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2008

approach in Fluent

Kari Myhnen

Theory and simulation of dispersed-phase multiphase flows, Autumn 2007 Spring 2008

by Lagrangian Approach in Fluent

11 March 2008

Kari Myhnen

kari.myohanen@lut.fi

Presentation Outline

Introduction

Modeling options and limitations in Fluent

Model theory

Solution strategies

Example calculation

Introduction

The discrete phase model (DPM) in Fluent follows the Euler-Lagrange approach.

The fluid phase (gas or liquid, continuous phase) is treated as a continuum by

solving the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (Eulerian reference frame).

The dispersed phase is solved by tracking a number of particles through the

calculated flow field of continuous phase (Lagrangian reference frame).

The particles may be taken to represent solid particles in gas or liquid, liquid droplets

in gas or bubbles in liquid.

The dispersed phase can exchange momentum, mass and energy with the fluid

phase.

Discrete Phase Modeling Options in Fluent

Calculation of the particle trajectories using a Lagrangian formulation that includes:

Discrete phase inertia

Hydrodynamic drag

Force of gravity

Other forces

pressure gradient, thermophoretic, rotating reference frame, brownian motion,

Saffman lift, and user defined forces

Steady state and transient flows.

Turbulent dispersion of particles.

Heating and cooling of the discrete phase.

Vaporization and boiling of liquid droplets.

Combusting particles, including volatile evolution and char combustion to simulate

coal combustion.

Optional two-way coupling of the continuous phase flow and the discrete phase.

Wall film modeling.

Spray model (droplet collision and breakup).

Limitations in Fluent

Assumption: dispersed phase is sufficiently dilute.

Fluent manual provides a hand rule volume fraction usually less than 10-12%.

In general, this limit is far too high and does not fulfill the requirement of ratio

between the momentum response time and collisional time V/ C < 1

(see lecture notes, session 1).

The DPM model is however often used for dense dispersed flows as well. Care

should be taken when interpreting the results.

The steady state DPM model cannot be applied for continuous suspension of particles

The particle streams should have well-defined entrance and exit conditions.

For cases, in which the particles are suspended indefinetely in the continuum (e.g.

stirred tanks), the unsteady DPM modeling should be used instead.

If the dispersed phase model is used with Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase model the

coupling is defined with the primary phase only.

Several restrictions when using DPM model with other Fluent models

Limitations with parallel computing, streamwise periodic flows, combustion

models, sliding meshes, etc. See Fluent manual for details.

Regimes of Dispersed Two-Phase Flows

Momentum Equation

movement of the particles.

due to other forces

(force/unit particle mass)

Drag Coefficient

For smooth spherical particles, Fluent uses equation by Morsi and Alexander (1972):

determined for different ranges of Re:

For nonspherical particles, the equation by Haider and Levenspiel (1989) is used:

Shape factor

Surface area of sphere with same volume

Actual surface area

Comparison of Drag Coefficient Equations

Coupling

The discrete phase and the continuous phase can be coupled in a number of ways.

In Fluent, the one-way or two-way coupling are possible to model.

One-way coupling

The continuous phase affects the discrete phase, but there is no reverse effect.

In Fluent, this is referred as uncoupled approach.

The discrete phase is solved once after the continuous phase flow has been

solved.

Two-way coupling

Both phases affect each other (exchange of momentum, mass and energy).

In Fluent, this is referred as coupled approach.

The continuous phase flow field is impacted by the discrete phase and the

calculations of the continuous phase and dispersed phase equations are

alternated until the solution is converged (hopefully).

Three-way coupling

Particle disturbance of the fluid locally affects

another particles motion, e.g. drafting of a trailing particle.

Four-way coupling

Particle collisions affect motion of individual particles.

Two-Way Coupling in Fluent

Momentum exchange

Heat exchange

(without chemical reactions)

Vaporization

Sensible heat

and pyrolysis

Mass exchange

Particle Types and Laws in Fluent

boiling Minimum two chemical species or the

nonpremixed or partially premixed

combustion model.

Gas phase density by ideal law.

Combusting heating; evolution of Energy equation. 1, 4, 5, 6

volatiles/swelling; Minimum three chemical species or

heterogeneous surface the nonpremixed combustion model.

reaction Gas phase density by ideal law.

Multicomponent multicomponent Energy equation. 7

droplets/particles Min. two chemical species.

Use volume weighted mixing law to

define define particle mixture density.

Law 2: Droplet vaporization.

Law 3: Droplet boiling.

Law 4: Devolatilization of combusting particle.

Law 5: Surface combustion.

Law 6: Volatile fraction of the particle consumed.

Law 7: Multicomponent particle definition

Example of Laws Applied for a Drying Droplet

Temperature

Different energy and mass transfer equations are applied during different laws.

