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Magnetic Particle Testing Method

Questions & Answers Book

SeCond Edition
Supplement to
Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A
Book B

Levels I, II and Ill

Review Questions

The American Society for

Nondestructive Testing, Inc.

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second printing 03/88
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seventh printing with revisions 05/94
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Acknowledgments iv

Recommended References v

Reference Usage vi
Level I Questions 1
Level II Questions 11
Level Ill Questions 23

ASNT thanks the following individuals for their input in updating the
references for this edition:

Charles W. Eick- Horizon NOT Services, LLC

David G. Moore - Sandia National laboratories

Recommended References
Magnetic Particle Testing Method
The following references were used in formulating the questions contained in this book.

A.* Betz, Carl E. Principles of Magnetic Particle Testing. Chicago, IL: Magnaflux Corporation (2000).
B.* Magnetic Particle Testing Classroom Training Book. Columbus, OH: The American Society for Nondestructive
Testing, Inc. (2004).
C.* Moore, David G., tech. ed., and Patrick 0. Moore, ed. Nondestructive Testing Handbook, third edition:
Volume 8, Magnetic Testing, Columbus, OH: The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. (2008).
D.* Eick, Chuck W. Levell/ Study Guide: Magnetic Particle Testing Method, second edition, Columbus, OH: The
American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. (2003).
E.* Fenton, John D. ASNT Levelll/ Study Guide: Magnetic Particle Testing Method, second edition, Columbus, OH:
The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. (2006).

* Available from The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc.

The following reference is frequently cited in contracts and may be a useful study aid. There are no questions in
this book that refer to this reference.

F. ASTM E 1444, Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination, West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM
International. Current edition.

Each question found in this book is followed by letter(s) and page number(s) indicating the specific recommended
reference(s) where the answer may be found. For example:

27. A metal that is difficult to magnetize is said to have:

a. high permeability
b. low permeability
c. low coercive force
d. low retentivity
C. 56

In this example, the letter "C" refers to Reference C in the list above and 56 is the specific page in Reference C
where the answer to the question is located.

vi Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

Reference Usage
Reference A: Total ~ 64 Reference D: Total ~ 7
Levell 10 Levell 4
Levelll 31 Levelll 3
Levellll 23 Levellll 0

Reference B: Total ~ 3 Reference E: Total ~ 23

Level I 3 Levell 14
Level II 0 Levelll 6
Levellll 0 Levellll 3

Reference C: Total ~161

Levell 75
Levelll 46
Levellll 40

Level I Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 1

Level I Questions
Magnetic Particle Testing Method

1. Magnetic particle is a nondestructive 5. Magnetic particles are available in

testing method used for: different colors:

a. locating surface and near-surface a. for color contrast with the part
discontinuities in aluminum surface thereby enhancing detection
b. locating surface and near-surface of indications
discontinuities in steel b. to enhance the detection of
c. finding and measuring material indications by allowing background
separation color matching
d. measuring flux density c. to determine if an indication is
C.2 surface or subsurface
d. to indicate different magnetic flux
2. Ferromagnetic material is: values
a. strongly attracted by a magnet
b. not highly saturated by magnetic 6. Which of the following can be

c. a material with a 0 permeability

measurement a. 1ron
d. not capable of being magnetized b. copper
C.380: E.3 c. aluminum
d. magnesium
3. The permeability of a material describes: C.43

a. the ease with which it can be 7. The magnetic field is strongest when:
b. the depth of the magnetic field in the a. the magnetizing voltage is flowing
part b. the magnetizing current is flowing
c. the length of time required to c. the material exhibits high coercive
demagnetize it forces
d. the ability to retain the magnetic field d. the magnetizing current is not flowing
C.385; E.6 C.54

4. The retentivity of a material describes: 8. If a crack exists in a circular magnet, the

attraction of magnetic particles to the
a. the ease with which it can be crack is caused by:
b. the depth of the magnetic field in the a. a coercive force
part b. a leakage field
c. the length of time required to c. a Doppler effect
demagnetize it d. a high reluctance at the crack

d. the ability to retain the magnetic field C.49
C.387; E.4

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2 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

9. The unit usually used to denote flux 14. The magnitude of the residual magnetic
density is: field in a specimen is dependent on:

a. tesla a. the length-to-diameter ratio (LID)

b. henry b. the strength of the applied
c. farad magnetizing force
d. ampere c. the right-hand rule
C.54 d. the left-hand rule
10. VVhich statement is true when related to
magnetic lines of force? 15. The proper number of ampere-turns for a
given test specimen being examined by
a. they are often forced to cross due to longitudinal magnetism is determined by:
part geometry
b. they are most dense at the poles of a a. its length and diameter
magnet b. the material
c. they seek the path of most resistance c. the diameter and the material
d. they cannot be detected d. its diameter
C.44 A.182

11. Magnetic flux lines that are parallel to a 16. A circular field may be induced into a
discontinuity produce: specimen by:

a. strong indications a. placing the part in an energized coil

b. weak indications b. passing current directly through the
c. no indications part
d. fuzzy indications c. passing a magnetic field through the
C.48 part
d. placing the part in a north~south
12. A part is adaptable to magnetic particle orientation
inspection if: C.50

a. it is attached to an electrostatic field 17. An electrical yoke produces:

b. the material is ferromagnetic
c. the material is nonferrous a. a longitudinal field
d. the material is an electric conductor b. a circular field
C.43 c. alternating fields
d. a swinging field
13. What rule describes the direction of C.53: E.27
current flow ( + to -) when lines of
magnetic force surround a conductor? 18. An energized coil around the part
a. left-hand rule
b. right-hand rule a. a circular field
c. flux rule b. a longitudinal field
d. reluctance rule c. an intermittent field
C.50 d. a field dependent on the type of
current applied
C.51; E.9

Level I Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 3

19. In longitudinal magnetization the proper 23. Which of the following is an advantage of
term for calculating magnetizing force is: magnetic particle testing over penetrant
a. amperes
b. ampere-turns a. it does not require post-cleaning of
c. watts the part
d. ohms b. it requires direct access to the surface
A.182 of the part
c. it can detect near-surface
20. Magnetic lines of force: discontinuities
d. it requires a shorter dwell time to
a. travel in straight lines produce results
b. form a closed loop A.66
c. are randomly oriented
d. overlay in highly ferromagnetic 24. The amount of amperage used for
materials magnetic particle inspection using the
C.44; E.4 prod metho_d is determined from the:

21. A magnetic particle buildup from a a. type of material

discontinuity is strongest when the b. distance between the prods
discontinuity is oriented: c. diameter of the part
d. total length of the part
a. 180 degrees to the magnetic flux flow C.113
b. 45 degrees to the magnetic flux flow
c. 90 degrees to the magnetic flux flow 25. The flux within and surrounding a
d. 90 degrees to the current flow magnetized part or around a conductor
C.48 carrying a current is known as:

22. A specimen may be demagnetized by a. the saturation point

which of the following methods? b. a magnetic field
c. the ferromagnetic field
a. heat treatment below the curie d. the paramagnetic field
temperature C.112
b. placing the part in an alternating
current coil 26. The areas on a magnetized part from
c. placing the part in reversing and which the magnetic field is leaving or
decreasing direct current fields returning into the part are called:
d. applying a direct current yoke and
removing it from the part a. salient points
A.66; E.54 b. defects
c. magnetic poles
d. nodes

27. A metal that is difficult to magnetize is

said to have:

a. high permeability
b. low permeability
c. low coercive force
d. low retentivity
C.56; E.44

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4 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

28. The magnetism that remains in a piece of 33. Inspecting a part by magnetizing,
magnetizable material after the removing the current flow, then applying
magnetizing force has been removed is the medium is called the:
called the:
a. continuous method
a. tramp magnetism b. wet method
b. residual magnetism c. residual method
c. damped magnetism d. dry method
d. permanent magnetism C.63
C. 54
34. Which of the following is the most
29. Subsurface discontinuity indications effective method for the detection of
usually appear: near-surface defects?

a. sharp and distinct a. dry residual method using DC with

b. sharp and wide surge
c. wide and fuzzy b. wet continuous method using
d. high and loosely held half-wave rectified current
0.35 c. wet residual method
d. dry continuous method using
30. Which residual field is most difficult to half-wave rectified current with prods
demagnetize? C.i17

a. longitudinal 35. A curve is sometimes drawn to show

b. circular graphically the relation of the
c. vector magnetizing force to the strength of the
d. binodal magnetic field produced in a certain
C.281 material. This curve is known as the:

31. Which magnetic particle application a. magnetic force curve

technique is the most sensitive? b. hysteresis curve
c. saturation curve
a. continuous d. induction curve
b. residual C.54; E.6
c. interrupted
d. counter-current 36. What method of applying particles
C.64 provides greater sensitivity in locating
subsurface weld discontinuities?
32. Fluorescent magnetic particle indications
should be inspected under: a. continuous
b. residual
a. any light c. circular
b. a neon light d. longitudinal
c. an ultraviolet light C.180
d. a fluorescent light
C.62; E.39

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Level I Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 5

! 3 7. When magnetizing a weld in two 41. The point at which the magnetism in a
" directions, and if the current used in the
first direction is 750 A and the current in
material cannot be increased even though
the magnetizing force continues to
the second direction is 400 A, which of increase is known as the:
the following is true?
a. salient pole
a. the part should be checked to see if b. saturation point
demagnetization between operations c. residual point
is necessary d. remnant point
b. no precautions should be taken before C.54
the second operation
c. this is not a valid technique 42. Which type of current produces a skin
d. there is no need to magnetize a weld effect on the surface of the part?
in two directions
C.278 a. alternating current
b. direct current
38. When there is absolutely no pattern or c. half-wave rectified
distribution of magnetic particles on the d. full-wave rectified
part, the possible cause is that: C.57; E.13

a. the amperage setting is too high 43. When using the wet method, why should
b. the amperage setting is too low a high velocity flow of wet method bath
c. the particle bath strength is too high over surfaces following removal of the
d. the part is made of steel with high magnetizing current not be used?
A.64 a. it may wash away a fine or weakly
held indication
39. VVhat are three causes of nonrelevant b. this is not a problem
indications? c. it may splash particles into eyes
d. none of the above is correct
a. lack of fusion, change of section 0.23
thickness, grinding cracks
b. change of section thickness, heat 44. Residual magnetic particle inspection
affected zones, drilled hole near may be used when:
c. very high amperage, drilled hole near a. parts are irregular in shape
surface, blowholes b. parts are highly retentive
d. drilled hole near surface, very high c. parts are highly stressed
amperage, lack of fusion d. evaluating continuous method
C.217 indications
40. Using the residual test method, a number
of parts are magnetized and laid on a rack 45. Magnetic particle inspection is not a
prior to application of magnetic particles. reliable method of detecting:
Why is it important that they do not rub
or touch each other? a. laps
b. deep internal cavities
a. there is a possible loss of the magnetic c. cracks
field d. seams
b. it may cause magnetic writing C.28
c. it may damage the part
d. it makes parts hard to handle

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6 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

46. The wet fluorescent magnetic particle

inspection method is the same as the
visible wet magnetic particle method
except that the fluorescent magnetic
particle inspection method requires:
51. To detect lengthwise discontin11ities on
the inside diameter of hollow parts, you

a. pass current through it

b. magnetize with a coil
a. an ultraviolet light c. pass current through a central
b. a higher current conductor
c. a different machine d. increase the amperage used
d. alternating current C.120
52. What equipment is used to determine if a
47. A discontinuity open to the surface part has been demagnetized?
produces an indication which is:
a. a magnet on the part
a. sharp and distinct b. a field indicator
b. wide and indefinite c. a survey meter
c. crisscrossed d. careful observation for clinging
d. high and fuzzy magnetic particles
0.35; E.2 C.289

48. Which of the following will produce 53. Which of the following is most often used
circular magnetism? for dry magnetic particle inspection?

a. passing current through a coil a. full cycle direct current

c. yokes c. high voltage, low amperage current

d. passing current through prods d. direct current from electrolytic cells
8.11 C.57

49. When using the wet continuous method, 54. An electric current through a copper
the flow of suspension from the hose wire:
should be shut off;
a. creates a magnetic field around the
a. immediately after applying the wire
current b. creates magnetic poles in the wire
b. immediately before applying the c. magnetizes the wire
current d. does not create a magnetic field
c. while the current is flowing C.50
d. 30 seconds before applying the
current 55. Parts should be cleaned after
8.52 demagnetization:

50. The strongest magnetic field in a coil is at a. to ensure that the magnetic particles
the; are re1noved
b. to prevent false indications
a. outside edge c. to save the solids of the suspension
b. inside edge d. to prevent cracking during heat
c. center treatment
d. end C.278

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Level I Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 7

