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Bayer. Staatsbibliothek
GAELIC-ENGLISH AND ENGLISH-GAELIC

DICTIONARY.
LONDON :
<Prinf& at ify SUxmflt <g?ntifint} Offi,
BT J. MOYES, BOtlVEKIE STREET.
GAELIC DICTIONARY,

IN TWO PARTS:

. GAELIC AND ENGLISH.-II. ENGLISH AND GAELIC;

IN WHICH

THE WORDS, IN THEIR DIFFERENT ACCEPTATIONS,

ARE ILLUSTRATED BY QUOTATIONS FROM THE BEST GAELIC WRITERS ;

AND

THEIR AFFINITIES TRACED

IN MOST OF THE LANGUAGES OF ANCIENT AND MODERN TIMES ;

WITH A SHOUT

W&toxtaA appeniitjr ot Stortntt anug,

DEDUCED FROM THE AUTHORITY OF OSSIAN AND OTHER POETS:

TO WHICH IS PREFIXED,

A NEW GAELIC GRAMMAR.

By R. A. ARMSTRONG, A.M.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR JAMES DUNCAN, 37, PATERNOSTER ROW ;


HOWELL AND STEWART, 295, HOLBORN ; BELL AND BRADEUTE, W. LA1NG, W. BLACKWOOD, OLIVER AND BOYD,
AND WAUGH AND INNES, EDINBURGH; M. OGLE, GLASGOW; AND H. M TIMS, DUBLIN.
- - V
BIBLIOTHEC
BEGLA.
MONACEKS T
V -
CHUM A

MHORALACHD RIOGHAIL

SEORUS IV.

RIGH BHREATUIN AGUS ERIN, FEAR-DION A ' CHREIDIMH.

GU MA TOIL LE DO MHORALACHD RIOGHAIL!

Tha 'm barrachd so agad os-cionn na h-uile neach fuidh sgeith am U urrainn

mi mo Leabhar a chur a mack do 'n t-saoghal, na 'm bu dana learn ionnsuidh a

thoirt air do mholadh, (a dh'aindeoin na dk'fhaotainn a radh air mhath mu 'd thimchioll)

nach cuireadft duine beb miodal beoil as mo leth; agus, an aite sin, gu 'n aidicheadh

na h-uile, gun cTthainig mi fada gearr air an fhlrinn. Ach tha thu fada nan ctan

an neor-eisiomail mo mholaidh.

Thog dealradh do Phearsa, agus birdheirceas do bhuadhannan nadurra

thog buan-shloinneadh urramach do Shinnsearachd Rioghail, agus mbr-fharsuingeachd

do Thighearnais an ceithir chearnaibh na Cruinne thog gliocas do Chomhairlean,

agus Greadhnachas do Riaghlaidh, maille ri buaidh anabarrach d'Fheachd air muir

is air fir, do chliu co ard agus nach ruig mise, no duin' eiV a choidhche air a mhullach,

le streap cainnte.

Ach am feadh a tha do Chliu thar chach uile air sgaoileadh anns gach

ciithaich mu 'n iadh grian, measaidh Tu fein mar d'onoir a 's mb, Thu bhi riaghladh ann
vi

an cridhibh slbigh shaorsail, shona agus dfCilis. An sin " O a Righ mair beb gu brth !"

Agus am feadh a bhios buan-chaithream buaidh do bhearta ionmholta ag iridh am

binn-chilleiribh gach Cnmhuin 'san Roinn JEorp ; gu robh e mar shochair shonruichf

aig mo Leabhar-sa so, bhith g innseadh do *d Ghaidheilibh fein, gu 'n do cheaduich

Thu dha dol a mach, fuidh fhasgadh d' Ainm mhbir, airson sior-chumail suas eblais

an Gailige graidh.

Is mise, gu ma toil le do Mhbralachd Rioghail,

d' Iochdaran ro-mhal,

Agus do Sheirbheiseach ro-dhileas,

RAIBEART GJLLEASBUIG ARMSTRONG.


PREFACE.

Manv of those who cultivate literature will acknowledge, that their exertions are oftener the
result of accident, or of precipitate resolution, than of long cherished design, or mature reflec
tion; that their most laborious enterprises are, sometimes, undertaken without due regard
to the difficulties which stand in the way of their completion ; and that although the possibility
or likelihood of ultimate success be at intervals contemplated, the ardour of the pursuit is
kept up by causes independent of such considerations.
Firmness of purpose is peculiarly requisite in the Lexicographer who has had no precursor
in his particular walk of compilation ; who has had to encounter, at every step, the ruggedness
and perplexities of an untrodden path ; to contend with difficulties at every turn ; to find
barrenness where he hoped for fertility, obscurity where he looked for light, and misappre
hension and error, where he expected certainty and truth. His difficulties are, without
question, of a disheartening character : this I may be allowed to say from my own experience ;
yet I should be unwilling to utter an expression of dissatisfaction or regret : for. I might be
told that my labour was voluntary ; that he who throws himself into trouble has nothing to
blame but his own rashness ; and that he who challenges difficulties or misfortune, deserves
only ridicule for his complaints.
In undertaking the present task, I did not, perhaps, sufficiently consider the disadvantages
under which I laboured, nor the odds against which I had to contend ; but I knew that
formidable obstacles have often yielded to steady resolution, and unremitting diligence.
It is not easy, in speaking of one s own labours, to avoid the imputation of egotism ;
I shall, therefore, leave it to others to form their own estimate of the present publication. I
can only say that, though my task has been severe, it has not been without advantage ; and
that though it should never be crowned with great public approbation, it has not been alto
gether without its reward. It has pointed my way to various sources of learning which
otherwise I should not have approached ; it has led me to consult authors whom otherwise I
should not have known ; it has procured for me patronage which cannot be exalted by my
praise, and friendship which I shall ever be proud to cherish.
The first remark which may occur in opening these sheets is, that I have been too lavish
of quotations in some instances, and too sparing in others. On this subject I shall only
viii PREFACE.

observe, that I considered myself as engaged in the double task of instructing the ignorant,
and of assisting the well-informed ; that a Lexicographer ought not to take for granted the
knowledge of those who consult him ; and that I had, moreover, the design of throwing
every facility in the way of future compilers. To the charge of being too sparing, I have
to answer, that the list of authors in our language is so small, that, for a vast variety of words,
I could not find, nor does there, I believe, exist, any written authority.
In the Gaelic- English Dictionary, the different acceptations of the Gaelic words might
have been arranged with the same precision, and after the same method, as in some other
dictionaries, but that the size and price of the work would be thereby nearly doubled .
In translating the Gaelic language, the inflections of nouns and verbs are apt to embarrass
the young student. On that account I deemed it expedient, in a great variety of instances,
to insert, as separate articles, the nominatives and datives plural of nouns, and such tenses
of the verbs as are in most frequent use, and, at the same time, bear the least resemblance to
the root ; such are the preterite active, the future affirmative active and passive, and the past
participle. I have also arranged many of the aspirate forms of words, as separate articles,
and have referred for explanation to the simple form. This will, it is hoped, be found useful.
Few students would conjecture that they must turn up cluas for cluasaibh ; tigh for thigh; dl
for dh'dl; dlrich for dhirich ; buail for buailidh; beir for rug ; cluinn for chual; thoir, or thabhair,
for bheirinn. If, in this, I should be considered diffuse by those who already know the lan
guage, I feel assured that I shall have the acknowledgment of those who know it not, and
are desirous to acquire it.
It will be seen that, in many words, especially in those which I considered primitive, I
have traced affinities to a considerable extent. In doing so, my object was to leave grounds
for inferring the common origin of all languages, and to establish the antiquity of the Celtic.
For, if nations far remote and unconnected, dissimilar in manners and customs, shall have
preserved the same terms for all such objects as are most familiar to the observation of a
people in a state of nature, the obvious inference is, that these terms must have been derived
from a common origin; from the language of the earliest inhabitants of the earth. Again, if
the Celtic should be found to contain all such terms as are common to all languages, it
is evident that it must have derived them from man's primeval tongue.
It is true that almost every language of antiquity has asserted its title to be considered the
most ancient ; and men whose erudition cannot be disputed, have supported their respective
claims. Of these, the Celtic has found an able advocate in Pezron, and other philologists ; the
Hebrew, in Leibnitz ; the Phoenician, in Bochart ; and the Dutch, in Gor. Becanus.
The diversity of opinions entertained on this subject, may, perhaps, be accounted for. All
the languages of antiquity, which are, in truth, but so many dialects of the primeval speech,
have nearly an equal number of primitives ; and each of them, therefore, in as far as roots
are concerned, seems to carry, on the face of it, an argument for the earliest existence. There
is little wonder, then, if a scholar should decide in favour of that with which he is most
PREFACE. ix

familiar, and that a great question in philology should be affected by that prejudice which
intrudes itself into every department of human inquiry.
With all my admiration of the Celtic, I cannot join with those who ascribe to it an
antiquity beyond that of many other languages ; for I have not been able to discover, that
it can be said, with truth, of any language, that it is the most ancient.
I do not propose to meddle, in this place, with the keenly contested point, whether
the Gaelic of the Highlands be the parent of the speech of Ireland. However, I may be
permitted to observe, that the Scotch Gaelic bears a closer resemblance to the parent
Celtic, and has fewer inflections than the Welsh, Manks, or Irish dialects. It has this
circumstance, too, in common with the Hebrew, and other oriental languages, that it wants
the simple present tense; a peculiarity which strongly supports the opinion, that the Gaelic
of Scotland is the more ancient dialect. This question has been long discussed with
eagerness and ability. The one party draws its opinions partly from history, partly
from acute hypothetical reasoning, and from the natural westward progress of early migra
tion ; the other argues from legends for which credulity itself is at a loss to discover a
foundation.
Throughout this work, I have followed the orthography of two writers, who are relied
on as guides by their countrymen ; the one, Dr. Stewart of Luss, the translator of the
Holy Scriptures into Gaelic ; the other, Dr. Smith of Campbelton, the author of a Gaelic
metrical version of the Psalms, and other creditable works. These writers spent much of
their time in settling the orthography of our language ; and, as they have a just and acknow
ledged claim to be considered authorities, it is much to be desired that they should, hence
forth, be regarded in that light. Fluctuations in the Gaelic language are perilous at this
stage of its existence ; for, if it be not transmitted to posterity in a regular, settled form,
it is to be feared, that it must soon share the fate of the forgotten Cornish.
The rule caol ri caol agus leathan ri leathern, has been carefully observed by the writers
already mentioned, especially by Dr. Stewart, It directs that two vowels, contributing to
form two different syllables, should be both of the same class or denomination of vowels,
either both broad, or both small. Agreeably to this rule, we ought to write deanaibh, not
deanibh ; foidean, not fdidan ; bioran, not biran ; and so on, with other words. This mode of
spelling is a modern invention. It was first introduced by the Irish, and adopted by the
Gael, with, I confess, more precipitation than propriety. It has its advantages and its dis
advantages. It mars the primitive simplicity and purity of the language ; but it removes
from it that appearance of harshness which arises from too great a proportion of consonants.
It not unfrequently, darkens somewhat the ground on which we trace the affinities of Gaelic
words with those of the sister dialects, and of other languages ; yet it has. infused into our
speech a variety of liquid and mellow sounds whioh were unknown, or at least not so
perceptible before. It may be asked, why I have adhered to a rule of which I did not
altogether approve ? 1 reply, that any attempt at innovation even at restoring the language
b
X PREFACE.

to its primitive purity, might introduce more inconveniencies and evils than can result from
the present settled system of orthography.
I have bestowed pains on referring derivative words to their primitives in resolving com
pound words to their component parts in affixing to substantives their genitive singular and
gender and to verbs their signification, whether active or neuter. The quotations from Gaelic
writers are translated into English as literally as the idioms of these languages will allow.
The edition of Stewart's Gaelic Bible, of which I made use, was that printed at Edinburgh
in 1807, for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. The particular
book of the sacred volumes from which I take a quotation is almost always mentioned.
Occasionally, however, O. T. or N. T. will be met with, where I could not remember the
precise part of the Old or New Testament which contained my authority. G. B. occur
where I could not remember nor ascertain from which of the Testaments the quotation
was taken. These abbreviations are, I believe, of rare occurrence ; and I have here adverted
to them, in order to explain what, otherwise, might appear a want of precision.
The Gaelic, like all the languages of early times, does not abound in terms of science
or art. It will be seen, therefore, in the English-Gaelic Dictionary, that terms in mathe
matics, metaphysics, and other sciences, I have been compelled to express by ambiology,
and often by definition.
If it be found that, of names of instruments, as in agriculture and mechanics, some are
rendered, perhaps, imperfectly, and others overlooked, let it be remembered, that no com
pilation ever yet recorded every vocable which floated in a spoken language ; and that I could
not, when an uncertainty occurred, transport myself to the proper sources of information,
to make up for the scarcity of books and the defects of memory.
The Gaelic vocabularies of Shaw, Macfarlane, and Macdonald, and the Irish dictionaries
of O'Brien and O'Reilly, were of considerable service to me. The mere collecting of words,
however, was but a small part of my labour, compared with the wearisome and almost
endless pursuit of authorities for different acceptations of the same word.
In tracing affinities, I derived great benefit from the works of Suidas, Cambry, Court
de Gebelin, Menage, Rostrenen, Bullet, Pezron, Spellman, Lye, and Edward Lhuyd, among
philologists ; and, in matters of antiquity, from Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Solinus, Tacitus,
Ammianus, Usher, Toland, Huddleston, Keating, Malcolm, Dr. John Macpherson, Pennant,
Smith, and a forgotten multitude of other erudite and ingenious writers.
In the English-Gaelic Dictionary, I have followed the orthography and arrangement
of Perry.
It was once my design to prefix to this work a dissertation on the mechanism and
philosophy of the Gaelic language ; but, on reflection, I substituted a compendious view of
its structure, as being more suitable to such a performance, and more likely to be of service.
In this department of my compilation, I am indebted to the works of Shaw, O'Reilly,
and O'Connor.
PREFACE. xi

A circumstance not unworthy of notice concerning this Dictionary is, that a great part of
it was printed while it was generally thought to be only in preparation. Hence it happened
that, during the progress of these sheets through the press, I was, not unfrequently, favoured
with communications from most respectable quarters, conveying encouragement which
excited my gratitude, and offers of assistance which were, I lament, too late to be ren
dered available. No doubt, it would have been useful to my work, if I had obligations,
on this account, to acknowledge. Be that as it may, I consider it due to myself to state,
that neither in compiling this Dictionary, nor even in transcribing the mass of manuscript
for publication, nor in superintending the press, have I received the least assistance whatever.
For patronage, however, I am deeply beholden to several whom my commendations cannot
affect, but whom gratitude compels me to mention.
The early and effective patron of this work, I am proud to make known, was Lord
Strathavon ; a young nobleman who, to many other acquirements, has added a most
accurate knowledge of the Gaelic language. I have not vanity enough to attribute to the
humble merits of my performance his Lordship's powerful support, to which I owe almost
all the more splendid names on my list of subscribers; but rather to that liberal and active
spirit with which he lends his aid to every cause which concerns the literature of the
Scottish Gael, and the honour of their country.
To his Grace the Duke of Hamilton I feel greatly indebted for attention and encourage^
ment ; as also to Lord Archibald Hamilton, and to Lord Glenorchy,
Sir Charles Forbes, Bart., of Edinglassie, whose patriotic character is well known, laid
me under early and great obligations. I value the kindness of this gentleman the more,
because it procured for me the acquaintance of General Gordon of Balbithan, a very superior
Celtic scholar and philologist, from whose conversation and suggestions I derived essential
benefit.
I am gratified to rank, among my most zealous patrons, Dr. Mackinnon of Adelphi,
and the Rev. Dr. Ross of Lochbroom ; gentlemen whose knowledge of every branch of the
Celtic language is the least of their acquirements.
Mr. Simon Mac Gillivray of Suffolk Lane has done this Dictionary a service, which I can
never forget nor sufficiently acknowledge.
Mr. Robert Kennedy of Grenada will, I hope, accept of this expression of my gratitude
for his most active support, to which I owe a great proportion of my West India subscribers.
My sense of the friendly and successful efforts of the late Dr. Charles Kennedy of
St. Vincent, my schoolfellow and college companion, is equalled only by my regret for
his untimely death, and my respect for his memory.
1 have also my thanks to offer to the following gentlemen, who, though mentioned the
last in order, are not the least in my esteem : Capt. Duncan Mac Dougall of the 79th Regt.
of Foot; the Rev. Daniel Mac Naughton of Glenco and Appin; the Rev. Alexander
Anderson of Strontian ; and the Rev. Alexander Kennedy of Mull.
xii PREFACE.

