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MAT 455

A) SEQUENCES

Definition

Further Calculus for Engineers

CHAPTER 1: SEQUENCES AND SERIES

A sequence can be thought of as a list of number written in a definite order:

a a

,

1

2

,

a a

3

,

4

, , a , n
,
,
a
,
n

The numbers in a sequence are called the terms of the sequences.

Notation:

The sequence

a1 , a2 , a3 ,

sequences. Notation: The sequence  a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ,  is

is also denoted by:

a

n

or

a

n n 1

.

Sequence can be classified into 2 groups:

a) Finite sequence a sequence that contains finite number of terms.

a

n

k

n

n 1

a a

,

1

2

,

a

3

, a k
,
a
k

b) Infinite sequence a sequence that contains infinite number of terms.

Example 1.1:

a

n

n 

n 1

a a

,

1

2

,

a

3

,
,

Express the following sequence in the form

a



n

n n 1

.

Term of Sequence

 

Formula

 

Notation

 
 

3,5,7,…

a

n

2 n 1

2

n 1

     

n

1

 

1

2

3 4

a

 

2

,,,, 3 4 5

2 ,,,, 3 4 5   n
 

n

 

1

2 3

4

,
,

a

n

 
 

 
 

2

,

3 , 4

,

5

2

3

4

5

,
,

a

n

 

3

,

,

9 27 , 81

 
 
0,1, 2, 3,
0,1, 2, 3,

0,1, 2, 3,

  0,1, 2, 3, a n   

a

n

 

Convergence and divergence of sequences

a  n  a) A sequence  n n  1 is said to
a
n 
a) A sequence 
n n  1
is said to converge if and only if
lim a
 L
n 
n
(limit exist)
a
 n

b) A sequence 
n n  1
does not converge to some finite limit is said to
diverge , that
lim a
n 
n 
(limit does not exist)
to some finite limit is said to diverge , that lim a n  n 
to some finite limit is said to diverge , that lim a n  n 

MAT 455

Further Calculus for Engineers

Properties of Limit

If an  and bn  are convergent sequences and c is a constant, then:
If an  and bn  are convergent sequences and c is a constant, then:
lim   lim  lim
a
b
n
b
lim   lim  lim
a

n
n
n

n
n

n
a)
a
b
a
b
n 
n
n
n

n
n

n
b)
lim  lim
ca
c
a
n

n
n

n
c)
lim  lim  lim
a b
a
b
n

n n
n

n
n

n
d)
lim a
n
lim
n
n 
if lim
b 
0
n

   a b
   
lim
b
n
n

n
n
n 
e)
p
lim
a n
p 
lim
a
if p
0
and a
0
 
n
 
n
n

n

f)
g)
If lim
a
 L
h)
n 
n
and the function f is continuous at L, then
lim f a
 lim
f
lim a 
f L
n
n
n

n

n


If

lim

n 

a

n

0

, then

lim a 0

n

n 

We can use L’Hopital rules in finding the limit of a sequence.

Example 1.2.1:

Find the limit of the following.

a)

e)

i)

lim

n

2

2

n

5 n 6

n

2

n

2 n

lim sin ne n

n

0

lim

n 

1

n

n

b)

lim

n

 4

n n   16 4

2

f)

lim

n

3

2ln 4 n 11

2

n

9

j) lim sin

n



   n   

c)

g)

5 n  3 n 3 lim 10 n  n  n  3
5 n  3 n
3
lim 10
n

n  n 
3
2
2
1
4
n
3
lim
n 
sin
1
n

d)

h)

lim

n



lim

n

0

4

n

5

2 n 2 n 7

2

4

n

2

1 cos n

2

n

a,b):

c,d): divide each term in numerator & denominator with highest power of x that occur

in denominator and e,f,g,h): use L’Hopital rules

cancel all common factor

power of x that occur in denominator and e,f,g,h): use L’Hopital rules cancel all common factor
power of x that occur in denominator and e,f,g,h): use L’Hopital rules cancel all common factor

MAT 455

Further Calculus for Engineers

Example 1.2.2:

Determine whether the following sequence converge or diverge.

a)

n

2 n 3

n

1

b)

 

3

n n 1

2

 

n

1

c)

ln n    n  1

n 1

Theorem 1.2:

n r  1    r  1 1 b) a) lim lim
n
r
 1
   r 
1
1
b) a) lim lim lim r r    1 0 if
c)
n

if
 converge
n

n 

n

if r 1

converge

r

n

r

1 r

1 or

r 

1

diverge

Example 1.3:

Determine whether the following sequence converge or diverge.

a)

  2  

  5  

n

n

1

Theorem 1.3:

b)

1.07

n

n

1

c)

  1  

  4  

n

n

1

d)

  7  

  3  

n

n

1

A sequence an  is : n n   1 1   a
A sequence an  is :
n n   1 1   a a   a a   a a    a  a
1
a) Increasing if
a a   a a
n
2
3
for all
n
n  n 1  1
1
2
3
b) Decreasing if
for all
n
n  1
c) Monotonic if it is either increasing or decreasing

Example 1.4:

Determine whether the following sequence is increasing, decreasing or monotonic.

a)

3

   n 5  

n

1

b)

n

   n 1  

2

n

1

c)

  n 3  

n

2

n

1

  n  1    2  n  1 c)  
  n  1    2  n  1 c)  

MAT 455

Further Calculus for Engineers

B) SERIES

Definition

An infinite series is a summation of terms in an infinite sequence, i.e

where

k 1

a

a , a

1

k

2

, a

a

1

3

,
,

a

2

a

3

a  k
a
k

are the terms of the series.

S

n

is a summation of n terms (partial sum of series) and S n is the sequence of partial

sum, then:

S

S

S a a a

1

a

1 1 1

2

3

a a

2 2

3

S n

n

k 1

a

k

a

1

a

2

a

3

a n
a
n
 lim S  L a) If the sequence of partial sum S n 
 lim S  L
a) If the sequence of partial sum S n  converge to limit L
n

n
,
 a
 a
 L
The series
k
is converge  the sum of series is L or
k
k  1
k  1
S

 a
b) If lim
n 
n
 Series
k
is diverge
k  1
k k  1 k  1 S   a  b) If lim n
k k  1 k  1 S   a  b) If lim n

MAT 455

A) Geometric Series

Type of Series

Further Calculus for Engineers

A geometric series

n 1

ar

n

1

a ar ar ar

2

3

 ar k  1
ar
k
1

where a 0

a) Converges if

b) Diverges if

r

1 1

r

, that is

lim lim

S

ar lim

n

1

Converges if b) Diverges if r  1  1 r , that is lim 
Converges if b) Diverges if r  1  1 r , that is lim 

a

n →∞

n

n →∞

n 1

n →∞

1 - r

Note: Have common ratio, r

Example 1.5:

Determine whether the following series converges or diverges.

a)

n

2

n

2

n

k 1

3    5  

k

1

10

n

b)

1

6

c)

d)

k 1

   4 3   

k 1

B)

Harmonic Series

A harmonic series :

C) P-Series

k

1

1

k

1

1

2

1 3

1 4

is a diverge series. diverge series.

P-Series is also known as Hyperharmonic series which is an infinite series of the form:

P-Series:

k

p

1

2

p

3

p

4

p

  p
p

k

where p>0.

k 1

       

1

1

1

1

1

a) Converges if p 1

b) Diverges if 0 p 1

    1 1 1 1 1 a) Converges if p  1 b) Diverges if
    1 1 1 1 1 a) Converges if p  1 b) Diverges if

MAT 455

Further Calculus for Engineers

Example 1.6:

Determine whether the following series converges or diverges.

a)

1

k

k

1

k 1

1

k

2

c)

k 1

1

3 k
3
k

b)

Theorem 1.4:

If

n

1

a

n

and

n

1

b

n

constant),

n

1

a

n

are convergent series, then so are the series

b

n

and

n

1

a

n

b

n

, and

Note:

a)

n

1

ca c a

n

n

1

n

b)

n

1

a

n

n

1

b

n

d)

k 1

1

5 k 6
5
k
6

ca

n

(where c is a

 

a

n

n

1

n

1

b

n

a)

Converges Converges Converges

b) Converges

Diverges Diverges

c)

Diverges

Converges Diverges

d) Diverges

Diverges No conclusion

Example 1.7:

Determine whether the following series converges or diverges.

a)

e)

2

k

k

1

n

1

 5

1

n

1

2

  1   

3 

n

b)

n 1

1

n  3
n  3

c)

k 1

 2 3      3 k 6 k  1 
2
3
 
  3
k
6
k  1 

d)

k 1

3

 

 2  

k

2   k 
2
k

1   d)  k  1  3     2 
1   d)  k  1  3     2 

MAT 455

A) The Divergence Test

Theorem 1.5:

Convergence Test

Further Calculus for Engineers

i) If lim

a

n does not exist or if lim

a

n

0

Series

a

n

divergences.

n 

n 

 

n 1

ii) If lim

a

n

0

Series

a

n

n 

 

n 1

another test

might converges or diverge.No conclusion and try

Note:

If the series

n 1

a

n

convergent, then lim

n



a

n

0 .

