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Motors and generators

Motor effect - a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field will experience a

The foce that a current carrying conductor underges can be altered by:
The strength of th magnetic field, the magnitude of the current in the
conductor, the len o the conductor in the magnetic field, the angle between the
direction of the extrernal magnetic field and the direction of the length of the

The greater the magnetic field the greater the force

The greater the magnitude of the current in the conductor the greater the
The greater the length of the cnducto in the magnetic field the greater the
the closer the angle is to 90 the greater the force ( as the force is multiple
by sinx, where x is the angle betweent he magnetic feidl and the coil)
F = nBILsinx where:
- F = force
- N = number of turns
- B = magnetic feidl strength
- I = current
- L = length of oil
- Sin x= angle between magnetc field and coil
The direction of the force/current/maggetic field can be determined using the
right hand palm rule.
The four fingers pint in the direction of the magnetic field, and the thumb point in
the direction of the current, the direction the palm ten faces indicate the ireion of
the force. This rule must be done using the right hand.
The force between long parallel current carrying conductors exists because the
current in one conductor interacts with the magnetic field set-up in the other

- Conductors in the same direction attract, while conductors in opposites

- If a current carrying conductor sets up a amgnitect field moving into the

page to its left and out of the page to its right. Another current carrying
conductor placed to its right with have a magnetic field going out of the
page on both sides fo it. Using the right hand palm rule one can determine
the force is moving to thee left and therefore the second current carrying
conductor will be attracted ot the first.
- If the current carrying condutors are moving in the oppositie direction,
everything stays the same xcept the force moves in the opposite direction.
In this case to the right.
- This is shown by
- Where F = Force
- L = length of the current carrying conductors
- K is a constant 2.0 X 10^-7
- I1 and I2 are the currents flowing through the conductors
- D is the distance between the current carrying
Torque is the turning momentum of a force
- T = fd
- Where t is the torque
- F = force
- d = distance
The forces experienced by an armature ( current carrying loop) in a magnetic
field depend on the orienti7ation of the loop relative to the magnetic feidl.
- If the axis of the recatnagulr loop is perpendicular to the magnetic field
and the long sdes of the coil is parallel ot the axis.
- Then the long sides will experience a force, opposite to each other, as the
current is lwig in opposite directon
- The short sides will not experience a force as the current in traveling in the
same direction as the magnetic field
- The armature will rotate
- The force at which it roates is known as torque and can be calculated by

- Where T = torque
- N = number of turns
- B = magnetic feidl strength
- I = current
- A = area of armature
- Costheta = angle of coil rlateive to magnetic feidl
The motor effect
To observe the direction of the force on a current-carrying conductor in an
external magnetic field.

variable DC power clamp switch
variable resistor (15 two pieces of thick card horseshoe magnet
rheostat) or balsa wood 10 cm
10 cm
connecting wires strip of aluminium foil 1
cm 30 cm (approx.)
retort stand two drawing pins
1. Pin the foil strip between the pieces of card. Rest one card on the bench-
top and support the other with the clamp and retort stand.
2. Connect the wires to the power pack's DC terminals connecting in a switch
and variable resistor and shown in the diagram below

4. Position the horseshoe magnet so that the strip is between the poles. Note
the position of the poles of the magnet and the direction of the current
through the strip when the switch is closed.
5. Set the power pack to its lowest value (2V) and turn it on.
6. Briefly close the switch and record the movement of the foil strip.
7. Turn the magnet over so that the magnetic field is in the opposite direction
across the strip.
8. Briefly close the switch and record the movement of the foil strip.
Should observe a movement of the strip because there is a force exerted
on the strip when current flows in an external magnetic field
In accordance with the diagram shown above, the strip displayed a
movement out of the page. When the polarity was reversed, it was
observed that the strip in relation to the diagram above move into the
This movement is in accordance with the right-hand push rule, a
demonstration of the concept illustrated in the image below
In conclusion, a force is observed on a current carrying
conductor in an external magnetic field in accordance with the
right-hand push rule


