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AM 2540


Aim of the experiment:

To measure flow velocity in the in the wake region behind
the circular cylinder and plot the non-dimensional velocity
distribution in a plane behind the cylinder.
1. Wind tunnel: used to study the effects of air moving
past solid objects.
2. Prandtl manometer or (digital micro-manometer): used
to measure the velocity of fluids.
3. Betz manometer: instrument to measure low air or gas
4. Circular cylinder: the solid object.
5. Wall tap.
6. Pitot probe: A pitot tube can be used in the wind
tunnel to measure the velocity of the tunnel. The
assumption we have to make is that the static pressure is
constant everywhere in a uniform free-stream inside the
wind tunnel. This is a reasonable assumption considering
that there is no pressure loss, therefore, no pressure
gradient, in the system
External flows past objects have been studied extensively
because of their many practical applications. Flow past a
blunt body, such as a circular cylinder, usually
experiences boundary layer separation and very strong
flow oscillations in the wake region behind the body. In
certain Reynolds number range, a periodic flow motion
will develop in the wake as a result of boundary layer
vortices being shed alternatively from either side of the
cylinder. This regular pattern of vortices in the wake is
called a Karman vortex street. It creates an oscillating
flow at a discrete frequency that is correlated to the
Reynolds number of the flow. The periodic nature of the
vortex shedding phenomenon can sometimes lead to
unwanted structural vibrations, especially when the
shedding frequency matches one of the resonant
frequencies of the structure. In this experiment, we are
going to investigate the flow past a circular cylinder and
measure the velocity of flow field in the wake of the
Flow Separation:
The presence of the fluid viscosity slows down the fluid
particles very close to the solid surface and forms a thin
slow-moving fluid layer called a boundary layer. The flow
velocity is zero at the surface to satisfy the no-slip
boundary condition. Inside the boundary layer, flow
momentum is quite low since it experiences a strong
viscous flow resistance. Therefore, the boundary layer
flow is sensitive to the external pressure gradient (as the
form of a pressure force acting upon fluid particles). If
the pressure decreases in the direction of the flow, the
pressure gradient is said to be favorable. In this case,
the pressure force can assist the fluid movement and
there is no flow retardation. However, if the pressure is
increasing in the direction of the flow, an adverse
pressure gradient condition as so it is called exist. In
addition to the presence of a strong viscous force, the
fluid particles now have to move against the increasing
pressure force. Therefore, the fluid particles could be
stopped or reversed, causing the neighboring particles to
move away from the surface. This phenomenon is called
the boundary layer separation.

Consider a fluid particle flows within the boundary layer
around the circular cylinder. From the pressure
distribution measured in an earlier experiment, the
pressure is a maximum at the stagnation point and
gradually decreases along the front half of the cylinder.
The flow stays attached in this favorable pressure region
as expected. However, the pressure starts to increase in
the rear half of the cylinder and the particle now
experiences an adverse pressure gradient. Consequently,
the flow separates from the surface and creating a highly
turbulent region behind the cylinder called the wake. The
pressure inside the wake region remains low as the flow
separates and a net pressure force (pressure drag) is

Vortex Shedding:
The boundary layer separates from the surface forms a
free shear layer and is highly unstable. This shear layer
will eventually roll into a discrete vortex and detach from
the surface (a phenomenon called vortex shedding).
Another type of flow instability emerges as the shear
layer vortices shed from both the top and bottom
surfaces interact with one another. They shed
alternatively from the cylinder and generates a regular
vortex pattern (the Karman vortex street) in the wake.
The vortex shedding occurs at a discrete frequency and is
a function of the Reynolds number. The dimensionless
frequency of the vortex shedding, the shedding Strouhal
number is approximately equal to 0.21 when the
Reynolds number is greater than 1,000.
The following image shows a developing stage within a
vortex shedding cycle. Vortices are shed alternatively
from the upper and lower surfaces of the cylinder,
creating this periodic flow pattern. Color-code is used to
indicate the strength of the flow vorticity.

The experiment is arranged in the wind tunnel. One is
expected to wait for at least 15 to 20 min after the wind
tunnel motor is turned on. Total pressure is measured at
various locations, (y mm), along the y axis in the wake
zone with the help of Pitot probe and a digital micro-
manometer or Prandtl manometer. Free stream static
pressure is measured from the wall tap with the help of
Betz manometer and the values are listed in the
observation table.
y (in Total pr. Free Flow y/d U/U
mm) Head stream velocity
(hp mm static pr. (U, m/s)
Wc) head (hb
mm Wc)
257 221858 406568. 176.11 10.2 12.07
5 8 8
255 227018 404504. 178.70 10.2 12.25
0 8 0
253 179550 405536. 154.24 10.1 10.57
6 7 2
251 196061 402441. 163.61 10.0 11.19
0 1 4
246 208443 401409. 169.72 9.84 11.63
8 1
241 227018 399345. 178.94 9.64 12.26
0 3
236 248687 400377. 188.87 9.44 12.94
9 2
231 252815 399345. 190.88 9.24 13.08
5 3
226 254879 399345. 191.81 9.04 13.15
3 3
221 243528 398313. 186.72 8.84 12.79
4 3
216 227018 398313. 179.01 8.64 12.27
0 3
211 208443 398313. 169.88 8.44 11.64
8 3
259 149625 397281. 137.15 10.3 9.40
5 5 6
261 134147 397281. 127.12 10.4 8.71
0 5 4
266 119700 398313. 116.92 10.6 8.01
4 3 4
271 108349 397281. 108.32 10.8 7.42
5 5 4
276 980305 397281. 99.89 11.0 6.84
5 4
281 877115 395217. 90.82 11.2 6.22



U/U 8

8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12