It would be most ungrateful in me not to take this opportunity of mentioning, that,


notwithstanding all the patronage with which I have been favoured, it is questionable whether
I could ever have offered these sheets to the public, but for the disinterested spirit of my
publisher, Mr. Duncan.
To my Subscribers, in general, I return my sincerest acknowledgments. They may be
assured that very strenuous exertions have been made to fulfil the promises held out in the
Prospectus ; and I trust that I shall be considered as having redeemed my pledge.
To hope that this Dictionary is free from imperfections, even after all the pains I have
bestowed on it, would be presumptuous ; and to expect that any circumstance shall cause
those to be overlooked or forgiven, would be to hope for a favour which has been withheld
from far higher claims and deserts than mine ; for the merits of one's cause are not always a
protection from hostility and censiire ; and diligence, however laborious and sincere, is not
always requited with approbation.
I forbear to mention the time which this work has occupied, and the labour which it has
required. I might be discredited by some, and considered by others as indulging my vanity;
especially when I should add, that I had in the meanwhile to provide for my own sub
sistence ; and that the compilation which I now send forth to the world, is, in truth, the
production of such hours as I could spare from harassing occupations, or snatch from the
proper seasons of repose.
Having stated this much, I must guard against misconstruction. I have no desire to
conciliate hostility, nor to soften criticism. My cause is good . I have, under all disad
vantages, done it the best service in my power; and I now, without presumption, yet
without undue anxiety, submit my work to a public intelligent enough to know the value
of every man's labour, and sufficiently generous to assign to all the degree of honour which
they may deserve.
SUBSCRIBERS.

Asterisks (*) precede the names of those Subscribers who are now no more.

HIS MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY KING GEORGE IV. Five Copies.

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF YORK.


HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF CLARENCE.

Beresford, Lord John, M.P.

Argyll, His Grace the Duke of. Brisbane, Governor Sir Charles, K.C.B. St Vincent,

Aboyne, the Right Honourable the Earl of. 2 copies.

Aberdeen, the Right Honourable the Earl of. Brougham, Henry, Esq. M.P.

Allan, Grant, Esq. Gower Street. Boucher, James, Esq. Grenada.

Anderson, the Rev. Alexander, Strontian. Britton, John, Esq. F.S.A. Burton Street, Burton Crescent.

Andrew, James, LL.D. Sutton. Brown, Fielding, Esq. Grenada.

Armstrong, Alexander, Esq. Grenada.


Armstrong, Simon, Esq. St. Vincent.
C.
Atcheson, Robert Shank, Esq. Duke Street, Westminster.
Canning, the Right Honourable George, M.P.
Calder, Hector, Esq. St. Vincent.
B. Campbell, Walter Frederick, Esq. of Shawfield and Isla,
Breadalbane, ^ Rjght HonourabIe the Earl of. 2 copies.
xiv SUBS CRIBERS.

Campbell, Colonel, Balveolan. G.


Campbell, the Rev. Alexander, Strathtay.
Gordon, his Grace the Duke of.
Campbell, James, Esq. St. Vincent. Gwydyr, the Right Honourable Lady, 2 copies.
Carmichael, John, Esq. St. Vincent.
Glenorchy, the Right Honourable Lord, M.P. 3 copies.
Clark, John, Esq. St. Vincent.
Grant, the Right Honourable Sir William, Lincoln's-Inn-
Collins, John, Esq. Bath.
Fields.
Cruickshank, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent.
Grant, the Honourable Charles, M.P.
Cumming, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent.
Grant, Sir Alexander, Albany.
Cochran, Mr. 108, Strand, 2 copies.
Gordon, Major-General Benjamin.
Gaskill, Robert, Esq. St. Vincent.
Glen, William, Esq. Grenada.
D. Gordon, the Rev. Donald, Ederachilis.
Grant, Patrick, Esq. of Redcastle.
Davidson, H. Esq. of Tulloch.
Grant, John, Esq. St. Vincent.
Davidson, Duncan, younger, Esq. of Tulloch.
Guthrie, , Esq. of Craigie.
Downie, Robert, Esq. of Appin, M.P.
Dear, William, Esq. St. Vincent.
Denton, John, Esq. St. Vincent.
H.
Dickie, John, Esq. St. Vincent.
Hamilton and Brandon, his Grace the Duke of.
Dickson, Thomas, Esq. St. Vincent.
Hamilton, the Right Honourable Lord Archibald, M.P.
Donald, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent.
Huntingdon, the Right Honourable the Countess of,
Duff, James Gordon, Esq. Gloucester Place.
3 copies.
Haddington, the Right Honourable the Earl of.

F. j Hutton, Lieutenant-General.
Hindley, , Esq. Doughty Street. >
Fife, the Right Honourable the Earl of. Hutchinson, , Esq. Wellington Place, Commercial
Fergusson, General Sir Ronald, M.P.
Road.
Forbes, Sir Charles, Bart, of Edinglassie, M.P. F itzroy j|ar(jjng an(j q0 Messrs. 4 copies.
Square, .5 copies. i

Forbes, John, Esq. Fitzroy Square.


Forbes, Charles, Esq. Fitzroy Square. K.

Forbes, Miss {Catherine Stewart, Fitzroy Square. Keith, Dr. Ronald, Grenada.
Forbes, George, Esq. Fitzroy Square. Kennedy, the Rev. Alexander, Isle of Mull.
Forbes, Master James Stewart, Fitzroy Square. Kennedy, Robert, Esq. Grenada, 3 copies.
Forbes, Lieutenant Colonel David, 78th Regt. Kennedy, Evan, Esq. Grenada.
Frazer, Archibald, Esq. Grenada. " Kennedy, John H. Esq. Surgeon, Grenada.
Frazer, Malcolm, Esq. Grenada. Kennedy, Charles N. Esq. Surgeon, St. Vincent, 3 copies.
SUBSCRIBERS. xv

Mac Kenzie, Roderick, Esq. St. Vincent.

Londonderry, the Most Honourable the Marquess of. Mac Kenzie, Colin, Esq.
Mac Kinnon, Charles, Esq. Cambden Hill.
Lyndoch, Lord.
Mac Kinnon, William Alexander, Esq. Portswood House,
Lumsden, Lieutenant Colonel D.
near Southampton.
IJvingston, Dugald, Esq. Grenada.
Mac Lean, the Rev. J. Argyllshire.
Mac Lean, George, Esq. Grenada.
M.
Mac Lean, John, Esq. Grenada.
Montrose, his Grace the Duke of. Mac Leod, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent, 2 copies.
Moray, the Right Honourable the Earl of. Mac Leod, James, Esq. St. Vincent.
Menzies, Lady, of Menzies, Castle-Menzies. Mac Naughton, the Rev. Daniel, Appin.
* Murray, Sir John Mac Gregor, Bart. Mac Naughton, the Rev. Allen, Campbelton.
Mac Gregor, Lieutenant Colonel Sir Evan, Bart. Mac Naughton, Alexander, Esq. Surgeon, R.N.
Mackintosh, Sir James, M.P. Mac Naughton, Dr. James, United States.
Mac Donell, Colonel Alexander Ranaldson, of Glengarry and Mac Pherson, D. Esq. Chandos Street, Covent Garden.
Clanranaid. Mac Vean, Archibald, Esq. Grenada.

Mac Kinnon, Donald, M.D. and F.R.S. Adelphi. Malcolm, William, Esq. St. Vincent.
Mac Gillivray, Simon, Esq. of Beinn' Ghaidheal. Menzies, Stewart, Esq. of Culdares.
Mac Gregor, P. Esq. Surgeon, Golden Square. Menzies, H. Esq. Mary Street, Fitzroy Square.
Mac Arthur, the Rev. Donald, Isle of Mull. Miller, James, Esq. St. Vincent.
Mac Arthur, Duncan, Esq. St. Vincent. Munro, George Gun, Esq. Grenada.
Mac Barnet, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. Murray, Patrick, Esq. St. Vincent.
Mac Coll, the Rev. Alexander, Lismore.
Mac Dougall, Captain Duncan, 79th Regt.
Mac Dougall, Patrick, Esq. Grenada. V
Mac Dowall, Allan, Esq. St. Vincent, 2 copies.
Nott, the Rev. Dr. Winchester.
Mac Ewan, Dr. George, Grenada.
Mac Ewan, Dr. James, Grenada.
Mac Fee, John, Esq. St. Vincent.
Mac Gregor, Alexander, Esq. Grenada.
Mac Gregor, William, Esq. Grenada. O'Neil, John, Esq. Grenada.

Mac Innes, John, Esq. Grenada.


Mac Ivor, Mr. Farquhar, Preacher of the Gospel, Loch-
broom.
Macintyre, Captain John, Kenmore. Paris, Royal Institute of.
Macintyre, Archibald, Esq. St. Vincent. Petit, Louis Hayes, Esq. Lincoln's Inn.
Mac Kenzie, the Rev. Dr. Hugh, Assynt. Prescod, W. H. Esq. St. Vincent, 2 copies.
xvi SUBSC LIBERS.

R. Stewart, J., M. D. Appin.


Roseberry, the Right Honourable the Earl of. Stewart, James Fleming, Esq. Grenada.
Ramsay, the Honourable Colonel John, Kelly House, near Stewart, William, Esq. Piccadilly.
Arbroath. Shand, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent.
Richardson, Clement Thomas, Esq. Grenada. Smith, John, Esq. St. Vincent.
Robertson, Divie, Esq. Bedford Square. Symon, James, Esq. St. Vincent.
Robertson, E. Esq. Beverley, Yorkshire.
Robertson, Colin, Esq. Russell Square.
T.
Robertson, Andrew, Esq. Gerrard Street, Soho.
Robertson, Alexander, Esq. St. Vincent. Tennant, R. J. W. Esq. Belfast.
* Robertson, the Rev. Dr. Ebury Street, Chelsea. Todd, James Ruddell, Esq. of Balintagart, AdelphL
Ross, the Rev. Dr. Lochbroom, Rosshire. Treasurer, Kennet, Esq. Edinburgh.
Ross, the Rev. Alexander, Ullapool. Thomson, William, Esq. St. Vincent.
Rivington, Messrs. Strand, 6 copies.

t
S. U.

Stafford, the Most Honourable the Marchioness of. Upham, , Esq. Bath.
Strathavon, the Right Honourable Lord, M. P. 4 copies. Urquhart, , Esq. St. Vincent.
Salton and Abernethy, the Right Honourable Lord.
Stewart, the Honourable John.
W.
Stewart, Major General, of Garth.
Shaw, Major General John. Wemyss and March, the Right Honourable the Earl of.
Stewart, the Rev. James, Ardgower. Whitely, , Esq. Halifax.
Salami, A. Esq. Wilkinson, Thomas, Esq. St. Vincent.
A GRAMMAR

OF THE

GAELIC LANGUAGE.

Grammar, or the art of speaking and writing a language according to certain established rules, is divided into four parts,
viz. Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody.
Orthographt, or right spelling, teaches the true arrangement of letters in words; the correct utterance of which
is called Orthoepy.
Etymology teaches how to derive a word from its root or primitive, the parts of speech, the inflection of nouns
and verbs, and the modifications by which the sense of a word is diversified.
Syntax teaches how to arrange words into sentences.
Prosody teaches the accent and quantity of syllables, arid the measure of verse.

OF ORTHOGRAPHY, or RIGHT SPELLING.


The old Gaelic, commonly called the Irish, alphabet, consists of eighteen letters, which are divided into vowels and
consonants.
THE ALPHABET.
man Character*. Old Gaelic, or Irish. Ancient Oaelic Name. Translation.
A a St 4 Ailm. Elm.
D b B b Beithe. Birch.
C c C c Coll. Hazel.
D d <b o Duir. Oak.
E e e e Eagh. Aspen.
F f r r Fearn. Alder.
0 3 3 Goibh, or gath. A spear.
II h \) h Huath.
1 i ) 1 Iogh. Yew.
L 1 L i Luis. The quicken tree.
M m etj l Muir. Vine.
N n N tj Nuin. Ash.
(> o 0 0 Ogh. The spindle tree.
P P P Peith bhog.
P
R r K Ruis. ' Elder.
n
s s s r Suil.
T t n Tin.
V 11 u u r Uir, or iuthar. Yevo.

OF VOWELS, AND VOWEL SOUNDS.