Tbp Law 6:

Law 3:

Boiling Volatile fraction

consumed

Tvap

Law 2:

Tinjection Vaporization

Law 1:

Inert heating

before vaporization

Particle time

Mass and Energy Transfer of Drying Droplet

Law 6: Volatile fraction consumed

Heat transfer

Convection Radiation

Law 2: Vaporization

Mass transfer (molar flux of vapor)

Vapor pressure

Diffusion coefficient must be correctly

given by user defined

Heat transfer

Evaporation

Law 3: Boiling

with radiation

Energy required for vaporization appears as energy sink for gas phase

Particle-Wall Interaction

Different particle boundary conditions can be defined for walls, inlets and outlets:

volatile fraction

flashes to vapor

Normal component:

Tangential component:

Turbulent Dispersion of Particles

In Fluent, the dispersion of particles due to continuous phase turbulence can be modeled by

a stochastic tracking model (random walk model, eddy interaction model), or

a particle cloud model.

In the random walk model, the instantaneous continuous phase velocity is formed

of mean velocity and fluctuating component:

Each particle injection is tracked repeatedly in order to generate a statistically

meaningful sampling.

The cloud model uses statistical methods to trace the turbulent dispersion of particles

about a mean trajectory

Mean trajectory is calculated from the ensemble average of the equations of motion

for the particles represented in the cloud.

Distribution of particles inside the cloud is represented by a Gaussian PDF.

Eddy Interaction Model

The stochastic tracking model in Fluent is based on eddy interaction model.

The discrete particle is assumed to interact with a succession of eddies.

Each eddy is characterized by

a Gaussian distributed random velocity fluctuation ui

a time scale (life time of eddy) e

a length scale (size of eddy) Le

During interaction, the fluctuating velocity is kept constant.

The interaction lasts until time exceeds the eddy lifetime or the eddy crossing time.

Literature presents several theories for determining the above values (see Graham and James (1996)).

The following presents the equations used in Fluent with k- turbulence model.

Fluid Lagrangian integral time Coefficient CL defined by user. Default value CL = 0.15.

r = uniform random number [0...1]. Notice: ln r 1 e TL

k 3/2

Eddy length scale L e C L Notice: in literature, the length scale and life time are often linked: Le 2k

(based on Karema(2008)) In Fluent, this seems to be: Le 1 k e 3

e 2 2

pdp

Eddy crossing time Velocity response time 18

(standard normal distribution)

For k- turbulence model:

Injection Setup

Group: particle streams are injected along a line.

Cone: streams are injected in a hollow conical pattern.

Solid cone.

Surface: particle streams are injected from a surface

(one stream from each cell face).

Atomizer: streams are injected by using various predefined

atomizer models.

File: injection locations and initial conditions are defined

in an external file.

Particle type (inert, droplet, combusting, multicomponent)

Material (from database)

Initial conditions (particle size, velocity, etc.)

Destination species for reacting particles.

Evaporating material for combusting particles.

DPM Concentration

concentration of the discrete phase in a continuous cell.

The mass flow of a particle track is determined based on particle mass and

mass flow at the particle injection and particle mass at current location.

The particle mass can change due to evaporation and other phase changes.

The discrete phase concentration inside a cell can be determined from the

residence time and mass flow.

Inside a cell, the particle stream is tracked with n particle time steps. The

residence time of one particle track is the sum of these time steps.

particle tracks cross the cell, the calculated concentration can

exceed the bulk density of solids or even solid density

(volume fraction of solids above 1). These results are not

physically sensible but they can show areas, where the particle tN

mp

loading is high and the assumption of dilute flow is not valid.

t0

Solution Strategies: Particle Tracking

The particle tracks are calculated in steps. The step length factor determines

approximately the number of steps per fluid cell. The default value is 5, but it should

preferably be higher: 10 20.

Increasing the step length factor (i.e. decreasing the step length) can improve stability of

heat and mass exchange (e.g. when calculating vaporization).

The max. number of steps limits the number of calculated time steps. This should be

large enough so that the particles can travel from entrance to exit.

If particles remain suspended in the model (tracking incomplete), then steady state

solution is questionable and transient tracking should be used instead. The transient

calculations in Fluent can be performed in a number of ways and combinations. This

presentation is focused on steady state calculation.

Solution Strategies: Two-Way Coupling

The solution of the continuous field without coupling is usually the starting point.

In most cases, the continuous flow does not have to be fully converged before

the coupling is started, because the particle tracks will have a large effect on the

continuous flow.

In a coupled calculation, additional source terms appear in discretized flow Calculate

equations of continuous phase. During particle tracking, each particle is seeing continuous

a fresh cell and makes no notice of particles already visited and marked the phase

cell with their source terms. This leads to overprediction of the source terms and

bad convergence behaviour with evaporation, combustion and radiation.

Use solution limits to limit the temperature in the domain. Calculate

particle

Increasing the number of trajectories (especially with random walk model) will

tracks

smooth the particle source terms, which should help convergence.