To observe the direction of the forces between two parallel current-carrying

variable DC power retort stand two strips of aluminium
supply foil 1 cm 30 cm
variable resistor (15 clamp four drawing pins
connecting wires two pieces of thick card push switch
or balsa wood 10 cm
10 cm

1. Pin each foil strip between the pieces of card so that they
are parallel when the top card is supported by the clamp
and retort stand.
2. Connect the wires to the power pack's DC terminals
adding in a switch and variable resistor into the circuit as
shown in the diagram to the right, producing a series circuit (currents
flowing in opposite direction).
3. Set the power pack to its lowest value (2V) and turn it on.
4. Briefly close the switch and record the movement of the foil strips.
5. Complete the circuit as described in step 2, however this
time add an extra aluminium strip to connect the strips on
top, producing a parallel circuit (current flowing in the
same direction) as shown in the diagram to the right
6. Briefly close the switch and record the movement of the
foil strips.

In conclusion when the currents are flowing in opposite directions (series circuit)
the metal strips repel each other and when the currents are flowing in the same
direction (parallel circuit) the metal strips attract.
This is shown in the diagrams below, the interaction between each conductors
magnetic field causing the strips to either attract or repel based off the right-
hand push rule (demonstrated above).

DC Motor
A DC motor converts electrical or chemical energy into kinetic energy. It includes
radial magnets creating a B-field, in which an armature attached to an iron core
roatets around an axle. As the armature is a cuurent carrying conductor inside a
magnetic field, it experiences a force due to the motor effect. The left and right
sides of the coil move in opposite direction as the current flows in opposoite
direction, every 180 degrees a split ring communtaro enables the positive
current to flow trough the other end of the armature ensuring unidirectional
torque. The parts listed above are shows indeoth below.

DC Motor
Part Descripton Role / Function
Magnet Form stator Provides external B-field
On opposing sides of which interacts with the
rotor current in the coil to
More effective if radial produce motor effect
Iroon Core Cylander of laminated Concentrates external B-
soft iron which rotor coils field to maximise torque
are wound Laminiations limit the
Mounted on the axle on size od eddy currents
the rotor
Rotor ( armature) coils Usually several coil of Transmits current which
insulated wire wound interacts with B-field to
round the iro core produce torque
Either end is attatched
to one half of the split
ring commmuntator
Split ring communtator 2 metal half ings Provides points of
conection either end of electrical contact
the rotor to the brushes between coil and
external circuit
Reverses current every
180 degrees ensures
unidirectional torque
Brushes Spring loaded graphite Points of electrical
blocks mounted on contact between te rotor
either side of the and the circuit
communtator Allows free roation of the
coils without tanglng the
Axle Cylandrical bar of Provides the axis of
hardened steel passing rotation for armature an
through the centere of coils.
armature through iron
The magnetic field in a DC motor can either be provided b permantnt magnets
or by current carrying coils (solenoids)