Of these, a, e, i, o, u, are vowels, which Irish grammarians have divided into broad and small : a, o, u, are broad ;
f, i, small.
A.
A represents three different sounds ; in the first two of which it is both long and short. A long, sounds like the
English a in bar, or the Italian a in amo ; as, al, broad ; sar, excellent : and short, like a in cor, as, cas, a foot ; fait, hair.
b
ii A GRAMMAR OF
A, immediately preceding dh and gh, has a long and a short diphthongal sound, to which there is none correspondent
in English. In this situation it much resembles the sound of the French diphthong eu ; long, as, ladhar, a hoof ; agh-
mhor, fortunate : short, as a in lagh, law ; tagh, choose.
A sounds short and obtuse, like e in open, in the three forms of the article a, an, am, and in the plural terminations
a and an ; as, laghanna, laws ; beanntan, mountains.
E.
E represents three different sounds.
E, with the grave accent (), sounds long, like the Greek as pronounced in Scotland and on the Continent, or like
e in where ; as, e, he; ri, (luring the time of: and short, like e in wet ; as, teth, hot; in which state it is never accented.
E, with the acute accent (e), sounds like the Greek n, as, pronounced in England; as, tt, a female.
E final lias an obtuse sound, like e in open; as, beannuichte, blessed; buailte, struck; there being no silent final
vowels in Gaelic.
I-
/sounds like ee in English, but sometimes long and sometimes short; long, as, sin, stretch; sith, peace: short, like
ee in feet ; as, bith, existence.
O.
0 represents three different sounds, in each of which it is both long and short.
O long, sounds sometimes like o in lord ; as, bl, drink ; rbmach, hairy : and sometimes like 0 in fold ; as, cbt, a coat ;
torn, a hillock.
0 short, sounds sometimes like 0 in pot ; as, brod, a lid ; grod, rotten ; borb, fierce : and sometimes like o in rope ;
as, slob, a puddle.
0, before gh, has a long and a short diphthongal sound : long, as, sogh, luxury ; short, as, roghuinn, choice.

U.
U sounds like u in French and Italian, or like the English 00 in moon, but sometimes long and sometimes short :
long, as, fudar, powder ; short, as, furan, a welcome.

OF THE DIPHTHONGS.
A diphthong is the meeting of two vowels in one syllable. In Gaelic there are thirteen diphthongs, and they are
derived from the vowels in the following manner :
- fea. , . .
From a\ai. From e< el' From i\io. From 0, oi. From u.\ .'
I\.ao. J eo.
/ I tu.
f ' lui.
K
K V eu. v
Of these, ao, eu, are improper diphthongs ; the rest are proper.

PROPER DIPHTHONGS.
Ae.
Ae occurs but in a few words; as, Gael* a Highlander.
At.
Ai sounds like ai in the French canaille; as, caill, lose; saill, salt; pailteas, plenty. Very frequently i is but faintly
sounded ; as in dite, a place ; fciilte, welcome.
Ea.
Ea sounds like ea in the English noun bear ; as, each, a horse ; fear, a man ; but before a palatal, c, g ; or a lingual,
/, n, r ; or a dental, d, s, t, not silent, the prepositive is often either quiescent, or but faintly sounded ; as, cealg, deceit ;
geall, a wager.
Ei.
Ei sometimes gives the sound of both vowels ; as, feidh, deer ; and sometimes that of e alone ; as, reidh, a plain.
Before the palatals, c, g, the Unguals, I, n, r, or the dentals, d, s, t, not silent, i is but faintly heard; as, reic, sell; leig,
let ; fiin, self: and often confers on a following palatal, a double palatal sound ; as, thig, (pronounce heek), shall come ;
and on a dental, a double dental sound ; as, theid, shall go (pron. heich, articulating ch as in church).
Eo.
Eo sounds somewhat like aw in yawl; as, cebl, music; ceb, mist.
la.
la has both vowels heard ; as, far, crooked ; tail, a thong ; ciar, dusky ; but in cta ? what ? and iad, they, ia often
sounds like e in where.

* Gael and Gaelach are more commonly written Gaidheal and Gaidliealach, to preserve the rule, caol ri caol, is leathan ri leathan.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. m
Io.
Io sounds both long and short : long, as, ea in fear; as, sior, ever ; for, true : and short, not unlike the French eu ;
is, fiodh, timber. Before a palatal, lingual, or dental, o is not always, or but faintly, heard ; as, ptoc, pick ; ciod, what ;
sgial, skill ; bior, a thorn ; fos, knowledge.
In.
lu sounds both its vowels; as, fu, (pron. few), worthy; except before c, g, or d, I, n,,r, s, t, where it is not
I ; as, Hugh, thick, (pron. chiix) ; dibit, deny, (pron. chiult).
Oi.
Oi sounds both its vowels : long, as, doigh, manner ; sloigh, host : short, as, troidh, a foot ; bloidh, a piece. Except
before c, g, I, n, r, s, t, not silent, i is quiescent, and affects the sound of the consonant which it precedes ; as, toic,
substance, (pron. tm^k) ; foid, a turf, (pron. /ocA, ch sounding as in chair) ; coise, gen. of cas, foot, (pron. coish).
Ua.
Ua sounds both its vowels; as, tuar, colour; fuar, cold. Except before ch, dh, gh, th, the a of ua commonly
sounds like e in her ; as, bruach, a bank ; tuadh, a hatchet ; sluagh, people ; luath, swift.
Vi.
i'i sounds both its vowels ; as, buidhinn, gain ; luidh, lie. Except before c, g, I, n, r, s, t, the i of wt is not heard ;
but it affects the sound of the consonant following, as, luis, (pron. luish) ; tuit, fall, (pron. tuich, ch as in church) ; sluig,
sw&Uow, (pron. slluk,k as in key).
IMPROPER DIPHTHONGS.
Ao.
Ao has a peculiar sound, not attainable by the ear, much resembling that of eu in the French heure ; as, laogh, a calf;
ud a nasal sound, as, maoth, soft.
Eu.'
Eu sounds like ei in feign ; beum, a blow ; feum, need.

OF THE TRIPHTHONGS.
The triphthongs are these five : aoi, eoi, iai, iui, uai. They are pronounced respectively, like the diphthongs, ao, co,
ia, iu, ua, with the addition of a short i, which serves to liquefy the sound of the following consonant. They are all long,
and never occur but in monosyllables, or in the first syllable of polysyllables.

OF THE CONSONANTS.
There are twelve consonants, b, c, d, f, g, I, m, n, p, r, s, t ; h is rather a mark of aspiration than a radical letter.
The consonants in Gaelic may be conveniently brought into the following arrangement : Labials, Palatals, Dentals,
and Linguals.
ials<^*
Labials Palatals \c' Dentals < t. Linguals \n.
{;; U U

Of these, b, c, d, f, g, m, p, s, t, are mutable, or capable of aspiration, by having h subjoined ; in which state their
sound is either altered or lost. The immutables are /, n, r.
Labials.
B.
B simple sounds somewhat harder than b, and softer than p, in English ; as, buail, strike ; bean, touch. Bh sound
like v in English, French, and Italian ; as, bhean, touched ; bhac, hindered. Bh, at the end of a word or syllable, either
sound like u, or stand for a gentle aspiration; as, searbh, bitter; ftabhras, a fever. Sometimes bh, in the middle of a
word, are silent; as, soirbheas, prosperity; doirbheas, adversity.
F.
F simple is pronounced as in most other languages; fh are silent; as, fhad, long; an Fhraing, France. In a very
few words, as, mi fhcin, myself, fh sound like k in English.
M.
M simple, the same as in English ; as, mbr, great ; caman, a club ; lorn, bare. MA sound like v in English ; as,
amhain, only ; a mhusgaid, the musket. Frequently, though never at the beginning of a word, mh sound like a nasal oo,
or stand for a gentle aspiration ; as, ramh, an oar ; and sometimes they are altogether quiescent, as, comhnard, level ;
\, to me.

In the West and Northern Highlands, this diphthong is often pronounced like ia; as, miad, size, for mend; ian, bird, for ettn.
iv A GRAMMAR OF
P.
P simple sounds as in English and other languages ; as, pronn, bruise ; peasg, a gash ; ph like / in English, as,
phronn, bruised.
Palatals.
C.
C simple has two sounds : (1.) Like c in cub; as, cil, a dog; crath, shake. (2.) When preceded in the same syllable
by a small vowel, it has, in most parts of the Highlands, a sound to which that of yp. is pretty similar ; as, aire, distress,
(pron. <*ig;c). In some parts it sounds like k.
Ch sound like the Gr. % in or like the Irish gh in lough, or the vulgar Scotch ch in loch, as, moch, early ; and,
when followed by a small vowel, like in y,u(itn ; as, chi, shall see.
G.
G simple sounds, at the beginning of a word, nearly as in English ; at the end of a word, its sound more nearly
resembles that of the English k in rock ; as, rug, bore ; thug, gave.
G aspirated, or gh, followed by a, o, or u, sounds somewhat softer than the Greek # ; as, ghair, laughed ; excepting
at the end of a syllable, and then it is silent ; as, tigh, a house ; rioghachd, a kingdom.
Gh, followed by e or i, sounds like y in ye ; as, ghios, (pron. yeess), towards.
Dentals.
D.
D simple is more a dental than in English, and sounds somewhat like the French and Italian d ; as, dan, a song ;
duine, a man ; dlagh, a handful ; madadh, a mastiff; rud, a thing. Except when it is followed by e or i, or is preceded
in the same syllable by i ; for then it spunds like ch in child ; as, clogaid, a helmet ; cdirdeas, friendship.
D, preceded by dh, sounds like js*; as, lochd, harm, (pron. llo^*).
Dh, at the beginning of a word, has a somewhat softer sound than the Greek % ; as, dha, to him ; but if followed
by e or i, it sounds like y in English ; as, dheth, of him ; dh' i, of her, (pron. yea, ye).
Dh, at the end, or in the middle of a word, is most frequently quiescent ; as, chaidh, went ; faidheadaireachd,
prophecy.

T simple, immediately followed by o, o, or u, or a consonant, sounds like the French t in terns, or the Italian t in
tempo; as, tamh, rest; taom, pour; tla, smooth.
T simple, preceded in the syllable by it, or immediately followed by e or i, sounds like ch in child ; as, tein, fire,
(pron. chein) ; faille, welcome, (pron. failch, ch sounding as in church).
T aspirated, or th, like h in home; as, thoir, give; but in the middle, or at the end of a word, it is silent; as,
Jitheach, a raven; bith, existence.
S.
S simple, preceded or followed by ^ e, or t, sounds like sh in English; as, sion, (pron. shion), a blast; gnuis, (pron.
gnuish), a visage. Except is, (pron. iss), am.
S simple, preceded or followed by a, o, or u, sounds like s in English ; as, sabh, a salve ; sogh, luxury ; mios,
a mouth.
S simple, followed by d, t, I, or n, and a short vowel, sounds like sh in English ; as, sdiilir, or stiilir, steer ; slios,
a side ; sniomh, spin.
S, before any other consonant, even though followed by a short vowel, sounds like s in English ; as, smig, (pron.
smik), a chin ; smeid, (pron. smeich), a nod.
S aspirated, or sh, is silent ; as, shebl, directed, (pron. hedl) ; excepting when followed by I or n, and then there is
no aspiration ; as, shnamh, (pron. nav), swam ; shlanuich, (pron. Uint%), healed.
i Linguals.
The lingual consonants, as has been said, are incapable of aspiration ; but they have often a double lingual sound,
to which there is none similar in English.
L.
L simple, like I in large ; as, las, flamed. It has this sound when it begins the preterites of verbs and the feminine
form of adjectives.
L has its double lingual sound when followed by e or , and then it is articulated like 11 in million, or like the Italian
gl, or the Portuguese Ih ; as, linn, an age ; lein, a shirt. Yet, with regard to nouns beginning with I, if the masc. poss. pron.
goes before, I sounds as in English ; as, a litir, his letter ; where I differs materially in sound from I in a litir, her letter.
L has another double lingual sound, generally, when it is preceded by itself, or when it is followed by a, o, or , in
verbs and in adjectives masculine ; as, fallain, healthy ; lan, full ; lorn, bare; lus, an herb. - ,
11, preceded or followed by a short vowe1, also sounds as the Italian gl.
II, preceded or followed by o, o, 01 u, has the same double lingual sound as in lan, masculine, but has no sound
similar to it in English.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. v
N.
N simple sounds like n in English in the beginning of preterites, and whenever it is preceded by a, o, or tt ; as, nigh,
washed ; ldn, full ; Ion, a thrush ; run, affection ; and in the middle of words, as, sinidh, shall stretch.
N has its double sound in the beginning of a verb in the imperative mood, and followed by a, o, or u ; as, nochd,
shew ; or at the beginning of a masculine adjective, and followed by a broad vowel ; as, naomh, holy ; nuadh, new. In this
situation it has no similar sound in English, but is the same with the first n in the French non.
The same observations apply to the reduplicated nn.
N has another double sound, when immediately preceded by i, or when i is the last vowel of the same syllable ; as,
linn, an age; citirn, cairns; uinneag, a window; and at the beginning of imperatives, and certain other tenses, when
followed by a small vowel ; as, nigh, wash. In this situation it sounds exactly like gn, in the French guigne, or the
Italian regno.
N, preceded by m or c, is in some words pronounced like r ; as, cnaimh (craimh), a bone ; cnb (crb), a nut.
Lastly, an and nan, when the next word begins with c or g, sound like ng and nung ; as, an cii, the dog ; an gial, the
cheek ; nan cealgair, of the deceivers.
R.
R simple sounds like r in English ; as, rath, (pron. ra), luck ; righ, a king. High, in the vocative, has no sound
similar to it in English, but it is exactly that of ri in the French infex'ionti.
R, if preceded by i, or if followed by t, and forming a syllable, sounds as above, like ri in the French inferiorite ;
as, rithe, with her ; mairbh, dead ; coir, right.

