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AND PRESENTATION

by classes, followed by the main categories of visual presentations:

tables and graphs

3.1 Introduction

researcher is to summarize the primary recorded data. The activity is

redundant for the secondary, data taking into account that, secondary data is

already summarized and accessed as tables, distributions, and graphical

displays. Data summarizing concerns only primary data collected for the

first time and used for the same purpose as the current research.

tables and cross tables. The purpose of the data grouping and classification

is to put in order massive sets of data in order to extract the pertinent

information describing numerically the data set.

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distribution, which can be obtained according to one or two variables. If

we take into account only one variable we are obtaining simple frequency

distributions (single variation frequency distributions or univariated data)

for which the classification procedures are: classification by variants and

classification by classes (interval) of variation. If the recorded dataset is

classified according to two variables, we are going to obtain a double

variation frequency distribution (bivariate data) and the classification

procedure is the cross-table procedure.

will have the variants or the classes and on the second column, we will

have the frequencies. We can have absolute, relative, and cumulated

frequencies.

to a certain variant or falling into a certain class.

frequency corresponding to a variant or a class into the total number of

frequencies. Can be computed as a coefficient or as percentages:

fi fi

fir = , f i r (%) = 100 , with the property:

f i f i

f i

r

= 1 , and f i

r

(%) = 100

frequencies. They can be computed as frequency more than the lower

limit , meaning the number of unit with the variable value over the lower

limit of the current class and less than the upper limit, meaning the

number of units with the variable value lower than the upper limit of the

current class.

statistical table are: the overall title, the internal titles, the measurement

units of the data recorded into the table, data sources, and explanations.

Data Summarizing and Presentation

raw data according to the values of a single variable. The possibility of

appearance can be a numerical or a nonnumeric category. Both qualitative

and quantitative characteristics can be summarized by variants/categories.

The possibility of appearance for the quantitative characteristics will be a

number called variant and for the qualitative characteristics will be a word

called attribute.

recorded data and mark each appearance. Classification by variants assumes

that the variants are ranked increasingly.

household for 14 households:

Current number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Number of persons 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4

on a household

Member Absolute Relative Degrees of pie

Leaves

numbers frequencies frequencies chart

3 / 1 1/14=0.07 0

0.07x360 =25.2

0

0

Total 14 1 360

0

each appearance by a leaf corresponding to each variant.

of the characteristic.

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A relative frequency expresses the weight of the absolute frequency into the

total and it will be computed:

f i = absolute _ frequency;

fi

fi =

r

f

; f i = total _ population _ size;

i

f i r = relative _ frequency.

presented using the pie chart in Figure. 1.a:

Structure of households per variants of number of persons

3 members

7%

4 members

93%

Pie charts are more suggestive and easy to understand than tables.

Data summarizing by classes can be applied only for quantitative

characteristics. A class of variation or an interval is defined between

two boundaries: its lower and upper limit. The size of the class or the

interval size will be defined as the difference between the upper limit and

the lower limit.

This classification can be:

continuous (the lower limit of the current class is the same as the upper

limit of the previous class) or

discrete (there are gaps between the upper limit of the current class and

the lower limit of the next class). In this case the class size will be the

difference between two lower limits or between two upper limits

Data Summarizing and Presentation

a. establishing the purpose of the classification by classes: data

summarizing by classes is used in order to obtain synthetic data

b. choosing the classification variable or variables: the result of

classification should be obtaining homogeneous groups

c. establishing the number of classes: according to the classification

purpose, the completion criterion (the classification should comprise all

the units) and empiric rules, the result should be frequency distribution

as close as possible to the normal distribution (Gauss bell)

d. constructing the classes continuously or discretely

e. marking each frequency as they occur

A = X max-X min

The amplitude will be measured in the same measurement unit as the

variable.

like for instance the rule of H.D. Sturges: r = 1 + 3.322 lg n

Step 3: Compute the class size, k, if all the classes have the same size and

the variation is continuous: k= A/r, where: A amplitude; r - number of

classes

Step 4: Construct the classes, by adding step by step the class size k starting

with the minimum value xmin (or a smaller value) or by subtracting the class

size step by step starting from the maximum value xmax (or from a larger

value).

Example:

The class marks of a distribution of a daily number of monthly average

numbers of trips made by an employee, are 10.5, 18.5, 26.5, 34.5, and 42.5.