Applications of the Motor effects

Loudspeakers: describe how different characteristics of sound are produced
(loudness and pitch)
Word count: 289
The basic structure of a loudspeaker is based on Faradays Law, that a moving
magnet inside a coil of copper wire produces a current through the wire. The
induced current creates an electromagnetic force which then moves the coil up.
By reversing the current in the coil the coil can then move down which creates
vibrations. A sturdy frame is adhered or bolted to the suspension coil, and a cone
or diaphragm is then attached to the framework. A metal structure attaches the
frame to the coil, which ensures the coil only moves up and down, rather than
side to side. As the coil vibrates, it vibrates the diaphragm which then pushes the
surrounding air creating sound waves which we are able to hear. By
manipulating the current produced in the coil, one can manipulate how it
vibrates and thus how the air surrounding it vibrates too, this is how one
manipulates the sound it produces. One can alter the pitch of the noise the
speaker is producing by altering the frequency of the wave. The slower the coil
moves up and down, the slower the diaphragm moves up and down and the
lower the pitch is. By increasing the rate at which the coil and diaphragm move,
one can increase the pitch. The volume or loudness that the loudspeaker is
producing is related to the amplitude of the sound wave, the larger the
amplitude of the wave, the higher the volume will be. Conversely, the lower the
amplitude of the wave is, the lower the volume will be. The amplitude of the
wave is manipulated by increasing or decreasng the current flowing through the
coil. The more current flowing through the coil, the larger the amplitude will be.
Galvanometers: Describe the functions of all the parts.
Word count: 261
A galvanometer is an electromechanical device used for identifying and
measuring electric current, it is essentially an ammeter that records micro amps
rather than regular amps, therefore it is more sensitive than ammeters. The
structure of a galvanometer consist of a coil; the more loops the coil has the
more sensitive the galvanometer will be. The coil is located between two radial
magnets, the curvature of the magnets provide constant torque. As current flows
through the coil within the magnetic field, torque is produced proportional to the
amount of current. This is due to the motor effect. A needle, attached to a
restoring spring will then be deflected from it original resting position of no
torque to a new temporary position while a force is produced. The spring
provides a force known as a spring force. The force enabes the spring to have a
resting position. As the needle is deflected the spring force increases, this leads
to the force pushing the needle back to its resting position increasing aswell.
The more current, the more force will be produced and the greater the effect on
the needle. A soft iron core located in the coil helps focus the magnetic field on
flowing through the coil rather than disperse outwardly. This increases the
functionality and efficiency of the galvanometer. The galvanometer needle can
move in a positive or negative direction, indicating the direction of flow of the
current in the circuit. The needle will quickly return to its resting position as the
change in magnetic flux decreases due to a constant current.

Michael Faraday discovered EM induction by taking a coil connected in series

with a galvaometer, he then moved a arr magnet forwards and backwards
around the coil Fro this he derived his law. The results of the experiment is shown

Action Result
One pole moved in Needle deflected one way
Same pole moved out Needle deflected other way
Magnet at rest No delfection
Slower movemen Less Deflection
Faster movement More deflection

The setup should be as follow, a cooil connected to a galvanometer. With a

known amount of turns. A ba magnet is then moved around and in the coil.
- The greater the number of turns in the coil, the greater the defelction on
the galvanometer
- The greater the strength of the magnet greter the strength of magnetic
flux and the greater the delfection of the galvanometer
- The faster the magnet is moved in/through the coil the greater the
chnaage in flux and the greater the deflection on the galvanometer.
- The smaller the distance between the coil and the magnet, the more
dense magnetic flux is and therefore the greater the deflection on the
Faradays Law - When the magnetic flux linking a circuit changes, an
electromotive force is induced in the circuit proportional to the rate of change of
the flux linkage.
Experiment 2
Faraday also did another exeriment with insulated coils wrapped around a soft
iron ring. One coil was attached to a battery (DC) with a switch and the other to
When the power was switched on the needle deflected one way then returned to
its resting position,, when the power swtiched off it delfected the other way then
returned to its normal postion.
This showed how a change in magnetic field can generate electric current in a
coil, and the magnitude of potential ifference depends on the rate of change.
Magnetic ffeild stength and magntic flux
The strenght of a magntic field, is the same as the desnity of magnetic flux. The
strength of a amgentic field is determined by the number of flux lines in an area.
The greater the number of lines and the smaller the area, therfore the ihgher the
ndesnity. The higher the magnetic field will be. The magneitc field strength is
measured in Teslas o Webers per square meter.
Magnetic flux Amount of magnetic field passing through a given area
Magneti flux can be calculated by multiplying magnetic flux denisity by the
perpindicular surface area. , alteratively the strength of a magnetic field
can be claculted my dividing the flux by the area.

The generated potential difference is the rate of change of magnetic flux through
a circuit. This is demonstrated through the
- Where E is the poenital difference
- N is the number of coils
- Fuuny sign is the change in flux
- Delta T is change in time
If a conductor experiences a net change in magnetic flux, due to motion a
electromagneitc field will be induced.
The relative motion between a current carrying cnductor and a magnetic field
causes a net change in flux threadig the conductor and induces an EMF, this is
known as faradays law. This EMF induces a current wich produces a magetic field
opposing the original change. This is lenz law. Lenz says that an EMF that has
been induced, will create another force opposing that change. Lenz law tries to
mnimise the change of magnetic flux.
For example :
- As a coil is removed from a magnettic field, the flux is reduced creting an
- The inuced current flows creating a magnetic field to oppose the original
change in flux
- Therefore a clockwise current is induced in the ring to produce a magnetic
field into the page by right hand grip rule.
- The current stops flowing when the entire ring has been removed from the
magnetic field, and the change in flux stops.

