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Electromagnetic Wave Plane

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Cheng

Field and Wave Electromagnetics

Chapter 8

Plane Electromagnetic Waves

8-1 Introduction

The dAlembert equation (second order differential equation):

A free wave equation

kx)) can be immediately derived from the dAlembert equation.

1983,

(198310211/299,792,458)

c

kx))

Uniform plane wave: the field with the same direction, same

magnitude, and same phase in infinite planes (perpendicular to the

direction of propagation)

Wavefront: the surface of constant phase

Note:

The uniform plane wave does not exist in practice. A very small

portion of the surface of a giant spherical wave can be identified

as a uniform plane wave.

spherical wave can also be a free electromagnetic wave because it

also fulfills the above dAlembert equation.

Fields and their units in electromagnetics

Unit in MKSA

Symbols Field Quantities Units

( )

E Electric field strength V/m mkgs-3A-1

Electric Electric flux density

D C / m2 m-2sA

(Electric displacement vector)

Magnetic flux density

B T kgs-2A-1

Magnetic (Magnetic induction strength)

H Magnetic field strength A/m m-1A

s Conductivity (electric conductivity) S/m m-3kg-1s3A2

Material

Properties

e Permittivity (electric permittivity) F/m m-3kg-1s4A2

m Permeability (magnetic permeability) H/m mkgs-2A-2

C: Charles Augustin de Coulomb, 17361806, France

T: Nikola Tesla, 18561943, Croatia-USA

A: Andr-Marie Ampre, 17751836, France

S: Ernst Werner Siemens, 18161892, German

F: Michael Faraday, 17911867, UK

H: Joseph Henry, 17971878, USA

8-2 Plane Waves in Lossless Media

Free-space wavenumber

The first and the second terms

represent the forward (propagating

in the +z direction) and the backward

(propagating in the -z direction)

A simplest case: a uniform E travelling waves, respectively.

vector is perpendicular to z

amplitude and phase information but

is independent of time t (D. K. Cheng,

p. 337) .

The real electric field of a travelling wave (propagating in the +z direction):

If we fix our attention on a particular point (with a constant phase) on the wave

Wavenumber in vacuum:

p. 357)

A simple plane electromagnetic wave: E, H, k form a right-handed system.

respectively. (D. K. Cheng, p. 357) E, H, k form a right-handed system.

Magnetic field and impedance

of the free vacuum

e0 109 the magnitudes of E and H is the

In SI units 36 intrinsic impedance of the medium.

m0 4 107 (D. K. Cheng, p. 358)

The relation between E and H for any plane waves in media

(D. K. Cheng, p. 363)

8-2.3 Polarization of Plane Waves

Linearly polarized light: Ex/Ey is fixed (i.e., independent of

spacetime coordinate).

If, for example, Ex=3cos(kz), Ey=5cos(kz), it is a linearly

polarized light, because Ex/Ey=3/5=constant.

because Ex and Ey agree with an elliptical equation.

Elliptically and circularly polarized light:

Right-hand or positive circularly

polarized light

Fig. 8-5(a) (D. K. Cheng, p. 365)

polarized light (D. K. Cheng, p. 366)

of a right-hand and a left-hand circularly polarized wave

of equal amplitude (D. K. Cheng, p. 366-367)

8-3 Plane Waves in Lossy Media

Helmholtzs equation

Note: is the propagation constant (p. 367) and is the phase constant (p.

368).

8-3.1 Low-Loss Dielectrics ( )

Simplified under the condition of low-loss dielectrics (good but imperfect

insulators) (D. K. Cheng, p. 368)

to 1/e when the wave travels a 1-metre distance.

Note: is the propagation constant (p. 367) and is the phase constant (p.

368).

8-3.2 Good Conductors ( )

Simplified under the condition of good conductors

(D. K. Cheng, p. 369)

A high-frequency electromagnetic wave is attenuated very rapidly as it

propagates in a good Conductor. (D. K. Cheng, p. 370)

copper). Thus, the fields and the electric currents can be considered

as confined in a very thin layer of the conductor surface (Skin

Effect). (D. K. Cheng, p. 370)

8-3.3 Ionized Gases

Ionized gases with equal electron and ion densities are called plasmas.