Find: a) the class boundaries; b) the class limits

Solution:

a) The boundary - between the first two classes is:

(10.5 + 18.5)/2 = 14.5

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(18.5 + 26.5)/2 = 22.5

- between the third and fourth is:

(26.5 + 34.5)/2 = 30.5

- between the fourth and fifth is:

(34.5 + 42.5)/2 = 38.5

Since the difference between successive boundaries is, say

22.5 - 14.5 = 8

=> the lower boundary of the first class is

14.5 - 8 = 6.5

=> the upper boundary of the fifth class is

38.5 + 8.0 = 46.5

b) The class limits

6.5 + 0.5 = 7 lower limit

46.5 - 0.5 = 46 upper limit

=> the class limits are 7-14; 15-22; 23-30; 31-38; 39-46

construct a chart or diagram. The choice depends on the type of data.

There is a basic distinction between a data that is discrete and one that is

continuous. A data set is discrete if we make a count, for example the

number of people in a room or the number of cars sold last month.

example the time taken to travel to work or the yield in kilograms of a

manufacturing process.

There are some exceptions, for example, money can be seen as discrete

since it changes hands in increments but is usually treated as continuous

because the increments can be relatively small. Age is a continuous variable

but when quoted as age last birthday becomes discrete.

Data Summarizing and Presentation

The counts of cars sold by model, and region in the Table 3-1 below

represents discrete data.

Numbers of four types of cars sold by region during the last financial year

Table 3-1

Model North South East West Total

Sport 675 60 35 20 790

Sedan 30 490 30 20 570

Break 150 180 235 15 580

Van 5 20 0 35 60

Total 860 750 300 90 2000

information as percentages. The table 2 below shows this.

Percentages unit sales of four types of industrial trolley by region during the last

financial year

Table 3-2

Model North South East West

Sport 78.49 8.00 11.67 22.22

Sedan 3.49 65.33 10.00 22.22

Break 17.44 24.00 78.33 16.67

Van 0.58 2.67 0.00 38.89

Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

It can be seen that Sport cars accounts for 78.49% of unit sales in the North

and only 8.00% of unit sales in the South. To calculate these percentages we

can first find the fraction and then multiply by 100. Sport cars for example,

accounts for 675 sales out of the 860 achieved in the northern sales region .

The figure 675 divided by the total of 860 = 0.7849 = 78.49% (if expressed

in percentages). The original totals are often given as base figures.

These take a similar form to their numeric counterparts, except that the

groups (or classes) describe qualitative (i.e. non-numeric) characteristics of

the data. For example:

b) Table 3-4 shows the insurance contracts issued by an insurance agent in a

month.

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Employee distribution

Table 3-3

Table 3-4

The name given to the data describing the values of some variable over

successive time periods is a time series. For example, the data given in

Tables 3-5 and 3-6 are typical.

Production evolution

Table 3-5

Table 3-6

Data Summarizing and Presentation

occur with business statistics. For example, Table 3-7 shows the breakdown

of holiday locations booked through an international travel company. This

type of data is sometimes known as a time series or an evolution, since the

various classifications (in the below case holiday destinations) can be

thought of as the components of a meaningful total in the below case, total

number of holidays booked through the travel agent.

94 95 96 97 98 99

The data in table 3-8, although similar in form to that of table 3-7, have

classifications for each month, which cannot be added to form meaningful

totals. They are sometimes called multiple time series, since the data given

for each type of ice-cream is a separate time series.

Table 3-8

Price of Vanilla

ice-cream

Chocolate

Fruits

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b. enable a general perspective of the data to be shown without redundant

details

used, for example, when intended audience is not very sophisticated. On the

other hand, a long and detailed business report can be complemented by a

scattering of diagrams, which will help to 'break the rules' and thus make it

more agreeable.

The type of diagrams (i.e charts and graphs) described in this chapter can be

conveniently classified under three headings as follows:

simple bar charts, pie charts

miscellaneous charts

multiple non-numeric frequency distributions or time series as:

a. Component, percentage and multiple bar charts.

b. Multiple pie charts.

c. Strata charts.

d. Z-charts.

e. Gantt charts.

f. Semi logarithmic graphs

These graphs are presented further.

