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PART 6-TEXT COMPLETION

These are the directions for Part 6 of the new TOEIC@test. Study them now. If you
understand these directions now, you will not have to read them on the test.

PART 6

Directions: Read the texts that follow. A word or phrase is missing in some of the sentences. Four
answer choices are given below each of the sentences. Select the best answer to complete the
text. Then mark the letter (A), (8), (C), or (0) on your answer sheet.

In this section, you will learn the most common types of items in the text completion
passages in Part 6. A text completion passage is a passage with words deleted. You
will need to understand the whole passage to choose the correct word to complete the
blank.
You will find the items you studied in Part 5 useful for Part 6. In this section, you will
study other common types of items found on Part 6.
words in context
pronouns
subject-verb agreement
modal auxiliaries
adjective comparisons
gerunds or infinitives

TEXT COMPLETION 129


WORDS IN CONTEXT

In Part 6 in the new TOEIC, you will have to choose a word that is the correct word in
the context of the passage. You will have to be able to recognize words that carry the
meaning in both a positive and a negative context.

STRATEGIES FOR WORDS IN CONTEXT

ASK YOURSELF THESE QUESTIONS:


Should the missing word carry a meaning similar to the positive
context?
We worked all last night to finish the project on time.
INCORRECT [Our clock was this morning.)
CORRECT Our deadline was this morning.

Should the missing word carry a meaning similar to the negative


context?
She never gave her friends anything.
INCORRECT [She wasn't very loyal.]
CORRECT She wasn't very generalis.

Practice

Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. You have not paid your invoices in three months. CD CD @ 0


Interest of 16.8% is being applied to your balance.
(A) upstanding
(B) remunerated
(C) remainder
(D) overdue
2. Members must be single and earn at least $2 million CD CD @ @
a year. If you meet these qualifications, you are
for membership.
(A) eligible
(B) titled
(C) inadequate
(D) financed

130 READING
3. Ms. Jones worked for the company for just two CD CD @ @
weeks before she unexpectedly left. We will never
know whether she was terminated or whether she
(A) fired
(B) resigned
(C) hired
(0) applied

4. Some people don't know how to eat properly. CD CD @ @


Their table manners are
(A) attractive
(B) shameful
(C) appealing
(0) edifying

5. We are unable to respond to your request at this time. CD CD @ @


We will try to you within the week.
(A) ignore
(B) get back to
(C) delay
(D) turn around
6. If you have any comments or suggestions, do not CD CD @ @
hesitate to let us know. We look forward to hearing
your
(A) feedback
(B) talk
(C) complaints
(D) problems
7. The highway is under repair, and traffic is often CD CD @ @
at a standstill. You might find it to take the
underground train.
(A) inconvenient
(B) faster
(C) inadvisable
(0) idle

8. We never thought the meeting would be so long and CD CD @ @


boring. Next time let's make it shorter and more
(A) dull
(B) interesting
(C) curious
(0) lengthy

TEXT COMPLETION 131


9. At our new headquarters, we finally have more CD CD CD (0
than enough room for everyone. Our offices are
modern and
(A) traditional
(B) undersized
(C) overcrowded
(D) spacious
10. The way you do business is hardly effective or efficient. CD CD CD @
In fact, you are the most manager in our company.
(A) capable
(B) talented
(C) incompetent
(D) accomplished

PRONOUNS

Words that take the place of nouns or noun phrases are pronouns.

SUBJECT PRONOUNS I, YOll, she, he, it, we, they


OBJECT PRONOUNS me, YOll, her, him, it, llS, them
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES my, YOllr, her, his, its, our, their
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS mine, yours, hers, his, its, Ollrs, theirs
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ollrselves,
yourselves, themselves

STRATEGIES FOR PRONOUN ITEMS

ASK YOURSELFTHESEQUESTIONS:

Does the pronoun agree with the noun it replaces in number (singular
or plural)?
INCORRECT [l made the mistake, so I will correct them.]
CORRECT I made the mistake, so I will correct it.
Does the pronoun agree with the noun it replaces in gender (he, she,
or it)?
INCORRECT [We waited for Mrs. Baxter, but he was late.]
CORRECT We waited for Mrs. Baxter, but she was late.
Does the pronoun agree with the noun it replaces grammatically
(subject, object, possessive, or reflexive)?
INCORRECT [My boss asked myself to work late.]
CORRECT My boss asked me to work late.

