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Ilydrological Aspects of Alpine and High Mountain Areas (Proceedings of the Exeter Symposium, July 1982). IAHS Publ. no. 138.

Recession characterization of small mountain basins, derivation of master recession curves and optimization of recession parameters

LUIS

S,

PEREIRA

 

High

Institute

of

Agronomy,

Technical

University

of

Lisbon,

Tapada

da

Ajuda,

1399

Lisboa

Codex,

 

Portugal

HANS M,

KELLER ..

 

Eidg.

Anstalt

fur

das

forstliche

Versuchswesen,

CH-8903

Birmensdorf,

Switzerland

ABSTRACT This paper deals with methods of obtaining master recession curves (MRC) of small mountain basins

and of estimating the parameters of compound recession laws. MRC correspond to average recession conditions. They are derived by: (a) analysing all observed depletion

curves;

(b) adjusting their segments with a simple

recession law; (c) grouping these segments

according to

their parameters; (d) characterizing these groups with the mean values of the recession parameters, and (e) representing the MRC by the sequence of these calculated recession segments. Utilizing a weighted least-squares method for solving nonlinear equations, the optimization of recession parameters includes: (a) computerized estimation of the initial set of parameters; (b) a

procedure to check the parameter

values, (c) use of

particular techniques to improve calculation. A brief

analysis

of results shows

that in 95% of the cases the

variance of residuals was < 1.0 Is

-

.

INTRODUCTION

Recession flow is best described by an exponential

Q t

=

Q Q exp (-at)

(1)

or by a hyperbolic function

Q t = Q 0 /(l + at) 2

(2)

where Q Q is the initial and Q t is the discharge

discharge, a is the recession coefficient

at time t.

Equation (1) corresponds to deep

aquifer depletion while equation (2) describes the recession

phenomena for shallow aquifers.

The recession flow from a basin corresponds to the release of water from different reservoirs, each with specific storage and

discharge characteristics.

It cannot be described entirely by these

equations.

In general it is necessary to use a complex equation,

like

243

244

L.S.Pereira

S

H.M.Keller

2

t

=

2o

1

exp(-a

t)

^

+

Q 0

exp(-a„t)

3

+

Q Q

exp(-a

t)

(3)

where each term represents a different flow component.

THE MASTER RECESSION CURVE

A recession

curve represents the response of a given basin

integrating the existing conditions of recharge, storage and discharge. For small basins and shallow aquifers the variation of recession conditions is important and is mainly related to the antecedent recharge conditions, while in large basins and deep aquifers this variation is smaller and essentially related to long- term fluctuations of rainfall.

The characteristic response of a basin is represented by the

master recession

curve

(MRC) that corresponds to the average

recession conditions during a given period. In a small mountain basin, the recession conditions are mainly

influenced by the antecedent recharge conditions. It is therefore necessary to consider an MRC for each season, where rainfall and évapotranspiration regimes are followed by specific recession conditions. The MRC represents the most frequent depletion

situation. This is why this curve is utilized to formulate

models

of streamflow, for forecasting, for estimating groundwater or to study the influence of man or vegetation on water regime and water balance.

The

derivation

of

the

master

recession

curve

A large number of methods for obtaining these MRC have been developed: the correlation method, the tabulating method, the strip method (Toebes & Ouryvaev, 1970), the method of plotting with

arbitrary origin (Trainer & Watkins, 1974) , the

method of

simultaneous adjustments (Snyder, 1962) , the method of ordination of discharges (Fédérer, 1973) or the simple calculation of the mean recession coefficients (Farvolden, 1971). In general, these methods are slow and it is difficult to estimate their accuracy. Also they are not well adapted to computer use. A new method has therefore been developed for characterizing the recession of several small mountain basins in the Swiss Pre-Alps (Pereira, 1977) listed in another symposium paper (Pereira & Keller, 1982) which overcomes these difficulties.

The recession

segments

method

for

derivation

of

the

master

recession

curve

Basic

assumptions

:

  • (a) An MRC must describe average conditions of a complete

flow

recession unaffected by precipitation.

  • (b) The method concerns the decreasing flow rates at fixed time

intervals At.

In general it is applied to daily

streamflow.

  • (c) The MRC must include all the main flow components - direct

flow, subsurface flow and baseflow.