56. In circular magnetization, the 61. When a magnetic field is induced in a

magnetizing force is expressed in part with prods spaced !52 mm (6 in.)
amperes. What term is used to express apart, the field is:
magnetizing force in longitudinal
magnetization? a. solenoidal
b. circular
a. amperes c. longitudinal
b. ampere-turns d. distorted trapezoidal
c. consequent poles C.53
d. volts
D.18 62. Applying the theory of the right -hand
rule, a longitudinal surface defect in a
57. A longitudinal surface crack in a round bar is detected by current passing
circularly magnetized part will cause: in a direction parallel to the direction of
expected defects" because:
a. the magnetic field to die out
b. a decrease in permeability a. the current direction is in line with
c. a magnetic leakage field the defect
d. a current to flow b. the magnetic field is at right angles to
C.49 the defect
c. it makes no difference
58. In a magnetic particle test, assuming that d. the magnetic field is parallel to the
all of the following are in the same relative defect
position in a small part, which would be C. 50
the hardest to detect?
63. If a cm;rent is passed through an electrical
a. a surface crack conductor, what will surround the
b. a near-surface crack conductor?
c. a scratch
d. a seam a. eddy current field
A.62 b. current
c. magnetic field
59. If wet magnetic particle suspension is not d. residual field
uniform, then: C.50

a. the strength of an indication may 64. With current flowing from+ to- in a
vary, and the interpretation of the coil, a longitudinal field is created. Which
indication may be erroneous of the following may be used to establish
b. the magnetic flux would not be the direction of the magnetic field?
c. greater mobility would be required a. left-hand rule
d. the part cannot be magnetized b. right-hand rule
A.261 c. Ohm's law
d. Newton's law
60. Which of the following currents will best C. 50
define surface cracks?

a. half-wave rectified alternating current

b. direct current
c. alternating current
d. surge current

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8 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNTTC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

65. When magnetic material is placed into a

coil, the magnetic lines of flux concentrate
themselves in the material and:

a. create a longitudinal magnetic field

70. A major factor that determines the
success of magnetic particle inspection is

a. field strength

b. create a circular magnetic field b. voltage on magnetizing coil
c. create a longitudinal circular field c. current through the coil
d. have no effect d. time of magnetization
C.51 C.48-49

66. Which form of magnetization is easiest to 71. What type of current is .best suited to
detect in most parts? detect surface discontinuities?

a. longitudinal magnetization a. direct current

b. permanent magnetism b. alternating current
c. circular magnetization c. pulsating direct current
d. parallel magnetization d. halfwave
C.280 C.57

67. The best type of magnetic field to use to 72. When preparing a magnetic particle bath,
inspect a tubular product for surface it is important to have the bath strength at
defects along its length is a: a proper level, as too many particles can
result in:
a. longitudinal field
b. circular field a. lowering the test amperage
c. swinging field b. having to increase the magnetizing
d. yoke magnetization current
C.112 c. masking the indications
d. none of the above
68. The area of maximum induced field C.188
strength using a yoke is:
73. One advantage of using fluorescent
a. at the north pole of the yoke particles is:
b. at the south pole of the yoke
c. the area directly between the poles a. that less equipment is required
d. on the outside of pole pieces b. the high speed of inspection
C.53 c. the cost
d. that they are more readily attracted
69. The strength of the magnetic field than other particles
induced in a part is often referred to as: A.275-276

a. current density 74. When using a dry magnetic particle

b. voltage powder, the proper way to apply it to the
c. flux density part is to:
d. retentivity
C.47. 383 a. forcibly apply it with air
b. roll the material in the container of
c. apply it from the bottom of the part
d. float the particles to the inspection
surface as gently as possible

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Level 1Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 9

t 75. When using wet particles in water

suspension, wetting agents are added to:
79. Resistance to demagnetization:

a. is greater in hard materials than soft

a. prevent freezing materials
b. prevent corrosion of inspection b. is greater in soft materials than hard
equipment materials
c. ensure the proper wetting of the part c. is the same for both hard and soft
d. decrease the amount of water needed materials
C.186 d. is nonexistent
76. When preparing an inspection bath, the
amount of magnetic particles per gallon 80. Demagnetization:
of fluid is called its:
a. may be easy or difficult depending on
a. measuring scale the type of material
b. particle number b. is easy for materials having a high
c. strength or concentration coercive force
d. usable limits c. is always most difficult in materials
C.188 retaining a high residual field
d. all of the above answers are correct
77. Coercive force: C.282

a. describes the means by which the 81. The strength of the wet suspension
magnetic particles are suspended in should be maintained at a given level

the liquid when using the wet method because:

b . describes the magnetizing force used
with the continuous method a. a low level may give weak indications
c. represents the reverse magnetizing b. a high level may give heavy
force necessary to remove the residual background
magnetism in a material c. both A and B
d. is not a term used in magnetic d. none of the above
particle testing C.188
C. 54
82. Indications such as those at local external
78. Demagnetization: poles, sharp fillets or thread roots are
a. may be accomplished by heating a
material above its curie point a. fake indications
b. is always necessary b. relevant indications
c. can be performed only with c. nonrelevant indications
alternating current d. magnetic writing indications
d. can be performed only with direct C.216-217
C.278: E.6 83. Magnetic particle testing will reveal
discontinuities in which one of the
following materials?

a. bronze
. b. carbon steel
c. aluminum castings
d. austenitic stainless steel

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10 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

84. Magnetic particle testing is a

nondestructive testing method for
detecting discontinuities in magnetizable
material. This method can detect:

a. surface discontinuities only

88. Nonrelevant indications can be caused by
the following, except:

excessive magnetizing current
inadequate magnetizing current
structural design of the test specimen

b. subsurface discontinuities only d. variance of permeability within the
c. surface and near-surface test specimen
discontinuities C.216-217
d. discontinuities at surface and
subsurface of any depth 89. A material with magnetic permeability
C.S; E.2, 49 less than 1 is known as:

85. Which of the following statements is true a. diamagnetic

of magnetic particle testing? b. paramagnetic
c. ferromagnetic
a. it cannot be utilized to inspect d. panamagnetic
through coatings C.45
b. it can be applied only to detect surface
defects 90. A small device, generally a metal strip or
c. it can be applied only to detect disk, containing an artificial discontinuity
subsurface defects used to determine when the correct
d. it can be applied to detect surface and magnetizing condition or magnetic field
near-surface discontinuities in direction has been achieved is:
ferromagnetic material
A.66-68; C.8 a. an ohmmeter
b. a gauss meter
86. Wbich one of following magnetic c. a flux indicator
particles will be most sensitive to small d. a field indicator
surface discontinuities such as fatigue C.345, 388
91. The direction of magnetic line of force is
a. dry powder _ _ degrees from the direction of
b. fluorescent particle current flow.
c. visible particle using oil as carrier
(vehicle) a. 45
d. visible particle using water as carrier b. 90
(vehicle) c. 180
C.222 d. 220
87. Magnetic particles should have the:

a. highest possible retentivity

b. lowest possible permeability
c. highest possible permeability
d. highest possible permeability and
lowest possible retentivity