If lenz law was reverses so that the current is set to produce a magnetic field
that magnifies the original change in flux, the net flux threading the conductor
would increase. As change in flux is the numerator in the equation. the
more change in flux the more potential difference. This would continuesly result
in the creation of electrical energy and due to the conservation of energy this
cannot happen. Therfore Lenz law must hold true.
Lenz law related to back emf, back emf opposes the primary or supply EMF. In
motors the rotation of the coil in the magnetic field (relative motion) results in a
net change of flux. Therfore by Faradays law an EMF is induced in the conducting
coil. Lenz then says that the emf is produced so as to oppose the suppky EMF. As
the supply/primary EMF increases the motor speeds up which increases the
change in flux as the coils are roating faster through the B-field. Therfore the
back EMF increases too.
The resulting EMF is equal to the suppy EMF back EMF

The motor reaches a steady speed once the suppy emf = back emf
Therefore there is zero net torque.

Starting resistance
- As a motor starts the EMF and the current in the coil will be large, yet the
motor will not be roating that quickly therfroe the back emf will be small.
- To prevent burn out in the motor a variable starting resisot is placed in
series with the coil to increase the resistance. This decreases the current.
- As the coil speeds up, and the back emf increases the starting resistance
can be decreases and eventually removed.
Eddy Currents
Eddy current are small circular currens induced in flat conductors when moving
relative to a magnetic field.
Eddy currents occur in large flat sheets of conducting material rather than in
wires. They occur as a result of faradays law. According to lenz law the eddy
currents are set up to oppose the initial change in flux.

Induction Cooktops
- Induction cook tops ise a cpo attached to an AC source under the stove
top to set up a rapidly oscilating magnetic field. As the AC measn that the
direction of flow of th current is always changing. Therfreo the magnetic
field is always changing.
- The stove top itself is a non conducting materials such as ceramic or glass.
And therefore when the stove is turned on, the stove top will not get hot.
- A metals pot is then placed n the stove top, and thefrore therefore is now
in contact with this ever changing magnetic field
- As the pot is metal and there is now a flat conductor in a changing
magnetic field, eddy current form. These cuureents have high resistance in
the pot an therefore release heat.
- This heat is then used to cook food.
Advantages and Disadvantes of induction cooktops
Advantage Disadvantage
Stove is more efficient as there is no Expensive
heat lost to the surroundings.
Safer as the stovetop odes not get hot Only conductive pans can be used
Can result in more concentrated heat Steel/iron jewlery ay heat up and
and therefore cook food faster cause burns.

Electromagnetic Braking
The wheel spinning in the magnetic field causes a change in flux threading the
wheel, this gives rise to eddy current in the wheel. According to lenz law these
eddy currents will oppose the original direction of roation of th wheel. This
opposition force then slows the wheel down. Leading to the wheel breaking.
Advantage Disadvnatge
No friction results in no wear Very weak at slow speeds and
therefore may need supplementary
conventional brakes
No wear is much cheaper, as there is
no physical contact parts are less
likely to brake and thus there is
smaller need to replace parts.

Electromagnetic braking is often used in trains and roller coasters, and rarely
used in automotives. Cars usually se conventionall braking. Electromganetic
braking does not work well at low speeds, or to maintain a stopped position.