3.4.1 Pictograms

Appropriate pictures to show comparison replace bars. Whilst, this is more

eye-catching, it is considerably less accurate and may be miss-leading.

(Figure 1.b, how many does a fraction of person represent? Half or 45%)

Data Summarizing and Presentation

Features of pictograms

a) Pictograms are sometimes referred to as ideograms.

b) The symbol are normally duplicated and for the sake of accuracy the

numeric values being represented are sometimes shown. A scaled axes

can be included.

c) An alternative method to duplicating the symbol used is to magnify

them. For example, Figure 2 represents different numbers of trucks by

the area of the truck symbol and Figure 3 represents an increase in sales

of detergent (in kg) by the volume of the two detergent boxes.

d) Advantages:

Easy to understand for a non-sophisticated audience, extremely suggestive.

e) Disadvantage:

- Can be award to construct if complex symbols are used.

- Not accurate enough for serious statistical presentation.

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unless the values of figures being represented are clearly shown.

3.4.2 Bar Charts

A simple bar chart is a chart consisting of a set of bars separated with gaps

(they are non-join bars). A separated bar for each class is drawn to a height

proportional to the class frequency. The widths of the bars drawn for each

class are always the same and if desired, each bar can be shaded or colored

differently. Simple bar charts can be used to represent nonnumeric

frequency distributions and time series equally well.

bars. The height of each bar is drawn in proportion to the number using a

vertical ruler scale (Figure 4). We can also show the number of each model

sold by region using a component bar chart (Figure 5).

to see the relative size of some of the components. To overcome this

problem, it is often convenient to change the absolute figures into

percentages, thus giving bars all of the same length and making direct

comparisons possible. (Figure 7).

OBS.: Do not confuse simple bar charts and histograms. Histograms

represent numeric data with joined bars. Simple bar charts represent

non-numeric data (time series) and have their bars separated from each

other.

Data Summarizing and Presentation

Sedan

Sport

Break

Van

a) They can be drawn with vertical or horizontal bars, but must show a

scaled frequency axis.

b) They are easily adapted to take account of both positive and negative

values. For example, Figure 6 shows the Balance of Payment of a

particular country.

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Payments started with a deficit of 300 million m.u. in 19X1 and in 19X2. In

19X3 it raises up to a surplus of almost 5000 million, rising to a maximum

value of 100 million in 19X5. The situation shows a decrease of the surplus

continued a deficit of 1000 m.u. in 19X7. This type of chart is also known

as a loss and profit chart.

These bar charts have each bar representing a class but all drawn to the

same height, representing 100% (of the total). The constituent parts of each

class are then calculated as percentage of the total and shown within the bar

accordingly. Within each bar, components are stacked in the same order.

Sedan

Sport

Break

Van

Figure 7 depicts a Percentage bar chart: Percentage Bar Charts are used

where relative comparison between components, are important. The

disadvantage is that actual figures including class totals are not comprised

into the graph.

Multiple bar charts

These have a set of bars each bar representing a single constituent part of

the total. Within each set, the bars are physically joined and always arranged

in the same sequence. Sets of bars should be separated.

Data Summarizing and Presentation

across in actual terms, since each bar is drawn from a fixed base. The two

only disadvantages is that class totals are not easy to assimilate and also it

can be unwieldy if there are a large number of classes.

3.4.3 Pie Charts

A pie chart shows the totality of the data being represented using a single

circle (a pie). The circle is split into sectors (i.e pieces of pie chart = sectors

of the circle), the size of each one being drawn in proportion to the class

frequency. Each sector can be shaded or colored differently if desired.

The Figure 1a. and Figure 9 below shows a pie chart drawn for the data of

Table3-9. Pie charts are always used to represent non-numeric frequency

distribution and are at their most effective where the classes need to be

compared in relative terms.

Features of pie chart:

a) Pie Charts are sometimes refereed to as circular diagrams or divided

circles.

b) In order to construct a pie chart, the size of each sector in degrees needs

to be calculated. The procedure is:

- Calculate the proportion of the total that each frequency represents.

- Multiply each proportion by 360, giving the sizes of the relevant sectors

(in degrees) that needs to be drawn

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Table 3-9

see Figure 10.

Table 3-10

Data Summarizing and Presentation

Figure 10 The breakdown of an employee's monthly pay, with each sector exploded.

d) Advantages:

- A dramatic and appealing way of presenting data.

