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The aim of this project is to develop a device to detect rash driving on highways

and to alert the traffic authorities in case of any speed violation. Accidents due to rash

driving on highways are on the rise and people are losing their lives because of others

mistakes. In the present system, to detect rash driving the police has to use a handheld

radar gun and aim at the vehicle to record its speed. If the speed of the vehicle exceeds

the speed limit, nearest police station is informed to stop the speeding vehicle. This is an

ineffective process as after detecting one has to inform the same and a lot of time is


The proposed system will check on rash driving by calculating the speed of a

vehicle using the time taken to travel between the two set points at a fixed distance. A set

point consists of a pair of sensors comprising of an IR transmitter and an IR receiver,

each of which are installed on either sides of the road. The speed limit is set by the police

who uses the system depending upon the traffic at the very location. The time taken by

the vehicle to travel from one set point to the other is calculated by a microcontroller

program. Based on that time it then calculates the speed and displays that on an LCD.

Moreover if the vehicle crosses the speed limit, a buzzer sounds alerting the police.

This concept can be extended in future by integrating a camera with the system

which could capture the image of the number plate of the vehicle to sends that to the

traffic authorities.

What is embedded system?

An Embedded System is a combination of computer hardware and software, and
perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a specific function. An
embedded system is a microcontroller-based, software driven, reliable, real-time control
system, autonomous, or human or network interactive, operating on diverse physical
variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious
An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for
processing, not a software system on PC or UNIX, not a traditional business or scientific
application. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. High-end embedded
system - Generally 32, 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. Examples Personal Digital
Assistant and Mobile phones etc .Lower end embedded systems - Generally 8,16 Bit
Controllers used with an minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the
specific purpose.


Operating Build
Digital Integrated Download
Systems circuit
Electronic design designDebug
Analog Tools
Electronic design Computer
Embedded Architecture
Sensors and Systems
measurements Software
Electric motors
and actuatorsControl Data

Embedded system design calls on many disciplines

Figure.2(a): Embedded system design calls

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Figure:2(b) V Diagram

Characteristics of Embedded System

An embedded system is any computer system hidden inside a product other than a
They will encounter a number of difficulties when writing embedded system
software in addition to those we encounter when we write applications
Throughput Our system may need to handle a lot of data in a short
period of time.
ResponseOur system may need to react to events quickly
TestabilitySetting up equipment to test embedded software can be
DebugabilityWithout a screen or a keyboard, finding out what the
software is doing wrong (other than not working) is a troublesome
Reliability embedded systems must be able to handle any situation
without human intervention
Memory space Memory is limited on embedded systems, and you must
make the software and the data fit into whatever memory exists
Program installation you will need special tools to get your software into
embedded systems
Power consumption Portable systems must run on battery power, and the
software in these systems must conserve power
Processor hogs computing that requires large amounts of CPU time can
complicate the response problem
Cost Reducing the cost of the hardware is a concern in many embedded
system projects; software often operates on hardware that is barely
adequate for the job.
Embedded systems have a microprocessor/ microcontroller and a memory. Some
have a serial port or a network connection. They usually do not have keyboards,
screens or disk drives.

1) Military and aerospace embedded software applications
2) C o mmu n i ca t io n App l ic a t io ns
3) I nd us t r ia l au to ma t io n a nd p ro ce s s c on tr o l s o ft w a re
4) Mastering the complexity of applications.
5) Reduction of product design time.
6) Real time processing of ever increasing amounts of data.
7) Intelligent, autonomous sensors.

Real Time Systems.
RTS is one which has to respond to events within a specified deadline.
A right answer after the dead line is a wrong answer.

Hard Real Time Systems
Soft Real Time System
"Hard" real-time systems have very narrow response time.
Example: Nuclear power system, Cardiac pacemaker.


"Soft" real-time systems have reduced constrains on "lateness" but still must
operate very quickly and repeatable.
Example: Railway reservation system takes a few extra seconds the data
remains valid.









9. SCR






Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with a little loss of
power. Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage.
Most power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high voltage
to a safer low voltage.


The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary.
There is no electrical connection between the two coils; instead they are linked by an
alternating magnetic field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in
the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core. Transformers waste very little power
so the power out is (almost) equal to the power in. Note that as voltage is stepped down
and current is stepped up.
The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turns ratio, determines
the ratio of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of turns on its
primary (input) coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply, and a small
number of turns on its secondary (output) coil to give a low output voltage.
TURNS RATIO = (Vp / Vs) = ( Np / Ns )
Vp = primary (input) voltage.
Vs = secondary (output) voltage
Np = number of turns on primary coil
Ns = number of turns on secondary coil
Ip = primary (input) current
Is = secondary (output) current.

Ideal power equation

The ideal transformer as a circuit element

If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow, electrical power is
transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. Ideally, the transformer is
perfectly efficient; all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the
magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. If this condition is met, the incoming
electric power must equal the outgoing power:

Giving the ideal transformer equation

Transformers normally have high efficiency, so this formula is a reasonable

If the voltage is increased, then the current is decreased by the same factor. The
impedance in one circuit is transformed by the square of the turns ratio. For example, if
an impedance Zs is attached across the terminals of the secondary coil, it appears to the
primary circuit to have an impedance of (Np/Ns)2Zs. This relationship is reciprocal, so that
the impedance Zp of the primary circuit appears to the secondary to be (Ns/Np)2Zp.


Output Current up to 1A.
Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V.
Thermal Overload Protection.
Short Circuit Protection.
Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection.

The LM78XX/LM78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulators are
available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making
them useful in a Wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting,
thermal shutdown and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible.
If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output Current. Although
designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external
components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Internal Block Diagram


Absolute Maximum Ratings


A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which
periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), current that flows in only one
direction, a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as
components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made
of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components. The
output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The
rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is
used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. In positive half
cycle only two diodes (1 set of parallel diodes) will conduct, in negative half cycle
remaining two diodes will conduct and they will conduct only in forward bias only.

Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of
rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the
mains voltage and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied,
D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output
The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter. The use
of this filter is very limited. It is sometimes used on extremely high-voltage, low-current
power supplies for cathode-ray and similar electron tubes that require very little load
current from the supply. This filter is also used in circuits where the power-supply ripple
frequency is not critical and can be relatively high.below figure can show how the
capacitor chages and discharges.

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller

with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured
using Atmels high-density non volatile memory technology and is compatible with the
industry standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the
program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non volatile
memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable
Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which
provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control
applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash,
256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit
timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-
chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic
for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving
modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial
port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the
RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next
interrupt or hardware reset.

Compatible with MCS-51 Products
8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
Three-level Program Memory Lock
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
Eight Interrupt Sources
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
Watchdog Timer
Dual Data Pointer
Power-off Flag
Fast Programming Time
Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)
Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option

Block Diagram of AT89S52:


Pin Configurations of AT89S52

Pin Description:
Supply voltage.
Port 0:
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can
sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-
impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order
address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0
has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and
outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during
program verification.
Port 1:
Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are
pulled high by the `internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that
are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.
In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count
input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX).
Port 2:
Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that
are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.
Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory
and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @
DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During
accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits
the contents of the P2 Special Function Register.
Port 3:
Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that
are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups.
Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is
running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the
Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to
disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is
Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the
address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input
(PROG) during Flash programming.
In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator
frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that
one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory.

Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory.
When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated
twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each
access to external data memory.
External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the
device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to
FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on
reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also
receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier
Oscillator Characteristics:
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting
amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 1.
Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an
external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as
shown in Figure 6.2. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock
signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-
flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be
FIG 4.5(c): Oscillator Connections

FIG 4.5(d): External Clock Drive Configuration

Idle Mode
In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on chip peripherals remain
active. The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the
special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be
terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset.
Power down Mode
In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped, and the instruction that
invokes power down is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special
Function Registers retain their values until the power down mode is terminated. The only
exit from power down is a hardware reset. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change
the on-chip RAM. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal
operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and

What is the 2051 microcontroller?