A generator I a decide hich tranforms kinetic or mechanical enery into electrical
The features of a simple generator is listed below.
Part Description Function
Magnets Usually form the stator Provides externall magnetic
Oppositie sides of the field which interacts with the
rotor/armature toque input to generate
Usually radial current in the rotor
Iron core Cylinder of laminated soft iron Concentrates B-field
core which the coils are wound Laminations reduce eddy
round currents
Mounted on the axle
Rotor coils Usuually several coils of insulated Rotate within the B-field and
wire wound round the iron core current induced within them.
Either end is attached to one half
of the communtator.
Split ring Electrical conact between either Reverse direction of output
communtat end f the coil and the burshes every half rotation to provide
or 2 metal half rings unidirectional output.
Brushes Spring loaded graphie blocks Allows free roation of th coils
without tangling circuit
Point of electrical contact
between rotor and external
Axle Cylindrical bar of hardened teel Provides axis of rotation for
passing through the centre of the coils.
armature through iron core.

Motors and generators are opposites. Motors purpose is to convert electrical

energy into mechanical, whilst gernators aim to convert mechanical into
electrical energy. However there design is quite similar .

Similarities and differences of the structure of AC and DC motors and

Similarities Differences
Each has a stator which provides a Motors use an input of current via a
magnetic field voltage source to proide torque as an
output, while generators use an iniput
of torque via a handle to provide an
output of current
A rotor consisting of coils and axle Ac motors and generators use slip rings
and a laminated iron core. while DC motors and geerators use
split ring commutators.
Brushes which contact the
commutator and the external circuit

Differences between AC and DC

Simple generator uses slip ring Simple gene
Can use many angled coils with Can use a m
separate commutators and brushes coils place a
Industrially, an AC generator has Produces a r
magnets as the rotor and coils on the one set of w
stator coil is weake
switches to
This produces multi phase current Smooth/ rela
through different wires to avoid application
interference. volage.

Westinghouse and Edison debate over the type of generators

used in the USA
Word count: 800
The Westinghouse vs Edison debate (war of currents) was the argument
over the superiority of


Current or Direct Current in

the early 19th Century, and which form of electricity should be supplied to
the population of the United States. Edison developed the first useful
incandescent light bulb which used Direct Current to power it, an
electricity form that Edison created. Edison began to build hydroelectric
plants to generate his DC power, so he could gain a monopoly over the
electrical corporations of the USA. However, Edison's power supply of DC
electricity was difficult to transport over long distances as it would lose a
significant amount of energy along the way in the form of heat. In order to
combat this, Edison employed Nikola Tesla to help find a solution. Tesla
informed Edison that the future of electricity was in Alternating Current as
its high voltage could be transmitted over large distances using a lower
current. Despite Edison appreciating this idea labelling it splendid, he
dismissed it as highly impractical. This resulted in Tesla leaving Edison
and working on his theory alone. George Westinghouse of Westinghouse
Electric and Manufacturing company bought some of the patents Tesla
had on AC electricity and AC Dynamos. He then began commercialising
the system to begin providing electricity in the USA. Edison recognised
Westinghouse as direct competition.
Westinghouse originally supplied electricity to the more rural areas, which
Edison was incapable of reaching, however, he soon moved into more
densely populated towns and cities, even selling his product at a loss to
ensure he broke into Edisons market. Edison understood the severity of
Westinghouse ambitions and recognised he must do something to prevent
the takeover of his electrical monopoly. Edison believed that AC electricity
must be more dangerous than DC as it was transmitted at a much higher
voltage. He utilised this knowledge when a dentist named Alfred P
Southwick approached him for a more humane way of killing criminals.
Edison informed him that a quicker death could be achieved by using
Alternating Current. Edison began to demonstrate the danger involved
with Alternating Current, he set up presentations of AC current passing
through sheets of metal and forced dogs to walk on the metal as a display
of the death that can occur from being in contact with AC electricity.
Edison ensured that the people understood the danger involved with using
AC power, he attempted to make the general population associate AC
power with the electric chair.
In an attempt to combat Edisons propaganda, Westinghouse informed the
public as to why AC electricity was superior. He explained that through the
use of transformers the voltage could be altered as desired. This meant
that alternating current could be generated at a low voltage, but stepped
up to a high voltage using transformers. This enabled the current to be
transmitted long distances. The current could then be stepped down again
for consumers to use safely. AC current could be transmitted further with
less energy loss than DC. Westinghouse won the first contract to use
Niagara Falls as a hydroelectric plant. This created a strong foundation
and a large amount of energy for Westinghouse and was his first triumph
over Edisons DC.
Westinghouse reinforced his belief of AC superiority by exampling the
aesthetics associated with both AC and DC. If DC power was to be used to
supply electricity to the USA there would have to be many power stations
scattered all over the states, whilst AC could have fewer power stations.
USA citizens did not want ugly power stations and a large amount of
unattractive powerlines infiltrating their hometown. Westinghouse used
this to his advantage. AC became even more popular with the invention of
Tesla's induction motor which only operated on AC