132 READING
Practice

Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. The doors and windows are open. Shut if CD CD @ @


you want.
(A) it
(B) her
(C) their
(0) them
2. I finished the job alone. I worked all night by CD CD @ @
(A) it
(B) its
(C) me
(D) myself
3. These books are , and the ones on the desk CD CD @ @
are mine.
(A) you
(B) your
(C) yours
(D) yourself
4. My sister's husband is an architect. designed CD CD @ @
my house.
(A) He
(B) She
(C) You
(D) It
5. My mother talked to me yesterday, but I didn't tell CD CD @ @
I was sick.
(A) him
(B) she
(C) her
(D) it
6. I get too many e-mails. I can't read all. CD CD @ @
(A) them
(B) myself
(C) mine
(D) its

TEXT COMPLETION 133


7. We wanted to arrive before dinner, but flight CD CD @ @

was delayed.
(A) it
(B) its
(C) our
(0) ours
8. Read these papers, sign your name on the bottom of CD CD @ @
each page, and then fax to the lawyer.
(A) her
(B) it
(C) his
(D) them
9. You should have gone to the airport to meet the CD CD @ @
client. She didn't know where to go.
(A) herself
(B) her
(C) yourself
(0) you
10. If the weather is nice, we'll have the meeting outdoors. CD CD @ @
If isn't, we won't.
(A) our
(B) ourselves
(C) it
(0) its

134 READING
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

The subject and verb of a sentence or clause must agree in number (singular, plural)
and person (first, second, third).

STRATEGIES FOR SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT ITEMS


ASK YOURSElF THESEQUESTIONS:

Is the noun a collective noun? Is it considered a unit? If so, is the verb


singular?
INCORRECT [The committee are meeting again on Monday
morning.]
CORRECT The committee is meeting again on Monday
morning.
Is the noun a collective noun that refers to single, separate elements? Is
it considered plural? If so, is the verb plural?
INCORRECT [The police is currently investigating the
situation.]
CORRECT The police are currently investigating the
situation.
Is the noun ending in -5 considered singular? If so, is the verb singular?
INCORRECT [The news have not been good lately.]
CORRECT The news has not been good lately.

Is there a phrase that separates the subject from the verb? If so, have
you found the verb? Have you found the subject of that verb? Do they
agree?
INCORRECT [The price of our goods are lower than that of
our competitors.]
CORRECT The price of our goods ~ lower than that of our
competitors.

TEXT COMPLETION 135


Practice

Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. We are interviewing everyone who __ interest CD CD CD @


in the job.
(A) express
(B) expresses
(C) expressing
(0) to express

2. This group of doctors in important research. CD QD CD @


(A) is involved
(B) are involved
(C) be involving
(0) been involving
3. Ma thema tics not easy for my brother. CD QD CD @
(A) was
(B) were
(C) are
(0) be
4. The results of our efforts to get more business CD QD CD @
been successful.
(A) is
(B) are
(C) has
(0) have
5. The computers that were ordered last week on CD QD CD @
solar power.
(A) run
(B) runs
(C) running
(0) to run
6. The trade newsletter where we advertise widely CD QD CD @
distributed.
(A) has
(B) have
(C) is
(0) are

136 READING
7. My family to open a restaurant soon. CD CD @ @
(A) plans
(B) plan
(C) planning
(D) planner
8. The United States taxes to develop the CD CD @ @
infrastructure for commerce.
(A) raise
(8) raises
(C) rise
(D) risen
9. The accountant determined how much money CD CD @ @
spent on this project.
(A) was
(8) were
(C) is
(0) be
10. The government to send a team of consultants CD CD @ @
to work with the farmers.
(A) want
(8) wants
(C) wanting
(D) to want