OF ETYMOLOGY.
Etymology is that part of grammar which teaches how to derive a word from its primitive, shews the parts of
speech, the inflections of nouns, and the modifications by which the sense of a word is diversified.
OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
In Gaelic there are nine parts of speech, viz. Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Preposition,
Interjection, Conjunction. These are divided into declinable and indeclinable.
The declinable parts of speech are, the Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle.
The indeclinable are, the Adverb, Preposition, Interjection, Conjunction.
OF THE ARTICLE.
There is no indefinite article in Gaelic. An, the, is the definite article, and is declined by genders, cases, and numbers.
Singular. Plural.
Mas. Fem. Mas. and Fern.
Nom. An, am. An, a'. Na.
Gen. An, a'. Na. Nan, nam.
Bat. An,* a'. An, a'. Na.
The form am of the article is used before a simple (not aspirated) labial ; as, am buille, the blow ; am fear, the man :
before any aspirated consonant (except fh) the article is written a'.
A substantive noun, beginning with s, followed by a liquid or by a vowel, requires the insertion of t between it and
the article, in the gen. and dat. sing. mas. of nouns, and in the nom. and dat. of feminine nouns.
A sub. mas. beginning with a vowel has t between it and the article in the nom. sing.
A sub. fem. has h in the same situation in the gen. sing.
Nouns which are either mas. or fem. have h in the nom. and dat. plural.
Nan, of the gen. pi., is always used, except before words beginning with b,f, p. Nan, before c or g, sounds nany.
OF GENDER.
The genders are two, masculine and feminine.
The Gaelic language is very anomalous in its distinction of nouns by gender ; and perhaps no set of rules can be
devised to ascertain the gender of every noun in the language. It personifies every object, whether animate or inanimate.
The gender is not determined by termination, or any circumstance, but by immediate distinction of sex, and by custom.
Masculines.
Nouns signifying males, are masculine ; as, duine, a man ; laoch, a hero ; each, a horse.
Note.That lebmhann, lion; laogh, calf ; van, lamb ; and several other names for the young of animals, are masculine,
though the objects be feminine.
Nouns in o, or having o in the last syllable, are commonly masculine ; as, cc'o, must ; roth, a wheel ; corp, a body.
Polysyllables in a, o, or u, are commonly masculine.
Diminutives in an are masculine ; as, caman, a club ; fuaran, a well ; barran, a thorn-fence.
An, after a vowel, is written 'a.
vi A GRAMMAR OF
Derivatives in ach, iche, as, air, ear, are for the most part masculine ; as, marcach, a rider ; maraiche, a seaman ;
piobair, a piper ; muillear, a miller ; cdirdeas, friendship.
Names of trees are commonly masculine.
Feminities.
Nouns signifying females are feminine ; as, mathair, a mother.
Aggregate names of trees are feminine ; as, darach, oak-wood.
Names of countries, especially those ending in achd, or which have a short vowel in the last syllable ; as, Gaidhealt-
achd, the Highlands; Eirin, Ireland. The names of districts have their gender commonly regulated by their termination.
Names of musical instruments ; as, piob, a pipe ; cruit, a harp.
Names of diseases ; as, buinneach, a diarrhoea.
Polysyllables (except agents in air and iche) whose least vowel is e, or i, are commonly feminine ; as, neasgaid, a
boil ; doirlinn, an isthmus.
Diminutives in ag ; as, sradag, a spark.
Derivatives in achd ; as, maiseachd, comeliness ; rioghachd, a kingdom.
Comparatives used substantively, are feminine ; as, maoile, baldness ; gile, whiteness. .
Nouns in xia, and ui, a diphthong, the subjunctive of which is a slender or small vowel, are commonly feminine; as,
cuach, a cup ; compailt, company. ,
OF NUMBER.
A noun has two numbers, singular and plural.
The cases are four, viz. Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Vocative.
A noun is either simple or aspirated, e. g. mbr, mhbr, where mbr is the simple form, and mhbr the aspirated.
Nouns in a definite sense are declined with the article.
The flection of a Gaelic noun is carried on not so much by a change of the termination, as of the last vowel, or of the
diphthong of the nominative, and by aspirating the initial consonant.
The Gael have only two declensions. Nouns whose last vowel is a, o, or u, are of the first ; nouns whose last vowel
is e, or , are of the second.

FIRST DECLENSION.
Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite.
Fear, a man ; mas.
Sing. PL
Nom. Fear, a man. Nom. Fir, or feara, men.
Gen. Fir, of a man. Gen. Fear, or feara, of men.
Dat. Fear, to a man. Dat. Fearaibh," to men.
Voc. Fhir, 0 man. Voc. Fheara, 0 men.
The same Noun declined with the Article.
Sing. PL
Nom. Am fear, the man. Nom. Na fir, the men.
Gen. An fhir, of the man. Gen. Nam fear, of the men.
Dat. An 'n fhear, to the man. Dat. Na fearaibh, to the
Example of a Noun Feminine, indefinite, beginning with a Palatal Consonant.
Cuach, a cup ; fern.
Sing. PL
Nom. Cuach, a cup. Nom. Cuachan, cups.
Gen. Cuaiche, of a cup. Gen. Cuach, of cups.
Dat. Cuaich, to a cup. Dat. Cuachaibh, to cups.
Voc. Chuach, 0 cup. Voc. Chuacha, 0 cups.
The same Noun declined with the Article.
Sing. PL
Nom. A' chuach, the cup. Nom. Na cuachan, the cups.
Gen. Na cuaiche, of the cup. Gen. Nan cuach, of the cups.
Dat. An, 'n chuaich, to the cup. Dat. Na cuachaibh, to the cups.
Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite, beginning with a Dental.
Dorus, a door ; mas.
Sing. PL
Nom. Dorus, a door. Nom. Dorsan, doors.
Gen. Doruis, of a door. Gen. Dorsa, of doors.
Dat. Dorus, to a door. Dat. Dorsaibh, to doors.
Voc. Dhoruis, 0 door. Voc. Dhorsa, O doors.
* The nominative and dative plural of surnames are alike.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. vi i

The same Noun declined with the Article.


Sing. PI.
Norn. An dorus, the door. Nom. Na dorsan, the doors. ,
Gen. An doruis, of the door. Oen. Nan dorsa, of the doors.
Bat. An, 'n dorus, to the door. Dat. Na dorsaibh, to the doors.

Example of a Feminine Noun, indefinite, beginning with a Dental.


Teasach, a fever ; fern.
Sing. PI.
Nom. Teasach, a fever. Nom. Teasaichean, fevers.
Gen. Teasaiche, of a fever. Gen. Teasach, of fevers.
Dat. Teasach, to a fever. Dat. Teasaichibh, to fevers.
Voc. Theasach, 0fever. Voc. Theasaiche, 0 fevers.

The same Noun declined with the Article.


Sing. PI.
Nom. An teasach, the fever. Nom. Na teasaichean, the fevers.
Gen. Na teasaiche, of the fever. Gen. Nan teasach, of the fevers.
Dat. An, 'n teasach, to the fever. Dat. Na teasaichibh, to the fevers.

Note.I. That nouns, definite, beginning with s, and followed by a lingual, insert t between the article, and the gen.
and dat. singular.
II. That nouns masc. beginning with a vowel, insert t in the nom. sing.; and nouns fern, insert h in the gen. sing.,
and also in the nom. and dat. pi.

Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite, beginning with s, andfollowed by a Vowel.


Soc, a socket; mas.
Sing. PI.
Nom. Soc, a socket. Nom. Suic, sockets.
Gen. Suic, of a socket. Gen. Soc, of sockets.
Dat. Soc, to a socket. Dat. Socaibh, to sockets.
Voc. Shoe, 0 socket. Voc. Shuic, 0 sockets.

The same Noun declined with the Article.


Sing. PI.
Nom. An soc, the socket. Nom. Na suic, the sockets.
Gen. An t-suic, of the socket. Gen. Nan soc, of the sockets.
Dat. An, 'n t-soc, to the socket. Dat. Na socaibh, to the sockets.

Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite, beginning with s, andfollowed by a Lingual.


Sluagh, people;
Sing. PI.
Nom. Sluagh, a host. Nom. S16igh, hosts.
Gen. Sluaigh, of a host. Gen. Slogh, of hosts.
Dat. Sluagh, to a host. Dat. Slbigh, to hosts.
Voc. Shluagh, 0 host. Voc. Shloigh, O hosts.

The same Noun declined with the Article.


Sing. PI.
Nom. An sluagh, the host. Nom. Na sloigh, the hosts.
Gen. An t-sluaigh, of the host. Gen. Nan slogh, of the hosts.
Dat. An, *n t-sluaigh, to the host. Dat. Na sloigh, to the hosts.
Note.That nouns masculine, definite, beginning with a vowel, insert t between the article and the nom. sing., and k
between the article and the nom. and dat. pi.
Example of a Noun Masculine, definite, beginning with a Vowel.
lasg, a fish ; mas.
Sing. " PI.
Nom. An t-iasg, the fish. Nom. Na h-iasgan, the fishes.
Gen. An eisg, of the fish. Gen. Nan iasg, of the fishes.
Dat. An, 'n iasg, to the fish. Dat. Na h-iasgaibh, to the fishes.
Note.That feminine nouns, definite, beginning with a vowel, insert h between the article and the gen. sing, and
the nom. and dat. plural.
viii A GRAMMAR OF

Example of a Noun Feminine, definite, beginning with a Vowel.


Osag, a breeze ; fern.
Sing. PI.
Norn. An osag, the breeze. Nom. Na h-osagan, the breezes.
Gen. Ha. h-osaig, of the breeze. Gen. Nan osag, of the breezes.
Dat. An, 'n osaig, to the breeze. Dat. Na h-osagaibh, to the breezes.

Bean, a woman, is declined irregularly ; thus,


Sing. PL
Nom. Bean, a woman. Nom. Mnai, or mnathan, women.
Gen. Mna, of a woman. Gen. Ban, of women. '
Dat. Mnaoi, to a woman. Dat. Mnathaibh, to women.
Voc. Bhean, 0 woman. Voc. Mhnathan, 0 women.

Bean, declined with the Article.


Sing. PI.
Nom. A bhean, the woman. Nom. Na mnathan, the women.
Gen. Na mna, of the woman. Gen. Nam ban, of the women,
Dat. An, 'n mhnaoi, to the woman. Dat. Na mnathaibh, to the women.

OF THE FLECTIONS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION.


SINGULAR NUMBER.
General Rule.The genitive is formed by inserting t after the last vowel of the nominative ; as, slat, fem., gen. slait,
a jod ; cluaran, masc., gen. cluarain, a thistle. Feminines of one syllable also insert i after the last vowel of the
noun, and often add e to the last letter ; as, lamh, laimhe, a hand.

Special Rules.
Nouns ending in a* o, or u, have their nom. and gen. alike; Id, mas. gen. Id, a day; end, mas. gen. cnb, a nut ;
cliii, fame; except bb, cil, bru, which have respectively, boin, coin, bronn, and broinn.
Nouns in achd, eachd, iochd, rr, have their nom. and gen. alike. Slochd has sluichd in the genitive singular.
Nouns in adh, of more than one syllable, form their gen. sing, in aidh ; as, mortadh, mas. murder, gen. mortaidh ;
vaomhachadh, mas. sanctifying, naomhachaidh.
Monosyllables in gh and th form their gender from the nom. by adding a; except agh, mas. joy, gen. aigh.

Monosyllables change ea into ei ; as, Dissyllables in each and eann change ea into t ;
Nom. Gen. Nom ^ Gen.
Beann, Beinne, f. a hill. Aigeach, Aigich, m. a stallion.
Ceard, Ceaird and ceird, m. a tinker. Cinneach, Cinnich, m. a nation.
Each, Eich, m. a horse.
Feill, m. deceit. Buidheann, \ company.contr. buidhne, f. a
J Buidhinn,
Feall,
Fearg, Feirg, /. wrath. Sitheann, Sithinn, contra, sithne, /. venison.
Learg, Leirg,/. sea.
Dissyllables in ean change ean into ein ; as,
Some change ea into i ; as, Nom. Gen.
Nom. Gen. Binnean, Binnein, m. a pinnacle.
Breac, Brie, m. a trout. Cuilean, Cuilein, m. a whelp.
Ceann, Cinn, m. a head. Ceisdean, Ceisdein, m. a sweetheart.
Ceap, Cip, m. a last. Guirean, Guirein, m. a pimple.
Dreas, Dris, m. a thorn-bush. Isean, Isein, m. a gosling.
Fear, Fir, m. a man.
Meall, Mill, m. a lump. Monosyllables change ia into ei ; as,
Preas, Pris, m. a bush. Nom. Gen.
Biadh, Beidh, or bidh, m.food.
Some also add e; as, Ciall, Ceill, /. judgment.
Nom. Gen. Ciar, Ceir and ciair, m. darkness.
Breac, Bnce,f. small-pox. Cliabh, Cleibh, f. a hamper.
Cearc, Circe, f. a hen. Cliath, Cleith, f. a harrow.
Gleann, Glinne, m. a valley. Fiadh, Feidh, m. a deer.
Leac, Lice, /. a flag. Grian, Grein and Greine, f. sun.

* Dissyllables in a (now written adh) have their genitive singular in ai, like the ancitnt Latin. Talla, gen. tallai, a hall; 1st. aula,
gen. aulai : cala, a hurbour ; gen. calai, See.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE.
Nom. Gen. Nom. Gen.
Iall, Eill, /. a thong. Gob, Guib, m. a bird's bill.
Iasg, Eisg, m. fish. Long, Luing, /. a ship.
Liadh, Leidh, /. a ladle. Lorg, Luirg,/. a staff.
Sgian, Sgeine, or sgine,/. a knife. Moll, Muill, m. chaff.
Sgiath, Sgeith, f. a shield. Ord, Uird, m. a hammer.
Sliabh, Sleibh, m. a mountain. Poll, Puill, m. mire.
Dia, has Dia and De in the genitive singular. Sonn, Suinn, m. a hero.
Monosyllables in eu change eu into eoi ; as, u into ui.
Nom. Gen. Cul, Cuil, m. a corner.
Beul, Beoil, or beil, m. a mouth. Lus, Luis, m. pith.
Deur, Deoir, m. a drop. Lus, Luis, m. an herb.
Fun, Eoin, m. a bird. Mult, Muilt, m. a wether.
Feur, Feoir, m. grass. Tur, Tuir, m. a tower.
Leus, Leois, m. a flame.
Meur, Medir, m. a finger. Nouns in ebl change ebl into cuil; as,
Neul, Neoil, m. a cloud. Nom. Gen.
Sgeul, Sgeoil, or sgeil,/1. a tale. Ce61, Ciuil, m. music.
Eug, m. ghost, has Eig in die singular. Se61, Siuil, m. a sail.
Some nouns in eu merely add to the nom. ; as, Nouns in eag change eag into eig ; as,
Nom. Gen. Nom. Gen.
Beum, Beuma, m. a blow. Caileag, Caileig, f a young girl.
Ceum, Ceuma and ceim, m. a step. Duilleag, Duilleig, f. a leaf.
Feum, Feuma and feim, m. need. Faireag, Faireig,/. a gland.
Treud, Treuda, m. aflock. Filleag, Filleig, /. a fold.
Piseag, Piseig, f. a kitten.
Some characterized by eu have the nom. and gen. sing.
alike; as, Nouns in bg and on follow the general rule ; as,
Nom. Gen. Nom. Gen.
Beuc, Beuc, m. a rod. Brog, Br6ig,/. a shoe.
Freumh, Freumh and freimh,/". a root. Cr6g, Croig, f. a paw.
Leud, Leud and le6id, m. breadth. Smog, Sm6ig, f. a paw.
Seud, Seud, m. a jewel. Br6n, Broin, m. food.
Lon, Loin, m. food.
Some nouns change a into oi ; as,
Some nouns in ua change ua into uai ; as,
Nom. Gen.
Cas, Cois, or coise,y. a foot. Nom. Gen.
Clach, Cloich,/. a stone. Bruach, Bruaich, y. an ascent.
Crag, Craig, or croig,/. a paw. Cuach, Cuaich,/. a cup.
Smag, Smaig, or smoig, a pan. Luadh, Luaidh, m. praise.
But, Mac, a son, has Mic. Sluagh, Sluaigh, m. people.
Some nouns in ann have a double gender ; as, Others add a to the nominative ; as,
Nom. Gen. Nom. Gen.
Clann, Clainne, or cloinne,/. children. Fuath, Fuatha, m. hatred.
Crann, Crainn, or croinn, m. a tree. Some nouns in io lose o in the genitive ; as,
Lann, Lainne, or loinne,/. a sword. Nom. Gen.
Aghann,y. a pan, has Aighne. Cioch, Clche, f. a pass.
Monosyllables characterized by a, o, or w, often change a, Crioch, Criche,y. an end.
. m, into ui ; as, Lion, Lin, m.flax.
a into ui. Siol, SU, m. seed.
Sion, Sine, m. a blast.
Nom. Gen.
Alld, Uilld, m. a streamlet. Some nouns in io only add a to the nom. ; as,
Allt, Uillt, m. a streamlet Nom. Gen.
Bal: Builg, m. a bag. Bior, Biora, m. spit.
Buill, m. a member. Crios, Criosa, m. a belt.
Calg, Cuilg, m. awn. Fion, Fiona, m. wine.
Car, Cuir, m. a turn, or twist. Fios, Fiosa, or fios, m, notice.
Cam, Cuirn, m. a cairn. Lios, Liosa, m. a garden.
Clag, Cluig, m. a bell. Criosd, Christ, is undeclinable.
Fait, Fuilt, m. hair.
The following nouns form their genitive irregularly.
o into ui. Nom. Gen.
Bolg, Builg, m. a bag. Ceathramh, Ceithreimh, m. a quarter.
Bonn, Buinn, m. a coin. Lcabaidh, Leapa, or leapach,/. <i bed.
Colg, Cuilg, m. awn. Leanabh, I^einibh, m. a child.
Cord, Cilird, m. a rope. Piuthair, Peathar, /. a sister.
Folt, Fuilt, m. hair. Talamh, Talmhainn,/. land.
X A GRAMMAR OF