Example 1.8:

Use the divergence test to show that the following series diverge.

a)

n

n

1

k

e

k

c)

k 1

k

ln k

1

b)

k 1

n

1

2

B)

The Integral Test

d)

n 1

2

n

1

n

2 3

Suppose f is a continuous, positive, decreasing function on 1, and let

a f ( n )

n

.

 

 

a

 

a) If

f x dx

is convergent

a

n

is convergent

   

n

1

 

b) If

a

f x dx

is divergent

a

n

is divergent

   

n 1

where

a

f x dx

lim

t

t  a

f x dx

, converge if limit exist

Note: It is not necessary to start n 1 . For example:

4

n

1

n 3

2

we use

4

x 1 3 dx

2

. For example:    4 n 1  n  3  2 we
. For example:    4 n 1  n  3  2 we

MAT 455

Further Calculus for Engineers

Example 1.9:

Use the integral test to determine the convergence of

a)

n 1

1

n 2

1

n

n

1

1

2

ln n n 1

n

b)

e)

1

d)

n

1

n

1 ln

n

1

C) The Comparison Test

Theorem 1.6:

c)

k 1

2

k  1
k  1
  a  b Let  and n n be series with non-negatives terms.
 
a
b
Let
 and
n
n
be series with non-negatives terms.
n  1
n  1
a  b
b
n
n
a
i) If
n
converges and
for all n 
n
also converges
n  1
a  b
n  1
b
n
n
a
ii) If
n
diverges and
for all n
n
also diverges
n  1
n  1

Tips for applying the comparison test

1. Delete the constant term in the denominator of convergence and divergence of the series)

a)

k 1

1

3

k

2

a

k

(as this will not affect the

b)

k 1

1

k  1
k  1

2. If the numerator or the denominator of but the term with the highest power.

a)

k 1

1

k 5  2 k
k
5
 2 k

a

k

appears in a polynomial form, eliminate all

b)

k 1

3

2 k 4

5

6

k

2

3

k

1

k appears in a polynomial form, eliminate all b)   k  1 3 2
k appears in a polynomial form, eliminate all b)   k  1 3 2

MAT 455

Further Calculus for Engineers

3. Makes a guess as whether the series converges or diverges.

i) If the guest is convergence choose a bigger series for comparison.

ii) If the guest is divergence choose a smaller series for comparison.

Example 1.10:

a)

k 1

1

k

2 1

b)

k 1

1

k  6
k  6

Use the comparison test to determine whether the following series converges or not.

a)

n 1

4

2

n

3

b)

k 1

1

7 k  3
7
k  3

c)

n 1

ln n

n

D) The Limit Comparison Test

Theorem 1.7:

Let

k 1

a

k

and

k 1

b

k

be series with positive terms such that:

where

k 1

a

k

lim

k 

a

k

b

k

is the series to be studied and

k 1

b

k

is the series chosen for comparison.

If 0  , then both series converges or both diverges.

Example 1.11:

Use the limit comparison test to determine whether the following series converges or not.

a)

d)

k 1

k 1

1

k  1 k k  1 2
k  1
k
k  1
2

b)

e)

k

1

n 1

1 2 k  k 2 2 n 2  3 n 5  n
1
2 k  k
2
2 n
2  3
n
5  n
5

c)

n

1

3

n 2 n

3

2

4

7

n

3

n 2

k  k 2 2 n 2  3 n 5  n 5 c) 
k  k 2 2 n 2  3 n 5  n 5 c) 

MAT 455

E) The Ratio Test

Theorem 1.8:

Let

k 1

a

k

be a series with positive terms such that

Further Calculus for Engineers

a   lim k  1 k  a k
a
  lim
k  1
k 
a
k

i) If 1 , the series converges ii) If 1 or  then the series diverges iii) If 1 , no conclusion can be made. (Try another test)

Note: The test is used when

a

k

involves factorials or k th power.

Example 1.12:

Use the ratio test to determine whether the following series converges or diverges.

a)

k 1

k 1

1

k !

2ln k

2

e

k

k 1 !

k 1

4

b)

k

2 k !

3

3

k

k 1

f)

7 k 1

2

k

k 3

k

6 2 ( k   k 1)

c)

d)

k

1

1

k

k

3 k

e)

g)

F) Alternating Series Test (A.S.T)

Alternating series are series that contain alternately positive and negative terms.