  • (d) The MRC is the integral result of various different

reservoirs

 

Recession

 

characterization

245

releasin g water a t successively lower rates.

 

Therefore

i t

can

be

represented

by

a

se t

of

recession

segments,

each

followed

by

another

with

lower

recession

coefficient.

 
 

Description

 

of

the

method

(a)

According

to

the

conditions

of

recharge

(precipitation),

of

storage

(shallow

and

deep

layers

and

aquifers)

and

of

discharge

(flow

and

évapotranspiration

regimes),

the

seasons

have

to

be

chosen

on

the

basis

of

simila r

recession

behaviour.

 

In

Pre-Alp

areas,

we

distinguis h

the

spring-summer

period

and

the

autumn

season

and

during

the winte r the snow accumulation and the snowmelt seasons.

 

(b)

Using

a

semi-log

plo t

of

all

dail y

flow

hydrographs

(Pereira ,

1975a)

of

a given

time

period ,

we

can

choose

all

the

depletion

curves

to

be

used

in

the

MRC.

These

plots

(Fig.l)

have

to

be

observed

togethe r

with

the

meteorological

data

in

orde r

to

exclude

all

intervals affected by precipitation .

 
 

(c)

The

same hydrographs

(Fig.l)

are

then

utilize d

to

select,

for

each

chosen

depletion

curve,

the

time

intervals

tha t

can

be

described

by

a

simple

recession

curve.

 

Q

(l/s/km')

 

1000

 

*

©

Mean daily discharge Recession segments

 

266 Number of day

in the

year

?

Indicates days with

precipitation

 
 

100

10

 

FIG.l

Example

using

hydrographs

of

mean daily

flow

for

the

choice

of

recessions

and

of

the

recession

segments,

246 L.S.Pereira

&

H.M.Keller

 
 

(d)

Each

of

these

time

intervals

corresponds

 

to

a

recession

 

segment

tha t

must

be

characterized

by

it s

initia l

flow

Q

and

it s

recession coefficien t

a

as well

as

by

some parameters

of

the

statistica l

significanc e

of

it s

variatio n

(Pereira ,

1975b),

such

as

 

the coefficien t of variatio n C v .

 
 

(e)

Plotting ,

for

each

season,

a

against

Q Q

on

semi-log

paper

 

(Fig.2) ,

an

analysis

of

the

relationshi p

between

a

and

Q

is

made

and

abnormal

data

are

excluded.

 
 

Q 0

(l/s/km 2 )

 

1000-

 

^

©|

©

©

|

©

|

©

1

©

1

500-

|

I

 

|

 

|

 
   

400-

'

 

,

I

 

1

89 x

'

 

300-

I

l

l

 

88 x

 

1

 

200-

1

9!

x149

 

1

I

l

l

®

X

14 1

 

x7b

136 .

* 1 4 6

'33 >

 

100-

l

I

!

f 7

mx

'

^

1b0x |

80-

I

|

I

60-

 

I

I

157X

65x

137 J

1

 

90 K

®

X ,52

1

 

X135

.

1

 

40-

3 0 -

|

 

151

|y 4

X66

|

13

I

 

»

158

,

®,ff]

 

I

1

q 7x 106 1

A

«

20-

I

27x ®

r

-j

29

Segment used for the caiculation of a t

and

Q 0 j

981

93

°" 3 8 rJ

l

A

Segment used for the calculation of a, only

10-

24 x

139*

1

i

®

Coordinates

of

a\

and

Q 0 i

9 6 ® 155* x

1

1

 

©

The groupes of recession segments

 

3

 

-, /

0

I

i

i

1

1

1

I

I

I

!

1

1

1 "•

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

a

FIG.2

Example

of

the

relation

between

 

the

parameters

a

and

Q

of

the

regression

 

segments.

 

f) Observing this plot (Fig.2) we select a set of classes of a

*o grouping of the points (a, Q Q ) and to the position of the

and Q„ values

This can be done according to the manner of

corresponding recession segments in the daily flow hydrographs

(Fig.l).

As an alternative, we can calculate

Aa = (a

a

.

mxn

m

)/ I

, k=0 L ^

(k = 0,1,2,

...

,m)

(4)

where a

the number

and a ,

are the observed extreme values of a and m is

of classes (5 to

i

7), and we can then estimate

the limits

of the class intervals a, by the relation

k

a, k = (2k + l)Aa

in which k increases with a.