The discrete phase source terms can be under-relaxed (e.g. 0.5). The flow

equations may need to be under-relaxed as well (energy and species).

Update

The number of continuous phase calculations between the trajectory source

calculations can either be small (< 3) or high (>15). In the first choice, the terms

dispersed and continuous flow are closer coupled and the solution of both

should slowly convergence. In the second choice, the flows are decoupled and

the solution of continuous field remains better converged and the calculation is

more stable. In the latter case, the continuous phase may appear to be

converged, but the discrete phase is not.

If the dispersed phase is not dilute, then convergence is very difficult to achieve

in coupled calculations.

Modeling Example

Hot air flows in a 200 mm diameter duct.

Wet limestone particles are injected from the top of the duct

(inlet d = 50 mm) at location 500 mm before a 90 bend.

Particle inlet: 0.1 kg/s, 0.1 m/s, dp=200 m, p=2700 kg/m3, H2O=30%

solids in the duct:

(but only as average)

Mesh

Gas Properties

Solid Properties (Limestone)

Model Parameters

Solution of Continuous Phase

The continuous phase was first solved without the particles.

The convergence was good.

Uncoupled Mean Particle Tracks

The mean particle tracks were solved without two-way coupling.

The particle tracks are thus calculated only once after the continuous phase was solved.

The following images present particle tracks colored by mass, which indicates evaporation.

Fully evaporated 7.92E-9 kg

Uncoupled Turbulent Tracks

Random walk model with 50 stochastic tracks (total 2400) was used with default CL = 0.15.

Uncoupled solution, ie. one-way coupled calculation of dispersed phase.

Turbulence effects are fairly small, but can be noticed in the track images.

Fully evaporated 7.92E-9 kg

Solution of Coupled Calculation

Two-way coupled solution did not converge well.

Different step length factors, under-relaxation parameters and number of continuous phase

iterations were tried.

In the final calculations, the step length factor was 20 and the number of continuous phase

iterations between dispersed phase calculations was 20. The residuals were indicating poor

convergence.

Coupled Particle Tracks

The particle tracks show that some of the particle streams circulate for long times before

reaching the outlet.

The solution of flow is much different from uncoupled solution.

The images do not show all particle tracks.

Fully evaporated 7.92E-9 kg

Effect on Continuous Flow Field

In the coupled calculation, the particle tracks affect the continuous phase flow.

In this case, the effect is considerable.

DPM Concentration

The DPM concentration shows the total concentration of dispersed phase.

Results indicate that in the bend, the dispersed phase is not dilute ( max = 0.094).

Reaching a converged solution in this case would be impossible.

The results should be utilized with caution.

Visualization of Results

Different process variables can be easily visualized: pressure, velocities, temperature,

concentration of species, turbulence variables, ...

Summary

The DPM model in Fluent can be used for studying one-way or two-way

coupled dilute dispersed flows, including effects of turbulence.

The basic model is easy to use and physics are clear and simple.

The limitations of the DPM model should be carefully considered when

analyzing the results.

The model neglects particle-particle interaction, thus it is valid for dilute

dispersed phase only.

The one-way coupling is valid for very dilute flow only. The two-way coupled

solution can be much different from the one-way coupled solution.

The average flow can be dilute, but it can contain regions, in which the

dispersed phase is dense. In these regions, the model results are false.

Moreover, the convergence is poor, if the dispersed phase is dense and the

momentum, mass and energy exchange to continuous phase is strong.

Despite the limitations, the DPM model can be (and is) successfully used for

modeling various applications.

References

http://www.bakker.org/dartmouth06/engs150/.

Elghobashi, S. (1994). On predicting particle-laden turbulent flows, Appl. Sci. Res. 52, pp. 309

329.

Fluent 6.3 Documentation (2008).

Fluent Training Material (2008). http://www.fluentusers.com.

Graham D. I. and James P.W. (1996). Turbulent dispersion of particles using eddy interaction

models. Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 22-1, pp 157-175.

Haider, A. and Levenspiel, O. (1989). Drag Coefficient and Terminal Velocity of Spherical and

Nonspherical Particles.Powder Technology, 58, pp. 6370.

Jalali, P. (2007). Lecture notes, Theory and simulation of dispersed-phase multiphase flows,

Lappeenranta University of Technology. http://www2.et.lut.fi/ttd/Dispersed2007/Dispersed.htm

Karema, H. (2008). Discussions with Hannu Karema (Process Flow), January 2008.

Loth, E. (2008). Computational Fluid Dynamics of Bubbles, Drops and Particles (draft).

http://www.ae.uiuc.edu/~loth/CUP/Loth.htm

Morsi, S. and Alexander A. (1972), An investigation of particle trajectories in two-phase flow

systems, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 55, pp. 193208.

Sommerfeld, M. (2000). Theoretical and Experimental Modelling of Particulate Flows. Lecture

Series 2000-06, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics.

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