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Fiber Optic

Technical Bulletin
AV and Security

2011-2012
What is Fiber Optics?

Transparent glass or plastic fibers which allow light to be guided from one end to the other with
minimal loss of light.

Glass construction is mostly used in the AV and Security markets. Electrical signals carrying informa-
tion are converted to light waves that carry audio, video, data and voice from one point to another.
Once the lightwaves reach their destination, they are converted back to electrical signals.

Analogy:
Light pipe with a mirrored surface

Why Fiber Optics?


The crucial operating difference between fiber optic communication system and other types is that
the signals are transmitted by light. Conventional electronic communications relies on electrons
passing through conductive wires.

Fiber Optics addresses the two most difficult challenges in communications of AV, security and data
signals.

1. Maintaining signal integrity in a noisy environment (electrical noise)

2. Degradation of signals over long distance

Fiber optic system design and implementation have unique properties that give A/V and Security
professionals an edge in future proofing installations.

Fiber Optic systems can be used to send high resolution video, audio, and control signals on a sin-
gle fiber for A/V professionals. A fiber cable can also give the security professional many benefits
for long distant and modulated CCTV Signals.

Future Proofing A/V and Security Systems:

Fiber Optic systems can provide extremely high bandwidth and can carry A/V signals and Security
signals extremely long distances. Installing a fiber optic system ensures an A/V system can easily
meet the demands of todays HD systems and provides a path for future expansion. With high
bandwidth capabilities, future applications can be addressed with todays fiber installation.

Multiple Signals on a single fiber.

Fiber optic cables have the capacity to carry and handle multiple signals over one fiber cable. In a
fiber optic A/V system, high resolution RGBHV (VGA) combined with stereo audio, and projector
control can be transmitted over long distances using a single fiber optic cable.
Easier Installation

Fiber optic cables are extremely lightweight and small sized. This translates into an easier
installation. West Penn Wires largest fiber optic cable, M9X611T (24 fiber), is .330 in diameter.
Compared to our RG6/U RGBHV at .830.

Sensitive information security


All copper cables transmitting any low voltage signals eminate electromagnetic radiation. In or all
information being transmitted across a copper cable can be easily be detected and translated by
eavesdropper.

Fiber optic cables are immune to the emanating noise. A fiber optic cable is transmitting light not
electrical signals. This makes it extremely difficult to eavesdrop without altering the cable and sys-
tem design.

Many application such as Casinos, Government facilities, Prisons and many more installing fiber
optic systems for the security reasons.

Ground loop problems are another issue when installing copper cabling systems. In a fiber optic
system, ground loop problems are eliminated because of the all dielectric construction.
Fiber Optic System Challenges
With Copper prices escalating, the move towards a fiber based system can be a future proof option.

A Fiber optic system comprises a transmitter that converts the electrical signals to optical, and a
receiver that converts the optical signals back to electrical. These components in a fiber system are
generally more expensive than traditional A/V and Security devices. A fiber optic based system
requires proper care of the fiber optic cable, and equipment, proper installation, and testing
methodology.

To simplify the fiber optic installation, West Penn Wire has developed easy termination and testing
systems. These systems will eliminate the intimidating perception of fiber optic installations. West
Penn Wire provides two professional friendly installation kits - Optimax and Brilliance kits.
Basic Fiber Optic A/V System
A simple A/V Fiber optic system converts high resolution video, audio, and control signals from a
video source into a series of light pulses. The light travels down the optical fiber cable to a receiv-
ing device which converts the light pulses back to the A/V and control signals.

There are transmitters that allow such video sources as: HD-SDI, DVI, HDMI, RGBHV or YUV.

Basic Fiber Optic CCTV System


A simple Fiber optic system converts baseband signals from a CCTV video source into a series of
light pulses. The light travels down the optical fiber cable to a receiving device which converts the
light pulses back to the CCTV signals

There are transmitters that allow: a single CCTV or multiple modulated CCTV signals down a single
fiber optic cable
Fiber Optic Cable Construction
Fiber Elements
Fiber optic cable provides the most advanced communication media avail-
able today. An increasing amount of fiber will be installed in the future as
we find more and more uses for this
technology. Fiber optic cable can support voice, data, video, and other
types of transmission, and offers many advantages over
standard copper circuits which we will discuss later in this section.
Core
This is the very center of the cable and is the light guiding area used for
light transmission. The size of the core will determine the amount of light
to be transmitted into the fiber. The larger the core, the greater the Buffered Fiber
amount of light will that will be transmitted.
Cladding
The cladding surrounds the core glass and serves to refract the light back
into the core. The cladding has a different index of refraction than the core
so that the lightwaves are re-directed back into the core allowing contin-
ued light transmission through the fiber.
Coating
Several coatings of acrylate are usually applied to the fiber to provide ten-
sile strength and protection to the glass fiber core.
Jacket
The cable jacket works along with the aramid fibers to provide strength,
integrity, and overall protection of the fiber member. There are a variety of
jacketing materials that are used in fiber optic cable construction. Standard
compounds and special variations of these compounds can be used in
making the jacket. The jacket should be appropriate for the environmental
conditions that the fiber optic cable will be subjected to. Environmental
parameters that should be considered include temperature variations,
chemical reactance, sunlight resistance, mechanical and abrasion
resistance.

Fiber Optic Cable Types


Fiber Optic Size - This is measured by comparing the core size to the cladding size. This is expressed
by the core diameter and then the cladding with coating diameter.
Example: 62.5/125., 62.5 being the core diameter and 125 being the cladding with
coating diameter.