The 2051 is a 20 pin version of the 8051. It is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-

bit microcomputer with 2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory.
Atmel manufactures the chip using high-density nonvolatile memory technology. The
2051 and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set. By combining
a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel 2051 is a powerful
microcontroller. It provides a very flexible, cost-effective solution to many embedded
control applications.
Operational features of the 2051

The 2051 features Compatibility with MCS-51 Products, 2K Bytes of

Reprogrammable Flash Memory with 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles. The operating range
of the 2051 is 2.7V to 6V. Among these features, the 2051 also contains the following

Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz

Two-level Program Memory Lock
128 x 8-bit Internal RAM
15 Programmable I/O Lines
Two 16-bit Timer/Counters
Six Interrupt Sources
Programmable Serial UART Channel
Direct LED Drive Outputs
On-chip Analog Comparator
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
2051 Pin-out and Description

Fig:4.6: Pin Diagram of AT89C2051

Pin Description


Supplies voltage and power.


Port 1

Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. Port pins P1.2 to P1.7 provide internal
pull- ups. P1.0 and P1.1 require external pull-ups. P1.0 and P1.1 also serve as the positive
input (AIN0) and the negative input (AIN1), respectively, of the on-chip precision analog
comparator. The Port 1 output buffers can sink 20mA and can drive LED displays
directly. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they can be used as inputs. When pins P1.2 to
P1.7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current (IIL)
because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives code data during Flash programming
and verification.
Port 3
Port 3 pins P3.0 to P3.5, P3.7 are seven bi-directional I/O pins with internal pull-
ups. P3.6 is hard-wired as an input to the output of the on-chip comparator and is not
accessible as a general purpose I/O pin. The Port 3 output buffers can sink 20mA. When
1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used
as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current
(IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features
of the AT89C2051 as listed below:

Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

Reset input. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST goes high. Holding the
RST pin high for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.

Restrictions on Instructions
The AT89C2051 and is the economical and cost-effective member of Atmels
family of microcontrollers. Therefore, it contains only 2K bytes of flash program
memory. It is fully compatible with the MCS-51 architecture, and can be programmed
using the MCS-51 instruction set. However, there are a few considerations one must keep
in mind when utilizing certain instructions to program this device. All the instructions
related to jumping or branching should be restricted such that the destination address falls
within the physical program memory space of the device, which is 2K for the
AT89C2051. This should be the responsibility of the software programmer. For example,
would be a valid instruction for the AT89C2051 (with 2K of memory), whereas LJMP
900H would not.

1. Branching instructions:
These unconditional branching instructions will execute correctly as long as the
programmer keeps in mind that the destination branching address must fall within the
physical boundaries of the program memory size (locations 00H to 7FFH for the
89C2051). Violating the physical space limits may cause unknown program behavior.
CJNE [...], DJNZ [...], JB, JNB, JC, JNC, JBC, JZ, JNZ
With these conditional branching instructions the same rule above applies. Again,
violating the memory boundaries may cause erratic execution.
For applications involving interrupts the normal interrupt service routine address
locations of the 80C51 family architecture have been preserved.

2. MOVX-related instructions, Data Memory:

The 2051 contains 128 bytes of internal data memory. Thus, in the 2051 the stack
depth is limited to 128 bytes, the amount of available RAM. External DATA
memory access is not supported in this device, nor is external PROGRAM memory
execution. Therefore, no MOVX [...] instructions should be included in the program. A
typical 80C51 assembler will still assemble instructions,
even if they are written in violation of the restrictions mentioned above. It is the
responsibility of the controller user to know the physical features and limitations of the
device being used and adjust the instructions used correspondingly.


Power-down Mode

In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped, and the instruction that invokes
power down is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function
Registers retain their values until the power down model is terminated. The only exit
from power down is a hardware reset. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the
on-chip RAM. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal
operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and

P1.0 and P1.1 should be set to 0 if no external pull-ups are used, or set to 1 if
external pull-ups are used.

The 2051 is a low voltage (2.7V - 6V), high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller
with 2 Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). This
device is compatible with the industry standard 8051 instruction set and pin-out. The
2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective
solution to many embedded control applications.

In addition, the 2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency
and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU
while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue
functioning. The Power Down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator
disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

Idle Mode
In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on-chip peripherals remain
active. The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the
special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode.

The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset.
P1.0 and P1.1 should be set to '0' if no external pull ups are used, or set to '1' if external
pull ups are used. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the
device normally resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine
cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access
to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the
possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the
instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin
or to external memory.

4.11 LED
Light Emitting Diodes (LED) have recently become available that are white and
bright, so bright that they seriously compete with incandescent lamps in lighting
applications. They are still pretty expensive as compared to a GOW lamp but draw much
less current and project a fairly well focused beam.
The diode in the photo came with a neat little reflector that tends to sharpen the
beam a little but doesn't seem to add much to the overall intensity.
When run within their ratings, they are more reliable than lamps as well. Red
LEDs are now being used in automotive and truck tail lights and in red traffic signal
lights. You will be able to detect them because they look like an array of point sources
and they go on and off instantly as compared to conventional incandescent lamps.
LEDs are monochromatic (one color) devices. The color is determined by the
band gap of the semiconductor used to make them. Red, green, yellow and blue LEDs are
fairly common. White light contains all colors and cannot be directly created by a single
LED. The most common form of "white" LED really isn't white. It is a Gallium Nitride
blue LED coated with a phosphor that, when excited by the blue LED light, emits a broad
range spectrum that in addition to the blue emission, makes a fairly white light.
There is a claim that these white LED's have a limited life. After 1000 hours or so
of operation, they tend to yellow and dim to some extent. Running the LEDs at more than
their rated current will certainly accelerate this process.
There are two primary ways of producing high intensity white-light using LEDS.
One is to use individual LEDS that emit three primary coloursred, green, and blue
and then mix all the colours to form white light. The other is to use a phosphor material to
convert monochromatic light from a blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light,
much in the same way a fluorescent light bulb works. Due to metamerism, it is possible
to have quite different spectra that appear white.
LEDs are semiconductor devices. Like transistors, and other diodes, LEDs are
made out of silicon. What makes an LED give off light are the small amounts of chemical
impurities that are added to the silicon, such as gallium, arsenide, indium, and nitride.
When current passes through the LED, it emits photons as a byproduct. Normal
light bulbs produce light by heating a metal filament until it is white hot. LEDs produce
photons directly and not via heat, they are far more efficient than incandescent bulbs.
Fig 3.1(a): circuit symbol

Not long ago LEDs were only bright enough to be used as indicators on
dashboards or electronic equipment. But recent advances have made LEDs bright enough
to rival traditional lighting technologies. Modern LEDs can replace incandescent bulbs in
almost any application.

Types of LEDS
LEDs are produced in an array of shapes and sizes. The 5 mm cylindrical package is the
most common, estimated at 80% of world production. The color of the plastic lens is often the
same as the actual color of light emitted, but not always. For instance, purple plastic is often
used for infrared LEDs, and most blue devices have clear housings. There are also LEDs in
extremely tiny packages, such as those found on blinkers and on cell phone keypads. The main
types of LEDs are miniature, high power devices and custom designs such as alphanumeric or

Fig 3.1(b) Different types of LEDS


Fig.4.8 (a): Push Buttons

A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) or simply button is a simple switch

mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically
made out of hard material, usually plastic or metal. The surface is usually flat or shaped
to accommodate the human finger or hand, so as to be easily depressed or pushed.
Buttons are most often biased switches, though even many un-biased buttons (due to their
physical nature) require a spring to return to their un-pushed state. Different people use
different terms for the "pushing" of the button, such as press, depress, mash, and punch.