Plasma oscillation: the permittivity is

zero when the frequency approaches

the plasma frequency, and D vanishes

(whereas E is nonzero). In this case, it

would be possible for an oscillating E to

exist in the absence of free charges.

(D. K. Cheng, p. 374)

The plasma frequency is also referred to as the cutoff frequency.

When f is smaller than the cutoff frequency, the propagation constant

is a real number, and the electromagnetic wave will decay in this

plasma.

When f is larger than the cutoff frequency, the propagation constant is

a purely imaginary number, and the electromagnetic wave will

propagate unattenuated in this plasma. (D. K. Cheng, p. 374)

8-4 Group Velocity

Dispersion: Dependence of the phase velocity and the refractive index on frequency

Phase velocity: the velocity of propagation of an equiphase wavefront.

Group velocity: the velocity of propagation of a wave-packet envelope (of a group of

frequencies) (D. K. Cheng, p. 376)

Three cases of dispersion (D. K. Cheng, p. 378)

8-5 Flow of Electromagnetic Power and the

Poynting Vector

Poyntings law is a law of energy conservation.

It should be emphasized that the law of energy

conservation has already been involved in

Maxwells equations.

The Poynting law is a law of energy conservation.

Eq. (8-81) is a differential form of the Poynting law, and Eq. (8-82) is an

integral form.

Poynting vector (energy flow density): The power per unit area

(power density)

8-6 Normal Incidence at a Plane Conducting Boundary

(A uniform plane wave is incident normally on a perfect conductor)

Perfect conductor

Lossless medium (conductivity=+)

(conductivity=0)

A definition of phase quadrature is given by

conductor), H is zero. Thus, H is discontinuous across z=0. This means that

there is a surface current on the boundary (at z=0).

(8-102) shows that E is continuous across the surface at z=0.

8-7 Oblique Incidence at a Plane Conducting Boundary

Perfect conductor

Lossless medium

(conductivity=+)

(conductivity=0)

Incidence plane:

The incident wave vector K

and the normal n (of the

interface) form the

incidence plane

1) E is perpendicular to the plane of incidence

2) E is parallel to the plane of incidence

Fig. 8-11 (perpendicular polarization)

E is perpendicular to the plane of

incidence.

DISCUSSIONS: (Oblique incidence of perpendicular polarization)

E is perpendicular to the plane of

incidence.

8-7.2 Parallel polarization

E is parallel to the plane of

incidence.

DISCUSSIONS: (Oblique incidence of parallel polarization)

8-8 Normal Incidence at a Plane Dielectric Boundary

(electric conductivity=0)

A simple case:

8-10 Oblique Incidence at a Plane Dielectric Boundary

(electric conductivity=0)

8-10.2 Perpendicular polarization

Fig. 8-20

Perpendicular polarization

(E is perpendicular to the

plane of incidence)

A simple case:

Brewster angle for perpendicular polarization

(D. K. Cheng, p. 414)

perpendicular polarization) has no

potential applications because the

denominator would be zero.

8-10.3 Parallel polarization

Fig. 8-21

Parallel polarization

(E is parallel to the plane of

incidence)

Brewster angle for parallel polarization

(D. K. Cheng, p. 416)

An application of the Brewster angle (D. K. Cheng, p. 416) :

Since the formulae of the Brewster angles for perpendicular

and parallel polarizations are different, it is possible to separate

these two types of polarizations in an unpolarized wave.

For example, the perpendicularly polarized wave is reflected, while the

parallelly polarized wave is refracted.

Applications

Brewster windows

Gas lasers use a window tilted at Brewster's angle to allow the beam to leave

the laser tube. Since the window reflects some s-polarized light but no p-

polarized light, the round trip loss for the s polarization is higher than that of

the p polarization. This causes the laser's output to be p polarized due to

competition between the two modes.

Photographers use the same principle to remove reflections from

glass so that they can photograph objects beneath the surface.

different angles. In the picture at left, the polarizer is aligned with the polarization

angle of the window reflection. In the picture at right, the polarizer has been rotated

90eliminating the heavily polarized reflected sunlight.

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