Fiber Optic Modes - There are basically two types or modes of fiber optic cable, single-mode
and multimode.
Fiber Optic Cable:
Multimode - The core on multimode is about 50 - 100 micron. A larger core allows many light
pulses or modes to travel through the core simultaneously. Mode overlap can occur over
extremely longer distances and may cause bit errors. Multimode is best used for lengths up to
2 kilometers.

Single-Mode - The core on single-mode is about 8-10 micron. This small core size allows only one
mode of light to travel within the core at a time. The higher the bandwidth, the more informa-
tion carrying capacity the cable has. This type of cable is good for long distances, and is often
used by telephone companies for long transmissions.

REPLACE X WITH:
A- 50/125 micron Fiber
B- 62.5/125 micron Fiber
W- 8/125 micron Fiber

Fiber Optic Guide


reakout Breakout Distribution Distribution In/Out Armored
Outdoor
OFNR - LOF OFNP - LOF OFNR OFNP OFNP Outdoor
No.Fibers
2 M9X043 M9X043T M9X150
4 M9C006 M9C014
6 M9X039 M9X045 M9X045T M9X152 M9X172
12 M9X042 M9X048 M9X048T M9X155 M9X175
24 M9X611T
How glass carries light?
Index of refraction

The index of refraction is a way of measuring the speed of light in a particular material. Light
travels at different speeds through various materials. The speed of light in a vacuum is about
186,000 miles/sec. Index of refraction is calculated by dividing the speed of light in a vacuum by
the speed of light in some other medium. Therefore the speed of light in a vacuum is 1. The
typical index of refraction of on optical fibers cladding is approximately 1.46 and the core is typi-
cally 1.48.

Material Index velocity of light (miles)


Air 1.0 186,000
Glass 1.5 124,000
Cladding 1.46 127,000
Core 1.48?? 126,000??
Dispersion:
MMF- Multi-mode Dispersion- MODAL Dispersion

Graded Index MMF:


Different layers of refraction allows light to be guided from one
end to the other with minimal modal dispersion.

Multi-mode fiber: LED Based System - Within buildings

Multi-mode fibers have a larger core with allows more light modes to transverse down the optical
fiber. A critical angle is established to minimize the reflections within the core. The critical angle is
determined by the difference in index of refraction between the core and the cladding materials.
The numerical aperture allows light to propagate down the fiber in rays both close to the axis and
at various angles, allowing efficient coupling of light into the fiber. However, this numerical aper-
ture increases the amount of dispersion as rays at different angles have different path lengths and
therefore take different times to transverse the fiber.

In a graded index fiber, the index of refraction in the core decreases continuously between the axis
and the cladding. This causes light rays to bend smoothly as they approach the cladding, rather
than reflecting abruptly from the core cladding interface. The resulting curved paths reduce multi-
path dispersion because high angle rays pass more through the lower-index periphery of the core,
rather than the high-index center.

Singlemode fiber: LASER Based System - Long distance applications

Singlemode fibers have a much smaller core than multi-mode fibers. Singlemode fibers allow light
to travel down a single path. Therefore, the effects of modal dispersion are completely avoided.
Because of this, singlemode fiber has extremely high bandwidths and can transmit video signals
over several kilometers or miles. A singlemode cables does have some dispersion called chromatic
or waveguide dispersion.
Attenuation

Attenuation in multimode fiber is typically 3 to 4 dB/km at 850nm and 1dB/km at 1300nm.


Compared to West Penn Wire RG6/U SDI cable (6350) that has an attenuation of 60dB/km at
100Mhz, fiber optics is the clear choice for high bandwidth long distant installations.

In a coaxial system design, level and peaking devices can be used to compensate for losses.
However, no such compensation does not exist in a fiber optic system design. Fiber attenuation
reduces the amount of optical power reaching the receiver. The system design professional must
ensure that the receiver will have enough power to operate the system. A theoretical approach
must be taken before the installation. A project professional has to calculate the entire loss of the
project using the optical loss analysis and power budget given by the equipment manufacturer.

Comparing Fiber Optic and Coaxial Cable

Fiber Optic Cable Coaxial Cable

Several Miles Hundred of feet


Attenuation constant Attenuation increases with frequency
Fiber Attenuation reduces Cable resistance reduces signal
light power level over long level and intensity over long
distance distance
Modal dispersion in MMF Cable capacitance reduces rise time
reduces bandwidth and sharpness over long distance
Optical losses are added up Level and Peaking devices compensate
and compared to an optical for resistance and capacitance in long
power budget cable runs
Operating Wavelengths

Fibers operate best at specific points called wavelengths on the spectrum. Wavelengths are
measured in nanometers (nm).
850 nm and 1300 nm are the common wavelengths chosen for multi-mode. 1310 nm and
1550 nm are common for Singlemode.
850nm has the highest losses, but is used the most. The most economical for AV and
Security applications.

Multiplexing Techniques
An optical transmitter converts one or more electrical signals, including video, audio, and/or
control, into one or more serial digital streams of light pulses for transmission along one or more
optical fibers. Common multiplexing techniques include:

Time domain multiplexing (TDM): TDM combines multiple signals into a serial digital stream.
Video, audio, and control signals are multiplexed and serialized in the electrical domain.
TDM primary disadvantage is that the available bandwidth of the optical link must be higher than
the individual bandwidths of the signals being transmitted.