In industrial and commercial applications push buttons can be linked together by a
mechanical linkage so that the act of pushing one button causes the other button to be
released. In this way, a stop button can "force" a start button to be released. This method
of linkage is used in simple manual operations in which the machine or process have no
electrical circuits for control.
Pushbuttons are often color-coded to associate them with their function so that the
operator will not push the wrong button in error. Commonly used colors are red for
stopping the machine or process and green for starting the machine or process.
Red pushbuttons can also have large heads (mushroom shaped) for easy operation
and to facilitate the stopping of a machine. These pushbuttons are called emergency stop
buttons and are mandated by the electrical code in many jurisdictions for increased safety.
This large mushroom shape can also be found in buttons for use with operators who need
to wear gloves for their work and could not actuate a regular flush-mounted push button.
As an aid for operators and users in industrial or commercial applications, a pilot light is
commonly added to draw the attention of the user and to provide feedback if the button is
pushed. Typically this light is included into the center of the pushbutton and a lens
replaces the pushbutton hard center disk.
The source of the energy to illuminate the light is not directly tied to the contacts
on the back of the pushbutton but to the action the pushbutton controls. In this way a start
button when pushed will cause the process or machine operation to be started and a
secondary contact designed into the operation or process will close to turn on the pilot
light and signify the action of pushing the button caused the resultant process or action to
In popular culture, the phrase "the button" refers to a (usually fictional) button
that a military or government leader could press to launch nuclear weapons.

Push to ON button:

Fig. 4.8(b): push on button

Initially the two contacts of the button are open. When the button is pressed they become
connected. This makes the switching operation using the push button.

4.13 BC547


The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor. The BC547

transistor is a general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages. It is used in general-
purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-
purpose transistors.


An NPN Transistor Configuration

We know that the transistor is a "CURRENT" operated device and that a large
current (Ic) flows freely through the device between the collector and the emitter
terminals. However, this only happens when a small biasing current (Ib) is flowing into
the base terminal of the transistor thus allowing the base to act as a sort of current control
input. The ratio of these two currents (Ic/Ib) is called the DC Current Gain of the device
and is given the symbol of hfe or nowadays Beta, (). Beta has no units as it is a ratio.
Also, the current gain from the emitter to the collector terminal, Ic/Ie, is called Alpha,
(), and is a function of the transistor itself. As the emitter current Ie is the product of a
very small base current to a very large collector current the value of this parameter is
very close to unity, and for a typical low-power signal transistor this value ranges from
about 0.950 to 0.999.

A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component designed to oppose an electric current
by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in proportion to the current, that is, in
accordance with Ohm's law:
V = IR
Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits. They are
extremely commonplace in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of
various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity
alloy, such as nickel/chrome).

The primary characteristics of resistors are their resistance and the power they
can dissipate. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance.
Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the
maximum permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical
resistance depends upon the materials constituting the resistor as well as its physical
dimensions; it's determined by design.
Resistors can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits, as well as
integrated circuits. Size, and position of leads (or terminals) are relevant to equipment
designers; resistors must be physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating
their power.
A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic component which implements
electrical resistance as a circuit element. When a voltage V is applied across the terminals
of a resistor, a current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage.
The reciprocal of the constant of proportionality is known as the resistance R, since, with
a given voltage V, a larger value of R further "resists" the flow of current I as given by
Ohm's law:

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are
ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various
compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy,
such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits,
particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.
The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common
commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than 9 orders of magnitude.
When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the
resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor,
according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may
also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as
having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of
that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics
applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require
heat sinking. In a high voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated
maximum working voltage of the resistor.
The series inductance of a practical resistor causes its behavior to depart from
ohms law; this specification can be important in some high-frequency applications for
smaller values of resistance. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp the noise characteristics
of a resistor may be an issue. The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature
coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor.
They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors
manufactured using a particular technology.[1] A family of discrete resistors is also
characterized according to its form factor, that is, the size of the device and position of its
leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using

The ohm (symbol: ) is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg
Simon Ohm. An ohm is equivalent to a volt per ampere. Since resistors are specified and
manufactured over a very large range of values, the derived units of milliohm (1 m =
103 ), kilohm (1 k = 103 ), and megohm (1 M = 106 ) are also in common usage.
The reciprocal of resistance R is called conductance G = 1/R and is measured in
Siemens (SI unit), sometimes referred to as a mho. Thus a Siemens is the reciprocal of an
ohm: S = . Although the concept of conductance is often used in circuit analysis,
practical resistors are always specified in terms of their resistance (ohms) rather than

Adjustable resistors
A resistor may have one or more fixed tapping points so that the resistance can be
changed by moving the connecting wires to different terminals. Some wire wound power
resistors have a tapping point that can slide along the resistance element, allowing a
larger or smaller part of the resistance to be used.
Where continuous adjustment of the resistance value during operation of
equipment is required, the sliding resistance tap can be connected to a knob accessible to
an operator. Such a device is called a rheostat and has two terminals.

A potentiometer is a manually adjustable resistor. The way this device works is relatively
simple. One terminal of the potentiometer is connected to a power source. Another is hooked
up to ground (a point with no voltage or resistance and which serves as a neutral reference
point), while the third terminal runs across a strip of resistive material. This resistive strip
generally has a low resistance at one end; its resistance gradually increases to a maximum
resistance at the other end. The third terminal serves as the connection between the power
source and ground, and is usually interfaced to the user by means of a knob or lever. The user
can adjust the position of the third terminal along the resistive strip in order to manually
increase or decrease resistance. By controlling resistance, a potentiometer can determine how
much current flow through a circuit. When used to regulate current, the potentiometer is
limited by the maximum resistivity of the strip.

The power of this simple device is not to be underestimated. In most analog devices, a
potentiometer is what establishes the levels of output. In a loud speaker, for example, a
potentiometer directly adjusts volume; in a television monitor, it controls brightness.

A potentiometer can also be used to control the potential difference, or voltage, across a
circuit. The setup involved in utilizing a potentiometer for this purpose is a little bit more
complicated. It involves two circuits: the first circuit consists of a cell and a resistor. At one
end, the cell is connected in series to the second circuit, and at the other end it is connected to a
potentiometer in parallel with the second circuit. The potentiometer in this arrangement drops
the voltage by an amount equal to the ratio between the resistance allowed by the position of
the third terminal and the highest possible resistivity of the strip. In other words, if the knob
controlling the resistance is positioned at the exact halfway point on the resistive strip, then the
output voltage will drop by exactly fifty percent, no matter how high the potentiometer's input
voltage. Unlike with current regulation, voltage regulation is not limited by the maximum
resistivity of the strip

A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair
of conductors separated by a dielectric. When a voltage potential difference exists
between the conductors, an electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores
energy and produces a mechanical force between the plates. The effect is greatest
between wide, flat, parallel, narrowly separated conductors.
An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance,
which is measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to
the potential difference between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes
a small amount of leakage current. The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent
series resistance and the dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a
breakdown voltage.
The properties of capacitors in a circuit may determine the resonant frequency
and quality factor of a resonant circuit, power dissipation and operating frequency in a
digital logic circuit, energy capacity in a high-power system, and many other important
A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a device for storing electric charge. The
forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two conductors
separated by a non-conductor. Capacitors used as parts of electrical systems, for example,
consist of metal foils separated by a layer of insulating film.
Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while
allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power
supplies, in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many
other purposes.
A capacitor is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors
separated by a dielectric (insulator). When there is a potential difference (voltage) across
the conductors, a static electric field develops in the dielectric that stores energy and
produces a mechanical force between the conductors. An ideal capacitor is characterized
by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in farads. This is the ratio of the
electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them.
The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas
of conductor, hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates", referring to an early
means of construction. In practice the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount
of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit, resulting in a breakdown
voltage, while the conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance.
Theory of operation

Charge separation in a parallel-plate capacitor causes an internal electric field. A

dielectric (orange) reduces the field and increases the capacitance.