Alternating Current Direct Current

Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantage
Can be More dangerous Safer than AC DC cant be
transformed than DC as easily
Unaffected when stepped up or
Can be Less portable, passing through stepped down
transmitted usually needs a magnetic field due to higher or
large distances power outlet. to no change in lower
with minimal magnetic flux voltages
power loss Transmission using
lines more Superconductors transformers
Fewer power expensive to enable one to
stations leads to produce. transmit DC Loses more
more current large energy while
aesthetically AC lines interfere distances with little being
pleasing with power loss. transmitted
environment telecommunicati due to higher
on lines. DC can be more current and
AC motors are portable as it is thus higher
more simple often stored in resistance
than DC and batteries.
therefore break More power
less frequently DC lines dont stations in
interfere with populated
communication areas
lines. decrease the
aesthetics of
Insulation required the area.
in cables is lower
than AC, making DC motors
the systems more complex
cheaper to produce than AC,
leads to
increase in
AC became the dominant form of electricity and Westinghouse won the
war of currents. However, it still is not superior in all aspects. DC has the
advantage of being unaffected while moving through electromagnetic
radiation or magnetic induction. Converters and solid state switches
enable one to fairly easily switch between AC and DC at high or low
voltages, narrowing the divide between the two energy forms. Scientists
have also managed to practically transmit high voltages of DC electricity.
They are working on superconducting wires which would be capable of
carrying high voltage DC electricity large distances. This may change the
preferred method of transmitting energy from AC to DC. A 50km wire
between two islands in Japan already exists that carries 2800MW of power
between the two land masses in DC from.
AC is a favoured from of electricity as its voltage can be transformed, by
increasing the voltage and decreasing the current. One can transfer the
energy large distances with low losses due to heat. This enabled AC to
gain the upper hand over DC.
Enery losses in Transmisson
A generator converts mechanical nergy into electrical energy. This eergy must
then be transferred to other locations here it can be used. This transferring of
energy is doen over transmission lines. During this process some energy is lost.

As the resistance in the wires remain constant, powerloss can best be reduced by
decreasing the transmission current.
Power loss occurs in generators :
- Resistance in coils
- Eddy currents in iron cores cause resistive heating
- Friction between moving parts produces heat
- Resistive heating in transmission lines
- Some EM induced
- Resistive heating in coils
- Eddy currents casuing resistive heating in iron core
Transmission lines need to be protected from there suroudings, a number of
precautions are taken to ensure there ecurity these precasution are lised below.

Precuation Result
Suspesion and Chain insulation Linked ceramic disc segments linked
design to increase the distance the
current has to pass over decreasing
the risng of current leaks
Less chanhe tha dirt and grime will
build up on the nderside of section
Usually qite long,high voltage loger
Chain insulation Prevent conduction of lightning
current from metal towers to power
lines hence avoids power surge
Continous earth wires Caries no current usually but can if
power surge
Runs from the top of the tower to the
bottom and into the ground
Therefore if tower is struck by
lightning current can be conducted
directly to ground
Shield Conductors Uninsulated cable with no current
postion higher than other
transmission lines, so lightning will
more likely it these cable that can
then pass through the tower into the
Towers Conducting strcture which are taller
than cables and well earthed
Lightning is more likely to strike tops
of tower so charge dissipates nto the
The hight of the tower Stops people and animlasclimbiing it
Barbed wire Barrbed wire spread around the base
also prevents pel and animals
climbing the structure.