TEXT COMPLETION 137


MODAL AUXILIARIES

Modal auxiliaries are "helping" words that give specific meaning to and indicate the
tense of the verb. Examples of modal auxiliaries are:
PRESENT/FUTURE PAST/INDIRECT SPEECH MODAL PERFECTS
shal1*/will would will/would have
can could could have
may/might might may/might have
should should should have
ought to ought to ought to have
must had to must have
'Shall was traditionally used for the future in British English in the first and third persons. Today, will is
more common. Shall is used in both British and American English in formal speech to make an offer or a
suggestion in the form of a question: Shall I answer the phone for you? Shall we take another look at the budget?
It is generally not tested on the new TOEIe.

STRATEGIES FOR MODAL AUXILIARY ITEMS

ASK YOURSElF THESE QUESTIONS:

Is the main verb of the sentence in the present tense? If so, is there a
modal in a present form in the subordinate clause?
INCORRECT [He is sure he could meet us there.)
CORRECT He is sure he can meet us there.

Is the main verb of the sentence in the past tense? If so, is there a modal
in a past form in the subordinate clause?
INCORRECT [He thought he will retire soon.]
CORRECT He thought he would retire soon.

Has the action of the verb in the subordinate clause occurred before
the action of the main verb? If so, is there a modal perfect in the
subordinate clause?
INCORRECT [I think that 1might make a mistake yesterday.]
CORRECT 1think that 1might have made a mistake
yesterday.

138 READING
Practice

Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

l. The company hired a public relations firm which CD CD @ @


improve their image.
(A) will have
(B) ought to have
(C) may have
(0) could

2. The management is meeting to determine who CD CD @ @


promoted.
(A) must
(B) will be
(C) could have been
(0) might have
3. She was told she would have seniority. and ask CD CD @ @
for more vacation time.
(A) could
(B) could have
(C) can
(0) will
4. The committee could not agree on what action CD CD @ @
taken.
(A) would have been
(B) ought to have
(C) should be
(0) had to
5. We follow these steps to use the new CD CD @ @
photocopier.
(A) could have
(B) would
(C) ought to have
(0) must
6. I would do it if I could, but I can't, so I even try. CD CD @ @
(A) had not to
(B) won't
(C) ought to
(0) must have

TEXT COMPLETION 139


remarkable people to have CD CD CD @
7. Our ancestors
lived with such hardships.
(A) could have been
(B) must have been
(C) should be
(0) will be
CD CD CD @
8. You should have told me sooner so that I
helped you.
(A) could have
(B) ought to
(C) can
(0) must
9. Once you eat here, you pleased with the service CD CD CD @
and the food.
(A) had to be
(B) might have been
(C) could have been
(0) will be
10. The new software we plan to install make our CD CD CD @
department more productive.
(A) will
(B) would have
(C) might have
(0) had to

140 READING
ADJECTIVE COMPARISONS
Comparisons are used to compare only two things. There are three different structures
to use for comparisons:
1. If the adjective is one syllable (tall), add -er (taller).
2. If the adjective is two syllables and ends with -y (busy), change the y to i and then
add -er (busier).
3. If the adjective is two syllables or more (handsome/expensive), put more before it
(more handsome/more expensive).
If the people or things being compared are used in the sentence, put than after the
comparative form (taller than/busier than/more expensive than).

Superlatives are used to compare three or more things:


1. If the adjective is one syllable (tall), add -est (tallest). Also put the before it (the tallest).
2. If the adjective is two syllables and ends with -y (busy), change the y to i and then
add -est (busiest). Also put the before it (the busiest).
3. If the adjective is two syllables or more (handsome/expensive), put the most before
it (the most handsome/the most expensive).