Coarse wavelength division multiplexing: (CWDM): CWDM uses multiple wavelengths that are sepa-
rated by 20nm or more. A special device called a a CWDM combines the multiple wavelengths onto
one single optical fiber. CWDM uses less bandwidth than a TDM. A CWDM typically uses a maxi-
mum rate of 1 to 2 Gbps, compared to over 4 Gbps for a similar TDM system. A CWDM components
are higher in cost than a TDM.
Fiber Optic Cables
Indoor Design:

In an Indoor fiber optic cable, a 900m Buffer is added. The


buffer is tightly extruded over the optical fiber. The buffer
is used to facilitate a crimp for connecting the connector.
The indoor design have multiple fiber cables that are color
coded with Kevlar filling and an overall PVC jacket.

Article 770 NEC:


OFNR - Optical Fiber Non-Conductive RISER
OFNP - Optical Fiber Non-Conductive PLENUM

Indoor/Outdoor Design:

The indoor/outdoor cable design will handle all


environmental installations. The fiber optic cable
is Rated OFNP (Plenum) and is permitted to be
run in a conduit or free in outdoor environments. The indoor/outdoor fiber cables are not designed
for direct burial. The indoor/outdoor fiber cables are tight buffered with water-blocking kevlar and
an overall sunlight/moisture plenum rated jacket.

Outdoor Design:

Outdoor fiber optic cables are designed without a tight-


buffering. A thin layer of polymer is added over the coat-
ing to provide for color coding. West Penn Wires outdoor
fiber optic cables have a central tube with water-blocking
material, kevlar, and an overall PE jacket.

Outdoor Direct Burial Design:


Outdoor fiber optic cables are designed without a tight-
buffering. A thin layer of polymer is added over the coat-
ing to provide for color coding. West Penn Wires outdoor
direct burial fiber cables have a central tube with water-
blocking material, kevlar, armored sheath, and an overall
PE Jacket.
Fiber Optic Cable
Fiber Optic Cable
Distribution Cable/ Riser and Plenum
Individual Fibers with Overall Jacket

Rating: Applications:
Description: NEC Type Riser Wiring
900m tight buffered fibers Color Coded for easy Flame Rating: UL1666 Office Wiring
termination Flame Retardant UL listed for code Computer Room Wiring
compliance
Nom. Min Bend Min Bend
Catalog No. of O.D. radius radius Max. Load
No. Fibers Inches Short Term Long Term Installation

3.3 inch 2.2 inch 270 lbs.


M9X039 6 .220
8.4 cm 5.6 cm 1201 Newtons
3.8 inch 2.6 inch 300 lbs.
M9X042 12 .255
9.6 cm 6.6 cm 1334 Newtons

Other constructions Available Rating:


(Minimum run quantities may apply).
Custom Cuts are Available upon
NEC Type
Request. Flame Rating: NFPA 262

Nom. Min Bend Min Bend


Catalog No. of O.D. radius radius Max. Load
No. Fibers Inches Short Term Long Term Installation

2.8 inch 1.8 inch 180 lbs.


M9X043 2 .184
7.0 cm 4.7 cm 801 Newtons

3.0 inch 2.0 inch 270 lbs.


M9X045 6 .200
7.6 cm 5.1 cm 1201 Newtons
3.4 inch 2.3 inch 300 lbs.
M9X048 12 .225
8.6 cm 5.8 cm 1334 Newtons

Notes:
Optical Characteristics - See Optical Characteristics Chart
Min. Max. for selecting proper Part No. for your
Glass Code Operating Wave-
Bandwidth Attn. application
Type (X) length (nm)
(MHz-km) (dB-km)
50/125m
A 850nm/1300nm 500/500 3.50/1.25 When ordering: In ordering to specify the
MultiMode
62.5/125m correct optical fiber, replace X in catalog number with the
B 850nm/1300nm 200/500 3.50/1.25 proper code number.
MultiMode
8/125m
W 1300nm/1550nm -- .80/.50 Example: WP9X038 WP9A038 = 4 Fiber 50/125 fiber Cables
SingleMode

Fiber Optic Cable


Laser Optimized Fiber Optic Cable
50/125um - Digital Media Fiber Optic Type
Nom. Min Bend Min Bend
Catalog No. of O.D. radius radius UL Transmission
No. Fibers Short Term Long Term Rating Rating
Inches
OM3
M9C006 4 .300 4.5 Inch 3.0 Inch OFNR
50/125um LOF

OM3
M9C014 4 .300 4.5 Inch 3.0 Inch OFNP
50/125um LOF

CABLEWIRE
WEST PENN WITH CONFIDENCE WEST
CABLE WITH PENN
CONFIDENCE WIRE
Fiber Optic Cable
Fiber Optic Cables
Indoor/Outdoor Tight Buffer
Distribution Cable
Applications:
Building interconnection
Telecommunication and Data
Long haul networking
Ducts between buildings
Description:
Rating: 900m tight buffered fibers Color Coded for easy
Indoor/Outdoor Design termination Flame Retardant UL listed for
- Plenum Rated code compliance Individual Sub-unit Jackets
Fully Water-Blocked TIA-455-82 Test

Nom. Min Bend Min Bend


Catalog No. of O.D. radius radius Max. Load
No. Fibers Inches Short Term Long Term Installation

2 .190 3.0 inch 2.0 inch 300 lbs.


M9X043T 7.6 cm 5.1 cm 1335 Newtons

6 .190 3.0 inch 2.0 inch 300 lbs.


M9X045T 7.6 cm 5.1 cm 1335 Newtons

12 .225 3.4 inch 2.3 inch 300 lbs.