DATIVE.
General Rule.Nouns masculine have their dat. and nom. sing, alike ; nouns feminine have their dat. like the gen.
NOUNS MAS. NOUNS FEM.
Nom. Dat. , Nom. Gen. Dat.
Cabar, Cabar, a deer's horn. Teasach, Teasaich, Teasaich, a fever.
Dorus, Dorus, a door. Misneach, Misnich, Misnich, courage.
Tobar, Tobar, a well. Osag, Osaig, Osaig, a blast of wind.
Special Rules for the Dative case of Nouns Feminine.When the genitive is formed by contraction, the dat. is like
the nom.
Nom. Gen. Dat.
Sitheann, Sithne, Sitheann, f. venison.
Piuthair, Peathar, Piuthair, f. sister.
Monosyllables drop e from the genitive
Nom. Gen. Dat.
Cluas, Cluaise, Cluais, f. an ear.
Lamh, Laimhe, Laimh, f. a hand.
In Gaelic there is no Accusative differing from the Nominative.
VOCATIVE.
The vocative singular of masculine monosyllables is the genitive aspirated.
Nom. Gen. Voc.
Cu, Coin, Choin, m. a dog.
Bard, Baird, Bhaird, m. a bard.
Br&n, Br&in, Bhr6in, m. grief.
Fleasgach, Fleasgaich, Fhleasgaich, a youth.
Nouns masculine beginning with a vowel have their vocative and genitive alike.
Nom. Gen. Voc.
Ord, TJird, Uird, m. a hammer.
Amadan, Amadain, Amadain, m. a fool.
Oglach, Oglaich, Oglaich, m. a youth.
Feminine nouns form their vocative by aspirating the nominative ; as,
Nom. Voc.
Cluas, Chluas, f. ear.
Gealach, Ghealach, f. nurse.
Grian, Ghrian, sun.

PLURAL NUMBER.
NOMINATIVE.
General Rule for the Nominative.The nominative plural is formed from the nominative singular, by adding an ;*
as, sliseag, f. a slice, n. pi. sliseagan ; srad, f. a spark, n. pi. sradan ; spiorad, m. a spirit, n. pi. spioradan ; rioghachd, f.
a kingdom, n. pi. rioghachdan ; geug, f. a branch, n. pi. geugan.
Special Rules.Many dissyllables in ach add ean\ to the Nom. sing. Nom. pi.
gen. sing. ; as, Bata, m. a staff, has Batachan and bataichean.
Nom. sing. Gen. sing. Nom. pi. La, m. a day, Laithe, laithean, and lathachan.
Clarsach, f. a harp, Clarsaich, Clarsaichean. Leabaidh, /. a bed, Leapaichean.
Cullach, m. a boar, Cullaich, Cullaichean. Piuthair,/. a sister, Peathraichean.
Deudaeh,/. a jaw, Deudaich, Deudaichean, Lann,/. enclosure, Lanndaichean.
Mullach, m. a top, Mullaich, Mullaichean. Masculine monosyllables in ea, which change ea into i,
Some masculines in ach have their nom. pi. like the gen. in the gen. sing, have their gen. sing, and nom. pi. alike ; as,
sing. ; as, Nom. Gen. sing. Nom. pi.
Nom. sing. Gen. sing. Nom. pi. Fear, a man, Fir, Fir.
Oglach, ayouth, Oglaich, Oglaich. Meall, a lump, Mill, Mill.
Fear, m. a man, Fir, Fir. Ceann, m. head. Cinn, Cinn.
Nouns in ar sometimes transpose the final letter and add Some nouns in I and nn have their nom. in tan ; on and
kite, or ichean ; as, oin have tean ; as,
Nom. sing. Nom. pi. Nom. sing. Nom. pi.
Tobar, m. a well, Tobraichean. Reul, m. a star, Reultan.
Leabhar, m. a book, Leabhraichean. Seul, m. a seal, Seultan.
* In forming the nominative plural of these and other words, some writers only add a to the nominative singular; and several nouns
are made to end in idh, in the nominative plural; as, bcann, beanntaidh; bile, bilidh ; coille, coilltidh.
t Some writers only add e.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xi
Norn. sing. Nom. pi. Nom. sing. Nom. pi.
Beann,/ a hill, Beanntan and beanntaidh. But, Dia, a god, has Dee and diathan.
Gleann, to. a valley, fI Glcanntan, glinn, and
gleanntaidh.
Sluagh, m. people,
Sgian,/. a knife,
Sloigh.
Sginichean onrfsgeinichean.
Lionn, to. beer, Lionntan. Bo,/, a cow, Ba.
Lon, to. a meadow, Loin trail. Gniomh, m. work, Gniomharan.
Moin,/ peat, M6intean. Lion, m.flax, has Liontan and liontaichean.
Sliabh, a mountain, h Sleibhte, or sleibhtean. Linn, m. a pool, has ( Linnte, linntean, linnichean,
Sabhul, m. a barn, Saibhlean. \ and linntichean.

GENITIVE.
Monosyllables have their gen. pi. like the nom. sing. ; as, Nom. sing. Gen. pi.
Nom. sing. Gen. pi. Freiceadan, m. a guard, Freiceadan.
Bard, m. a poet, Bard. Teampullach, to. a churchman, Teampullach.
Breug, m. a lie, Breug. Dissyllables having ean in the nom. pi. have ean also in
Cat, to. a cat, Cat. the gen. pi. ; as,
Ceard, to. a tinker, Ceard.
Feart, to. a quality, Feart. Nom. sing. Nom. and gen. pi.
Sloe, to. a pit, Sloe. Leabaidh,/. a bed, Leapaichean.
Leabhar, m. a book, Leabhraichean.
Some trisyllables have the gen. pi. like the nom. sing. ; as, Tobar, to. a well, Tobraichean.

A few nouns form their genitives irregularly ; as,


Nom. sing. Gen. pi. Nom. sing. Gen. pi.
Bean,/", a woman, Ban. I Cu, to. a dog, Con.
Caor,/ o sheep, Caorach. | Sluagh, to. people, ' Slogh and sluagh.

DATIVE.
The dative plural ends in aibh, or ibh, and is formed from the nominative singular, or plural : thus,
Monosyllables commonly add aibh to the nom. sing. ; as, Trisyllables in ch have their dat. and nom. pi. alike;
Nom. sing. Bat. pi. as.
Bard, to. a bard, Bardaibh. Nom. sing. Nom. and Dat. pi.
Crann, to. a tree, Crannaibh. Comhairleach, to. a counsellor, Comhairlich.
Cruach,/ a heap, Cruachaibh.
Feart, to. a virtue. Feartaibh. Monosyllables in eadh, iadh, and eagh, add aibh to the
Mac, m. a son, Macaibh. nom. sing. ; but,
Ord, to. a hammer, Ordaibh. Nom. sing. Dat. pi.
Fiadh, to. deer, has Feidh.
If the nom. pi. end in ta or tan, these are changed into Sluagh, m. people, has Sloigh.
Nom. sing. Nom. pi. Dat. pi. Monosyllables in amh and ath form their dat. pi. in aibh ;
Beann,/. hill, Beanntan, Beanntaibh. as,
Cuan, to. sea, Cuanta, or -an, Cuantaibh. Nom. sing. Dat. pi.
Lamh,/ a hand, Lamhaibh.
If the nom. pi. end in e or ean, these terminations are Rarah, m. an oar, Ramhaibh.
changed into ibh ; as, Flath, to. a prince, Flathaibh.
Nom. sing. Nom. pi. Dat. pi. Sgiath,/. a wing, Sgiathaibh.
Mullach, m. a top, Mullaichean, Mullaichibh. But, Damh, to. an ox, has Daimh.
Sliabh, to. a hill, Sleibhte, or -ean, Sleibhtibh. Bean,/, a woman, has Mnathaibh.
Teasach,/. a fever, Teasaichean, Teasaichibh.

VOCATIVE.
The vocative plural is commonly the aspirated form of the nominative plural ; as,
Nom. plur. Voc. plur.
Beannta, beanntan, hills, Bheannta, or bheanntan.
Dorsa, dorsan, doors, Dhorsa, or dhorsan.
Monosyllables often add a to tlie aspirated form of the nominative singular ; as,
Nom. sing. Asp. form. Voc. plur.
Bard, to. a poet, Bhard, Bharda.
Cluas, /. an ear, Chluas, Chluasa.
Bean has mhnathan in the vocative plural; as, damh, an ox, dhaimh; sluagh, people, shloigh, and shluagh.
A GRAMMAR OF

SECOND DECLENSION.
Under this declension may be classed all those nouns whose characteristic or last vowel is i.

Example of a Noun Masculine, indefinite, beginning with el.


Cladhair, a coward.
Sing. PI.
Norn. Cladhair, a coward. Nora. Cladhairean, cowards.
Gen. Cladhair, of a coward, Gen. Cladhair, of cowards.
Dat. Cladhair, to a coward. Dat. Cladhairibh, to cowards.
Voc. Chladhair, O coward. Voc. Chladhaire, O cowards.

The same Noun declined with the Article.


Sing. PL
Nom. An cladhair, the coward. Nom. Na cladhairean, the cowards.
Gen, A' chladhair, of the coward. Gen. Nan cladhair, of the cowards.
Dat. An, 'n chladhair, to the coward. Dat. Na cladhairibh, to the cotvards.

Example of a Feminine Monosyllable, indefinite, beginning with a Vowel.


Aire, fern, an ark.
Sing. PL
Nom. Aire, an ark. Nom. Aircean, arks.
Gen. Airce, of an ark. Gen. Aire, of arks.
Dat. Aire, to an ark. Dat. Aircibh, to arks.
Voc. Aire, O ark. Voc. Airce, 0 arks.

The same Noun declined with the Article


PI
Nom. An aire, the ark. Nom. Na h-aircean, the arks.
Gen. Na h-airc, of the ark. , Gen. Nan aire, of the arks.
Dat. An, 'n aire, to the ark. Dat. Na h-aircibh, to the arks.

Example of a Noun Feminine, indefinite, beginning with s,followed by a Vowel.


Silil, fern, an eye.
Sing. PL
Nom. Suil, an eye. Nom. Suilean, eyes.
Gen. Sul and sula, of an eye Gen. Sul, of eyes.
Dat. Suil, to an eye. Dat. Suilibh, to eyes.
Voc. Shuil, 0 eye. Voc. Shuil, 0 eyes.

The same Noun declined with the Article


Sing. PL
Nom. An t-suil, the eye. Nom. Na suilean, the eyes.
Gen. Na sul, of the eye. Gen. Nan sul, of the eyes.
Dat. An, 'n t-suil, to the eye. Dat. Na suilibh, to the eyes.

FLECTIONS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION.


SINGULAR NUMBER.
GENITIVE.
General Rules.I. Dissyllables and trisyllables form their Nom. sing. Gen. sing.
gen. like the nom. ; as, Aire, m. an ark, Airce.
Nom. sing. Gen. sing. Clais,/". a furrow, Claise.
Aimsir, f. weather, Aimsir. Tuil,/*. a flood, Tuile.
Cealgair, m. a deceiver, Cealgair. Special Rules for the Genitive.- -I. Some nouns in ail
Cladhair, m. a coward, Cladhair. change ail into alach ; as,
Gealtair, m. a coward, Gealtair.
Breabadair, m. a weaver, Breabadair. Nom. Gen.
Da.i\,f. a meadow, Dalach.
Sail,./", a beam, Salach.
II. Monosyllables add e to the nominative; as, hkh,f. a mare, Larach.
Nom. sing. Gen. sing. But, Dail,/. delay, has Daile.
Ainm, m. a name, Ainme. Sail, m. brine, Saile.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xiii
Some monosyllables in ui have their gen. and nom. alike ; Nom. Gen.
Athair, m. a father, Athar.
Nom. Gen. Brathair, m. brother, Brathar.
Cruit,/. a harp, Cruit. M athair, m. mother, M athar.
Smuid, m. smoke, Smuid. Piuthair,/ sister, has Peathar and piuthair.
Truid, a starling, Truid.
Cuid, /. part, Cuid and codach. Feminine dissyllables in eir sometimes form their genitive
But, Muir,/ sea, has Mara. by adding e to the nominative, and sometimes by changing
Fuil,/ 6/ood, Fala and Fola. eir of the nominative in earach ; as,
Druim,/ rufcgrc, Droma. Nom. sing. Gen. sing. >
Suil.y. an eye, Sula. Dinneir,/. dinner, Dinneire, or dinnearach.
Inneir,/. dung, Inneire, or innearach.
Feminines in oi drop the subjunctive, and add a ; as, Suipeir,/ supper, Suipeire, or suipearach.
Nom. sing. Gen. sing. Ni, righ, br'igh, shh, re, re, have their genitive and nomi
Fe6il, flesh, Fe61a. native alike.
Sroin,/. a nose, Sr6na, or sroine.
Toin,/ bottom, T6na. The following nouns form their genitives irregularly :
Nom. sing. Gen. sing.
Feminine dissyllables in air change air into rack ; as, Abhainn,/ a river, Aibhne.
Nom. Gen. Aghann, /. a pan, Aighne.
Cathair,/. a city, Cathrach. Banais,/. a wedding, Bainnse.
Lasair,/. a flame, Lasracb. Column,/, a body, Colla, colna.
Machair,/ a plain, Machrach. Diithaich,/. a country, Duthcha and ducha.
Nathair f. a serpent, Nathrach. Fiacail,/ a tooth, Fiacla and fiacail.
So also, Staidhir,/. a stair, has Staidhreach. Gamhuinn, m. a steer, Gamhna.
Faighir,/. a fair, has Faighreach. Gualainn,/. shoulder, Guaille and guailne.
Madainn,/. morning, Maidne.
Some dissyllables, characterized by the diphthong at, Obair, f. work, Oibre.
lose the subjunctive in the genitive ; as, Uilinn,/. elbow, Uille and uilne.
DATIVE.
The dative singular is like the nominative.