A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region The

non-conductive region is called the dielectric or sometimes the dielectric medium. In
simpler terms, the dielectric is just an electrical insulator. Examples of dielectric
mediums are glass, air, paper, vacuum, and even a semiconductor depletion region
chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and
isolated, with no net electric charge and no influence from any external electric field. The
conductors thus hold equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces, and the
dielectric develops an electric field. In SI units, a capacitance of one farad means that one
coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device. The
capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal
capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of
charge Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them:

Sometimes charge build-up affects the capacitor mechanically, causing its capacitance to
vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes:
Energy storage
Work must be done by an external influence to "move" charge between the
conductors in a capacitor. When the external influence is removed the charge separation
persists in the electric field and energy is stored to be released when the charge is allowed
to return to its equilibrium position. The work done in establishing the electric field, and
hence the amount of energy stored, is given by:[11]

Current-voltage relation
The current i(t) through any component in an electric circuit is defined as the rate
of flow of a charge q(t) passing through it, but actual charges, electrons, cannot pass
through the dielectric layer of a capacitor, rather an electron accumulates on the negative
plate for each one that leaves the positive plate, resulting in an electron depletion and
consequent positive charge on one electrode that is equal and opposite to the accumulated
negative charge on the other. Thus the charge on the electrodes is equal to the integral of
the current as well as proportional to the voltage as discussed above. As with any
antiderivative, a constant of integration is added to represent the initial voltage v (t0). This
is the integral form of the capacitor equation,

Taking the derivative of this, and multiplying by C, yields the derivative form,

The dual of the capacitor is the inductor, which stores energy in the magnetic field rather
than the electric field. Its current-voltage relation is obtained by exchanging current and
voltage in the capacitor equations and replacing C with the inductance L.
DC circuits

A series circuit containing only a resistor, a capacitor, a switch and a constant DC source
of voltage V0 is known as a charging circuit. If the capacitor is initially uncharged while
the switch is open, and the switch is closed at t = 0, it follows from Kirchhoff's voltage
law that

Taking the derivative and multiplying by C, gives a first-order differential equation,

At t = 0, the voltage across the capacitor is zero and the voltage across the resistor is V0.
The initial current is then i (0) =V0 /R. With this assumption, the differential equation

where 0 = RC is the time constant of the system.

As the capacitor reaches equilibrium with the source voltage, the voltage across the
resistor and the current through the entire circuit decay exponentially. The case of
discharging a charged capacitor likewise demonstrates exponential decay, but with the
initial capacitor voltage replacing V0 and the final voltage being zero.
Capacitors have many uses in electronic and electrical systems. They are so
common that it is a rare electrical product that does not include at least one for some
Chapter 2

Circuit Description

This circuit has been designed assuming that the maximum permissible speed for
highways is either 40 kmph or 60 kmph as per the traffic rule.

The circuit is built around five NE555 timer ICs (IC1 through IC5), four Cd4026 counter
ICs (IC6 through IC9) and four 7-segmint displays (DIS1 through DIS4). IC1 through
IC3 function as monostables with IC1 serving as count start mono, IC2 as count stop
mono and IC3 as speed-limit detector mono, controlled by IC1 and IC2 outputs. Bistable
set-reset IC4 is also controlled by the outputs of IC1 and IC2 and it (IC4), in turn controls
switching on/off of the 100Hz (period=0.01 second) astable IC5

The time period of timer NEE555 (IC1) count start monostables multivibrator is
adjusted using preset VR1 or VR2 and capacitor C1.For 40kmph limit the period is set
for 9 seconds using preset VR1, while for 60kmph limit the time period is set for 6
seconds using preset VR2 .Slide switch S1 is used to select the time period as per the
speed limit (40 kmph and 60 kmph, respectively). The kmph and 60 kmph,
respectively) .The junction of LDR1 and resistor R1 is coupled to pin 2 of IC1.

Normally, light from the laser keeps falling on the LDR sensor continuously and thus the
LDR offers a low resistance and pin 2 of IC1 is high. Whenever light falling on LDR is
interrupted by any vehicle, the LDR resistance goes high and hence pin 2 of IC1 goes
low to trigger the monostables .As a result, output pin 3 goes high for the preset period (9
or 6 seconds) and LED1 glows to indicate it. Reset pin4 is controlled by the output of
NAND gate N3 at power or whenever reset switch S2 is pushed.

For IC2, the monostables is triggered in the same way as IC1 when the vehicle intersects
the laser beam incident on LDR2 to generate a small pulse for stopping the count and for
use in the speed detection.LED2 glows for the duration for which pin 3 of IC2 is high.
The outputs of IC1 and IC2 are fed to input pins 2 and 1 of NAND gate N1, respectively.
When the outputs of IC1 and IC2 go high simultaneously (meaning that the vehicle has
crossed the preset speed limit), output pin 3 of gate N1 goes low to trigger monostables
timer IC3. The output of IC3 is used for driving piezobuzzer PZ1, which alerts the
operator of speed limit violation .Resistance R9 and capacitor C5 decide the timer
period for which the piezobuzzer sounds.

The output of IC1 triggers the bistable (IC4) through gate N2 at the leading edge of the
count-start pulse. When pin 2 of IC4 goes low, the high output at pin 3 enables clock
generator IC5, since the count-stop pulse output of IC2 is connected to pin 6 of IC4 via
diode D1, it resets clock generator IC5. IC5 can also be reset via diode D2 at power-on as
well as when reset switch S2 is pressed.

IC5 is configured as an astable multivibrator whose time period is decided by preset

VR3, resistor R12 and capacitor C10. Using preset VR1, the frequency of astable
multivibrator is set as 100 Hz. The output of IC5 is fed to clock pin 1 of decade
counter/7-segment decoder IC6 CD4026.IC CD4026 is a 5-stage Johnson decade counter
and an output decoder that converts the Johnson code into a 7-segment decoded output
for driving DIS1 display. The counter advances by one count at the positive clock signal

The carryout (Count) signal from CD4026 provides one clock after every ten clock
inputs to clock the succeeding decade counter in a multidecade counting chain. This is
achieved by connecting pin 5 of each CD4026 to pin of the next CD4026.

A high reset signal clears the decade counter to its zero count. Pressing switch S2
provides a reset signal to pin 15 of all CD4025 ICs also IC1 and IC4. Capacitor C12 and
resistor R14 generate the power-on-reset signal

The seven decoded outputs a through g of CD4026 illuminate the proper segment of
the 7-segment displays (DIS1 through DIS4) used for representing the decimal digits 0
through 9 .Resistor R16 through R19 limit the current across DIS1 through DIS4,

Figure 2 Circuit of power supply

Fig. above shows the circuit of the power supply. The AC main is stepped down by
transformer X1 to deliver the secondary output of 15 volts, 500 mA. The transformer
output is rectified by a bridge rectifier comprising diodes D3 through D6, filtered by
capacitor C15 bypass regulated 12V supply. Capacitor C15 bypasses any ripple in the
regulated output. Switch S3 is used as the on/off switch. In mobile application of the
circuit, where mains 230V AC is not available, it is advisable to use an external 12V
battery .For activating the lasers used in conjunction with LDR1 and LDR2, separate
batteries may be used.
Chapter 3

Construction and Working

Assemble the circuit on a PCB. Before operation, using a multimeter check whether the
power supply output is correct, if yes apply power supply to the circuit by flipping switch
S3 to on. In the circuit, use long wires for connecting the two LDRs, so that you can
take them out of the PCB and install on one side of the highway, 100 meters apart. Install
the two laser transmitters (such as laser torches) on the other side of the highway exactly
opposite to the LDRs such that laser light falls directly on the LDRs. Resets the circuit by
pressing switch S2, so the display on the LDRs. Resets the circuit by pressing switch S2,
so the display shows 0000. Using switch S1, select the speed limit (say, 60 kmph) for
the highway.