M9X048T 8.6 cm 5.8 cm 1335 Newtons

M9X611T 24 .330 4.9 inch


12.4 cm
3.3 inch
8.4 cm
600 lbs.
2700 Newtons

Other constructions Available


(Minimum run quantities may
apply).
Custom Cuts are Available upon
Request.
Notes:
- See Optical Characteristics Chart
Optical Characteristics for selecting proper Part No. for your
Min. Max. application
Glass Code Operating Wave-
Bandwidth Attn.
Type (X) length (nm)
(MHz-km) (dB-km)
50/125m
A 850nm/1300nm 500/500 3.50/1.25
MultiMode
When ordering: In ordering to specify the
62.5/125m correct optical fiber, replace X in catalog number with the
B 850nm/1300nm 200/500 3.50/1.25
MultiMode proper code number.
8/125m
W 1300nm/1550nm -- .80/.50 Example: WP9X611T WP9W611T = 24 Fiber 8/125 fiber Cables
SingleMode

WEST PENN WIRE CABLE WITH CONFIDENCE


Fiber Optic Cable
Fiber Optic Cable
Central Tube & Loose-Tube Cable
Outdoor
Applications:
Building interconnection
Description: Telecommunication and Data
Long haul networking
Available in several fiber counts All dielectric central strength member Excel-
Ducts between buildings
lent attenuation performance Water-blocking gel for moisture
protection Water-blocking overall tape Polyethylene jacket for
weather and UV protection
Rating
Outdoor

Nom. Min Bend Min Bend


Catalog No. of O.D. radius radius Max. Load
No. Fibers Inches Short Term Long Term Installation

2 .325 6.5 inch 4.9 inch 600 lbs.


M9X150 16.5 cm 12.45 cm 2700 Newtons
Central Tube Design

6 .325 6.5 inch 4.9 inch 600 lbs.


M9X152 Central Tube Design 16.5 cm 12.45 cm 2700 Newtons

12 .325 6.5 inch 4.9 inch 600 lbs.


M9X155 Central Tube Design 16.5 cm 12.45 cm 2700 Newtons

Other constructions available


(Minimum order quantities may apply).
Custom Cuts are Available upon request.

Optical Characteristics
Notes:
Min. Max. - See Optical Characteristics Chart
Glass Code Operating Wave- for selecting proper Part No. for your
Bandwidth Attn.
Type (X) length (nm) application
(MHz-km) (dB-km)
50/125m
A 850nm/1300nm 500/500 3.00/1.00
MultiMode
62.5/125m When ordering: In ordering to specify the
B 850nm/1300nm 200/500 3.50/1.25
MultiMode correct optical fiber, replace X in catalog number with the
8/125m proper code number.
W 1300nm/1550nm -- .80/.50
SingleMode
Example: WP9X150 WP9B150 = 2 Fiber 62.5/125 fiber Cables

CABLE WITH CONFIDENCE WEST PENN WIRE


Fiber Optic Cable
Fiber Optic Cables
Armored Central Tube: Loose-Tube Cable
Outdoor - Direct Burial
Applications:
Building interconnection
Telecommunication and Data
Long haul networking
Description:
Central Tube Design Excellent attenuation performance
Rating: Water-blocking gel for moisture protection
Outdoor - Direct Burial Fully water blocked Armored barrier
Polyethylene jacket for weather and UV protection

Nom. Min Bend Min Bend


Catalog No. of O.D. radius radius Max. Load
No. Fibers Inches Short Term Long Term Installation

6 .410 8.2 inch 4.7 inch 600 lbs.


M9X172 20.8 cm 11.9 cm 2700 Newtons
Central Tube Design

12 .410 8.2 inch 4.7 inch 600 lbs.


M9X175 20.8cm 11.9 cm 2700 Newtons
Central Tube Design

Other constructions available


(Minimum order quantities may apply).
Custom Cuts are Available upon request.

Optical Characteristics
Min. Max.
Glass Code Operating Wave-
Bandwidth Attn.
Type (X) length (nm)
(MHz-km) (dB-km)
50/125m
A 850nm/1300nm 500/500 3.50/1.25
MultiMode
62.5/125m
B 850nm/1300nm 200/500 3.50/1.25
MultiMode
8/125m
W 1300nm/1550nm -- .80/.50
SingleMode

WEST PENN WIRE CABLE WITH CONFIDENCE


Installing and Terminating Fiber Optic Cables
A complete fiber optic installation may includes all the installed fiber optic cables, connections,
splices, and patch panels. For most indoor applications a transition point or consolidation points
have to be established. In these points, a patch panel or racking system will be needed. A patch
panel or racking system may house splice boxes and/or connection points for the equipment.

True design outdoor cables are designed for harsh environments and can not be installed in a build-
ing beyond 50ft entering the building or out of conduit entering the building. In these situations, a
fan-out kit will provide the correct cabling size for connections into a patch pane or rack.

Complete installation:

1. Starts with pulling the fiber optic cable - do not exceed the bend radius and pulling tension.
(Provided on the catalog pages)
2. Splicing or transitioning from outdoor fiber to indoor fiber: This requires a Patch panel enclosure,
splices, splice tool, and a splice tray (protects the splices and offers strain relief) or
fan-out kit to provide the correct cable size for connection.
a. If using WPW indoor/outdoor fiber cables: A transition point is not needed from outdoor
to indoor
3. Installing the connectors: Make sure that the connector type will match the equipment.
ST, SC, or LC Connector types.
4. Testing your system: Easy check with a continuity tester - Power Meter/Light Source -
Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR).