- Good for comparing classes in relative terms.

e) Disadvantages:

- Compilations laborious. Circles should not be drawn by hand and sectors

should be drawn using a protractor, However, without a protractor (once

the size of each sector has been determined, their physical size within the

circle can be intelligently guessed at.

- Can be untidy if there are many classes (say 8 or more) and different shading

or colorings are being used.

Multiple pie-charts

Multiple Pie Charts can be used as alternatives to percentage bar charts; that

is, a pie chart (360 degrees) replaces a bar (100%) for each class or year.

For example, Table 3-11 represents the skills classifications of the

workforce at two factories.(Note that the degrees figure in Table 3-11 can be

obtained by multiplying each percentage by 3.6)

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Table 3-11

Comments on the situation shown by Fig. 11: At both factories, about 20%

of the workforce is semi-skilled. However, whereas unskilled workers

account for only 20% of the workforce of factory A, they will constitute

about 35% of factory B's employed workforce.

The advantage of using multiple pie charts as opposed to a percentage bar

chart is mainly visual impact; they generally felt to be more attractive.

However, their construction is more involved and this is considered as a

major disadvantage. Most people prefer to work out percentages and draw

straight line bars than calculate degree of sectors and draw circles.

Data Summarizing and Presentation

Sometimes the presentation of multiple pie charts can be taken a stage

further than that shown in Table 3-11 and Figure 12. This is done by making

the areas of the circle proportional to the class totals. Thus, if the total

frequency of one class was twice that of another, the area of its

representative circle would be twice as large. These are called proportional

pie charts. the following procedure describes how to flaw a pair of

proportional pie charts, to represent two classes having totals T1 and T2

respectively. At the same time, the technique is demonstrated, using the data

given in the previous section.

Steps for constructing proportional pie charts

Step 1: Determine the two class totals.

For the previous data, T1 =116 (total number of workers at factory A) and

T2=322 (total number of workers at factory B).

Step 2: Draw the first circle using any convenient radius.

We calculate the size of the sectors for both circles with current method.

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considerable effort (both calculation and drawing) that need to be made in

its construction. This is particularly significant if there are more than

two classes involved.

3.4.4 Histograms

joined. The variable points are always represented along the horizontal axis,

values of the frequencies along the vertical axis- see Figure 13.

0.4

Relative Frequency

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

10 15 20 25 30

Def ective Items

Data Summarizing and Presentation

Strata charts (otherwise known as cumulative line diagrams or area graphs)

are used to represent component time series. As the middle of the above

three titles implies, the separate line diagrams for the components are

stacked (in a similar way to component bar charts). Figure 14 shows strata

chart of the number of flats built (by type) for a local authority, for the data

given in the accompanying Table, 3-12

Table 3-12

decreased from nearly 800 flats in 19X1 to a low of under 400 in 19X7, but

over the next 3 years (up to 19X9) recovered nearly half to stand at about

550. Over the whole period, the building of both 2 and 3 or more bedroom

flats have decreased by about hulk whereas 1 bedroom flat, despite a small

slump in 19X7, have remained at just over 300 per year.

Comments:

a) It is important to shade the various sections of the chart, as shown in

Figure 14, since this emphasizes the cumulative nature of the data.

Compare this with the case of a multiple line diagram, where actual data

values for each variable are plotted and no shading would be used.

b) The advantages of a strata chart, compared with a multiple bar chart, are:

i. a total is shown for each year.

ii. as many components as desired can be plotted without confusion.

c) The advantage of a strata chart compared with a component bar chart: the

impression of continuity that the lines give (appropriate for time series)

and it is easier to be constructed.

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diagram, are: cross-over points (i.e where the value of one component

overtakes the value of another) are not identified on a strata chart and

individual component comparisons are not as easy to make.

3.4.6 Z-charts

form of a combination of three separate line diagrams described as follows.

a) The first line diagram drawn describes the actual time series values.

Normally, the time series consists of monthly measurements over one

complete year, i.e Jan, Feb, through to Dec.

b) The second line diagram drawn describes the accumulated time series

values, For monthly measurements, the first plot will coincide with the

first plot of the diagram in a), i.e January figure. The second plot will be

January and February, the third, January, February and March and so on.

