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Chapter 1 | ELEMENTS OF PIPELINE DESIGN INTRODUCTION ‘This chapter provides an overview of elements that systematically influence pipeline design through to construction, operation, and maintenance. Subsequent chapters provide detailed information on these topics. Pipelines affect daily lives in most parts of the world. Modem people’s lives are based ‘on an environment in which energy plays a (predominant) role, Oil and gas are major participants in the supply of energy, and pipelines are the primary means by which they are transported. It is no coincidence that an extensive pipeline network goes hand-in-hand with a high standard of living and technological progress. ‘Among other uses, oil and gas are utilized to generate electrical power. Using électricity/oil and gas directly, houses are heated, meals are cooked, and a comfortable living environment is created. Petrochemical processes also use oil and gas to make useful To fulfil the oil and gas demand for power generation, recovery processes, and other uses, pipelines are utilized to transport the supply fiom their source. These pipelines are mostly buried and operate without disturbing normal pursuits. They carry large volumes of natural gas, crude oil, and other products in continuous streams. Construction procedures for most pipeline systems can be adapted to consider specific environmental conditions and are tailored to cause minimal impact on the environment. Unattended pumping stations move large volumes of oil and petroleum products under high pressure. Similarly, natural gas transmission systems, supported by compressor stations, deliver large volumes of gas to various consumers Many factors have to be considered in the engineering and design of long-distance pipelines, including the nature and volume of fluid to be transported, the length of pipeline, the types of terrain traversed, and the environmental constraints. ‘To obtain optinmum results for a pipeline transmission system, complex economic and engineering studies are necessary to decide on the pipeline diameter, material, compression/ pumping power requirements, and location of the pipeline route. ‘Major factors influencing pipeline system design are: Fluid properties Design conditions Supply and demand magnitude/locations Codes and standards Route, topography, and access Environmental impact Economics Hydrological impact Seismic and volcanic impacts