When any vehicle crosses the first laser light, LDR1 will trigger IC1. The output of IC1
goes high for the time set cross 100 meters with the selected speed (60 kmph) and LED1
glows during for period. When the vehicle crosses the second laser light, the output of
IC2 goes high and LED2 glows for this period.

Piezobuzzer PZ1 sounds an alarm if the vehicle crosses the distance between the laser
set-ups at more than the selected speed (lesser period than preset period). The counter
starts counting when the first laser beam is intercepted and stops when the second laser
beam is intercepted. The time taken by vehicle to cross both the laser beams is displayed
on the 7-segment display. For 60 kmph speed setting, with timer frequency set at 100 Hz,
if the display count is less than 600. It means that the vehicle has crossed the speed
limit (and simultaneously the buzzer sounds). Reset the circuit for monitoring the speed
of the next vehicle.
Chapter 4


To make sure that ambient light dose not falls on LDRs, house the LDRs is black tube
pointing to wards the light sources. The ICs should be soldered carefully. It is better to
use IC bases and plug in the ICs later. The solder to IC pin should not be dry or loose.

Chapter 9

History of speed checker technology

In the past, the introduction of a new and innovative speed enforcement technology often
generated a negative reaction. The public's distrust of the use of high technology by
enforcement officials is often evidenced by claims that the technology is simply another
attempt by "Big Brother" to invade their lives. When radar was first introduced in the
1950's, Time Magazine ran an article headlined "Big Brother Is Driving," the text of
which characterized radar as being "as invisible as the Thought Police in Orwell's chiller
[1 9841. " 1 The use of radar was also challenged as being unconstitutional.2 The history
of speed enforcement is replete with examples of new enforcement techniques;
subsequentnegative public reaction and resistance; and finally, assumingsurvival through
legal challenges, ultimate acceptance.

Time-Distance Method

The use of the first known method of speed enforcement dates back to 1902 in
Westchester County, New York. This system wascomposed of three dummy tree trunks
set up on the roadside at 1-mile intervals. A police officer with a stopwatch and a
telephonewas concealed in each trunk. As a speeding vehicle passed the firsttrunk, the
hidden police officer telephoned the time to the secondpolice officer, who recorded the
time at which the vehicle passedhim and then computed its speed for the mile. If the
vehicle wasexceeding the speed limit, the officer telephoned the third policeofficer, who
proceeded to stop the vehicle by lowering a poleacross the road. The "tree trunk" method
was subject to hearsayobjections in court because officers had to testify regarding the
time statements of other officers since there was no way to observethe vehicle over the
entire distance.4

This is an early example of the time-distance method of speedenforcement. Time-

&stance measurements are computed by measuringthe time taken to traverse a distance of
known length.5 Severalmethods of speed enforcement employ the time-distance
principle.Pavement markings or mirror boxes that are observed by policeofficers with a
stopwatch have replaced dummy tree trunks, and two-way radios between patrol cars or
aircraft have replaced thetelephone system, but the technique remains much the same.6

The speedwatch, also referred to as the Prather speed device,was one of the first "electric
timers" to employ the time-&stancprinciples This device consisted of two rubber tubes
that werestretched across a street at a known distance apart. 'The tubeswere connected to
two switches, which were in turn connected to acontrol panel containing a stopwatch, a
switch, and a reset button.A police officer was positioned so as to observe both tubes, and
when a vehicle approached, he flipped the switch to activate thefirst tube. On contact
with the tires of the vehicle, the switch inthe first tube started the stopwatch, which was
stopped when thevehicle hit the second tube. The stopwatch was scaled to reflectthe
speed of the vehicle.8 The speedwatch is believed to have beenaccurate to within 2 mph,
and the officer's testimony as to hisobservation of the speeding vehicle and the accuracy
of the instru-ment was admissible in most courts.9

The most recent technique employing time-distance measurements

is the visual average speed computer and recorder (VASCAR). VASCAR is a
computerized system that mechanically computes the speed of acar by measuring the
distance between two fixed markers and the time traveled, thereby giving the observing
police officer a quick, easily readable speed determination. 10

In 1947, only 1 state used a time-distance device," but by 1970, 34 states were
employing at least one-the majority using VASCAR or aerial surveillance.12 Because
time-distance devices have been categorized as "speed traps," their use has been
prohibited in at least 2 states: California and Washington. 13


Another widely used method of speed enforcement in the 1940's was "pacing."14
Police officers paced a speeding vehicle byfollowing it for a specified distance and
observing the speedometerof the police vehicle to calculate the average speed of the
pacedvehicle over the distance. In 1947, 20 percent of the states re-quired pacing before
apprehension of a speeding driver.15 A largepercentage of states used unmarked cars,
identifiable only bydecals, and/or motorcycles as pacing vehicles. 16 Because pacing
depends on the accuracy of the pacing vehicle's speedometer, manystates adopted the use
of calibrated speedometers and regulationsdefining the frequency at which speedometers
must be calibrated. 17


The tachograph, also referred to as a tactograph ortachometer, was a speed

enforcement method used by truckingcompanies to control the speed of truck drivers. The
tachographcontained a clock with a paper dial attached to the driveshaft or transmission
of the truck. The dial recorded the speed of the truck at any given time. 18 The chart
produced by this device was used to corroborate the testimony of the arresting officer;19
ironically,however, it was often admitted into evidence to prove the innocence
of the implicated driver.20

Police radar was introduced in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Although generally
referred to as "radar," police radar is not technically radar. True radar has the ability to
measure an object's distance, direction, and size as well as its speed, but police radar
measures only speed. Police radar operates according to the scientific principle known as
the Doppler effect: the frequency of sound waves (or microwaves) being emitted by or
reflected off of an object will vary in direct relation to the speed of the object itself. The
Doppler effect is noticeable in everyday life in the rising and falling of a car horn's pitch
as the car approaches and passes. Police radar transmits microwaves at a set frequency.
When the microwaves are reflected off of a vehicle, the frequency of the returning
microwaves shifts because the vehicle is in motion. This shift in the original frequency,
the Doppler shift, is measured by the radar device, which converts the
signal into a measurement of the vehicle's speed.

An early hurdle encountered by police radar (hereinafter called "radar") was evidentiary
in nature. Before judicial notice was taken of the underlying principle involved, courts
required that an expert witness testify as to radar's accuracy and re- liability.21 The
Virginia Supreme Court was among the first courts to take judicial notice of radar's
underlying principle, thereby eliminating the need for expert testimony.22 However,
testimony as to the accuracy of the particular machine used to detect the
violation is still required.

Constitutional questions have also arisen in radar cases, as they invariably do

whenever a new scientific technique becomes useful in enforcement.23 The Virginia
statute providing that radar evidence constitutes prima facie evidence of speeding was
found to be constitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.24
The defendant in the case argued that the provision was tantamount to his being
presumed guilty25. However, the court held that the defendant was still presumed
innocent under such a standard.26 A Pennsylvania due process claim based on the alleged
instantaneousness of the machine's determination and the potential for error was likewise
denied.27 In denying the claim, the court noted the complete absence of cases holding the
use of radar for speed measurement to be unconstitutional.28 Cases raising the issue
of a citizen's constitutional right against self incrimination have likewise been

Law enforcement's latest innovative technology for the enforcement of speed laws is
photo-radar. Photo-radar equipment combines a camera and radar with electronic controls
to detect and photograph a speeding vehicle. The unit can photograph the driver's face
and the front license plate if deployed to photograph oncoming traffic or the rear license
plate if deployed to photograph receding traffic. The license number of the speeding
vehicle is extracted from the picture, and a citation is sent to the registered owner of the
vehicle. The radar used in photo-radar equipment operates on the same Doppler principle
as the radar used by the police.