Fiber Optic Cable Benefits

High Bandwidth - The higher the bandwidth, the greater EMI/RFI Immunity - Since fiber optic cables transmit light
the information carrying capacity. A higher bandwidth instead of electrical current, immunity to electromagnetic
allows for higher data rates, more users and longer dis- and radio frequency interference provides better signal
tances. quality, ensuring low bit error rates and/or low noise on
the system.
Easy Upgrades - Fiber optic cable allows for easy future
upgrades. Because a variety of transmissions can use fiber Security - Again, since there is no electrical signal, fiber
optics, it is only necessary to change the electronics. The optic transmission is almost impossible to tap into without
cable can stay in place. There is no need to pull new cable being
in the future. detected.

Low Attenuation - This is a reduction of signal strength or Lightweight - Fiber optic cable is smaller and lighter than
loss of light power over the length of the fiber. Fiber optic copper cable allowing for easier installation, especially
cable usually has low attenuation characteristics which when conduit and/or raceway space is at a premium.
allow signals to travel over longer distances without ream-
plification. However, attenuation can be affected by extrin-
sic (environmental and physical bends), intrinsic (absorp-
tion and scattering) and wavelength. The longer the wave-
length, the lower the attenuation.
Connectors:
There has been a misconception that terminating fiber optics is time consuming and requires a
highly educated and skilled professional. Today, fiber termination systems have been developed
that requires very little training and produce high quality fiber connections in less time than it takes
to terminate a coax or category cable. West Penn Wire offers two different solutions for terminating
fiber optic cables.
ST- Fiber Optic Connector - Straight Tip

Mostly used in a security environment.


Similar connection to a BNC connector.
Bayonet Locking Design

Multiple Kits: Epoxy, and Crimp.

Loss: .5 - 1dB

SC- Fiber Optic Connector - Square or Subscriber

Mostly used in Data/Networking Environments


Similar connection to a RJ45 connector.
Push/Pull Design

Multiple Kits: Epoxy, and Crimp.

Loss: .5 - 1dB

LC- Fiber Optic Connector - Little or Lucent

Mostly used in Data/Networking Environments


Similar connection to a RJ45 connector.
Push/Pull Design- SFF- Small Form Factor
Replacing the SC in many applications

Multiple Kits: Epoxy, and Crimp.

Loss: .5 - 1dB
Other Connectors:

FC (Floating) and MTRJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack - SFF (Small Form Factor Connectors)

Connector Polish:

PC or UPC - (Ultra) Physical Contact - Used in most AV and Security Applications.


APC - Angled Physical Contact- Used in Long Haul Telecom Applications, reduces
reflections back to the TX Laser. USUALLY a GREEN Body.

Never connect a APC to a (U)PC - Too much insertion loss


Terminating Fiber Optics
There are many fiber optic connection kits available in the market. These kits include: Epoxy style,
Crimp style, and No-crimp style.

Epoxy style: This method is more involved and requires bonding the connector to the end of the
fiber using and epoxy or anaerobic method. Once the epoxy is cured, the connector end is
polished to a fine, flat surface.
Time consuming
Power (Heat) may be required to cure the epoxy
Consumable items with a life span
Expensive kits

Crimp Style: This method utitilizes the same technology found in a mechanical splice. The fiber
is cleaved and mated with a pre-polished fiber. Once a fiber cable is placed into the connector
an activation pin splices the two fibers together, and then a crimp is executed to the buffer.
Quick termination time
No consumable life span items
Inexpensive Kits

Non-Crimp Style: This method is similar to the Crimp style. The connector has a pre-polished fiber.
Once a fiber cable is placed into the connector, an activation tab clamps internal the connector
to make a solid internal splice in the connector.
The quickest termination of fiber in the industry - Less than 5 Seconds
No consumable life span items
Inexpensive

Mixing Core Sizes


Splice:

Mechanical Splice

Most practical method to perform a fiber optic


splice. The splice is filled with index matching gel
that allows light to be coupled from one fiber to
another.

Time to perform: Less than 2 min.


Cost: Low

Loss: .5 - 1dB

Fusion Splice

Different methods of Fusion Splice.


Two separate fibers are fused together with an
electric arc.

Cost: Intermediate to extremely expensive

Loss: .01 up to .5 dB

ADAPTOR SPLICE

Two connected fibers- with an adaptor


ST to ST, ST to SC, SC to SC, LC to LC, SC to LC

Cost: Low

Loss: 1.5dB - also add the loss of both connectors


Fiber Optics in the AV World:

AV World: Applications

VGA
RGBHV
HDMI
DVI
HDSDI
Fiber Optic Cables can support all of these
applications with low loss and extended distances.
Stereo Audio

RS-232
Others: Crestron Digital Media 8G

Example: 1 CRESTRON Digital Media DM8G:


HDMI, Component Video, and LAN Connections

Connectors - SC
Maximum Distance - 1000ft
Crestron does not supply a Power Budget for these products.
Fiber Optics in the AV World:
Video Distribution Cables
Fiber TX - or Distribution Amplifier

AMP
Speaker Cable

Fiber Optic Cables

RS-232 Control

Audio Cables

Video Distribution Cables

Optical Power Budget:


Cable: 50/125m
Wavelength: 850nm
No. of Fibers: 2 - 50/125m
Termination: Coax- RGBHV (5 BNC) and VGA (HD15) to Fiber SC
Power Budget: 7dB