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Level II Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method :11

Level II Questions
Magnetic Particle Testing Method

1. The interpretation of magnetic particle 4. Comparing parts that have been

indications may be aided by: circularly magnetized and those that have
been longitudinally magnetized, which
a. observing with a magnifying glass retain the most objectionable residual
b. reproducing the indication after field if not demagnetized?
c. observing the indications after the a. circular
part is pre-cleaned b. vectored
d. observing the indications after the c. remnant
part is post-cleaned d. longitudinal
C.218 A.313

2. Residual magnetism may be beneficial as 5. What type of magnetization uses the

an aid: formula: Ampere-turns= 45 000/(L!D)?

a. in demagnetization a. circular
b. in proper heat treating b. parallel
c. in the deposition of weld metal c. vectored
d. in interpretation and evaluation of d. longitudinal
indications A.182: E.18
6. VVhy are large soft contact pads such as
3. An interruptiOn in the normal physical lead or copper braid used for surfaces or
structure or configuration of a part which headstocks?
produces a magnetic particle testing
indication is called: a. to increase the contact area and
reduce the possibility of burning the
a. a defect part
b. an indication b. because they help heat metal, thus
c. a deformation facilitating magnetic induction
d. a discontinuity c. to increase the contact area and flux
C.216-217 density
d. because of their low melting points

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12 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

7. A rough forging that has received no

further processing is magnetic particle
tested. An indication is observed to run
in every direction and appears to extend
deeply into the part and perpendicular to
11. When testing for fine shallow surface
cracks, the preferred magnetic particle
test method should be:

a. dry alternating current

the surface. It is very sharp. What is the . b. dry direct current
probable identity of the indication? c. wet alternating current
d. wet direct current
a. forging burst C.57, 63
b. flake
c. seam 12. Which of the following is an advantage of
d. lap the dry method over the wet method?
a. it is more sensitive to fine surface
8. A gear with case-hardened ground teeth cracks
and hub ends is magnetic particle tested. b. it is easier to use for field inspection
Individual indications are detected on with portable equipment
five teeth and one end surface of the hub. c. it is faster than the wet method when
The indications do not break over the testing a number of small parts
part edges. What is the probable identity d. it is more capable of providing full
of the indication? surface coverage on irregularly shaped
a. grinding cracks C.63
b. quench cracks

c. inclusions 13. When testing a bar with a length-to-
d. porosity diameter ratio of 4 in a 10-turn coil, the
A.9091 required current would be:

9. If an overall pattern (sometimes circular a. 45 OOOA

lines) appears on the test surfaces, how b. 18 OOOA
should the inspector reprocess the test c. 1125 A
piece? d. unknown; more information is
a. demagnetize the piece A.208
b. retest at a higher amperage
c. retest at lower amperage 14. Internal splines and holes drilled parallel
d. part is not testable to, or near, test surfaces will cause:
a. sharp, well-defined indications
10. A prime consideration when selecting a directly aligned with the part's
powder to be used as a magnetic particle internal contours
medium is to select a powder that: b. broad, fuzzy indications directly
aligned with the part's internal
a. will adhere to the surface being tested contours
b. provides a low contrast to the surface c. distinct indications not aligned with
being tested any internal contours
c. provides a high contrast to the surface d. no indications
being tested C.216-217
d. requires a high demagnetization
current to remove it

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Level II Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method :1.3

~ 15. A limitation of coil magnetization

techniques is that:
19. Which of the following wave patterns
depicts the wave form of three-phase
full-wave rectified alternating current?
a. regardless of part size, the part cannot
be painted C.58; E.14
b. the coil must be of maximum
diameter in relation to the part a. +
c. the effective field is generally limited
on either side of the coil - - -.c. -~ ..,. ..._../:--,v
- ,. - ...,.T...." - - Mean DC
...., '-------""(I"/
d. small diameter parts must be placed c /\/I {\ 1\ ')' 1-\ (I Volts
close to the center of the coil [I;>
I 1\1 \1\t \J \1\1 \I\ I

0 Time
1 Cycle
16. Which of the following casting
discontinuities is caused by nonuniform
cooling resulting in stresses that rupture
the surface of the metal?
b. +
a. hot tears
b. porosity
c. dross
d. shrinkage ~

C.78 ::J
0 I I Time
' -I ' -I

17. The term used to refer to the total

t opposition to flow of current represented

by the combined effect of resistance,
inductance and capacitance of a circuit is:
c. +
a. inductive reactance
b. impedance ....,
c. reluctance c
d. decay ~

A.122 0 Time

18. A desirable property of magnetic

particles used for either the dry or wet
method is that they:

a. be toxic d. +
b. be nonferromagnetic
c. possess high retentivity
d. possess high permeability
C.179 ~

0 Time

14 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

20. A 3500 ampere-turn coil shot is required

to be performed in a S-turn coil after a
head shot of 800 A using the wet
continuous method. In order to properly
conduct the coil shot it is necessary to:
24. A rough forging discontinuity has tJ:e
following characteristics: can occur on
surface or internally, is associated with
low temperature processing, is often
caused by excessive working and creates
cavities varying in size. How would it be

a. demagnetize the part between the identified?
head and first coil shot
b. check the part for residual magnetism a. pipe
with a field indicator b. burst
c. remove all residual wet magnetic c. shrinkage
particle fluid from the part using d. lamination
clean, dry absorbent rags C.78
d. place the part in the coil and continue
the inspection after evaluating the 25. Discontinuities in plate, sheet or strip
head shot indications caused by internal fissures, inclusions or
A.308 blowholes in the original ingot which,
after rolling, are usually flat and parallel
21. When adding concentrate in paste form to the outside surface are called:
to any wet magnetic particle suspension
liquid, it is common practice to: a. laps
b. seams
a. add the paste directly to the c. cracks

suspension liquid d. laminations
b. change the entire bath after C.77
thoroughly cleaning the system '

c. make a small, slurry-like test mixture 26. Forging laps occur in what relation to the ~
of paste and suspension and add axial direction of a part?
directly to the bath
d. mix paste in a small container with a. they are always found on thermal
suspension to the required bath centerline
strength and add directly to the bath b. they are found on the surface of a part
A.264 at a 90-degree angle to the long axis
c. they may occur anywhere in the part
22. Which of the following can cause and always run in the direction of
nonrelevant magnetic particle working
indications? d. they may occur anywhere on the
surface and may bear no relation to
a. joints between dissimilar metals the axial direction of the part
b. thread cracks A.86
c. scratches
d. burrs 27. The accumulation of particles at a site on
C.216218 the part surface, collected at and held to
the site by the magnetic leakage field, is
23. External poles which are too strong to called:
permit good inspection of a part are
more likely to result when using: a. a defect
b. an indication
a. longitudinal magnetization c. a discontinuity
b, polarized magnetization d. magnetic writing
c. residual magnetization 0.33; E.2
d. circular magnetization