Although photo-radar is a relatively new technology in the United States, it is not the
first speed detection device to use a camera. In 1910, a device known as a photo speed
recorder was used in Massachusetts.30 The photo speed recorder consisted of a camera,
synchronized with a stopwatch, that took pictures of a speeding vehicle at measured time
intervals. The speed of the vehicle was determined by a mathematical calculation based
on the reduction in size of the vehicle in the photograph as it moved farther away from
the camera. This photographic evidence was held admissible by the Supreme Judicial
Court of Massachusetts, and the scientific approach was judged more reliable than,
eyewitness testimony because it did not rely on the "fluctuations of human agencies.

However, in 1955, the unattended use of the photo-traffic camera (FotoPatrol) was
prohibited in New York because of the difficulty in identifying the driver of the
vehicle.32 The Foto- Patrol device, a camera mounted on the side of the road
activated by an electronic impulse when passed by a vehicle traveling in excess of a
predetermined speed, took a picture of the rear license plate only, making it impossible to
identify the driver. The court was unwilling to adopt the presumption that the
driver was the registered owner of the vehicle, absent any corroborating evidence, and
prohibited the use of Foto-Patrol unless it was staffed by an attending officer available to
stop and identify the driver on the spot.33

The problem of driver identification was resolved by the Orbis In (Orbis) system
introduced in the late 1960's.34 Orbis operated much like an advanced Prather speed
device that employed a camera.35 The contacts the vehicle ran over were 72 inches apart
and connected to a computer that triggered the camera, which was set up to capture the
vehicle's front license plate and the driver's face if the vehicle's speed exceeded a preset
limit.36 When Orbis was introduced, it encountered a unique form of resistance. - 37 To
avoid being recognized, people would speed by the Orbis machine wearing a Halloween
mask. 38- Such a tactic would be illegal in Virginia, but not in Maryland, because of a
statute that prohibits those over 16 years of age from wearing a mask in public.39 Orbis
was abandoned for administrative reasons.40 Research did not identify any cases that
successfully challenged Orbis on legal grounds, and a study prepared for the U.S.
Department of Transportation indicated that the device was probably

It is uncertain whether photo-radar will be accepted by the public. Previous speed

enforcement techniques usually gained acceptance if the technology proved accurate and
if they survived the initial constitutional and evidentiary challenges. However, even after
a technology gains acceptance, drivers have often undertaken efforts to thwart the
technology's effectiveness. One example of a popular form of resistance to speed
detection technology is the use of a radar detector. Radar detectors, which are illegal in
Virginia,42 sound a warning to the driver when they detect the microwave signal emitted
by the radar unit. Drivers have also tried using other methods to avoid being caught
speeding by radar.43 These methods included using transmitters designed to disrupt the
radar signal, putting nuts and bolts in the hubcaps, painting the fan blades with aluminum
paint, and attaching hanging chains to the undercarriage of the car.44 There is even a 160-
page book entitled Beating the Radar Rap.45 Photo-radar will no doubt encounter many,
if not all, of these methods of resistance. However, if photo-radar is proven to be
accurate, and if it is able to withstand the initial legal challenges, then it should gain
acceptance as an effective tool in speed enforcement.

There is evidence that the public may support photo-radar use in residential settings.
In Pasadena, California, and Paradise Valley, Arizona, where photo-radar has been used
in residential settings on local, noninterstate roadways, a majority of respondents in
public opinion polls have been in favor of photo-\ radar use. However, one must interpret
these findings in light of the fact that more than 90 percent of those cited for speeding in
these two locations are nonresidents. This will not likely be the case in Virginia and
Maryland, especially if photo-radar is used on the Beltway.

Chapter 10

Purpose and Scope

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using photo-radar technology
on high-volume, high-speed expressways, such as the Beltway. A secondary objective
was to compare and contrast the performance of several brands of photo-radar devices to
determine whether they meet the minimum levels of accuracy, reliability, and efficiency
required for use on the Beltway in accordance with the U.S. legal system. In addition, the
impact of traffic characteristics on accuracy and reliability was examined. A final
objective was to make recommendations concerning the use of photo-radar on types of
highways other than urban expressways should photo-radar use on interstate highways
prove infeasible.

Information concerning the various brands of photo-radar equipment and their

capabilities was obtained from manufacturers' sales literature and was corroborated by
the results of several site visits. However, the most important information concerning the
performance of the various devices came from actual demonstrations on the Beltway and
other high-speed interstate highways in Virginia and Maryland. Thus, the feasibility of
using photo-radar was largely determined by the results of performance testing on site,
rather than by manufacturers' claims or nonempirical demonstrations in Europe and the
United States.

The scope of this project was rather limited. The researchers assessed the technical and
operational feasibility of the different types of equipment but did not evaluate the
effectiveness of the use of photo-radar in reducing travel speed or the number of speed-
related crashes since it was not possible to give citations during the demonstration period.
In order to avoid creating a hazardous environment for the manufacturers and the study
team, and to avoid disrupting the traffic flow at the study sites, no special signing
was used. In addition, media coverage was limited to a press conference on the second
Tuesday of each demonstration period. Thus, no fully coordinated media campaign was
employed. A further limitation on the scope of the study was that Multanova, one of the
major manufacturers, declined to participate in the demonstrations in Virginia and
Maryland. Therefore, there are insufficient data from which to draw conclusions
concerning the accuracy, reliability, and efficiency of Multanova's equipment.


Many people approach the use and evaluation of photo-radar as if it were a new and
uniquely invasive technology. In fact, photo- radar equipment is simply the combination
of several pieces of previously existing equipment-camera, radar, and electronic controls-
all of which have been used either together or separately in enforcement and the
prosecution of offenses for many years. The validity and reliability of these older forms
of speed enforcement technology had to be proved to both the police and the courts prior
to general acceptance. Thus, it is an important to consider the use of photo-radar in the
context of (1) the history of speed enforcement technology, and (2) the history of photo-
radar technology.
Chapter 11

Site Description

Site Demonstrations

During the summer of 1990, five manufacturers of photo-radar equipment

demonstrated their device on interstate highways in Virginia and Maryland for 2 weeks
each. A sixth, Multanova, was invited to participate in the demonstrations, but declined.
Many steps were taken to ensure a fair and equitable analysis of each company. During
each 2-week study period, the manufacturers were given the opportunity to take as many
pictures as they wished, using their choice of photographic equipment and
film.Manufacturers were also encouraged to take photographs using their equipment in as
many ways as possible so that each capability of the equipment could be evaluated.
Whenever possible, the film was developed by a local commercial laboratory. However,
when local processing was unavailable for unusual film types or unusual
canister sizes, other arrangements were made.

All demonstrations were conducted with the manufacturers or their agents operating
the equipment under the constant supervision of the research team, who collected the data
for all tests. Although the same tests were run for all pieces of equipment, there were
some differences in the manufacturers' experience in operating their device. For the most
part, these were based on the manufacturers' schedules, their familiarity with the
equipment, and whether all of the equipment's functions were working at the time
of the demonstrations.

There were, however, some conditions under which all of the manufacturers operated
that may have affected the performance of their device, such as the suitability of
permanent loop stations (and, thus, the study sites) for taking perfect photographs. In
these instances, since all manufacturers operated under the same conditions, no one
manufacturer had an advantage over the others.
The performance of each piece of equipment was evaluated after several tests were
conducted at the preselected sites. In order to prevent biasing of the desired information,
the same types of demonstrations were performed for each type of equipment at the
same sites, on the same workdays, and at approximately the same
time of day.