STRATEGIES FOR ADJECTIVE COMPARISON ITEMS


ASK YOURSELF THESE QUESTIONS:
Is it a comparison of two things? If so, is thall used?
INCORRECT [He seems more qualified then he is.]
CORRECT He seems more qualified than he is.
Is it a comparison of more than two things? If so, does the precede the
adjective?
INCORRECT [Our company submitted highest bid.]
CORRECT Our company submitted the highest bid.
Are two equal things being compared? If so, is as + adjective + as being
used?
INCORRECT [They are not experienced as they could be.]
CORRECT They are not as experienced as they could be.
Is there an irregular adjective form? If so, be sure to memorize it.
IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES COMPARATIVE FORMS SUPERLATIVE FORMS
good better best
bad worse worst
far farther, further farthest, furthest
little less least
mallY, much //lore most
INCORRECT [This is the good evaluation I've ever gotten.]
CORRECT This is the best evaluation I've ever gotten.

TEXT COMPLETION 141


Practice

Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

1. He was qualified of all the applicants. CD CD CD 0


(A) less
(B) the least
(C) least
(D) the less

2. Stock prices are they were last week. CD CD CD 0


(A) the highest
(B) high
(C) higher
(0) higher than
3. person in our community is the mayor. CD CD CD 0
(A) The most famous
(B) The more famous
(C) Famous
(0) More famous

4. The benefits are now than last year. CD CD CD 0


(A) good
(B) better
(C) best
(D) the best
5. This restaurant serves food that I've ever eaten. CD CD CD 0
(A) the bad
(B) worse
(C) the worst
(0) worst
6. The proposal wasn't ours. CD CD CD 0
(A) as
(B) as complete
(C) complete as
(0) as complete as
7. When she was than I am now, she started her CD CD CD 0
own company.
(A) young
(B) younger
(C) youngest
(0) the most young

142 READING
8. Mr. Nakamura, addition to our company, CD QD CD @
is a grea t golfer.
(A) a newest
(B) the newest
(C) new
(D) newer
9. late than never. CD QD CD @
(A) Good
(B) Better
(C) Best
(0) The best

10. Press button to call the nurse. CD QD CD @


(A) topmore
(B) topmost
(C) the topmore
(D) the topmost

GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES

Gerunds (-ing words) and infinitives (to + verb) are verb forms that can be used as
nouns. They can be used as subjects, objects, or objects of prepositions. When they are
used as direct objects, you have to look at the main verb to decide whether to use the
gerund or infinitive form. You can find lists of these special verbs in most grammar
reference books.

STRATEGIES FOR GERUND OR INFINITIVE ITEMS

ASK YOURSELF THESE QUESTIONS:

Is the main verb one that can only be followed by a gerund (admit,
consider, enjoy, regret, etc.)? If so, is the direct object in the gerund (-illg)
form?
INCORRECT [Charlie regrets to take that extra piece of pie.]
CORRECT Charlie regrets taking that extra piece of pie.

Is the main verb one that can only be followed by an infinitive (afford,
ask, decide, expect, etc.)? If so, is the direct object in the infinitive (to ... )
form?
INCORRECT [We expect finishing before the deadline.]
CORRECT We expect to finish before the deadline.

TEXT COMPLETION 143


Practice

Mark the choice that best completes the sentence.

to CD CD CD @
1. The new accountant is considering
another department.
(A) to transfer
(B) transferring
(C) transferred
(0) transfer
2. Mr. Smith wanted his coworkers. CD CD CD @
(A) to meet
(B) meeting
(C) met
(D) meet
3. We forgot the door when we left. CD CD CD @
(A) locked
(B) locking
(C) lock
(0) to lock
4. They had lunch until tomorrow. CD CD CD @
(A) postpone
(B) to postpone
(C) postponing
(0) to be postponed
5. The doctor told him to avoid meat. CD CD CD @
(A) eating
(B) eat
(C) eaten
(D) to eat
6. We offered for coffee during the break. CD CD CD @
(A) to go
(B) going
(C) gone
(D) went

--

144 READING
7. Jack admitted home office equipment for his CD CD @ @
personal use.
(A) to take
(B) taking
(C) take
(0) took
8. The new employee promised not late again. CD CD @ @
(A) to be
(B) being
(C) be
(0) been
9. I hope the MBA program at Harvard. CD CD @ @
(A) entered
(B) enter
(C) entering
(D) to enter
10. Stop your money. CD CD @ @
(A) to waste
(B) wasted
(C) wasting
(0) waste

TEXT COMPLETION 145


STRATEGY REVIEW

Review these strategies for Part 6 of the new TOEIC test.