850nm - 1km = 3.00dB


SC Connectors (2) = 1.50dB
System Safety Margin = 3.00dB
Total Loss- 7.50dB theoretical number

Note: Extron Distance Optical Characteristics


8/125m 30Km (18.75miles) Min. Max.
50/125m 1Km (3280ft) Glass Code Operating Wave-
Bandwidth Attn.
Type (X) length (nm)
62.5/125m 300m (985ft) (MHz-km) (dB-km)
50/125m
A 850nm/1300nm 500/500 3.50/1.25
MultiMode
62.5/125m
B 850nm/1300nm 200/500 3.50/1.25
MultiMode
8/125m
W 1300nm/1550nm -- .80/.50
SingleMode
Fiber Optics in the Security World:

Security World Fiber Optics:

CCTV
Fire Alarm Panel Communication
Access Control Panel Communications
Intrusion Detection
Audio
Data/Control

Most fiber optic security applications utilize multimode fiber combined with ST
terminations.

Example 1: CCTV Video

Optical Power Budget:


Cable: 62.5/125m
Wavelength: 850nm
No. of Fibers: 1 or 2 - 62.5/125m
Termination: Coax- BNC, Fiber Optics - ST
Power Budget: 12dB

850nm - 2.5km = 7.50dB


ST Connectors (2) = 1.50dB
System Safety Margin = 3.00dB
Total Loss - 12.00dB theoretical number

Coaxial Cables

Fiber Optic Cable

To Video Equipment
8 Video Signals

To Video Equipment

Coaxial Cables
Fiber Optic Cable

8 channel digital encoder 8 channel digital encoder


multiplexer multiplexer

Example 2: CCTV Video with Multiplexing

Optical Power Budget:


Optical Characteristics
Cable: 62.5/125m
Min. Max.
Wavelength: 850nm Glass Code Operating Wave-
Bandwidth Attn.
Type (X) length (nm)
No. of Fibers: 2 - 62.5/125m (MHz-km) (dB-km)
Termination: Coax- BNC, Fiber Optics - ST 50/125m
A 850nm/1300nm 500/500 3.50/1.25
MultiMode
Power Budget: 16dB
62.5/125m
B 850nm/1300nm 200/500 3.50/1.25
MultiMode
850nm - 2km = 6.00dB 8/125m
W 1300nm/1550nm -- .80/.50
ST Connectors (2) = 1.50dB SingleMode

System Safety Margin = 3.00dB


Total Loss - 10.50dB theoretical number
INSTALLATION ACCESSORIES
Fiber Optic Kits
Kits and Connectors- FiberExpress - Optimax
Optimax Tools and Accessories
Catalog No. Description
FI-3635 OPTIMAX Complete Kit
FI-3634 Installation Tool- ST
FI-3641 ST Compatible Crimp Tool
FI-8829 Fiber Cleaver
FI-8832 Microscope
FI-8835 ST 900um Connector - 62.5/125um
FI-8837 ST Universal connector- 62.5/125um
FI-1075 ST 900um Connector - 50/125um
FI-1074 ST Universal connector- 50/125um
FI-0028 SC Universal connector- 62.5/125um
FI-0029 SC 900um connector- 62.5/125um
FI-1077 SC 900um connector- 50/125um
FI-1076 SC Universal connector- 50/125um
FI-1791 ST Single-Mode 900um connector
FI-1792 SC Single-Mode 900um connector
FI-1793 ST- Accessory Kit For Jacketed Single-Mode
FI-1794 SC- Accessory Kit For Jacketed Single-Mode
FI-1981 LC 900um connector- 62.5/125um
FI-1982 LC 900um connector- 50/125um
FI-1983 LC 900um connector- Single-Mode
FI-1984 LC- Accessory Kit For Jacketed Single-Mode Fiber

Fiber Optic Kits


Kits and Connectors- FiberExpress - Brilliance
FiberExpress Tools and Accessories
Catalog No. Description
FI-4270 FiberExpress Field Installable Complete Kit
LC Connectors
FI-4240 LC - 900m, Multimode Beige Connector, 62.5um
FI-4241 LC - 900m, Multimode Black Connector, 50um
FI-4270 FI-4242 LC - 900m, Multimode Aqua Connector, 50um
FI-4243 LC - 900m, Single-mode Blue Connector, 8um
SC Connectors
FI-4244 SC - 900m, Multimode Beige Connector, 62.5um
FI-4245 SC - 900m, Multimode Black Connector, 50um
FI-4246 SC - 900m, Multimode Aqua Connector, 50um
FI-4247 SC - 900m, SINGLE-MODE Blue Connector, 8um

WEST PENN WIRE CABLE WITH CONFIDENCE


INSTALLATION ACCESSORIES
Fiber Optic Cable
Splice and Adaptors
Splicing Tools and Splice
Catalog No. Description
3M-2501 3M Mechanical Splice Tool
3M-2501
3M-2529 3M Splice
FI-8400 Universal 3M Splice Tray Enclosure
FI-SPTRME West Penn Wire Splice Tray for Wall Mount Enclosures
3M-2529
Panel Mount Adapters
FI-8102 Adapter- ST to ST MultiMode or Single-Mode
FI-8200 Adapter- ST to ST Single-Mode
FI-8300 Adapter- SC to SC MultiMode or Single-Mode
FI-8400APC SC Adapter- APC Polished - Green
FI-8521 FC/APC Adapter
FI-19202 SC to ST Adapter MultiMode
FI-SCLFF LC to SC Adapter FI-8300
FI-8200
FI-DLCFF Duplex LC/LC Adapter

FI-19202

Fiber Optic Cable


Breakout- Fanout Kits

Fanout Kits
Catalog No. Description
FI-1100 6 Fiber- color coded
FI-1101 12 Fiber- color coded
FI-1100 FI-FT900 900um Tubing- Clear

Fiber Optic Cable


Innerduct FI-6211
Innerduct
Catalog No. Description
FI-6211 1 Poly -250 with pull tape
FI-6311 1 Plenum -250 with pull tape
FI-6212 1 Riser -250 with pull tape

Notes:
Additional sizes and lengths are available upon request.