Examples of such series are given below:

a)

k 1

1

k

2

k

2

b)

n

1

1

n

1

   n 1 !   

 1  k 2 k 2  b)   n  1  
 1  k 2 k 2  b)   n  1  

MAT 455

Further Calculus for Engineers

Theorem 1.9:

The series of the form

k 1

a)

1 a

k

k

b)

k 1

1

k 1

a

k

Converges if:

a  a  a  1 2 3 i)
a  a  a
1
2
3
i)

i.e.

a

k

a

k 1

ii)

lim a 0

k 

k

,otherwise the series is diverges.

Example 1.13:

Determine whether the following series converges or diverges.

a)

n

1

1

n

1

n

3

n

1

2

n

n

!

1

1 n

1

n

1

b)

e)

2

1

n

n

n

1 3 n

1

4 n 1

d)

c)

k 1

1

k

k 3

k

2

 n n   n  1 3 n  1 4 n  1
 n n   n  1 3 n  1 4 n  1

MAT 455

Further Calculus for Engineers

G) Absolute Convergence or Conditional Convergence

STEPS TO DETERMINE ABSOLUTE OR CONDITIONAL CONVERGENCE

    1 a  k k k  1
 1 a
k
k
k  1

k 1

k

1 a

k

diverge Alternating Series Test diverge     1 a  k k k
diverge
Alternating Series Test
diverge
 1 a
k
k
k  1
Diverge
  converge   1 a  k k k  1 Converge Absolutely
converge
 1 a
k
k
k  1
Converge Absolutely
converge     1 a  k k k  1 Converge Conditionally
converge
 1 a
k
k
k  1
Converge Conditionally

Example 1.14:

Determine whether the following series converge absolutely, converge conditionally or diverges.

a)

d)

1

n

1

k 1

n

1

n

2

1

k 1

   2 k k 1   

2

b)

e)

n

1

1

n

1

n

1

k

k

2

k 1

3

2k

2

c)

k 1

1

k

2

2

k 1

1  k  k 2   k  1   3 2k 2
1  k  k 2   k  1   3 2k 2

MAT 455

Further Calculus for Engineers

MAT 455 Further Calculus for Engineers N ZH/ZS Page 13
MAT 455 Further Calculus for Engineers N ZH/ZS Page 13
MAT 455 Further Calculus for Engineers N ZH/ZS Page 13

MAT 455

Further Calculus for Engineers

MAT 455 Further Calculus for Engineers Reference: Calculus 6 t h Edition, James Stewart, 2009 Brooks/Cole,

Reference: Calculus 6 th Edition, James Stewart, 2009 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning

for Engineers Reference: Calculus 6 t h Edition, James Stewart, 2009 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning N ZH/ZS
for Engineers Reference: Calculus 6 t h Edition, James Stewart, 2009 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning N ZH/ZS

MAT 455

Convergence or Divergence of Power Series

A power series is of the form

n 1

a x

n

n

.

Further Calculus for Engineers

The interval of convergence (convergence interval) of a power series is the value of x which the power series converges.

Example 1.15:

  1 2  

x

x

x 3

n

1

1

n

n

x

The convergence interval can be obtained by first using the ratio test for absolute convergence and supplemented by other test for the end point of the convergence interval.

Theorem 1.10:

(Ratio test for absolute convergence)

 a  k k  1 Let be a series with non-negative terms and
 a
k
k  1
Let
be a series with non-negative terms and suppose that
a
  lim
k  1
k 
a
k
 a
k
k  1
i) If  1 
converge absolutely, therefore convergence
 a
k
k  1
ii) If  1 or 
diverges
iii) If  1  No conclusion
 a  k k  1 ii) If  1 or  diverges iii) If
 a  k k  1 ii) If  1 or  diverges iii) If

MAT 455

Radius of convergence:

There is a positive number R such that the series converges if

x a R

.

The number R is called the radius of convergence.

Example 1.16:

Further Calculus for Engineers

x a R

and diverges if

Find the radius of convergence and the interval of convergence of the power series.

a)

d)

n

x

n

1

n

n 1

n

3 x

n 4

n

n

b)

e)

x  3  n    n n  1   
x  3
n
  
n
n  1
  
 3 x
n
n
n  1
n  0

c)

f)

k

x

1

k

k 0

 

4

k 1

2

n 0

n

x 2

n

3

n 1

 k k  0    4  k  1  2 
 k k  0    4  k  1  2 