VOCATIVE.
The vocative singular is the ,nominative aspirated ; and in nouns beginning with a vowel it is the same as the nominative.

PLURAL NUMBER.
NOMINATIVE.
General Rule.The nominative plural is formed from the nominative singular by adding ean ; as, cealgair, m. a
deceiver, nom. pi. cealgairean ; cldrsair, m. a harper, nom. pi. clarsairean.
Special Rules.Some nouns, which form their gen. sing Nom. sing. Nom. pi.
by contraction, retain the contraction in the nom. pi. ; as, Cridhe, m. heart, Cridheachan.
Cuid,/. part, Codaichean.
Nom. sing. Gen. sing. Nom. pi.
Abhainn,/. Aibhne, Aibhnichean and aibhnean. Nouns in eile and ein often add tean; as,
Aghann,/. Aighne, Aighnichean. Nom. sing. Nom. pi. .
Banais, f. Bainse, Bainsean. Feil,/. a kilt, Feiltean.
Duthaich,/. Duthcha, Duchan and duchannan. Lein,/. a shirt, Leintean.
Fiacail,/. Fiacla, Fiaclan.
Gamhuinn, m. Gamhna, Gamhnan. Monosyllables in ail and aile add ean to the nom. sing. ; as,
Gualainn, /. Guaille, Guaillean. Nom. sing. Nom. pi.
Madainn,/. Maidne, Maidnean. Fail,/, a ring, Failean.
Namhaid, m. Naimhde, Naimhdean. Dail,/. delay, Dailean.
Uilinn,/. Uille and uillne, U illean and uilnean. Caile,/. a girl, Cailean.
Sail,/, a heel, has Sailtean.
Feminine nouns in air change ach of the gen. sing, into Sail,/, a beam, has Sailthean.
aicA, and add ean ; as, Dail,/. a meadow, has Dailthean and dailean.
Nom. sing. Gen. sing. Nom. pi.
Cathair,/. seat, Cathrach, Cathraichean. Some nouns in aile, ain, and- others, add tean to the
Lasair, /. flame, Lasrach, Lasraichean. nom. sing. ; as,
Measair,/. tub, Measrach, Measraichean. Nom. sing. Nom. pi.
Nathair,/. serpent, Nathrach, Nathraichean. Bail, m. a town, Bailtean.
Smuain, m. a thought, Smuaintean.
Athair, m. father, lias Aithrichean. Smaoin, m. a thought, Smaointean.
Mathair,/ mother, Maithrichean. Aithne, /. a precept, Aithntean.
L'isge, m. water, Uisgeachan. Coille,/. a wood, Coilltean.
xir A GRAMMAR OF
Some nouns in uil and uille add ran to the nom. sing. ; as, Nom. sing. Nom. pi.
Nom. sing. Nom. pi. Tuil,/. aflood, Tuiltean.
Su.il, y. an eye, Siiilean.
n ... a blow,
,, ,has {$ Buillean, builleachan, and The following nouns form their nom. pi. irregularly ; as,
Buille, builieannan. Nom.pl.
Nom. sing.
Cliamhuinn, m. a son-in-law, Cleamhna and cliamhnan.
The following nouns in uil add tean for the nom. pi. irre Duine, m. a man, Daoine.
gularly; as, Fear, m. a man, Fir and feara.
Nom. sing. Nom. pi. Ni, m. a thing, Nlthe and nitheannan.
Cuil, m. a corner, , Cuiltean. Righ, m. a king, Righre and righrean.
Duil,/. element, Duiltean.

GENITIVE.
Many words of one or more syllables have their genitive Feminine polysyllables have commonly their nom. and
plural like the nom. sing, and pi. ; as, gen. pi. alike ; as,
Nom. sing. Nom. pi. Gen. pi. Nom. pi. Gen. pi.
i Nithe, cm, Cridheachan, hearts, Cridheachan.
Ni, m. a thing, ( Nitheannan. Nithe, Linntean, C Linntean,
t Nitheannan. Linntichean, pools, ( Linntichean.
i Righre, Aibhnean, rivers, t Aibhnean,
Righ, m. a king, < Righre, Aibhnichean, ( Aibhnichean.
( Righrean. Righrean. Duil,/. an element, has Dul.
t Cladhair, Suil, an eye, has Sul.
Cladhair,.aooword, { clidhSm. < Cladhaire,
(, Cladhairean.

DATIVE.
The dative plural is formed from the nominative plural by changing the last vowel or syllable into ibh ; as,
Nom. pi. Bat. pi. Nom. pi. Bat. pi.
Bailtean, towns, Bailtibh. Righre, kings, Righribh.
Cuiltean, corners, Cuiltibh. Fiaclan, teeth, Fiaclaibh.
Feiltean, kilts, Feiltibh.
VOCATIVE.
The vocative plural is the aspirated form of the nominative plural ; as,
Nom. pi. Voc. pi.
Coillte, or Coilltean, Choillte, or Choilltean.
Cealgaire, or Cealgairean, Chealgaire, or Chealgairean.

METHODS OF DISTINGUISHING SEX.


The Gaelic Language has three Methods of Bistinguishing the Sex ; viz.
I. By different Words.
Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female.
C Nighean no Sgalag, Searbhanta. Cullach, Muc.
Fleasgach, ( maighdeann, Aonaranach, Bantrach. Brathair, Piuthair.
Righ, Banrigh. Fear, Bean. Reithe, Caor.
Balaoch, Caile. Duine, Te. Mac, Nighean.
Balachan, Caileag. Oganach, Oigh. Gannra, Geadh.
Boc, Eilid. Tarbh, B6. Brathair athar, Piuthair athar.
Oid, Muim. CO, Galla. Fear bainnse, Bean bainnse.
Coileach, Cearc. Brathair bochd, Cailleach dubh. Brathair mathar, Piuthair mathar.
Athair, Mathair. Crochair, Baobh. Firionnach, Boirionnach.
Drac, Tunnag. Each, Capull.

II. By prefixing ban or bain to nouns feminine ; as,


Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female.
Tighearn, Bain-tighearn. Morair, Ban-mhorair. Prionnsa, Ban-phrionnsa.
Aba, Ban-aba. Maighistir, Ban-mhaighistir. Diuc, Ban-diuc.
Sealgair, Ban-sealgair. Taillear, Ban-fhualaiche.

III. By putting an adjective after the substantive ; as,


Leomhann firionn, Leomhann boirionn.
Uan firionn, Uan boirionn.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xv

OF ADJECTIVES.
Ax adjective is a word which denotes some quality belonging to the substantive ; as, duine math, a good man ;
tigk mbr, a large house.
In Gaelic, the adjective is varied on account of gender, number, and case.
The changes which an adjective undergoes in the course of flection are twofold : first, by aspirating the initial con
sonant; and, secondly, by changing the termination.
Adjectives, like substantives, are either of the first or second declension.
Adjectives which are characterized by a, o, or u, are of the first declension.
Adjectives characterized by i, are of the second.

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST DECLENSION.


Marbh, dead.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.
Masc. Fern. Masc. and Fern.
Nom. Marbh, Mharbh, Marbha. *
Gen. Mhairbh, Mairbhe, Marbha.
Dat. Marbh, Mhairbh, Marbha.
Voc. Mhairbh. Mharbh, Marbha.

RULES FOR THE INFLECTION OF ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST DECLENSION.

SINGULAR NUMBER.
NOMINATIVE.
The initial consonant, when it admits of aspiration, is aspirated for the feminine gender, and terminates like the
masculine ; as, mbr, m. mhbr,fem. great; fann, m.fhann,fem. weak ; ceart, m. cheart,fem. right.

OBLIQUE CASES.
The oblique cases of each gender are formed like those nouns of the first declension, and follow the same rules.

GENITIVE.
In general, the genitive singular feminine is formed from the genitive singular masculine by throwing aside the aspirate
of the initial consonant ; and monosyllables, after this change, commonly add e.
If the noun masculine ends in e, that vowel is retained throughout.
The learner may derive some help from the following table :
Nom. sing. mas. Nom. sing. fern. Gen. sing. mas. Gen. sing. fern.
Ban, pale, Bhan, Bhain, Baine.
Bochd, poor, Bhochd, Bhochd, Bochd.
Briagh,/ne, Bhriagh, Bhriagha, Briagh.
Buan, lasting, Bhuan, Bhuaine, Buaine.
Cam, crooked, Cham, Chaim, Caime.
Caomh, mild, Chaomh, Chaoimh, Caoimhe.
Ceart, right, Cheart, Cheairt, cheirt, Ceairte and ccirte.
Crion, little, Chrion, Chrln, Crine.
Daor, dear, Dhaor, Dhaoir, Daoire.
Dubh, black, Dhubh, Dhuibh, Duibhe.
Fann, weak, Fhann, Fhainn, Fainne.
Gann, scanty, Ghann, Ghainn, Gainne.
Gearr, shoot, Ghearr, Ghearr, Gearr.
Goirt, sour, Ghoirt, Ghoirt, Goirt.
Marbh, dead, Mharbh, Mhairbh, Mairbhe.
Mot, great, Mhdr, Mhoir, M&ire.
Pronn, pulverised, Phronn, Phroinn, Proinne.
Saor,/ree, Shaor, Shaoir, Saoire.
Monosyllables in all change a into oi in the genitive masculine and feminine.
Nom. sing. mas. Nom. sing. fern. Gen. sing. mas. Gen. sing. fern.
Dall, blind, Dhall, Dhoill, Doille.
Mall, slow, Mhall, Mhoill, Moille.
XVI A GRAMMAR OF
Monosyllables in om, onn, orb, orm, change o into mi ; as,
Nom. sing. mas. Nom. sing.fern. Gen. sing. mas. Gen. sing.fern.
Crom, crooked, Chrom, Chruim, Cruirae.
Lom, bare, Lom, Luim, Luime.
Trom, heavy, Throm, Thruim, Truime.
Borb, Jierce, Bhorb, Bhuirb, Buirbe.
Gorm, blue, Ghorm, Ghuirm, Guirme.

Monosyllables in ea, eu, ia, change these diphthongs into ei in the genitive singular ; as,
Nom. sing. mas. Nom. sing. fern. Gen. sing. mas. Gen. sing. fern.
Dearg, red, Dhearg, Dheirg, Deirge.
Deas, ready, Dheas, Dheis, Deise.
Geur, sharp, Gheur, Gheir, Geire.
Liath, grey-haired, Liath, Leith, Leithe.
Some change ea into i ; as,
Breac, spotted, Bhreac, Bhric, Brice.
Geal, white, Gheal, Ghil, Gile.
Adjectives beginning with a vowel have no initial change ; as,
Nom. sing. mas. Nom. sing. fern. Gen. sing. mas. Gen. sing. fern.
Ait, joyful, Ait, Ait, Aite.
Aosda, old, Aosda, Aosda, Aosda.
Ur, fresh, Ur, Uir, Uire.

Adjectives ending with a diphthong have no change in the termination ; as,


Beo, alive, Bheo, Bheo, Beo.

Adjectives of two syllables, or more than two, do not commonly add to the genitive singular masculine ; as,
Nom. sing. mas. Nom. sing. fern. Gen. sing. mas. Gen. sing. fern.
Cinnteach, sure, Chinnteach, Chinntich, Cinntich.
Eagallach, fearful, Eagallach, Eagallaich, Eagallaich.
Maiseach, handsome, Mhaiseach, Mhaisich, Maisich.
Bodhar, deaf, has Bhodhar, Bhuidhir, Buidhir.
Odhar, sallow, has Odhar, Uidhir, Uidhir.

DATIVE.
General Rule.The dative singular masculine, without the article, as that of substantives, is like the nominative
singular ; and the dative singular feminine is like the genitive masculine ; as,
Nom. sing. mas. Gen. sing. fern. Dat. sing. mas. Dat. sing. fern.
Bodhar, deaf, Bhuidhir, Bodhar, Bhuidhir.
Caol, small, Chaoil, Caol, Chaoil.
Donn, brown, Dhuinn, Donn, Dhuinn.
Geal, white, Ghil, Geal, Ghile.
Trom, heavy, Thruim, Trom, Thruim.
Uasal, noble, Uasail, Uasal, Uasail.
VOCATIVE.
The vocative singular masculine of adjectives, as that of substantives, is like the genitive singular masculine ; and the
vocative singular feminine is like the nominative singular feminine ; as,
Nom. sing. fern. Gen. sing. mas. Voc. sing. mas. Voc. sing. fern.
Bhan, pale, Bhain, Bhain, Bhan.
Bheag, little, Bhig, Bhig, Bheag.
Bhodhar, deaf, Bhuidhir, Bhuidhir, Bhodhar.
Dhall, blind, Dhoill, Dhoill, Dhall.
Gheal, white, Ghil, Ghil, - Gheal.
Throm, heavy, Thruim, Thruim, Throm.
Truagh, wretclied, Thruaigh, Thruaigh, Thruagh.

PLURAL NUMBER.
A monosyllabic adjective adds a to the nominative singular masculine; as, nom. sing. mas. m6r, great, pi. mora.
Adjectives of more than one syllable have their plural cases like the nominative singular ; as, nom. sing, bronach, sor
rowful, pi. br6nach; cinnteach, sure, pi. cinnteach.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xvii

ADJECTIVES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION.


These adjectives are characterized by i, and they form their cases like substantives of the second declension.
Some adjectives of two syllables, of both declensions, are contracted in the plural; as, reamhara, contr. reamhra, fat ;
milise, contr. milse, sweet.
The initial form of the adjective depends, (1) on the gender of its noun, (2) on its termination, (3) on its sense being
definite or indefinite.*

Example of an Adjective with a Masculine Substantive, indefinite, of the First Declension.