CABLE WITH CONFIDENCE WEST PENN WIRE


FIBER OPTIC ACCESSORIES
Fiber Optic Rackmount Enclosures
Rack Mount Patch Panels
PP-W1U1 1 RU - Accomodates - 3 Adapter Plates
PP-W2U1 2 RU - Accomodates - 6 Adapter Plates
PP-W4U1 3 RU - Accomodates -12 Adapter Plates
FI-RM24 2 RU - Accomodated 4 Adapter Plates
FI-RM48 3 RU - Accomodated 8 Adapter Plates
FI-RME24STL 24 Port ST Loaded (19- 3.470H X 8.00D)
FI-RME48STL 48 Port ST Loaded (19- 3.470H X 8.00D)

Fiber Optic Wallmount Enclosures

WallMount Patch Panels


PP-WM1S 1 Adapter Plate - Wall Mount 7x6x1.5
PP-WM2S 2 Adapter Plate - Wallmount 15.625x13x2.125
PP-WM4S 4 Adapter Plate - Wallmount 15.625x15x3.5
FI-WM12 2 Adapter Plate- Wallmount WPW
FI-WM24 4 Adapter Plate - Wallmount WPW
FI-WM48 8 Adapter Plate - Wallmount WPW
FI-WM100 20 Adapter Plate - Wallmount WPW

Adapter Strip Plates: 5.1x1.15x.060


- Black Powder Coat

Fiber Optic Adapter Plates


AS-WC06M SC Simplex Multimode - 6 Fiber
AS-WC06G SC Simplex 10G Multimode - 6 Fiber
AS-WC06S SC Simplex SingleMode - 6 Fiber
AS-WC12M SC Simplex Multimode - 12 Fiber
AS-WC12G SC Simplex 10G Multimode - 12 Fiber
AS-WC12S SC Simplex SingleMode - 12 Fiber
AS-WT06M ST Simplex Multimode - 6 Fiber
AS-WT06S ST Simplex SingleMode - 6 Fiber
AS-WT12M ST Simplex Multimode - 12 Fiber
AS-WT12S ST Simplex SingleMode - 12 Fiber
AS-WL12M LC Simplex Multimode - 12 Fiber
AS-WL12G LC Simplex 10G Multimode - 12 Fiber
AS-WL12S LC Simplex SingleMode - 12 Fiber
AS-WC24M LC Simplex Multimode - 24 Fiber
AS-WC24G LC Simplex 10G Multimode - 24 Fiber
AS-WC24S LC Simplex SingleMode - 24 Fiber

CABLE WITH CONFIDENCE WEST PENN WIRE


FIBER OPTIC ASSEMBLIES
Fiber Optic Cable Assemblies
Assemblies - 62.5/125um, 50/125um, 50/125um OM3,
and SingleMode

ST Fiber Optic Assemblies


Catalog No. Description
Simplex ST to ST
FI-X001-xx
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Duplex ST to ST
FI-X002-xx
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
SC Fiber Optic Assemblies ST to SC Fiber Optic Assemblies
Catalog No. Description Catalog No. Description
Simplex SC to SC
FI-X001-xxSC FI-X001-xxST/SC Simplex ST to SC Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Duplex SC to SC
FI-X002-xxSC FI-X002-xxST/SC Duplex ST to SC Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
LC Fiber Optic Assemblies SC to LC Fiber Optic Assemblies
Catalog No. Description Catalog No. Description
Simplex LC to LC
FI-X001-xxLC FI-X001-xxLC/SC Simplex SC to LC Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Duplex LC to LC
FI-X002-xxLC FI-X002-xxLC/SC Duplex SC to LC Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30
Replace xx with:3,6,10,15,30

Fiber Optic Assembly Glass Size


Repace X Core
Description
with: Glass Size
Standard 50micron Fiber optic glass type
1 50um
Multi-Mode
Standard 62.5micron fiber optic glass type
2 62.5um
Multi-Mode
8micron Single Mode fiber optic glass type
3 8um
SingleMode
OM3 Laser Optimized 50micron Replace xx with: 3, 6,10, 15, 30 Feet
4 50um LOF
Multi-Mode

FI-3002-15LC

SingleMode 15ft. LC to LC Assembly

CABLE WITH CONFIDENCE WEST PENN WIRE


DISTRIBUTION RACKS

Distribution Racks
Free Standing Swing Rack
Catalog# DESCRIPTION Height Weight
XSW-8419 84 Swing Rack 19 84 179#
XSW-0100 Power Strip Mounting Kit (mounting kit
only) Pwr. Strip ordered separately.
XSW-0200 Wire Basket (Top Mount) mounting brackets
and wire basket 2 H x 8 W x 24 L