This diagram is useful for charting monthly progress towards an annual

total. The more removed from straight line it is, so the more variation

there has been on the actual monthly figures.

Production evolution

Table 3-13

The third line diagram is drawn such that each point describes the current

month's figure plus the previous eleven month's figures, to form a

Data Summarizing and Presentation

moving totals (see table above). Note that, in order to calculate moving

totals for a particular year, the previous year's figure must be known. The

first point plotted (at January, this year) will be the sum of the figures from

February), last year, to January, this year.

The second point plotted will be the sum of the figures from March, last

year to February this year, and so on. The last point moving total plotted

will coincide with the last accumulated value of the diagram in (b) which is

the point corresponding to the top right-hand join of the Z). This particular

diagram is useful for determining the long term underlying trend of the data.

The data in Table 3-13 give the monthly production figures of a manufactured

component and shows the calculations necessary for constructing a Z-chart

on Figure 15.

for year 2.

Comment on the situation shown by Figure 15: Production in the 2nd year

was relatively constant with a slight drop in the summer months. The long

term shows a drop in overall production.

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A method of charting the progress of some project against a defined plan is

affected by means of a Gantt chart. A number of scaled natural of scaled

natural time periods (days, weeks or months) are identified, within each of

which three bars can be drawn. One bar shows the planned achievements

and the other 2 show actual achievement and cumulative achievement

(to date).

As an example, Table 3-14 shows the planned achievement of five weeks

production for a project, together with the actual achievement up to the end

of week three.

Table 3-14

Figure 16 GANTT chart drawn up for the data of Table 3-13. The comments shown

on the chart are for information purposes and may or may not be included

on an actual chart.

Data Summarizing and Presentation

production in week 1, week 2 and 3, both showed an excess of production

which resulted in an overall excess of 8units by the end of week 3.

In business, it is sometimes necessary to show clearly, using a graphical

method, whether some time series variable is increasing in actual or

percentage terms. The differences between these two can have a marked

effect on successive values of variable.

For example, suppose the yearly demand for a new technological product

was estimated as 2000 in year 1. Table 3-15 shows the difference between

an actual increase of 500 per year and a relative increase of 25% per year

and figure 17 shows these values plotted using line diagrams.

Table: 3-15

a b

Figure 17 a and b. Demand evolution forecast

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values of a time series variable, is it possible to determine quickly whether

there is a constant actual or percentage increase in values? For a constant

actual increase, the answer is yes. We look for straight line. However, for a

constant rate of increase, there is no easy way to tell by looking at the graph.

This problem can be overcome by plotting the logarithms of the values to

form a line diagram called a semi-logarithmic graph.

a) Semi-logarithmic graphs are used to display time series data and their

purpose is to show whether the rate of increase /decrease in the values of

the variable involved is constant or not. They are constructed by plotting

the logarithmic of the given values against their respective time points

and if a straight-line results, the values are increasing or decreasing at a

constant rate.

As an example, the data given in Table 3-15 (situation 2) will be plotted

using a semi-logarithmic graph. The layout of the calculations is shown

below in Table 3-16.

Table 3-16

The above logarithms against year are displayed in Figure 18. Notice that

the points form a perfect straight line (which was expected, since the values

were calculated using a constant 25% increase.)

Data Summarizing and Presentation

b) The larger the rate of increase of time series data, so the steeper the

(semi-logarithmic) line will be. This fact enables the rates of increase of

two or more time series to be compared on the same set of axes. Note

that when comparing time series data in this way, it is only the steepness

(or inclination) of the lines that is of any interest and not their positions.

Figure 19 and 20 shows the significance of some standard shapes of

semi-logarithmic graphs.

graphs and should be remembered.

a) All diagrams should be neat and attractive to look at. Always use graph

paper and a ruler.

b) Diagrams should be easy to read, without excessive detail.

c) Always try to locate the diagram centrally on the paper, using as much of

it as possible.

d) A general title must be given which describes what is being ported but it

should be as brief as possible and to the point

e) Axes, if used, should be clearly labeled, giving the units of the data and a

note of any break of scale.

f) Shading or coloring, if used, must be lightly done as it may detract from

the presentation.

