energy

Kinetic energy of the links:

1 1

= + , = + ,

2 2

1

= + ,

2

1 1

= , = ,

2 2

1

= ,

2

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

1 1

, = = , + + , + , = ( )

2

2

where is the total mass moment of inertia of the linkage:

= , + + , + ,

Derivative of w.r.t. the independent variable:

= =2 +2 , +2 ,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Potential energy

The potential energy associated with gravitational forces is:

= = ,

= = = ,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

DAlembert equations

Inertia forces

Link 1: ,

, = ,

Link 2:

=

,

, = ,

,

Link 3:

=

, = ,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Free-body diagrams

3 equilibrium equations may be written for any link, thus obtaining a system of

9 equations in 9 unknowns.

The system comprises:

the external forces applied to the linkage: , and the weights;

the inertia forces;

the 8 components of the reaction forces in the revolute joints:

= , = , = , =

The system is linear in the reaction forces and the external forces.

The 9 unknowns are:

the reaction forces and the driving torque, when solving the inverse problem;

the reaction forces and the input motion, when solving the direct problem.

The system is generally coupled.

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Method of the open kinematic chain

It allows equilibrium equations to be more effectively formulated, namely in

(partial) echelon form.

Cut the kinematic chain in and replace the removed joint with the corresponding

reaction force :

,

,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Impose the moment equilibrium of (i) link 2 about , and (ii) the ensemble of links 2

and 3 about :

+ , =

+ , , + =

, ,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

This provides two scalar equations that allow the computation of the reaction force

as a function of the external torque , the weight forces and the motion variables

(no other reaction forces nor the driving torque are involved):

= + + ,

= + + + , + ,

, ,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

= + + ,

= + + + , + ,

+ = ( + ) + ,

+ = + + + , + ,

=

=

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Explicit computation of (not necessary if a numeric solution is attempted):

+ , =

+ , , + =

+ , =

+ , + =

= ( + )+ ,

= + + + ,

= ( + ) + ,

+ = + + + ,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Hence:

= ( + ) + ,

+ = + + + ,

+

=

+

=

where:

= , + + ( + )

= , + + + +

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Once is known, the moment equilibrium of link 1 about allows the computation

of the driving torque as a function of the external forces and moments acting on

the linkage and the motion variables, i.e. the motion law of the linkage:

+ , =

= + + ,

,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

forces and the motion variables is (not necessary if a numeric solution is attempted):

= , + + =

+

= , + +

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

The force equilibrium of each link allows the computation of the other reaction forces:

link 1: = + +

link 2: = +

link 3: = + +

,

,

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Lagrange equation

The Lagrange equation is:

+ =

where:

1

= +

2

= + = +

Thus, immediately:

1

, , = + +

2

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

The reaction forces can be calculated by free-body diagrams, as shown in

the previous section:

moment equilibrium of links 2 and 3:

= + + ,

= + + , + ,

= + +

= +

= + +

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Numerical example

Consider the following crank-rocker four-bar linkage:

= 100 mm, = 48 mm, = 15 mm,

= 1.8 kg, , = 0.018 kg m ;

= 300 mm, = 160 mm, = 60 mm,

= 3.7 kg, , = 0.078 kg m ;

= 220 mm, = 90 mm, = 95 mm,

= 4.2 kg, , = 0.031 kg m ;

= 340 mm;

= 100 Nm

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

Inverse dynamics

Input motion law: = 40 rads = 382 rpm, = 0 rads .

Compute the driving torque that is necessary to operate the crank with the

assigned motion law:

[Nm]

60

40

20

[rad]

3 2 1

0 1 2 3

20

40

60

80

100

120

1

Direct dynamics

Determine the motion law of the crank if the driving torque is:

[rad/s]

50

40

30

20

10

[s]

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

2 Dynamics of the four-bar linkage

[Nm]

200

150

100

50

[s]

0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

50

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Single-track model

and can be used interchangeably as

the steering variable:

=

tan

, =

sin

by and (or and ):

=

tan

= = =

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

described by and (or and ):

=

= = +

1

= =

1

= tan +

cos

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Vehicle kinematics

Vehicle kinematics in the fixed frame

(see the Chapter: Kinematics of a vehicle in planar motion):

First-order kinematics:

=

sin

= + = cos + sin

= =

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Vehicle kinematics in the body frame:

First-order kinematics:

= =

= + = + = ( + )

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Second-order kinematics:

= =

= + = + = + +

= + =

= + + + =

= ( + ) +( + )

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

DAlembert equations

Forces acting on the vehicle body in the xy-plane:

tractive force on the rear wheel:

= ,

=

= = ( sin + cos )

inertia forces:

= = + +

, =

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Force equilibrium:

+ + + =

sin + =0

+ cos =0 ,

( + )

=

sin

= cos + +

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

+ + , =

+ sin + cos =

+ cos =

cos + =0

,

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Substituting for in the moment equilibrium equation yields:

+ cos + + + =0

cos + + =0

( + )

cos = = ( + )

tan

and thus:

+ + + + =0

= + +

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

= + +

Since:

= , =

tan sin

tan 1

= , = tan +

cos

one also has

tan tan

= + +

cos

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

( + ) +

= = = +

sin sin cos sin

= cos + + = +

tan

1

= sin + + sin

cos cos

1

= sin + + sin

cos cos

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

=

tan

tan

= = 0,

1

= tan + =

cos

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Hence, when = 0:

tan tan

= + + =

cos

1

= sin + + sin =

cos cos

1

= sin + + sin =

cos cos

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Energy equation

Kinetic energy of the vehicle:

= + , =

1 1 1 1 1

= + = + + = ( + ) =

2 2 2 2 2

where

= +

Notice that:

= 2

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

At the equilibrium, the power performed by the external actions and the internal

dissipative forces must equal the rate of change of the kinetic energy:

The vehicles motion law may be obtained by the energy equation as:

= = =

1 1 = +

= = + = +

2 2

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Motor torque

Tricycle model

The tractive force is distributed on the two traction (rear) wheels:

= + = + =

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

If the mass moment of inertia of the wheel about its axis is disregarded,

the moment equilibrium of the jth traction wheel yields ( = , ):

= 0 =

where:

is the motor torque of the jth wheel;

is the tractive force of the jth wheel.

differential gear train leads to:

= =

= + = + =

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

The contribution of the mass moment of inertia of the wheels can be taken into

consideration, in an approximate way, as:

+4 = +4

Notice that the above formula is exact in the case of rectilinear motion.

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

Numerical examples

1. A vehicle travels a curve with constant turn radius.

The characteristics of the vehicle are:

= 1300 kg, = 2500 kg m , = 2.5 m, = 1.3 m, = 0.3367 m.

The characteristics of the curve are:

= 20 m, tan = = 0.125, = 7.125.

The vehicle moves along a quarter-circle trajectory, travelling a distance:

= 2 = 31.41 m

Three cases are considered, with the vehicle travelling the curve with:

i. constant velocity = 80 kmh = 22.2 ms, in time = = 1.41 s;

ii. constant velocity = 120 kmh = 33.3 ms, in time = = 0.94 s;

iii. constant acceleration = 9.82 ms , entering the curve at = 80 kmh

and leaving it at = 120 kmh, in time = 1.13 s.

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

[m]

80 kmh

20 120 kmh

80 120 kmh

= +

cos sin

= 12,8 kN

15

= +

tan

= + +

10

0 20 kN

0 5 10 15 20 [m]

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

2. The same vehicle of the previous example travels a curve with:

variable steer angle: 0 = = 0, 0 = = 0, = 1.13 s,

= 4.91 sin 4 for 0, 2 , = 4.91 sin 4 for 2 , 0 ;

constant acceleration = 9.82 ms , entering the curve at = 80 kmh and

and exiting it at = 120 kmh, thus travelling a distance = = 31.41 m.

1.0

0.25

0.8

0.20 0.6

[rad/s]

[rad]

0.4

0.15

0.2

0.10 0.0

-0.2

0.05 -0.4

-0.6

0.00

-0.8

[s] -1.0 [s]

-0.05 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

[m]

20

trajectory

= + forces

cos sin constant

15

= +

tan

10

= + +

5

0 20 kN

0 5 10 15 20 [m]

3 Dynamics of a vehicle in planar motion

16

[kN] 14

12

10

8

= +

6

=

4 = +

2

-2

[s]

-4

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Prof. Marco Carricato

DIN

marco.carricato@unibo.it

http://grab.diem.unibo.it/

www.unibo.it/docenti/marco.carricato

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