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Level II Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method :1.5

28. Where particles are attracted to a site on 32. Yokes of solid steel have been used for
the surface of a part hy a magnetic many years to indicate transverse cracks.
leakage field that is caused by a condition Alternating current yokes are assembled
such as a crack, lap, or other condition from laminated transformer sheet to
not acceptable to the applicable standards reduce:
for the part, then we have:
a. the size of the yoke
a. a defect b. production costs
b. an indication c. the weight of the yoke
c. a discontinuity d. eddy current losses
d. a nonrelevant indication C.124
33. Which one of the following is not a
29. Half-wave rectified alternating current is discontinuity that can be produced by the
used for detection of: forging process?

a. surface defects only a. laps

b. subsurface defects only b. bursts
c. surface and subsurface defects when c. flakes
using dry particles d. shrinkage
d. surface and subsurface defects when C.77-78
using wet particles
C.1i7; E.15 34. Which of the following is a discontinuity
commonly associated with the welding
30. Which of the following is an acceptable process?

technique for removing a thin film of oil

or grease prior to magnetic particle

a. wash with a solvent

b. degrease using a sand-blasting
lack of penetration
c. brush the surface with power wire 35. VVhich of these cracks may appear as an
brush irregular, checked or scattered pattern of
d. coat the surface with a thick layer of fine lines usually caused by local
chalk and then wipe with cloth overheating?
a. corrosiOn
31. Which of the following is the most b. crater cracks
common current method used for c. fatigue cracks
preserving and documenting magnetic d. grinding cracks
particle indications? C.79

a. digital photography 36. Of the following discontinuity categories,

b. color-tinted tape which one is considered most detrimental
c. color-tinted lacquer to the service life of an item?
d. all of the above
A.407-412; C.243 a. corrosiOn
b. subsurface inclusions
c. cracks open to the surface
d. subsurface porosity and voids

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16 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

37. If a copper conductor is placed through a

ferrous cylinder and a current is passed
through the conductor, then the magnetic
field (flux density) in the cylinder will be:

a. less than in the conductor

40. If a current of the same amperage is
passed through two conductors of the
same dimensions, one of which is
magnetic and one of which is
nonmagnetic, the magnetic field
distribution surrounding the conductors

b. greater than in the conductor will:
c. the same intensity and pattern as in
the conductor a. vary with the permeability
d. the same regardless of its proximity to b. be the same for both conductors
the cylinder wall c. be stronger for the magnetic
A.192 conductor
d. be stronger for the nonmagnetic
38. The length of a part being magnetized by conductor
passing an electric current from one end A.189
to the other:
41. The most effective magnetic particle test
a. causes the magnetic field to vary method for inspection of a large casting
b. affects the permeability of the part is using:
c. changes the strength of the magnetic
field a. a central conductor
d. does not affect the strength of the b. direct magnetization

magnetic field c. multidirectional magnetization
A.186 d. prod inspection in two directions
39. If25mm(lin.)and5lmm(2in.)
diameter bars of the same material were 42. The most common failure mechanism
magnetized by passing the same current associated with inservice parts with sharp
through them, the magnetic fields would fillets, notches, undercuts and seams is:
a. shrinkage
a. the same for both b. crystallization
b. stronger in the 51 mm (2 in.) c. decarburization
diameter bar d. fatigue cracking
c. weaker in the 25 mm ( 1 in.) diameter A.103. 481-489
d. stronger in the 25 mm (1 in.) 43. When it is believed that a discontinuity
diameter bar has been removed by a grinding
A.189 operation, the next operation is to:

a. repair it
b. sign off inspection of the part
c. measure it to see if minimum
thickness remains
d. re-examine the area by magnetic
particle testing

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Level II Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 17

t 44. When the most complete demag-

netization available is desired and
demagnetization is to be accomplished by
48. The ability of matter to attract
ferromagnetic materials to itself is a
phenomenon associated with:
placing the part in a coil energized with
AC of progressively decreasing amperage, a. magnetism
the part should be placed so that its b. field strength
principle axis is in a(n) _ _ direction c. pole strength
in relation to the Earth's axis. d. coercive force
a. east-west
b. north-east 49. Materials which are strongly attracted to
c. south-west a magnet are called:
d. north-south
A.324 a. polarized
b. magnetized
45. During a magnetic particle test, c. nonmagnetic
nonrelevant indications due to residual d. ferromagnetic
local poles are noted to be interfering C.45; E.3
with the magnetic particle testing. For a
successful examination one should: 50. Materials which are weakly attracted
magnetically are called:
a. use more amperage
b. use lower amperage a. diamagnetic
c. magnetize in another direction b. nonmagnetic

d. demagnetize then remagnetize in the c. paramagnetic

desired direction d. ferromagnetic
A.387 C.45; E.3

46. Cold working indications will not 51. Materials which are repelled magnetically
reappear if the part is: are called:

a. demagnetized then retested a. diamagnetic

b. retested after stress relieving b. nonmagnetic
c. retested in the opposite direction c. paramagnetic
d. remagnetized at a higher amperage d. ferromagnetic
A.387-388 C.45

47. The unit of measure of one line of flux 52. The end of a magnet at which the lines of
per square centimeter of area is one: flux are thought of as entering the bar is
a. ohm
b. gauss a. north pole
c. ampere b. south pole
d. oersted c. positive pole
C.38i d. negative pole

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18 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

53. A general rule to use for determining the

detectability of surface discontinuities by
magnetic particle inspection is that:

a. the depth and width have no bearing

to each other
57. Since the magnetic lines of force within a
bar magnet run the length of the bar, it is
said to be:

a. randomly magnetized
b. circularly magnetized

b. the depth should be at a one-to-one c. permanently magnetized
ratio to the width d. longitudinally magnetized
c. the depth should be 20% of the C.47
material thickness
d. the depth should be at least five times 58. Lines of flux are thought to leave a
the width of the opening of the magnet at the:
discontinuity at the surface
A.371 a. north pole
b. south pole
54. The general term used to refer to a break c. positive pole
in the metallic continuity of the part d. negative pole
being tested is: C.44

a. discontinuity 59. A break in the magnetic uniformity of a

b. crack part that is called a magnetic
c. seam discontinuity is related to a sudden
d. lap change in:

a. resistivity
55. The pattern of iron powder sprinkled on b. inductance
a paper placed over a bar magnet is called c. permeability
a: d. capacitance
a. fluxmeter
b. field survey 60. In order to detect defects in different
c. magnetometer directions in a material by magnetic
d. magnetograph particle inspection, it is best to use:
A.119, 169
a. only one field
56. The lines of force that form a path b. other probe locations
around a crack in a ring magnet are c. a high-frequency field
called: d. two or more fields in different
a. flux leakage C.65
b. field strength
c. magnetic lines
d. longitudinal field