For words-in-context items, ask yourself:
Should the missing word carry a meaning similar to the positive context?
Should the missing word carry a meaning similar to the negative context?

For pronoun items, ask yourself:


Does the pronoun agree with the noun it replaces in number (singular or
plural)?
Does the pronoun agree with the noun it replaces in gender (he, she, or it)?
Does the pronoun agree with the noun it replaces grammatically (subject,
object, possessive, or reflexive)?
For subject-verb items, ask yourself:
Is the noun a collective noun and considered a unit with a singular verb?
Is the noun a collective noun and considered singular with a plural verb?
Is the noun ending in -s considered singular with a singular verb?
Is there a phrase that separates the verb from the subject?
For modal auxiliary items, ask yourself:
If the main verb of the sentence is in the present tense, is there a modal in a
present form in the subordinate clause?
If the main verb of the sentence is in the past tense, is there a modal in a past
form in the subordinate clause?
If the action of the verb in the subordinate clause occurred before the action of
the main verb, is there a modal perfect in the subordinate clause?
For adjective comparison items, ask yourself:
Are two things compared using than?
Are more than two things compared, and does the precede the adjective?
Are all things being compared, and is the superlative being used?
Are two things being compared equally with as + adjective + as?
Is there an irregular adjective form?
For gerund or infinitive items, ask yourself:
Can the main verb only be followed by a gerund?
Can the main verb only be followed by an infinitive?

146 READING
STRATEGY PRACTICE
DIRECTIONS: Read the following passages and choose the word or phrase that best
completes the blanks. Use the strategies you have learned.

Questions 1-4 refer to the following letter.

624 South Wells Street


Reno, Nevada 89400

Mr. Norm Thompson


97 Vine Circle
Reno, Nevada 89400

Dear Mr. Thompson:

I want to rent an apartment. My friend says that you are a good _


1. (A) landlord
(B) occupant
(C) tenant
(0) painter

and that you own apartments in different parts of the city. Can I rent an apartment
from you?

My family needs a new place to live. We love our . It's quiet, and
2. (A) neighbor
(B) neighborly
(C) neighboring
(0) neighborhood

it's close to my job. However, our apartment is small for us. There
3. (A) too
(8) a lot
(C) some
(0) enough

are four of us: my wife, our two children, and me. We need a larger apartment. We
are looking for one with three bedrooms and a large kitchen.

We live near Plumas Pass,and we would like to stay in this area. If you have an
apartment in Plumas Passthat is now, please let me know. Thank
you for your help. 4. (A) distant
(8) occupied
(C) available
(0) expensive

Sincerely,

Fabian Ricardo

TEXT COMPLETION 147


Questions 5-8 refer to the following article.

M ontalvo Industries
over the next 6 months.
announced Friday that it take on 100 new
5. (A) employees
(B) merchants
(C) customers
(0) products

"Our market is expanding," said company CEO Shirley Henrico, "so we need to
______ our production. That's why we need to hire more workers." The
6. (A) grow
(B) more
(C) bigger
(0) increase
company plans a new, larger factory on the outskirts of the city,
7. (A) build
(B) builds
(C) to build
(0) building
which will be equipped with all the latest technology. "We are building a very modern
factory," said Ms. Henrico. "We are very proud of _
8. (A) us
(B) it
(C) me
(0) him

148 READING
Questions 9-12 refer to the following advertisement.

The Stardust Cinema announces the third annual

Festival of Films
9. (A) Classic
(B) National
(C) Cartoon
(0) International

September 20-27

We will show the best films of this year


from all around the world.

See your favorite foreign actors perform


in our comfortable, modern theater.
_____ will be four different shows every day.
10. (A) There
(B) They
(C) We
(0) It

Tickets are $10 a show, or $35 for four shows.

Children 12-17 years old


must be accompanied an adult.
11. (A) to
(B) by
(C) for
(0) with

Children under 12 will not be _


12. (A) treated'
(B) educated
(C) admitted
(0) employed

TEXT COMPLETION 149