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clearly by labeling, coloring or dotting/dashing. If charts are colored or

shaded, label them clearly or provide a separate key.

a) b)

Data Summarizing and Presentation

series consist of measurements of some variable over time. Both of these

data structures, or a combination of the two, are represented by the charts

and graphs described in this section.

varying the size of symbols/pictures, which are easily identifiable by a

non-expert audience. Their merit is that they are easy to understand. The

disadvantages include possible misrepresentation and using varying symbols

3.5 Exercises

Multiple choice exercises with answers

1. In order to display a qualitative variable variation we can use:

a. the histogram

b. the frequency polygon

c. the ogyve of cumulated frequencies

d. the bar chart

e. no graphical presentation is suitable for qualitative data distributions

ANSWER: d.

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a. Pie charts are graphical representations of the relative frequency

distribution

b. Pie charts are usually used to display the relative sizes of categories for

interval data.

c. Pie charts always have the shape of a circle

d. Area of each slice of a pie chart is the proportion of the corresponding

category of the frequency distribution of a categorical variable

ANSWER: b.

observations at or below a specific value is:

a. a histogram

b. a pie chart

c. a time-series chart

d. a cumulative frequency give

ANSWER: d.

4. The best type of chart for comparing two sets of categorical data is:

a. a line chart

b. a pie chart

c. a histogram

d. a bar chart

ANSWER: d

a. the bar chart

b. the scatter diagram

c. the pie chart

d. the line chart

e. it can be displayed using all the above mentioned graphical techniques

Data Summarizing and Presentation

last 25 hours are as follows:

19 6 15 20 17 16 17 12 15

29 23 17 7 10 14 14 27 22

8 5 23 19 9 28 5

these data. Use five class intervals, with the lower boundary of the first

class being five items.

b. Construct a relative frequency histogram for these data.

c. What is the relationship between the total area under the histogram you

have constructed and the relative frequencies of observations?

ANSWERS: a.

Class Limits Frequency Relative Frequency

5 - 10* 6 .24

10 - 15 4 .16

15 - 20 8 .32

20 - 25 4 .16

25 - 30 3 .12

Total 25 1.00

Class contains observations up to but not including 10. The other classes are

defined similarly. This notion is used throughout the chapter.

b. Note that the numbers that appear along the horizontal axis represent the

upper limits of the class intervals even though they appear in the center of

the classes of the histogram.

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0.4

Relative Frequency

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

10 15 20 25 30

Def ec tiv e Items

c. The area under the histogram between two values is five times the relative

frequency of observations that fall between those two values (where 5 is the

width of each class). The total area under the histogram will be equal to 5.

Bucharest were asked to state their ice-cream preference. Coding the data

1 for Vanilla, 2 for Chocolate, and 3 for Fruit, the data collected were as

follows:

3 1 2 3 1 3 3 2 1

3 3 2 1 1 3 2 3 1

3 2 3 2 1 3 3

data. What does the data suggest about the strength of the categories of

ice-cream on the ice-cream market in Bucharest?

b. Construct a frequency bar graph.

ANSWERS:

a.

Ice-cream Frequency Proportion

category

Vanilla 7 0.32

Chocolate 6 0.24

Fruit 12 0.44

Data Summarizing and Presentation

The Fruit ice-cream on Bucharest market is stronger than the Vanilla and

Chocolate ice-creams.

b.

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

Vanilla Chocolate Fruit

8. Identify the type of data for which each of the following graphs is

appropriate.

a. Histogram

b. Pie chart

c. Bar chart

9. For each of the following examples, identify the data type as, either

qualitative, ranked, or quantitative, and specify the appropriate measurement

scale for each as either interval, nominal, or ordinal.

a. the letter grades received by students in a computer science class

b. the number of students in a statistics course

c. the starting salaries of newly Ph.D. graduates from a statistics program

d. the size of fries (small, medium, large) ordered by a sample of Burger

King customers.

e. the college (Arts and science, Business, etc.) you are enrolled in.

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10. In its 2002 report, a company presented the following data regarding its

sales (in millions of dollars), net income (in millions of dollars), return

on equity (%), and net income per share (in dollars).

Sales Volume 185 57 73 76 70

Net Income 7.1 2.4 4.1 4.2 1.2

Return on Investment 30.5 11.6 22.4 29.7 10.0

Net Profit Per Share 1.0 .35 .50 .52 .12

b. Assume that you are an unscrupulous statistician and want to make the

data appear more positive than they really are. Draw the bar charts

accordingly.

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