(5)

  • (g) Each class interval i, with size n;, is characterized by the

 

Recession

characterization

247

mean ^

values

n i

n.

  • S. = 1 '

 

i

(i =

1,2,

m)

(6)

l

j=l

(j = 1,2,

n ± )

  • n,- l

5 0 i

= I

Q 0

/n ±

(7 )

j=l

i,3

The weights are WH

J = Cv.;

., functions of

the coefficients of

variation of each individual recession segment, as stated under (d),

and of the size Nj_ j of these segments.

(h) Each class interval corresponds to a calculated recession

segment;

thus, if i increases when Q 0

segments follow the equations

and a decrease, these

Q t = Q 0 . exp(-cLt)

(8)

with Q

> Q t

 

°i

Therefore, the

equation

(8).

Q t

=

Q 0 .exp

with t. S> t >

> Q

i+1

MRC is

constitute d

by m segments,

The

MRC can

hence

be

expressed

as

{-5 ± (t

-

t ± _ 1 ) }

 

each

following

the

(9)

t.

_-, , after calculating the time limits of the class

intervals from tj_ = t• _-, + At. , with

At ± = (In Q 0 , - In Qo i+1 >/âi

(10)

Equation (9) gives

all the values of

the MRC, expressed as daily

discharges, from Q 0 - , the mean value of the first class, to Q m -; n ,

the mean value of the minimum discharge of any segment included in

the m classes.

(i) In order to ensure that the recession segments corresponding

to each class interval are statistically different, the calculations

to characterize these classes, mentioned under (g), can be completed

with the estimation of the variance and, thus, with t-tests of

differences between the calculated mean values. Therefore, if

necessary, the limits of each class can be modified to improve the

accuracy of the method.

Brief

analysis

of

the

application

applied to obtain the MRC of eleven

of

the

method

This method was

Pre-Alp basins (Pereira, 1977,

1978a). The recession segments have been calculated through the

exponential (equation 1) and the hyperbolic (equation 2) models,

that we compared. For each basin three

seasons were considered:

the spring-summer season (after snowmelt until August), the autumn

season (from August to the beginning of snow accumulation) and the

growing season, which contains the whole period without the

influence of snow. The method was also applied to a high-mountain

basin, Varunash, in the southern Swiss Alps near Bernina, where only

the growing season was considered.

248

L.S.Pereira

 

S

H.M.Keller

 

An

example

of

result s

 

(parameters

Q 0 J

and

cL

of

equatio n

(9)

concernin g

th e

autumn

MRC of

some

basin s

of

Alpta l

(Schwyz)

i s

give n

i n

Tabl e

1.

TABLE

1

Parameters

of

MRC (equation

 

9)

and

their

 

confidence

 

intervals

for

some

Flysch

 

basins

in

Alptal

(Schwyz)

 

Basins

 

Spring-Summer

 

Autumn

 
 

163.70±34.56

 

0.8379+0.0561

 

183.35+53.07

 

1.0237+0.1612

59.15+

5.85

0.5133+0.0477

66.46+17.27

0.5132±0.0403

31.96+

5.66

0.2856+0.0114

35.52+

3.69

0.2990+0.0161

20.78+

4.56

0.2022+0.0153

29.48+

2.47

0.1960+0.0055

15.11+.

5.70

O.0987+0.0223

16.48+

3.43

0.1311+0.0102

 

9.14+

1.19

0.0522+0.0070

9.44+

0.89

0.0634+0.0053

 

7.49+

0.91

0.0387+0.0050

 

116

.29 +

23.60

0.4997+0.0334

 

144.86+39.43

 

0.7863+0.0562

58.29+12.16

 

0.3594+0.0164

38.88+

7.74

0.3323+0.0264

29.55+

4.33

0.1320+0.0248

19.54+

2.87

0.1011+0.0116

18.16+

2.59

0.0751+0.0103

11.75+

3.07

0.0316+0.0043

92.76+18.06

 

0.4820+0.0418

83.97+15.94

 

0.5809+0.0789

39.13+

6.04

0.2121+0.0087

46.63+

8.92

0.2515+0.0309

29.47+

8.26

0.1452+0.0145

29.16+

7.56

 

0.1670+0.0147

10.62+

 

4.50

0.0897+0.0205

20.74+

3.01

0.0986+0.0068

 

13.23+

1.39

 

0.0513+0.0053

 

From

th e

result s

o f

applyin g

th e

method

t o

fi t

th e

MRC

a s

state d

above

i t

i s

concluded :

 
 

(a)

Statistica l

test

s

have

shown

tha t

th e

hypothesis

of

norma l

distributio n

insid e

eac h

class

interva l

had

t o

be

accepted .