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Level II Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method :19

61. The parts are blanks cut from rolled iron

bar stock and have been rough machined.
Inspection by continuous method reveals
distinct but broken lines parallel
(6.35 mm to 25 mm [0.25 in. to 1 in.])
65. The detection of deep-lying internal
defects in heavy steel weldments at a
deptb of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) to 51 mm
(2 in.) below surface is:

with the axis on some of the pieces. These a. very improbable

indications are indicative of: b. very similar to the detection of
surface cracks
a. shrinkage c. simple if the defect's width can be
b. nonmetallic inclusions approximated
c. surface checking d. not difficult if the defect is
d. machining tears attributable to fine porosity
c. 76, 299-300 C.216

62. A large forging is repaired by welding. 66. In magnetic particle inspection, it is best
Magnetic particle inspection of the repair to:
weld reveals a sharp irregular indication
running parallel with the weld passes. It is a. make sure tbat parts meet specified
located near tbe center of tbe bead and acceptance criteria
starts and ends by turning off slightly b. reinspect all questionable
from the axial direction. This indication discontinuities to ensure that no
is indicative of: defective parts are accepted
c. reinspect questionable parts utilizing
a. inclusions another nondestructive test method
b. crater cracks d. make certain that parts are better than
c. surface checking specified and contain no
d. weld shrinkage cracks discontinuities at all
A.441 A.413, 416-417

63. The wattage most commonly used for 67. Subjecting a magnetized object to a
mercury vapor bulbs for portable magnetic force that is continually
fluorescent magnetic particle inspection reversing its direction and gradually
IS: decreasing in intensity is know as:

a. 50 watts a. magnetization
b. 75 watts b. continuous method
c. 100 watts c. residual method
d. 200 watts d. demagnetization method
C.227 C.278

64. An example of a nonrelevant indication 68. Any of these welding processes is

that would be classed as a magnetic susceptible to a discontinuity known as
discontinuity rather than an actual slag inclusion except:
discontinuity could be caused by:
a. flux cored arc welding
a. corrosiOn b. submerged arc welding
b. a slag pocket c. gas tungsten arc welding
c. grinding cracks d. shielded metal arc welding
d. a known abrupt change in the C.310
hardness of the part

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20 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

69. Which of the following induces a

longitudinal magnetic field?

head shot
74. As a magnet, the Earth is surrounded by
magnetic lines of force. These lines of
force make up what is sometimes called
Earth field and they can cause problems
in both magnetizing and demagnetizing.
However Earth field is weak in the order

d. internal conductor of:
C.122, 159; E.27
a. 0.03 mT (0.3 G)
70. At the curie point, steel is temporarily b. 0.003 mT (0.03 G)
transformed from: c. 0.0003 mT (0.003 G)
d. 0.3 mT (3.0 G)
a. paramagnetic to diamagnetic C.45
b. ferromagnetic to diamagnetic
c. paramagnetic to ferromagnetic 75. A hysteresis curve describes the relation
d. ferromagnetic to paramagnetic between:
a. magnetizing force and flux density
71. Magnetic field strength is measured in: b. magnetizing force and applied current
c. strength of magnetism and alignment
a. tesla of domains within material
b. gauss d. magnetic flux density and current
c. webersfm2 generated
d. ampere/meter C.54. 382; E.5-6

76. Demagnetization would most likely be
72. The following types of discontinuities
can be found in an object's subsurface
required when:
except: a. the material has low retentivity
b. the object is to be electric arc welded
a. pipe c. the material has low reluctance
b. hot tears d. heat treatment is to be carried out
c. cold shut after testing
d. segregation C.279
77. One of the disadvantages of half-wave
73. Which one of following materials has magnetization is that when
permeability much greater than that of demagnetizing:
a. the current has skin effect
a. permeability material b. the current does not reverse
b. diamagnetic material c. the current passes very deep
c. paramagnetic material d. the current passes only on the surface
d. ferromagnetic material C.58
C.45; E.3

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Level II Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 21

78. One disadvantage of using a single-phase

magnetic particle unit at current input
values over 600 A, in comparison with a
three-phase unit, is that the single-phase
unit will:
80. Magnetic particles of varying size are
used for dry powder and wet methods.
Typically, particle sizes for wet method
testing range from:

a. 1 to 5 micrometers
a. detect only surface discontinuities b. 5 to 20 micrometers
b. not detect subsurface discontinuities c. 100 to 500 micrometers
c. require 1.73 times more input current d. 100 to 1000 micrometers
d. require 1.73 times less input current C.70

79. In longitudinal magnetization of a round

bar, residual magnetism will be:

a. greatest at the center of the bar

b. greatest at the ends of the bar
c. the same all over on the bar
d. the minimum at the ends

qos %L
Level Ill Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 23

Level Ill Questions

Magnetic Particle Testing Method

1. The magnetic domains in a permanent 4. Which of the following statements is not

magnet are aligned in: a valid reason for demagnetizing a part
after completing a magnetic particle test?
a. fixed positions with directions that
cancel out a. residual magnetism can disturb the
b. fixed positions, predominantly in one welding arc path on parts to be
direction welded
c. the same direction as the metal's grain b. residual magnetism may attract chips
structure or small particles in service, causing
d. a random position and may become galling or mechanical wear
aligned to attract a magnetic material c. residual magnetism could interfere
C.44; E.4 with the operation or accuracy of
instruments placed on or near the
2. For which of the following would the wet part during service
fluorescent technique be preferred over d. if the part is to be radiographed after
the dry technique? magnetic particle inspection, residual

a. when the parts are large and bulky

b. when increased speed and sensitivity
are desired
c. when the parts being inspected are to
be field welded
magnetism may interfere with the
electromagnetic radiation spectrum

Subjecting a part to a magnetic field that

iS constantly reversing in polarity and
d. when it is desired to use the gradually diminishing in strength
fluorescent lighting provided in many accomplishes which of the following?
A.345 a. magnetizes the part
b. demagnetizes the part
3. Gas, hot tears, cold shuts, shrinkage c. helps to locate deep-lying defects
cracks and sand inclusions are examples d. increases the strength of the retained
of defects resulting from which of the magnetic field
following processes? C.284

a. forging 6. The concentration of the solid content in

b. grinding a suspension of magnetic particles is
c. casting measured by:
d. heat treatment
A.88 a. weighing the suspension
b. soaking the solids in benzol
c. measuring the pull on a magnet
d. permitting the solids to settle out of