Distribution Rack- Steel Knockdown 2 Post


Catalog# DESCRIPTION Height Weight Mounting
XDR-4819 48 Distribution Rack- Tapped front Rails 48 34lbs. 19
XDR-7219 72 Distribution Rack - Tapped front Rails 72 43lbs. 19
XDR-8419 84 Distribution Rack - Tapped front Rails 84 50lbs. 19
XDR-8419-310 84 Distribution Rack -#10-32 tapped- 3 Channel w/angle base 84 63lbs. 19
XDR-8423-310 84 Distribution Rack- #10-32 tapped - 3 Channel w/angle base 84 70lbs. 23
XDR-8419-312 84 Distribution Rack- #12-24 tapped- 3 Channel w/angle base 84 63lbs. 19
XDR-8423-312 84 Distribution Rack- #12-24 tapped - 3 Channel w/angle base 84 70lbs. 23

Distribution Rack- Steel Welded 2 Post


Catalog# DESCRIPTION Height Weight Mounting
XDR-8419-310W 84 Distribution Rack -#10-32 tapped- 3 Channel w/angle base 84 66lbs. 19
XDR-8423-310W 84 Distribution Rack- #10-32 tapped - 3 Channel w/angle base 84 73lbs. 23
XDR-8419-312W 84 Distribution Rack- #12-24 tapped- 3 Channel w/angle base 84 66lbs. 19
XDR-8423-312W 84 Distribution Rack- #12-24 tapped - 3 Channel w/angle base 84 73lbs. 23

Distribution Rack- Steel Seismic 2 Post


Catalog# DESCRIPTION Height Weight Mounting
XDR-8419-610 84 Distribution Rack -#10-32 tapped- 6 Channel w/angle base 84 105lbs. 19
XDR-8423-610 84 Distribution Rack- #10-32 tapped - 6 Channel w/angle base 84 115lbs. 23

Distribution Rack- Aluminum Post


Catalog# DESCRIPTION Height Weight Mounting
BHRR194 84 Distribution Rack -#12-24 Tapped Black, Knockdown 3 channel 84 30lbs. 19
BHR6194 84 Distribution Rack -#12-24 Tapped Black, Knockdown 6 channel 84 41lbs. 19
BHRR234 84 Distribution Rack -#12-24 Tapped Black, Knockdown 3 channel 84 32lbs. 23

Vertical Cable Manager


Catalog# DESCRIPTION
XDR-7201 72 Vertical Cable Manager - Compatible with XDR-7219
XDR-8401 84 Vertical Cable Manager
XDR-8403 84 Vertical Cable Manager double sided w/ Removable Cover

CABLE WITH CONFIDENCE WEST PENN WIRE


Testing Procedures:

Continuity Check:

A simple continuity test for short-to-medium length fiber optic links is to shine a flashlight into
a cleaved or connected link and observe if light comes out of the other end. On short lengths, it
may be necessary to cleave only the end where the flashlight injects light into the fiber.

This simple check can be made on cable lengths of up to a mile and more. If cable ends are out-
doors, sunlight may be used. NOTE: on longer lengths, the light observed at the opposite end
may appear red in color. This is normal and is caused by the filtering of light within the fiber.

CAUTION: NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY INTO A FIBER CONNECTED TO LIGHT LAUNCHING


EQUIPMENT. THIS CAN CAUSE PERMANENT EYE DAMAGE

Optical Power Measurements

When an optical cable has been installed, all splices made and connectors attached, it must be
determined if the system is capable of delivering the required power. The simplest test requires
a light source of the same type, wavelength and approximate power as that of the equipment
to be used. The system equipment itself is often a satisfactory source.

The first step is to obtain an approximate measure of system launch power. A short test cable
with the same fiber and connector style as the installed cable can be used for this procedure.
One end of the short cable is connected to the light-launching equipment. The other end is
connected to an optical power meter.

After the initial reading is taken on the short length of test cable, a second similar reading is
taken with the installed cable in place. The difference between the two readings indicates the
additional power losses due to fiber length and differences in optical qualities of connectors.
Because approximate fiber losses are known, losses greater than 1.0 to 1.5 dB above fiber losses
might indicate an inferior connection - requiring either repolishing or replacement.

The Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)

OTDRs are typically used to measure distance and attenuation over the entire fiber link. They
are also used to identify specific points along the link where losses occur, such as splices.

An OTDR is an optical radar which measures time of travel and the return strength of a short
pulse of light launched into an optical fiber. Small reflections occur throughout the fiber,
becoming weaker as power levels drop with distance. At major breaks, large reflections occur
and appear as strong peaks on an oscilloscope.

Testing of short and medium distance fiber optic systems seldom requires an OTDR. In smaller
systems, optical power meter tests are faster and more useful.

Many instrument rental companies are now offering OTDR's as well as other fiber optic splicing
and test equipment.
Safety Procedures:

Safety is an important aspect of working with fiber. There are several safety considerations that
should be remembered when working with fiber optic systems.

Remember:

1. DO NOT LOOK DIRECTLY INTO AN ACTIVE LASER OR THE END OF AN ACTIVE FIBER!
Since the laser light source is infrared, you wont see anything, but you can still receive serious
eye damage.

2. FIBER IS GLASS!
Fiber optic glass is sharp and small. Be sure to dispose the glass properly. Each connector kit
has plastic container bottles that shall be used to dispose the fiber glass.

3. WEAR SAFETY GLASSES!


Again, fiber is glass that is sharp and small. A fiber sliver can be broken easily.

2833 West Chestnut Street


Washington, PA 15301

Toll Free: 800-245-4964


Fax: 724-222-6420
www.westpenn-wpw.com
sales@westpenn-wpw.com