Impact of Electricity Generation of Society

- Using transformers with AC means voltage can be stepped up/ down to
minimise power loss
- Can be transmitted long distances allowing remote locations to gain
- Incresaed accessibility allows eletrity to be used for cooking, lighting,
refrigeration ect improved standard of living
- Minimising costly power losses makes AC more affordable fro the
- AC has allowed more application for electricity to be developed as it can
be stepped up and down to meet voltage requirements
- Microwaves air conditioning cimputer increasing ease and conveincine of
everyday life
- Increased reliability and affordability of products
- Medical imaging techniques improved ability to diagnose disease thus
better prognosis
- Power stations can be located further away from cities and towns
- Fewer transmission lines are required at the end point as AC can be
- More aesthetically pleasing for society

- Widsread use and increased demand for electricity has lead to
- - increased risk of electrocution
- - automation of industry decreased demand for skilled labour
- - increased dependnace on eecltricty
- - invention of new lesure activities such as tv has lead to obesity
- Increased demand for electricity has lead to an increase in theburning of
fossil fuels which has increased emission of air pollution enhancing the
green house gas effect
- Formation and effects of acid rain
- There has also been destruction of natural habitats of wildlife to
mine/deforest and construct dams for hydroelectricity
Despite these negative effets that AC Generation can ohave on society and the
environemn thte positive and advantages outweight them, so we continue to use
and create AC electrity.

Advantages and Disadvantages of AC and DC Generators

Ac generators can be used with trasnormers allowing
- More efficient and larger distance transmission
- The use of fewer wires ( more aesthetically pleasing)
- The ability to use electricity to meet many different voltage
DC Generators cannot be used ith trasnformers therefore the opposite
is true

Slip ring
- Smooth continuous surface which the brushes are constantly in
contact with
- They do not wear down quickly and require little emaintance
Split ring
- Brushes always strinking the edge of the omcmuntato casuing them
to break and require maitanance
- As they wear the do not mainaint proper contact reducing its
- Conductive objects ma aslo become lodged in the gao between the
half rings casuing sparing and reducing quality of ouput ignal.
Function of parts
In an AC generatr designed for high current apllications the current is
produced in the stator windings rather than the rotor
- It is much easier to draw the current through a fixed connection on
the stator and measn that the output current can be increased by
adding coils
- Does not increases the load on moving parts so maininating
efficiency f generator.
A DC generator generates current in the rotor (disadvantage)
- Increased output can only be achieved with more ocils on rotot
higher demand on moving parts.
- This causes more friction, wearing and heat loss decreasing
- Drawing large current through brusg commutator connection
increases risk of spraks
- This limits DC to fairly low current uses
Output Signal
AC generatrs can be designed using 6 stator poles in pairs and a single
elctomagnetic rotot to produce 3 phase output
- Makes AC generators ideal for industry
DC generators can be designed with multiple coils placed at regulat
angles to one another around the armature
- A multipart commutator has brushes which are only ever in contact
wihtht eh comuutator parts
- The current ripples around a mean alue rather than fluctuating
between 0 and max
- This current is suitable for application that require a fairly stale and
steady voltage which cannot be achieved with an AC generator
without rectifiers.
Transformers allow generated voltage to either be increased or decreased before
use. Only AC can be transformed
The domestic supply voltage in australi is 240V single phase, and industries often
use 415V 3 phase. Many appliances operate of different voltages, either they are
imported and designed to run on a different countries electricity. In this case a
transformer I laced between the main and the appliance.
Other devices may need varying voltages such as a microwae which needs
higher voltage for the cooking process then it does for the display panel.
The basic structure of a transformer is a primary coil
wound round a laminated iron core. This iron core then
threads a secondary coil. Electricity flows through
the first which induces a charge in the second.
If the voltage is to be stepped up, there wil be
more coils in the seconday coil than the primary
coil. Step up increases voltage and decreases current.
If the voltage is to be stepped down, there will
be less coils in the secondary coil then the
primary coil. Step down decreases voltage and inreases