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24 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

7. An important factor that must be

considered when selecting a method of
magnetization is the:

part's curie point
location of the inspection station
12. When an external magnetizing force is
removed, some of the magnetic domains
remain preferentially oriented. The
additional force required to return them
to their original random orientation is
commonly referred to as:

c. location of the inspection unit
d. alloy, shape and condition of the part a. coercive force
A.229243; C.116119 b. applied field force
c. residual field force
8. V\Then a magnetic material reaches its d. direct current electric force
curie teinperature, the material becomes: C.54

a. magnetic 13. When a cylinder is magnetized by a

b. radioactive central conductor, the field is most
c. diamagnetic intense:
d. paramagnetic
C.279 a. at the ends of the cylinder
b. at the outer surface of the cylinder
9. Magnetic particle inspection methods on c. at the inside surface of the cylinder
ferromagnetic materials are recognized as d. halfway through the thickness of the
superior to liquid penetrant techniques cylinder wall
when: C.50, 114-1.15

the surface is plated
the parts are painted
the surface is anodized
dry particles are used for fine surface
14. When is the magnetic field strongest in
an object being inspected by the
magnetic particle method?

a. while the magnetizing current is



b. just after the magnetizing current is

10. A paramagnetic material: shut off
c. when the magnetic particle pmvder is
a. is highly magnetic applied
b. is slightly magnetic d. just prior to current reversal when
c. has no magnetic properties at all using alternating current
d. has a demonstrated lack of electron C.54, 114115
C.44; E.3 15. Which of the demagnetization methods
listed below is most effective?
II. Which of the following will reduce a
magnetic field? a. full-wave rectified
b. half-wave rectified alternating current
a. move the direct current coil closer to c. direct current with reversing and
the part step-down control
b. reduce the current in only one d. variable voltage alternating current
direction with step-down control
c. move the alternating current coil C.287-288
farther away from the part
d. move the part tOward the inner

surface of the coil

Level Ill Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 25

t 16. When using the longitudinal

magnetization method to inspect a bar
!52 mm (6 in.) long and 51 mm (2 in.) in
20. If the same amperage is passed through a
25 mm ( 1 in.) diameter bar and a 51 mm
(2 in.) diameter bar of the same length
diameter with a S-turn coil, which of the and material, the strength of the
following amperage values should be magnetic field at the center of:
a. both bars will be 0
a. !200A b. the 25 mm (1 in.) bar will be one-half
b. 3000A that of the 51 mm (2 in.) bar
c. 12 OOOA c. the 51 mm (2 in.) bar will be one-half
d. 2000 amp-turns that of the 25 mm (I in.) bar
A.181-182 d. the 25 mm (I in.) bar will be
approximately one-fourth that of the
17. To examine a part 127 mm (5 in.) long 51 mm (2 in.) bar
and 51 mm (2 in.) in diameter using a A.186-187
S-turn coil and head stock magnetic
particle machine, what amperage should 21. When a magnetic field is induced in a
be used for longitudinal magnetization? part with prods spaced !52 mm (6 in.)
apart, the field is a:
a. 3000A
b. 3600A a. circular field
c. 4500A b. residual field
d. 10 000 ampere- turns c. solenoid field
A.181-182 d. longitudinal field
C.53, 112-113; E.27

18 . To examine a bar 381 mm (IS in.) long

and 51 mm (2 in). in diameter using a 22. When circular magnetization is used to
7 -turn coil and head -stock magnetic detect subsurface discontinuities, direct
particle machine, what amperage should current is used instead of alternating
be used for circular magnetization? current because:

a. 750A a. particle mobility is no longer a factor

b. 1800A b. there is no logical reason to use direct
c. 1800 ampere-turns current instead of alternating current
d. 49 000 ampere-turns c. direct current saturates the magnetic
A.208 particles better than alternating
19. If the same amperage is passed through a d. the skin effect of alternating current
25 mm (1 in.) diameter bar and a 51 mm reduces the maximum depth at which
(2 in.) diameter bar of the same length discontinuities can be found
and material, the strength of the C.57, 116-119
magnetic field at the surface:
23. An inspection method in which an initial
a. will be the same for both bars magnetizing force is applied to a part and
b. of the 25 mm (I in.) bar will be then reduced to a lower continuous value
one-half that of the 51 mm (2 in.) bar is called:
c. of the 25 mm (l in.) bar will be
approximately twice that of the a. the surge method
51 mm (2 in.) bar b. the residual method
d. of the 51 mm (2 in.) bar will be c. the multivector method

approximately four times that of the d. the continuous method
25 mm (I in.) bar A.155-156

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26 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

24. Which of the statements below is most 27. Point Bon the hysteresis curve for
appropriate concerning Materials I and II Material I shown in Figure 1:
represented by the hysteresis curves
shown in Figure 1? a. is the limit of coercive force
b. is the material's magnetic saturation
a. Material I is not a good subject for point
maguetic particle inspection c. represents the mid-point of the
b. Material I could be used for dry rectified alternating current applied
powder magnetic particles d. represents the point at which the
c. Material II could be used for dry residual magnetic value will remain
powder magnetic particles when the magnetizing current is
d. Material II is paramagnetic removed
A.217 A.116-117

25. Considering the curves shown in 28. When deciding to inspect a part by the
Figure 1, Material II in comparison to residual method of applying the particles,
Material I indicates that the material: what factor affects the residual magnetic
field strength of the part?
a. has a high retentivity
b. has a high permeability a. the retentivity of the part
c. has a high coercive force b. the part's magnetic field saturation
d. would make an excellent permanent point

magnet c. the direction of the magnetic field in
A.217-219 the part
d. the type of field indicator used to
26. Which point on the hysteresis curve measure the residual field
shown in Figure 1 represents the residual A.237-240; C.63-64
field value!

a. A
b. B
c. c
d. E

Figure 1: Hysteresis curves.