Fear marbh.
Sing. PL
Norn. Fear marbh, a dead man, Nom. Fir mharbha, dead men.
Gen. Fir mhairbh, of a dead man, Gen. Fheara marbha, of dead men.
Dat. Fear marbh, to a dead man. Dat. Fhearaibh marbha, to dead men.
Voc. Fhir mhairbh, 0 dead man. Voc. Fheara marbha, 0 dead men.

The same Words declined with the Article.


Sing. PI.
Nom. Am fear marbh, the dead man, Nom. Na fhir mharbha, the dead men.
Gen. An fhir mhairbh, of the dead man, Gen. Nam fear marbha, of the dead men.
Dat. An, 'n fhear mharbh, to the dead man, Dat. Na fearaibh marbha, to the dead men.

Example of a Noun Feminine and Adjective of the First Declension, indefinite.


Beann mh6r.
Sing. PL
Nom. Beann mhor, a high hill, Nom. Beanntan mora, high hills:
Gen. Beinne moire, of a high hill, Gen. Beann mora, of high hills.
Dat. Beinn mhoire, to a high hill, Dat. Beanntaibh mora, to high hills.
Voc. Bheann mhbr, 0 high hill, Voc. Bheannta mora, 0 high hills.
The same Words declined with the Article.
Sing. PL
Nom. A bheann mhor, the high hill, Nom. Na beanntan mora, the high hills.
Gen. Na beinne m6ire, of the high hill, Gen. Nam beann mora, of the high hills.
Dat. An, 'n bheinn mhoir, to the high hill, Dat. Na beanntaibh mora, to the high hills.

Rule.A substantive preceded by its adjective, is aspirated, and both are declined as one word ; as,
Sg6r-bheann, s.f. a rocky hill.
INDEFINITE.
Sing. PL
Nom. Sg6r-bheann, Nom. Sg6r-bheanntan.
Gen. Sg6r-bheinn, , Gen. Sgor-bheann.
Dat. Sg6r-bheinn, Dat. Sg6r-bheanntaibh.
Voc. Sgor-bheann, Voc. Sg6r-bheannta.

The same Noun with the Article.


Sing. PL
Nom. An sgbr-bheann, Nom. Na sgor-bheantan.
Gen. Na sg6r-bheinne, Gen. Nan sgor-bheann.
Dat. An, 'an sgdr-bheinn, Dat. Na sgor-bheanntaibh.

OF THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.


In Gaelic there are three degrees or states of comparison ; the Positive, Comparative, and Superlative.
The Positive merely expresses the quality ; as, tha 'n dath so dearg, this colour is red.
The Comparative enlarges or diminishes the quality ; as, is e so dath is deirge, this is the redder colour.
The Superlative expresses the quality of an object in the highest degree ; as, is e so an dath is deirge dhiubh uile,
this is the reddest colour of them all.

* If a substantive feminine ends in n, and its adjective begins with d, there is no initial change in the adjective ; as, cailinn dubh,
mlmn donn.
d
xviii A GRAMMAR OF

OF THE FORMATION OF THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON.


The comparative of monosyllables is commonly like the genitive singular feminine, and is generally followed by na.*
Positive. Gen. sing.fern. Comp. Positive. Gen. sing. fern. Comp.
Bkn,fair, Baine, Baine. Donn, brown, Duinne, Duinne.
Borb, fierce, Buirbe, Buirbe. Dubh, black, Duibhe, Duibhe.
Buan, lasting, Buaine, Buaine. Fann, weak, Fainne, Fainne.
Cam, crooked, Caime, Caime. Geal, white, Gile, Gile.
Caomh, mild, Caoimhe, Caoimhe. Gorm, blue, Guirme. Guirme.
Ceart, right, Ceirte, Ceirte. Lag, weak, Laige, Laige.
Crion, little, Crine, Crlne. Leath, grey, Leithe, Leithe.
Crom, crooked, Cruime, Cruime. Lom, bare, Luime, Luime.
Daor, dear, Daoire, Daoire. Mall, slow, Maille, Maille.
Dearg, red, Deirge, Deirge. Marbh, dead, Mairbhe, Mairbhe.
Deas, ready, Deise, Deise. Trom, heavy, Truime, Truime.

If the positive end in ach or each, the comparative is formed by adding e to the genitive singular feminine ; as,
Positive. Gen. sing. fern. Comp. Positive. Gen. sing. fern. Comp.
Cealgach, deceitful, Cealgaich, Cealgaiche. Ciontach, guilty, Ciontaich, Ciontaiche.
Cinnteach, sure, Cinntich, Cinntiche. Maiseach, handsome, Maisich, Maisiche.

The following adjectives are contracted in the comparative ; as,


Pos. Comp. Pos. Comp.
Bodhar, deaf, Buirdhe. Boidheach, pretty, B6idhche.
Domhainn, deep, Doimhne. Odhar, sallow, Uidhre.

If the positive be characterized by i, the comparative is formed by adding e; as,


Pos. Comp. Pos. Comp.
Banail, modest, Banaile. Caoimhneil, kind, Caoimhneile.
Caomhail, kind, Caomhaile. Laidir, strong, Laidire.

If the positive end in o or uidhe, the positive and comparative are alike; as, beo, lively, comp. beo; buidhe,
yellow, comp. buidhe.
THE SUPERLATIVE DEGREE.
The superlative is like the comparative, and is followed by the preposition do or dhe, either simple, or compounded
with a pronoun.
Ro,fior, and sir, put before an adjective, answer respectively to the English very, truly, exceedingly. They always
throw the adjective into the aspirated form; as, ro mhath, very good; fior mhath, truly good ; sar mhath, exceeding good.
Comparatives and superlatives undergo no change in the termination.

IRREGULAR COMPARISONS.
Pos. Comp. Sup.
Beag, Lugha, Lugha, little, less, least.
Cairdeach, Cara, cairdiche, Cara, cairdiche, akin, more akin, most akin.
Duilich. Dorra, Dorra, difficult, more difficult, most difficult.
Fagus, Fhaisge, fhaigse, Fhaisge, fhaigse, near, nearer, nearest.
Fogus, Fhoisge, fhoigse, Fhoisge, fhoigse, near, nearer, nearest.
Furas, Fhasa, Fhasa, easy, easier, easiest.
Gearr, goirrid, Giorra, Giorra, short, shorter, shortest.
Ionmhuinn, Annsa, ionnsa, Annsa, ionnsa, dear, dearer, dearest.
C Leatha, Leatha, ~1
Leathan, < Leithne, Leithne, V broad, broader, broadest.
(_ Lithne, Lithne, 3
Math, maith, Fearr, fhearr, Fearr, fhearr, good, better, best.
Mor, M6, Mb, great, greater, greatest.
Olc, Miosa, Miosa, bad, worse, worst.
Teth, Teoithe, Teoithe, hot, hotter, hottest.
Toigh, Docha, Docha, dear, dearer, dearest.

* There is a double comparative, having the nature of both a substantive and adjective : it is formed from the comparative by changing
c into id; as, teoithe, hotter, teothid. Every adjective does not admit of this form of comparison.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xix

OF PRONOUNS.
A Pronoun is a word put instead of a noun, to prevent the too frequent repetition thereof; as, tha Dia m6r; tha e
i ; tha e grasmhor ; tha e naomh.
There are six kinds of pronouns ; viz. the Personal, the Relative, the Adjective, the Interrogative, the Indefinite, and
the Compound pronouns.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
There are four personal pronouns ; they admit of Person, Gender, Number, and of a Simple and Emphatic form. A
personal pronoun is thrown into an emphatic form by the addition of so, or san, se, ne, to the simple form.
SIMPLE FORM.
Mi, mhi, V, the first person, "J Sinn, we, the first person, -j
Tu,* thu, thou, the second person, f . , Sibh.f you, the second person, > Plural.
fri6'Jfc } tiie *M v**' 3 ar Iad' 8iad' they' the third person'

EMPHATIC FORM.
Mise, mhise, /, the first person, "J Sinne, we, the first person, ~\
Tusa, thusa, thou, the second person, f . , Sibhse, you, the second person, > Plural.
Esa,
Ise, esan, he, )J the ...
_'sA<>; third, person, ji ' ladsa,, iadsan,. they,
-j, the third person,
i- . )

The forms of the personal pronoun governed by a transitive verb are,


Simple form. Emph. form. Simple form. Emph. form.
Mi, Mise, me, ~\ Sinn, Sinne, us, ~X
Thu, Thusa, thee, f Singular. Sibh, Sibhse, you, > Plural.
E, Esan, him, C lad, Iadsan, them, J
I, Ise, her, J
Note.That fein when added to a personal pronoun, is equivalent to the Latin syllabic adjection met, English self,
or selves ; mi fein, or mi fhein, myself; mise fein, my own self.
Thu fein, or thu fhein, thyself; thusa fein, thy own self.
E fein, or e fhein, himself; esan fein, his own self.
I fein, or i fhein, herself; ise fein, Aer otw seZ/".
Sinn ftin, or sinn fhein, ourselves ; sinne fein, our own selves.
Sibh fein, or sibh fhein, yourselves; sibhse fein, your own selves.
lad fein, or iad fhein, themselves ; iadsa fein, themselves.
Gender has respect only to the third person singular of the pronouns, e, i. E is masculine, t is feminine. There is
no neuter gender in Gaelic, as has been already observed.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
There are three relative pronouns, nam. a, who, which; gen. and dat. an; nach, who not, which not, that not; na,
that which.
ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.
The adjective pronouns may be subdivided into the Possessive, the Demonstrative, and the Distributive.
I. The Possessive Pronouns are,
Mo, my, ~\ Ar, oar, 1
Do, thy, > Singular. Bhur, or ur, you, > Plural.
A, her, ) An, or am, their, )
These pronouns never have the emphatic syllable subjoined, like the personal pronouns; but when they agree with a
substantive, the emphatic form is expressed as follows :
Simple form. Emph. form. Simple form. Emph.form.
Mo cheann, Mo cheann-sa, "i Ar ceann, Ar ceann-ne, 1
Do cheann, Do cheann-sa, > Singular. Bhur, or ur ceann, Bhur, or ur ceann-sa. > Plural.
A cheann, A cheann-san, ) Ant ceann, An ceann-san. )

* The personal pronoun tu, thu, or thusa, is used in addressing our equals and our inferiors; and, what is remarkable, in our addresses
to the Supreme Being.
f Sibh, or tibiae, is commonly used when we address our superiors in age or in rank ; yet the second personal pronoun is beautifully
applied to majesty, and to people of very high rank.
J Am is used before words beginning with a labial not aspirated ; an is used before all other consonants, and before words begin-
with a vowel.
XX A GRAMMAR OF
If the substantive be followed by an adjective, the emphatic adjection is put after the adjective only ; and if it be fol
lowed by more adjectives than one, the adjection is put after the last ; as,
Do ghnuis bh6idheach-sa, thy pretty face.
Do lamh bh6idheach gheal-sa, thy pretty white hand.
Do phiuthair gaoil-sa, thy beloved sister.
Before a vowel or f aspirated, mo and do are written with an apostrophe ; as, m' athair, my father ; d' ainm, thy name.
II. The Demonstrative Pronouns are three, so, sin, sud or ud; so, this; sin, that; sud* or ud, yon, yonder.
III. The Distributive Pronouns are, gach, each, every ; gach uile, contracted chuile, or h-uile, every ; a cheile, each
other.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
The interrogative pronouns are, co ? who ? cia ? which ? ciod ? what ? and nach, which is used when a question is
put in a negative form.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
The indefinite pronouns express their subjects in a general manner ; the following are of this description :
Cach, the rest, Cia b' e, whoever.
Cuid, some, Cia b' e air bith, whoever.
Cuid eile, some others, Co air bith, whoever.
Eigin, some, Ciod air bith, whatever.
Eile, other.
COMPOUND PRONOUNS.
The personal pronouns in Gaelic are often found combined with prepositions, which generally govern different
cases ; and, in that state, they form a part of speech which may be termed Compound Pronouns. The prepositions which
are capable of being thus united, are the following: aig or ag, at; air, on; ann, in; as, out of; de, off; do, to; eadar,
between; to, fodha, or fuidh, under ; gu, till; le, with; mu, about; o or ua, from; ri, to; roimh, before; thar, over;
troimh, through. The syllabic adjections, as has been said, throw the pronouns into the emphatic form.
AG, or AIG, at. AIR, on.
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1st pers. Agam-sa, at me, Againn-ne, at us. 1st pers. Orm-sa, on me, Oirnn-ne, on us.
2d pers. Agad-sa, at thee, Agaibh-se, at you. 2d pers. Ort-sa, on thee, Oirbh-se, on you.
i Aige-se, at him, Aca-sa, at them. ( Air-san, on him, Orra-san, on them.
3d pers. \ Aice-se, at her. 3d pers. < Oirre-se, on her,
{_ Orra-sa, on her.
ANN, in. AS, OUT OF.
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1st. Annam-sa, in me, Annainn-ne, in us. 1st Asam-sa, out of me, Asainn-ne, out of us.
2d. Annad-sa, in thee, Annaibh-se, in you. 2d. Asad-sa, out of thee, Asaibh-se, out of you.
( Ann-sa, in him, Annta-sa, in them. i As-san, out of him, Asda-san, out of them.
3d. \ Innte-se, in her. 3d. \ Aisde-se, out of her

DE, of, or off. DO, to.


Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1st. Dhiom-sa, off me, Dhinn-ne, off us. 1st. Dhomh-sa, to me, Dhuinn-ne, to us.
2d. Dhiot-sa, off thee, Dhibh-se, off you. 2d. Dhuit-se, to thee, Dhuibh-se, to you.
{Dheth-se, off him, Dhiubh-san, off them. Dha-san, to him, Dhoibh-san, to them.
3d. Dhi-se, off her. 3d. Dhi-se, to her.

EADAR, BETWEEN. FO, FODHA, or FUIDH, under.


No Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1st. Eadarainn-ne, between us. 1st. Fodham-sa, under me, Fodhainn-ne, under us.
2d. Edaraibh-se, between you. 2d. Fodhad-sa, under thee, Fodhaibh-se, under you.
3d. Eatorra-san, between them. Fodha-sa, under him,
3d. Fuidhpe-se, under her. Fodhpa-san, under them.

GU, to. LE, WITH.


Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1st. H-ugam-sa, to me, H-ugainn-ne, to us. 1st. Leam-sa, with me, Leinn-ne, with us.
2d. H-ugad-sa,t to thee, H-ugaibh-se, to you. 2d. Leat-sa, with thee, Leibh-se, with you.
$ H-uige-san, to him, H-uca-san, to them. C Leis-san, with him, Leo-san, with them.
3d. I H-uice-sa, to her. 3d. \ Leatha-sa, with her.