 

(b)

The

t-tes t

fo r

difference s

between

mean

value s

of

subsequen t

classe s

have

shown

tha t

th

e

averag e

value s

o f

a

were

significantl y

differen t

(Tabl e

2) .

 

(c)

The

same

test s

when

 

applie d

t o

th e

mean

value s

of

Q 0

presente d

differen t

result s

(Tabl e

2) .

The

variabilit y

of

recharg e

condition s

influence s

th e

variabilit y

of

th e

Q 0

values.

 
 

(d)

The

assumptio n

of

difference s

between

th e

segments

tha t

describ e

th e

MRC

(equatio n

 

9)

was

accepte d

becaus e

of

th e

main

influenc e

of

a

on

th e

shap e

of

th e

curves.

 

OPTIMIZATION OF THE RECESSION PARAMETERS USING THE WEIGHTED LEAST- SQUARES METHOD

An MRC being a complete recession curve, is described by a complex exponential or hyperbolic function, with two or three terms. The

TABLE 2

t-test

subsequent

class

class)

Parameter

and

a(autumn)

a(summer)

a(growing

 

season)

Q Q (autumn)

 

Q

(summer)

Q 0 (growing

 
 

season)

 

Recession

character!zation

for

differences

between

means

of

a

and

0 o

of

intervals

(per

cent

of

values

in

each

 

Classes

of

probability

P

P40.1

0.KP41

.0

1.0<P45.0

5.0<P415.0

 

15.

91.1

6.7

2.2

-

-

86.0

7.0

7.0

-

-

93.6

2.1

4.3

-

-

28.9

22.2

24.5

13.3

11.

18.6

39.4

14.0

14.0

14.

44.7

36.2

10.6

8

 

'

.1

.O

.5

249

probability

.0<P

exponentia l model (3) can be expresse d

N

Qt

=

I

k=l

Q n

exp(-a k t)

(11)

Each pair of Q 0

and a k characterizes a flow component. Therefore,

the calculation of these parameters is connected with the hydrograph

separation techniques. Many methods have been developed (Dickinson

et al., 1967) that give solutions to both questions. We can

mention the classical methods of Barnes (1939) and of Langbein (1940),

utilized and modified by many authors. In general these methods

are of little value to separate more than two components, even if

numerical techniques are used (Singh

& Stall, 1971).

Graphical

solutions (Kovacs, 1975) are the most common for problems with three

flow components.

To overcome the most common difficulties, and to permit the use

of computer facilities, Pereira (1977) developed a new least-squares

approach in order to obtain the recession parameters that

characterize recession in small mountain basins.

The

least-squares

method

of

solving

complex

exponential

recession

equations

 

We can give to equation (11) the general form

Qi

f

(t ± ;

Q Q 1 ,

wi t h

i

=

1 ,

2,

Q, ON '

<<1

I

e. i

(12)

This

i s

a

system

of

n

equation s

and 2N

unknown parameters, where discharge Q^ is a function of time tj_, e^

being the residuals. The system can be solved by the least-squares

method if some conditions are accepted.

250 L.S.Pereira

S

H.M.Keller

 
 

The

use

of

weights

 

The

 

first

condition

is

tha t

the

residuals

must

 

be

normally

distributed .

 

The

shape

of

the

recession

curve,

with

the

discharges

decreasing

exponentially

suggested

the

use

of

weights.

 
 

The

choice

of

weights

w.

. was experimental.

 

They

are :

w

-

1 . 0

 

1

, 1

 

w.

.

=

W i~l ,

i

- 1

+

0

. 2

( i

=

2

,

3,

.

,

5)

 

1

, 1

 
 

w.

.

=

W i-1 ,

i

- 1

+

2

. 0

( i

=

6

,

7 ,

.

,

30)

 

1

, 1

 
 

w.

.

=

w.

i

- 1

+

1

. 0

( i

=

3

1 ,

32 ,

.