Material! Material II
B+ (FI ux density)

H- --------~~+,L_ _________ H+
(- Magnetizing (+ Magnetizing
force) force)

B- (Flux density of opposite

polarity to B+)
L __ _ _ _ _~-------------------~--------------
Level Ill Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 27

29. Factors that must be considered when 33. When withdrawing a part from the field
interpreting an indication are: around a coil and without changing the
direction of current, which of the
a. the direction of the magnetic field following has the least effect on
and location of the magnetic particle demagnetizing the part?
b. the location of the magnetic particle a. direct current
unit and the nondestructive testing b. alternating current
level of the inspector c. full-wave rectified current
c. the orientation and shape of the d. half-wave rectified alternating current
indication and the direction of the C.284287
magnetic field
d. the strength of the leakage field at the 34. The least important factor below that
indication and the type of should be considered when selecting a
demagnetization method method of magnetization to detect
A.379; C.216-218 subsurface discontinuities is:

30. A 7-turn coil at 1000 A is used to inspect a. orientation of the discontinuity

a round solid part 381 mm (15 in.) long b. configuration of the part
and 64 mm (2.5 in.) in diameter. The c. cost of the equipment
length-to-diameter ratio is: d. type of material the part is made from
a. 2.14
b. 6.0 35. Which of the following discontinuities
c. 7000 amp-turns occur as a result of the rolling process?
d. 45 000 amp-turns
A181-182 a. fissures
b. laminations
31. Which of the following, when used as the c. lack of penetration
last magnetizing method, will best render d. blowholes and pipe
a part suitable for relatively easy C.77
measurement of the external magnetic
field using a field indicator? 36. Which of the following discontinuities
occur as a result of the forging process?
a. probe magnetization
b. circular magnetization a. pipe
c. longitudinal magnetization b. laps
d. central bar conductor magnetization c. laminations
C.284-285 d. lack of penetration
32. When using direct current, an indication
is detected. What is the next logical step 3 7. If an indication is formed when using the
to determine if the indication results residual method as well as the continuous
from a surface or subsurface condition? method, it is most likely:

a. reinspect using alternating current a. very deep and tight

b. reinspect at higher amperage b. a relevant indication
c. demagnetize and apply powder c. a nonrelevant indication
d. reinspect using the residual method d. very shallow and open to the surface
A.397 A.397

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28 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

38. Plated parts can be reliably tested for fine

surface cracks using tbe magnetic particle
metbod if tbe plating is less tban:

0.762 mm (0.03 in.) tbick
1.016 mm (0.04 in.) tbick
42. Small parts requiring demagnetization
should be:

a. loaded in baskets in a single layer and

passed through an alternating current

c. 0.127 mm (0.005 in.) tbick b. loaded in a steel basket for better field
d. 0.2032 mm (0.008 in.) thick distribution
A.247 c. processed through a demagnetization
cycle one at a time
39. The magnetic lines of flux in a d. demagnetized after assembly to
permanent magnet: ensure complete demagnetization of
the entire assembly
a. in all cases produce a longitudinal A.314
b. enter the south pole and leave tbe 43. The best shape for magnetic particles
nortb pole used in the dry powder metbod is:
c. flow from the north pole through the
magnet to tbe south pole a. globular
d. change direction 60 times a second b. elongated
with the magnetizing current c. long and slender
C.44 d. a mixture of elongated and globular
40. Which of tbe following magnetization
techniques is not recommended for 44. An effective method for testing hardened

magnetic particle testing? steel ball bearings is:

a. vector magnetization a. along one axis using a coil

b. parallel magnetization b. two head shots along the X andY axes
c. circular magnetization c. two shots using a coil at the X andY
d. longitudinal magnetization axes
A.139; C.121 d. induced current shots along X, Y, and
Z axes, with controlled rotation
41. When attempting to demagnetize a part benveen each positioning
containing a circular residual field: A.349-350

a. use a swinging cyclic field 45. When a magnetized ferromagnetic object

b. consideration of the material's is exposed to a subsequent heating
hysteresis is most important operation above the curie point:
c. establish a longitudinal field and then
proceed with demagnetization a. the marten site structure will occur
d, using half-wave current with a head b. the magnetic domains become
shot setup and step-down random
magnetization will ensure complete c. there is no change from its previous
removal of the residual field state
C.280 d. the magnetic domains are reversed
from their previous state

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Level Ill Questions - Magnetic Particle Testing Method 29

46. A discontinuity caused by a welding

operation is:

creep crack
machining tear
51. Given a certain continuous
magnetization current in a material,
which type of current would give the
shallowest penetration?

a. direct current
d. lamellar tearing b. alternating current
C.307 c. direct current surge
d. half-wave direct current
47. The most effective current to be used C.119
with dry magnetic particles is:
52. Which type of radiation can most
a. direct current damage human tissue?
b. half-wave rectified alternating current
c. full-wave rectified alternating current a. UV-A
with three-phase bridge circuitry b. UV-B
d. full-wave rectified alternating current c. white light
with single-phase bridge circuitry d. visible light
C.117 C.24

48. The following properties should be 53. Compared with magnetic particle testing,
considered in choosing a vehicle for the liquid penetrant testing is not as reliable
wet method, except: after paint removal from a weld because:

a. capillarity a. liquid penetrant testing can be

b. corrosivity
c. wetting ability
d. foaming ability

The amount of light reflected by one

applied only to small parts
b. liquid penetrant testing can be
applied only in field conditions
c. magnetic particle testing will detect
subsurface discontinuities
d. partial smearing of weld surface metal
surface compared to that reflected by across the discontinuity opening can
another adjacent surface is: occur
a. length-to-diameter ratio
b. B/H ratio 54. Prod spacing less than 76.2 mm (3 in.) is
c. color contrast usually not practical because:
d. brightness contrast
C.212 a. the possibility of sparking will
50. Given a certain continuous b. more time will be consun1ed for
magnetization current in a material, inspection
which type of current would give the c. it requires more media than a 152 1nrn
deepest penetration? (6 in.) prod distance
d. particles tend to bend around the
a. direct current prod makinginterpretation difficult
b. alternating current C.113
c. direct current surge
d. half-wave direct current

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30 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Magnetic Particle Testing Method

55. One of most important facts that must be

remembered while establishing magnetic
particle procedure is that:

a. the magnetic field follows the path of

greatest reluctance
57. Permeability of a material canbe
numerically written as:


b. the coil shot, wet method provides d. ampere-turns/number of turns
only surface discontinuities C.56
c. the head shot, wet method is better for
detecting subsurface discontinuities 58. One disadvantage for using undyed wet
d. in most cases the continuous method magnetic particles is:
is more sensitive than is the residual
method a. it is more costly
C.63 b. it is suitable for the fluorescent
method only
56. Which one of the following magnetic c. it is suitable for surface discontinuity
particle testing techniques is logically detection only
acceptable for testing a large flat area? d. the lack of contrasting color makes
them difficult to see
a. prod inspection C.61
b. rod shot inspection
c. coil shot inspection 59. One of most' desirable characteristics of
d. head shot inspection the media for magnetic particle testing is:
a. the ability to show clearly against any

b. the insensitiveness to concentration in
water as a vehicle
c. no need for agitation when used with
a liquid vehicle
d. the highest possible permeability and
lowest retentivity

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