Site Selection

A major objective of this study was to determine how the prevailing traffic and geometric
conditions at a given site affect the accuracy of the speeds recorded and the clarity of the
resulting photographs. The ideal location for collecting the information to evaluate this
effectiveness would be where accurate volume and speed data could be collected and
where light conditions are nearly ideal for photography. The only sites at which speed and
volume data could be collected were at sites where loop sensors were permanently
installed. Unfortunately, these locations were not necessarily the best for photography.
Since the photographs could be taken at the loop sensor locations, and since it would be
virtually impossible to collect speeds and volumes accurately at high-volume locations
without loops, it was decided that the first criterion for selecting a site would be the
availability of loop sensors at the site. The next requirement was that the site provide
safe conditions for manufacturers, their agents, and those involved in collecting the data.
The final criterion was that the site be a two-, three-, or four-lane interstate highway with
suitable vertical and horizontal -alignments. Factors taken into consideration in
evaluating how safe a particular location was included the availability of adequate site
distance and adequate space away from the edge of the pavement for vehicles and

In addition, the conditions at several of the sites necessitated that equipment be set up
in concentrations that may not have been ideal for photo-radar operation. In Northern
Virginia, for instance, each piece of equipment had to be set rather far back from the
roadway in order to ensure the safety of the public and the study team, due to the high
volumes and high speeds at these sites. This added an approximate width of one lane
to the distance between the equipment and the target vehicles. Also, at the I-495 site in
Virginia, there was a significant drop from the roadway to the shoulder that resulted in
vehicle-mounted equipment being tilted by up to 5 degrees. Thus, at this site, vehicle-
mounted units may in some cases have been projecting the radar beam over compact cars
and shooting photographs at an angle. These operational requirements, although not ideal
for the use of photo-radar, were equivalent for all manufacturers, thereby giving
none an advantage over the others.

The sites selected were therefore not necessarily the most ideal locations for photo-radar
equipment with respect to the quality of the photographs taken but were the most suitable
if all selection criteria were considered. Thus, it is quite likely that the photographs taken
did not represent the best quality that could be obtained by the equipment; however, they
served as a good means of comparing the photographic capability between brands of
equipment. Because of the safety criterion used for locating the study sites, it was not
necessary to use any special traffic control. The traffic pattern was therefore not affected
at any of the study sites.

Site Description

After considerable field evaluation of different sites with loop detectors, six sites were
selected based on the enumerated criteria. Table 2 shows the locations of the test sites and
the traffic and geometric characteristics at each site. Unfortunately, the ambient lighting
conditions were not perfect for photography throughout the day at each site. For example,
according to the field notes taken by the supervising technician, because of the angle of
the sun, Site 1 was not ideal for photography during the morning hours but seemed to be
much better in the afternoon, and the lighting conditions at Site 2 were not perfect for
photography in the afternoon. Similarly, the lighting conditions at Sites 4 and 6 seemed
better in the morning than in the afternoon, whereas conditions seemed better in the
afternoon at Sites 3 and 5. These were, however, subjective judgments made at study
sites, rather than empirically based findings.

Chapter 12

In order for a photo-radar program to run successfully, the equipment must be used in
such a manner as to produce clear pictures of speeding vehicles and, if necessary, their
driver. To determine which manufacturers produce the highest quality and most usable
photographs, an analysis of each photograph produced during the 2-week field
demonstration period was conducted. Due to the large number of photographs taken
during each test period (more than 7,600 total) and the careful scrutiny given each
photograph, the full evaluation of the photographs took about 5 weeks. Detailed
information concerning each photograph taken was entered into a computerized data set
as the photograph was being viewed. The specific variables used in the evaluation of each
photograph were:

1. manufacturer's name

2. roll identification number

3. date the film was exposed

4. time the film was exposed

5. location where the film was exposed

6. conditions under which the film was exposed (i.e., problems, problems with.
equipment itself, problems of equipment, problems with equipment itself and setup of
equipment, or problems with computer information strip picture)

7. direction of traffic photographed (oncoming vs. receding)

8. mode (stationary vs. mobile)

9. weather conditions when film was exposed (i.e., bright sun hazy sun, overcast,
nighttime, or raining)

10. whether prints or negatives were evaluated

11. number of vehicles in the frame

12. type of vehicle (i.e., passenger car, van/small truck, large

truck or bus)

13. lane in which the vehicle was traveling

14. location of the vehicle in the picture (i.e., no vehicle in frame, out of range left, in
left third of frame, in center o frame, in right third of frame, or out of range right)

15. whether the license plate could be read

16. reason the vehicle's license plate(s) could not be read (i.e. rain, glare, out of frame,
too far away, view obstructed, plate, reflectorization, or poor film exposure)

17. whether the driver was identifiable as compared to a standar photograph

18. reason the driver could not be identified (i.e., rain, glare out of frame, too far away,
view obstructed, receding traffic or poor film exposure)

19. whether it was possible to determine which vehicle w speeding (In cases where two
or more vehicles we photographed, a method was needed to determine which vehicle
had triggered the photo-radar photograph. If a method wa specified and it identified a
vehicle in the photograph, this variable was coded as a "yes.")

Information from each vehicle photographed was then analyze to determine what
percentage of a manufacturer's pictures could b in court, based on possible criteria for
photo-radar cases These criteria included (1) whether the license plate and the state
of issue were readable, (2) whether the driver could be identified (3) whether the vehicle's
speed was clearly stated, and (4) whether the speeding vehicle could be identified in
multi-vehicle photographs. In order to determine which vehicle in a multi-vehicle
photograph was speeding, several manufacturers provided a template. This clear plastic
overlay outlined where in the photograph the radar beam fell. The vehicle over which the
template's radar beam falls is the speeding vehicle. An additional manufacturer stated
that each template must be drawn based on the speed data for the particular site. Thus,
each site would have its own template. In cases where there were two or more vehicles in
the beam, some manufacturers claimed that their unit would not take a picture.
Other manufacturers stated that their unit would take a picture but that such a picture
would obviously not be used in a prosecution.

The effect of such factors as weather and distance from the camera on photographic
quality was also evaluated. In addition, at the start of the evaluation, photographic
standards for overall utility of the photographs were set, against which each
manufacturer's photographs were compared. These standard photographs appear in
Appendix A. Several of the photographs were enlarged to determine whether higher-
quality photographs could be produced for use in court. Two types of film were
evaluated: prints and negatives. The prints were viewed without any enhancements
except magnification. The negatives were evaluated by use of a viewer capable of
changing a negative to a positive image. The FOTOVEK U, a video-based viewing
system, allowed for the adjustment of contrast and focus and enabled the analyst to
magnify specific portions of the negative.

Accuracy of Recorded Speeds

The objectives of this test were to determine the relative accuracy of the speeds recorded
by each piece of equipment and determine whether the accuracy was significantly
affected by the prevailing traffic and geometric conditions. The tests were carried out at
Sites 1, 2, and 3. No attempt was made to conduct these tests on the Beltway because it
required isolation of the test vehicles from other vehicles, a practice that is difficult and
could be unsafe in high-volume, high-speed traffic.

Three test vehicles, a Chevrolet Cavalier, a Plymouth Minivan, and a larger Ford Aerostar
Van, were used in this test. The speedometer of each vehicle was calibrated prior to
testing. A driver was then selected for each vehicle and specifically trained
to drive that vehicle at the required constant speed as the vehicle traversed the loops at a
given site. The training required that numerous runs be made by each driver until he or
she could isolate the target vehicle from other traffic and could attain the required
velocity at a location about 150 feet from the loops, maintaining the constant speed as the
vehicle traversed the loops. Each driver comfortably demonstrated his or her ability to
meet the test requirements.