,50 )

 

1

, 1

1-1 ,

 
 

w.

.

=

w.

+

0

. 5

( i

=

5

1 ,

52 ,

.

. )

 

1

, 1

1-1 ,

i

- 1

The

values

of

w-

,

can

be

differen t

 

for

othe r

dat a

in

order

to

obtain

the

most

adequate

residuals

 

distribution .

 
 

The

linearization

 

technique

 

The

second

condition

for

using

the

least-square s

methods

 

is

the

linearit y

of

the

equations

(12).

Given

 

y,

=

f

(x.

l f

.

,

x.

,

,

fi

,

.

,

9

)

+

e.

(13)

J i

 

1, 1

i, h

1

m

i

y.

=

f

(X. ,

0)

+

e.

 

(14)

J

i

l

l

we can linearize after developing the function f in a Taylor's

 

series

 
 

m

9f(X if 0)

 
 

f (X i , 0) = f (X ± , 0 Q ) +

I

j=l

-1

j ti=e

 

(15)

 

J

o

when 0

is the vector for an initial estimate of the unknown

 

coefficients 6-s.

With brief notations, the equation (15) can be

written

 
 

m

 

f,

=

f.

+

y

z.

 

.

B.

(i6)

 

i

o i

-ti

° 1,:i ° D

 

and, therefore, system (14) takes the linear form

 
 

m

 

y.

=

f. +

y

.

3. + e.

 

(17)

 

1

O l

.

^

O

1

,

1

O

1

1

j=l

The unknown quantities are now Bj constituting the vector

B Q

An iterative process gives new estimations of the 0 vector

through the successive values of the B vector,

The

iterative

solutions

The vector 0 is constituted by the

parameters of equation (12), after some transformations in order to

limit the variation of the parameters during the iterative process.

 

Recession

 

characterization

251

 

Then,

becaus e

Q

must

always

be

positive ,

 

settin g

Q Q

=

to

,

we

can

calculat e

OJ

=

+ZQ O .

 

The

recessio n

coefficien t

 

i s

transforme d

t o

K

=

exp(-a) ,

 

which

 

i

s

submitte d

t o

th e

conditio n

0

<

K

<

1;

and

settin g

K

=

1/(1 +

Ç 2 ),

we

therefor e

calculat e

 

Ç

=

+/( 1

-

K)/K.

 

To

obtai n

 

9

we

se t

 

6^

=

C M ,

 

9„

=

to

,

.

,

9 m _^

=

E,^ and

 

0 m

=

to, .

Then

equatio n

 

(12)

 

i s

replace d

by

 

Q,

=

f

(t

.

;

6 n

,

..

.

,

0

)

+

E.

(18)

1

i

1

m

 

i

which

 

is identical

 

to equation

 

(13) .

 

Its solution

 

is given

by

equation (17), which

 

is, utilizing weighted least squares,

 
 

(z'

w

z

)~

J Z '

 

W

(Y

-

"

F

(19)

 

o

o

o

o

where

 

Z Q

i

s

th e

nx m

 

matri x

 

of

th e

partia l

derivatives

,

 

W i s

th e

n x m

matri x

of

 

weights

and

 

(Y

-

F

)

i s

a

column

matrix ,

wit h

dimension

n ,

constitute d

by

 

th e

difference s

(residuals)

between

th e

dependen t

variable s

 

y.

and

it s

 

estimation s

 

f

..

The

elements

b .

o f

B„ o

 

ar e

th e

 

i

estimation s

 

of

th e

8. 1 ,

elements o i

of

B^. °

 

o

i

 

o

 

The

firs t

 

estimat e

 

of

th e

 

parameters

 

QA

i s

replace d

 

by

a

new

one :

0-,

=

0

+

B

.

Successiv e

iteration s

improve

 

thes e

 

estimates.

Thus,

f o r

th e

iteratio n

1( 1

 

=

1,2

 

,

I max )

 

we

have

 

ê i

= ê i-i

 

+

(z I-i

w Vi rl V i W{Y - F i-i'

 

(20 )

The calculation finishes when results converge. As criteria for

convergence we can use the comparison between variances of the

residuals for successive iterations

 

1 <

(ol

1-1

,/a*) I < 1 + y

 

(21)

where

 

n

2

 

f

  • 1 (X. ,

  • Y. -

1

0

I

)

/(n-m)

(22)

 

i=l

and Y being

a chosen quantity,

 

in this case Y =

0.05.