Turns ratio
AC current in the primary coil sts up an oscilating B-field conducted by the
iron core into the secondary coil, this induces an EMF and current. More
coil means a greater total EMF induced in the coil.
The number of coils in the primary and seconday coil is
related to the voltage in the primary and seconday coil, this
is show to the right where
p = primary
S = secondary
Transformers step up the voltage or step down the voltage, seemingly
creating or destroying energy which according to the law of conservation
of energy cannot occur. Trasnformers follow the law as by increasing
voltage one decreases the cuurent as P = VI
The net power stays the same

Electricity is typically used at 240V or 415V, if it were transferred across

the country t these ltages without the use of trasnfromers high loss of
energy would occur which woud lead to loss fo money. Transfrmers allow
power to be gernetaed and stepped up to igh volatges fo distance

Therefore the lower the current (I) the lower th power loss.
Transforms aso allow voltages to be stepped down for suburbia, or to meet
different demands. Therfore one mains supply can be used to power many

Impact of transformer on society

Advantages Disadvantages
The way transformers stepup/step Led to increased dependency on
down voltages reduce powerloss in electricity
This allow electricity to be more
affordable espcaiily in remote
This alos signifigantly increases the
quality of lighting, heating,
refrigeration ect.
Ability to step up/down ebnable Automation fo insutry reduing
electricity can meet demands of demand fro labour
different locations, this led to
widespread use of appliances wich
increase the tasks at home.
Fewer transmission lines are Increased risk of electrocution
required to transmit electricity and
supply different voltage
requiremnts making the elctricty
network more aesthetically
Increased demand increased
burning f fossil fuels casuing
decreased air uality and casuing
respiratory irritation.

The iron core in trasnfomrs concentrates the magnetic field to
maximise efficiency, however as changing flux nteracts with the
core, eddy currents form which leads to resistive heat loss.
The heat, represents energy loss from system, increased resisitnce
leafing to power loss and can damage wiring in trasnofromers from
over heating.
Energy loss
Heating due to eddy currents being induced in the iron core of the
trasnfomrer results in energy loss.
The increased resistence in the coil wires due to heating casues
greater power losses.
Prevnting/limiting eddy currents
Iron cores are made of laminated iron, the sheets of iron is
separated by insulated material, laminations cut the plane at the
indued magnetic field, limiting the size of eddy currets which
reduces the overall heating and thus reduces power loss.
Iron cores can be made of materials called ferrites, materiasl
capable of conducting magnetic field but not electricity, these could
be oxides of iron and other metals. This prevents the induction of
eddy current.
Cooling techniques
Transformers have cases with heat sinks which increase surface area to
dissipate heat, they are made of black or dark material which encourages
radiioion of heat produced internally to the external envionemt. Raise
trasnfromers above ground inside ventilated areas to improve air
circulation and keeping thhe transformer out of direct sunlight helps keep
it cool. One could also immerse the transformer in a non conducting oil
which is pumped around to absor heat produced at the core and move it
to the outside where it can be dissipated to the external enviroemnt.
Motors are used in industries and home to convert electrical
energy into more usefu of energys.
Universal Motor
The universal motor is very imilar to a simple DC motor (split ring) but the
stator is formed by electromagnets in series with rotor coils. Rather than
permanent magnets.
When using AC the direction fo the current in both the rotor and the stator
switches simultaneously.

The universal mtor starts the same way as a simple DC motor, a split ring
I utelised so that when the communtator parts cross oer, the current inn
the rotor changes direction providing unidirectional torque. Rotation
When the AC switches polarity the direction of current switches in both the
rotor and stator, this results in torque remaining in the the same direction.
Rotation continues with switches occurring at 50Hz (switch of polarity fo
AC). Simple AC motors need a starting torque to provide rotation until it
matches the polarity of AC. In universal motors running on AC this is
unnecasary as the uni directional torque is maintained by the stator and
electromagnets simultanously switching polarity.

Alternating Current, Direct current, split ring

direction of current ensures unidirectional
torque and rotation.
and electromagnet polarity
switches simultaneously
AC Induction Motor