The next stage was to ascertain whether the speeds recorded by the loops were accurate.
This was achieved by having each test driver isolate his or her vehicle from other
vehicles on the highway and then drive the test vehicle at a given speed across the
loops while being monitored by standard police radar. This facilitated the clear-cut
identification of the speed of the vehicle as computed by a Streeter-Amet counter
connected to the loops and comparison with police radar. Prior to each test, at least five
runs were made on each lane by each vehicle for speeds of 40, 50, 55, and 65 mph. (It
was not feasible to perform this test at speeds higher than 65 mph because of the existing
maximum speed limit.) For each run, the speed of the test vehicle was recorded using
standard police radar and was compared to the speed computed by the Streeter-Amet
counter. The lane in which the test vehicle was driven was also recorded. In a few cases,
loop speeds for several of the 20 or more runs were off by more than 1 mph and were
recalibrated by VDOT personnel. Having ascertained that the vehicle's speed as measured
by police radar and that computed by a Streeter-Amet counter were within 1 mph of each
other, the test to determine the accuracy of the photo-radar equipment in recording
the speed of an individual vehicle was conducted.

The relative accuracy of the photo-radar equipment was determined by comparing loop
speeds to photo-radar speeds. The threshold speed of the photo-radar was set at 30 mph
so that the speed of each vehicle passing through its beam could be recorded and its
photograph taken. Each test vehicle was then driven at a constant speed through the test
site, isolating it from the other vehicles. The test was run for speeds of 40, 50, 55, and 65
mph for each lane and for each vehicle. For every run, the type of test vehicle, the
speed at which the test vehicle was driven, the speed recorded by the Streeter-Amet
counter, and the speed computed by the photo- radar equipment were recorded. The lane
in which the test vehicle was driven was also recorded. The speed recorded by each piece
of equipment was then compared with the actual vehicle speed as
obtained at the loops by the Streeter-Axnet counter. The accuracy of the photo-radar
equipment was determined from the variation between speed recordings produced by the
loops and those produced by the photo-radar equipment.

The testing was carried out under speed test conditions as specified in the federal
minimum performance specifications for testing equipment accuracy with respect to
temperature and supply voltage (NHTSA, Model Minimum Performance Specifications
for Police Traffic Radar Devices, Technical Report No. DOT HS 807-415, Washington,
D.C., May 1989). However, rather than the researcher using a stopwatch to determine the
average speed of the vehicle over a stipulated distance, a nearly instantaneous speed
reading was recorded by both the Streeter-Amet counter located at the loops and the
photo-radar equipment being evaluated. Thus, the speeds recorded by both the counter
and the photo-radar equipment were obtained at the same location and at the same time
and, thus, were instantaneous (or nearly instantaneous) measurements. This is a
much preferred and more accurate method than comparing the instantaneous speeds
measured by the photo-radar equipment with "average" speeds calculated by timing the
vehicles over the measured distance since the vehicle's speed would vary over the
distance preceding the photo-radar equipment.

Effect of Vehicle Clustering on Accuracy of Speed Measurements

The objective of this test was to determine the accuracy of the speed recorded by the
photo-radar equipment when vehicles were being driven in tandem across the loops. This
test was, therefore, a repeat of the speed accuracy test but with the test vehicles in a
paired configuration. This required careful driving on the part of the study team. In this
test, the test vehicles were driven in different lanes, with either the front of the vehicles
being on an approximately straight line when traversing the loops or with each
succeeding vehicle slightly offset behind the preceding vehicle. The speeds identified at
the loops and by the photo-radar equipment were then recorded and compared. The
results of this test indicate to what extent the arrival of two or more vehicles within the
radar beam of a piece of photo-radar equipment affects the accuracy of the speed
Percentage of Usable Photographs of
Vehicles Exceeding Threshold Speed

This test was conducted at all sites when accuracy testing was not underway. At each
site, the photo-radar equipment being tested was properly positioned and set at a
threshold speed that ensured that all speeding vehicles traveling on the interstate were
counted. The thresholds were also set so that photographs of speeding vehicles could be
taken continuously for at least 3 minutes before the roll of film had to be changed. The
photo-radar operation was then initiated and allowed to continue for a given time period,
ranging from 3 to 15\ minutes, depending on the threshold speed, vehicle operating
speeds, traffic flow, and number of exposures available in the film canister. At sites with
a high volume and high operating speed (e.g., I-495), 5-minute intervals were generally
used since it took about 5 minutes to generate 36 photographs (standard film canister
size) without interruption. The test interval was increased to 10 or 15 minutes when a
larger number of exposures was available or when volume was low. This variation in the
test interval was necessary so that an adequate number of speed violators could be
photographed by the photo-radar equipment. Concurrent speed data were also collected
at the loops using the Streeter Amet counter, from which the number of vehicles
exceeding the speed limit for the same test period was determined. Two figures were
then computed:
(1) the number of photographs in which a vehicle's license plate number and recorded
speed could be clearly identified (as a percentage of the total number of vehicles
exceeding the threshold speed), and
(2) the number of photographs in which a vehicle's license plate number, the recorded
speed, and the driver's face could be clearly identified (as a percentage of the total
number o exceeding the threshold speed).

Misalignment Flexibility (Cosine Effect)

The objective of this test was to determine the extent to which misalignment of the
photo-radar equipment affected the speed recorded by the equipment. It was anticipated
that equipment might be unintentionally misaligned by untrained police officers. Each
piece of equipment was, therefore, set up in the operational mode but intentionally
misaligned from the manufacturer's recommendation by 2, 4, 6, and 8 degrees. The speed
accuracy test was then repeated. The speeds obtained at the loop sensors by the Streeter-
Amet counter were then compared with those recorded by the photo-
radar devices.
Ease of Detection by Radar Detectors

This test determined the maximum distance at which a commercially available radar
detector could detect the presence of the photo-radar equipment being tested. The radar
detector used was a Cobra Trapshooter, Model RD2100, manufactured by Dynascan
Corporation, Chicago, Illinois. After the equipment was installed at the test site, a test
vehicle with the radar detector installed was driven slowly toward the equipment until the
microwave radiation from the equipment being tested was detectable. The location was
marked, and the distance from the equipment was mea- sured. Each test run was repeated
at least five times, and the maximum detectable range for each manufacturer's photo-
radar recorded.
There are two possible effects a radar detector could have on the effectiveness of photo-
radar use. First, by knowing where photo-radar devices are located, drivers may avoid
citation by slowing down at the photo-radar site and then speeding up once they
have passed the site. Thus, radar detectors could reduce the effectiveness of photo-radar
in reducing speeds on other sections of the roadway. On the other hand, radar detection
of photo-radar equipment would, in itself, reduce speeds at the site, one of the
objectives of its use.

Effect of Photo-Radar on Speed Characteristics

Speed data were collected at each site at least 1 month before the field demonstration and
again during the demonstration. No citations or warnings were given during the test
period, but the minimal media attention given as a result of the Tuesday press
conferences may have alerted drivers to the presence of the equipment for testing. This
publicity took the form of newspaper articles and television and radio interviews in which
the principle of photo-radar was described and the reasons for conducting the
demonstration were explained. It was, however, made quite clear to the public that no
citations would be given based on speeds observed and recorded during the
demonstration. As an additional confounding factor, police consistently worked radar
during the demonstration at Site 6 in Maryland. Since this was their standard procedure, it
was decided that they should continue so the units could be evaluated under real-world
conditions. However, the use of standard radar during the testing may have affected the
speed characteristics at that site.

The researchers are of the opinion that the true impact of photo-radar on speed
characteristics could not be ascertained from these results. Then citations and warning
letters are given, it is likely that the impact of photo-radar on speed characteristics, such
as the mean and 85th percentile speeds, will be different from that reported in this study.


1. The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems by Muhammad Ali Mazidi and

Janice Gillispie Mazidi , Pearson Education.

2. ATMEL 89S52 Data Sheets.