 
 

The

first

estimate

of

the

recession

 

parameters

The first

 

important question

to be solved was the estimate

of the initial

set

of values 0 9-;, i.e. of parameters

Q 0 ,

and a^.

To do this

 

the

normal graphical method has been transformed

into

a

numerical

 

calculation (Fig.3):

 
 

(a)

estimation of the

time interval

T, , beginning

at t = 0,

and

ending when discharge Q-

is considered

to be

baseflow;

 
 

(b)

adjustment of the

exponential

equation

to discharges

 

Q, , with

t > T b , and calculation

of Q Q

 

and

a^;

 

(c)

calculation of Q*

= Q t

- Q Q

exp(-0U

t) ;

 

(d)

estimation of the

time

interval T^, beginning

at

t

=

0

and

ending when Q

is considered

 

to be subsurface

flow;

 
 

(e)

adjustment

of the set of values Q. , for T, -^ t < T,

 

and

Q

^ Qmin' with

chosen Q m j_n' and calculation

of Q 0 2

 

and

012 ;

(f)

calculation

of Q" = Q,

 

- Q 0

exp(-a2

t) ,-

 

252

L.S.Pereira

 

S

H.M.Keller

 
   

Weight

 
 

Discharge (]/s/km 2 l

(units)

 

QS.

=96.45 ;

 
 

•>--»

 
 

_

 

!

!

!

!

 

! r _

— j

!

{

i

j

 

n

10

11

12

13

14 Time (days)

 

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

H -

T h

 

FIG.3

Example

of

a first

 

estimate

 

of

the

parameters

 

Q Q

and

a

of

the

 

compound

recession

 

curve,

 

exponential

 

equation.

 
 

(ga )

adjustmen

J

t

of

th e

se

t

of

values

*T Q

,

fo r

t

<

T, h

and t Q

>,

x mm Q . '

,

and

calculatio n

 

of

Q Q -, and

03 ;

 

(h)

transformation

 

of

Q 0 ,

and (X- int o

(1)^ and Çj_, respectively ,

 

and

determination

of

th e vector

0 Q

a s

indicate d

above.

 

The

results

of

this

 

estimation

procedure

can lead

t o

relativel y

 

high

variance s

of

residuals.

 

In this

case

a particula r

iterativ e

process

of correction

of Q_

 

and Q

 

i s

enough

t o reduce

this

variance

and improve th e

 

vector

^ (Pereira ,

1978b).

 
 

Particular

 

calculation

 

techniques

 

to

improve

 

convergence

 

(a)

To selec t

a

new

scale ,

th e matrix

A =

z'w

 

Z ha s

been

transformed

int o

a

scaled

matrix

A* and th e vector

B of

th e

solution

has been transformed int o

a scaled

vector

B*,

a s

proposed by

Marquardt (1963).

 
 

(b)

In orde r

 

t o improve

 

calculation s

with

th e

 

matrix

Z,

because

 

of

th e difference s

between

absolute

values

of

it s

 

columns,

th e

 

elements of each column have been modified:

z*.

.

=

z.

*/Z-\ •

Tn e

values

of

 

Ç. were

chosen

 

i n

such

a

way tha t

a becte r

equilxbrium

 

between columns was obtained.

 
 

(c)

I n

a

model

with

si x unknown parameters

th e convergence was

 

bette r

when

initiall y

two parameters

were

fixed.

 

Only

afte r

this

step

were

al l parameters

 

submitted

t o th e convergence

process.

Together with this process, a control of th e value s of th e

 

determinant

was imposed

 

i n order

t o prevent

overflow

(Pereira ,

 

1978b)

 

Recession

characterization

 

253

 

(d)

Because

the

gradien t

method

can

be

subjec t

to

divergence

during

the

calculation ,

the

halving

method

(Draper

& Smith,1966)

was

adopted

to

modify

the^vector

By.

The procedure

consists

of

searching

for

the

vector

B y

=

±B- [ /2 u ,

with

u

=

1,2,

,

U max ,

tha

t

gives,

in

a particula r

iterativ e

 

calculation ,

the

minimum value

to

the

variance

of

the

residuals;

 

thus,

this

vector

B u replace

s

Bj

and

the

normal

iterativ e