* Sud is perhaps a contracted form of is ud, yonder is, or are.


H-ugad, and h-ugaibh are often used in the sense of here is at you, beware, take care.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xxi
MU, ABOUT. 0, or U, FROM.
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1st. Umam-sa, about me, Umainn-ne, about us. 1st. Uam-sa, from me, Uainn-nej^roTTi us.
2d. Umad-sa, about thee, Umaibh-se, about you. 2d. Uait-sej^/nwra thee, Uaibh-se, from you.
3d. \( Uiippe-se,
Uime-se, about him, Umpa-san, about them. i Uaith-se, from him, Uapa-sa, from them.
about her. 3d. \ U aipe-se, from her.

RI, TO. ROIMH, before.


Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1st. Rium-sa, to me, Ruinn-ne, to us. 1st Romham-sa, before me, Romhainn-ne, before us.
2d. Riut-sa, to thee, Ribh-se, to you. 2d. Romhad-sa, before thee, Romhaibh-se, before you.
C Ris-san, to him, Riu-san, to them. $ Roimhe-se, before him, Rompa-sa, before them.
3d. <(Rithe/
Ria-sa, }1 toher-
. , 3d. I Roimpe-se, before her.

THAR, over. TR01MH, THRduoii.


Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1st. Tharam-sa, over me, Tharrainn-ne, over us. 1st. Tromham-sa, through me, Tromhainn-ne, through us.
2d. Tharad-sa, over thee, Tharraibh-se, over you. 2d. Tromhad-sa, through thee, Tromhaibh-se, through you.
3d. Thairte, over her, Tharta, over them. 2^ i Troimhe-se, through him, Trompa-san, through them.
" \ Troimpe-se, through her.

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
1. Aon, a h-aon. 15. Cuig deug, cdig deug. 28. Ochd ar fhichead. 300. Tri ceud.
2. Dha, a dha. 1 6. Se deug, sia deug. 29. Naoi 'r fhichead. 400. Ceithir cheud.
3. Tri. 17. Seachd deug. 30. Deich ar fhichead. 500. Cuig ceud.
4. Ceithir. 18. Ochd deug. 31. Aon deug 'ar fhichead. 1,000. Mile.
5. Cuig, c6ig. 19. Naoi deug. 32. Dha dheug ar fhichead. 2,000. Da mhile.
6. Se, sia. 20. Fichead. 40. Da fhichead. 3,000. Tri mile.
7. Seachd. 21. Aon thar fhichead. 50. Da fhichead is deich. 4,000. Ceithir mile.
8. Ochd. 22. Dha 'r fhichead. 60. Tri fichead. 5,000. Cuig mile.
9. Naoi, naoth. 23. Tri 'ar fhichead. 70. Tri fichead is deich. 10,000. Deich mile.
10. Deich. 24. Ceithir 'ar fhichead. 80. Ceithir fichead. 20,000. Fichead mile.
11. Aon deug. 25. Cuig 'ar fhichead. 90. Ceithir fichead is deich. 100,000. Ceud mile.
12. Dha dheug. 26. Se ar fhichead. 100. Ceud, ciad. 200,000. Da cheud mile.
13. Tri deug. 27. Seachd ar fhichead. 200. Da cheud. 1,000,000. Muillion, deich ceud mile.
14. Ceithir deug.

Cardinals joined to a Noun Masculine. Cardinals joined to a Noun Feminine.


1 . Aon fhear, one man. Aon chloch, one stone.
2. Da fhear. Da chloich.
3. Tri fir. Tri clachan.
4. Ceithir fir. Ceithir clachan.
5. Cuig fir. Cuig clachan.
6. Se fir. Se clachan.
7. Seachd fir. Seachd clachan.
8. Ochd fir. Ochd clachan.
9. Naoi fir. Naoi clachan.
10. Deich fir. Deich clachan.
11. Aon fhear deug. Aon chlach dheug.
12. Da fhear dheug. Da chloich dheug.
1 3. Tri fir dheug. Tri clachan deug.
14. Ceithir fir dheug. Ceithir clachan deug.
15. Cuig fir dheug. Cuig clachan deug.
16. Se fir dheug. Se clachan deug.
17. Seachd fir dheug. Seachd clachan deug.
18. Ochd fir dheug. Ochd clachan deug.
19. Naoi fir dheug. Naoi clachan deug.
20. Fichead fear. Fichead clach.
21. Aon fhear 'ar fhichead. Aon chlach 'ar fhichead.
22. Da fhear 'ar fhichead. Da chloich 'ar fhichead.
23. Tri fir 'ar fhichead. Tri clacha fichead.
24. Ceithir fir fhichead. Ceithir clacha fichead.
30. Deich fir fhichead. Deich clachan fichead.
31. Aon fhear deug 'ar fhichead. Aon chlach dheug 'ar fhichead.
32. Da fhear dheug 'ar fhichead. Da chloich dheug 'ar fhichead.
35. Cuig fir dheug 'ar fhichead. Cuig clachan deug 'ar fhichead.
40. Da fhichead fear. Da fhichead clach.
xxii A GRAMMAR OF
Cardinals joined to a Noun Masculine. Cardinals joined to a Noun Feminine.
41. Fear is da fhichead.* Clach 's da fhichead.t
42. Da fhear is da fhichead. Da chloich 's da fhichead.
50. Deich fir is da fhichead. J Deich clachan 's da fhichead.
60. Tri fichead fear. Tri fichead clach.
61. Tri fichead fear is h-aon. Tri fichead clach is h-aon.
70. Tri fichead fear is deich. Tri fichead clach is deich.
80, Ceithir fichead fear. Ceithir fichead clach.
100. Ceud fear. Ceud clach.
101. Ceud fear is h-aon. Ceud clach is h-aon.
102. Ceud fear is dha. Ceud clach is dha.
200. Da cheud fear. Da cheud clach.
300. Tri cheud fear. Tri cheud clach.
400. Ceithir cheud fear. Ceithir cheud clach.
500. Cuig ceud fear. Cuig ceud clach.
600. Se ceud fear.~ Se ceud clach.
700. Seachd ceud fear. Seachd ceud clach.
800. Ochd ceud fear. Ochd ceud clach.
900. Naoi ceud fear. Naoi ceud clach.
1,000. Mile fear. Mile clach.
1,001. Mile fear is h-aon. Mile clach is h-aon.
1,020. Mile fear fhichead. Mile clacha fichead.
1,021. Mile fear fhichead is h-aon. Mile clacha fichead is h-aon.
1,030. Mile fear fhichead is deich. Mile clacha fichead is deich.
2,000. Da mhile fear. Da mhile clach.
3,000. Tri mile fear. Tri mile clach.
4,000. Ceithir mile fear. Ceithir mile clach.
5,000. Cuig mile fear. Cuig mile clach.
10,000. Deich mile fear. Deich mile clach.
10,020. Deich mile fhichead fear. Deich mile fichead clach.
20,000. Fichead mile fear. Fichead mile clach.
100,000. Muillion fear. Muillion clach.
ORDINALS.
1. An ceud. 33. An treas deug 'ar fhichead.
2. An dara. 34. An ceathramh deug 'ar fhichead.
3. An treas. 35. An cuigeamh deug 'ar fhichead.
4. An ceathramh. 36. An seathamh deug 'ar fhichead.
5. An cuigeamh. 37. An seachdamh deug 'ar fhichead.
6. An seathamh. 38. An t-ochdamh deug 'ar fhichead.
7. An seachdamh. 39. An naothamh deug 'ar fhichead.
8. An t-ochdamh. 40. An da fhicheadamh.
9. An naothamh. 41. An t-aon 'ar da fhichead.
10. An deicheamh. { An deicheamh 'ar da fhichead.
11. An t-aon deug. 50. I An leth-cheudamh.
12. An dara deug. 51. An t-aon deug 'ar da fhichead.
, f An treas ) , 60. An tri ficheadamh.
13- {Antriamhldeue- 70. An deicheamh 'ar tri fichead.
14. An ceathramh deug. 80. An ceithir ficheadamh.
15. An cuigeamh deug. 90. An deicheamh 'ar ceithir fichead.
16. An seathamh deug. 100. An ceadamh.
17. An seachdamh deug. 110. An deicheamh 'ar ceud.
18. An t-ochdamh deug. 120. An seathamh fichead.
19. An naothamh deug. 130. An deicheamh 'ar se fichead.
20. Am ficheadamh. 140. An seachdamh fichead.
21. An t-aon 'ar fhichead. 150. An deichamh 'ar seachd fichead.
22. An dar' 'ar fhichead. 160. An t-ochdamh fichead.
23. An treas 'ar fhichead. 170. An deicheamh 'ar ochd fichead.
24. An ceathramh 'ar fhichead. 180. An naothamh fichead.
25. An cuigeamh 'ar fhichead. 190. An deichamh 'ar naoi fichead.
26. An seathamh fhichead. 1,000. Am mileamh.
27. An seachdamh 'ar fhichead. 2,000. An da nihileamh.
28. An t-ochdamh 'ar fhichead. 3,000. An tri mileamh.
29. An naothamh 'ar fhichead. 4,000. An ceithir mileamh.
30. An deicheamh 'ar fhichead. 5,000. An cuig mileamh.
31. An t-aon deug 'ar fhichead. 6,000. An sia mileamh.
32. An dara deug 'ar fhichead. 10,000. An deich mileamh.
* We also say, dafhicheadfear ' a h-aon, dafhicheadfear 's a dha, Sec.
t We also say, dafhichead clach 'i a h-aon, dafhichead clach ' a dhi, &c. J Also, leth cheud fear.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE.

Ordinals joined to a Noun Masculine. Ordinals joined to a Noun Feminine.


1. An ceud fhear, theJirst man. A cheud chlach, thejirst stone.
2. An dara fear. An dara clach.
3. An treas fear, an triamh fear. An treas clach.
4. An ceathramh fear. An ceathramh clach.
5. An cuigeamh fear. An cuigeamh clach.
6. An seathamh fear. An seathamh clach.
7. An seachdamh fear. An seachdamh clach.
8. An t-ochdamh fear. An t-ochdamh clach.
9. An naotharoh fear. An naothamh clach.
10. An deicheamh fear. An deicheamh clach.
1 1. An t-aon fhear deug. An t-aon chlach deug.
12. An dara fear deug. An dara clach deug.
13. An treas fear deug. An treas clach deug.
14. An ceathramh fear deug. An ceathramh clach deug.
15. An cuigeamh fear deug. An cuigeamh clach deug.
16. An seathamh fear deug. An seathamh clach deug.
17. An seachdamh fear deug. An seachdamh clach deug.
20. Am ficheadamh fear. Am ficheadamh clach.
21. An t-aon fhear fichead.* An t-aon chlach fichead.-}
22. An dara fear fhichead. An dara clach fichead.
31. An t-aon fhear deug 'ar fhichead. An t-aon chlach deug 'ar fhichead.
32. An dara fear deug 'ar fhichead. An dara clach deug 'ar fhichead.
40. An da fhicheadamh fear. An da fhicheadamh clach.
70. An deichamh fear 'ar tri fichead. An deicheamh clach 'ar tri fichead.
100. An ceudamh fear. An ceudamh clach.
101. An t-aon fhear thar cheud. An t-aon chlach thar cheud.
102. An dara fear thar cheud. An dara clach thar cheud.
200. An da cheudamh -fear. An da cheudamh clach.
230. An deicheamh fear fhichead thar da cheud. An deichamh clach fhichead thar da cheud.
300. An tri cheudamh fear. An tri cheudamh clach.
500. An cuig ceadamh fear. An cuig ceudamh clach.
1000. Am mileamh fear. Am mileamh clach.
10,000. An deich mileamh fear. An deich mileamh clach.

The following Numerals are applied only to Persons ; thus,


2. Dithis mhac, two sons. 7. Seachdnar mhac, seven sons.
3. Triuir mhac, three sons. 8. Ochdnar mhac, eight sons.
4. Ceathrar mhac, four sons. 9. Naothnar mhac, nine sons.
5. Cuignear mhac, jive sons. 10. Deichnar mhac, ten sons.
6. Seanar mhac, six sons.

OF THE VERB.

A Verb expresses action, being, or suffering.


In Gaelic there are two conjugations. The first comprehends all those verbs which begin with any consonant,
except /; as, paisg, wrap. Under the second are arranged those which begin with a vowel or with f; as, 6b, refuse :
W,fotd.
The Gaelic verb is declined by Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons.
There are two Voices ; Active and Passive.
The different particles of conjunction and adverb in Gaelic might give rise to a variety of moods, but they may be
reduced into the five following: The Affirmative, or Indicative, the Negative, or Interrogative, the Subjunctive, or
Optative, the Imperative, and the Infinitive.
There are three times or tenses ; the Present, Preterite, and Future.
There are two numbers ; Singular and Plural.
There are three persons ; First, Second, and Third.
Verbs, like nouns, are inflected by aspirating the initial consonant, and by an occasional change of termination.

We also say, An t-aonfear 'orfhichead, an darafear 'arfhichead, an treasfear 'arfhichead, he.


t We also say, An t~aon chlach 'arfhichead, an dura clach 'arfhichead, an treas clach 'arJhichcad, &c
*
xxiv A GRAMMAR OF

THE FIRST CONJUGATION.

PA1SG, wrap.

ACTIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
C Phaisg mi, / wrapped. C Paisgidh mi, / shall or will ~\
Sing. Phaisg thu, thou wrappedst, or didst wrap. Sing. < Paisgidh tu, thou shalt or wilt V wrap.
(_ Phaisg e, he wrapped. (. Paisgidh se or e, he shall or will J
C Phaisg sinn, we ~l ( Paisgidh sinn, we shall or will "i
Plur. < Phaisg sibh, ye or you V wrapped. Plur. < Paisgidh sibh, ye or you shall or will > wrap.
{_ Phaisg iad, they ) (. Paigidh siad or iad, they shall or will )

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
Sing Do phaisg mi, / wrapped not, or did not wrap. ~. C Phaisg mi, / shall or will not "i
Cha Do phaisg thu, thou didst not wrap. Ch 1 ^na'sS trm, ^ou shalt or wilt not > wrap.
Do' phaisg e, he did not wrap. [ Phaisg e, he shall or will ?iot J
Plur \ ^ P^a's& smn> we did not Plur f Phaisg sinn, we shall or will not 1
Q^a' J Do Iphaisg
--O _sibh,> J-
ye or
~- Jyou did not f wrap. ^-.j^' < Phaisg sibh, ye or you shall or uiiZZ nor \ wrap.
Do phaisg iad, they did not j ^ Phaisg iad, they shall or wtZZ nof 3
.
a- '(Do
Do phaisg mi, did I not < Paisg mi, shall I not ~l
xt
Nachl \
I Do
Jach|Do r phaisg
u thu,i-jdid
i thou not ^ wrap ? Na hi ^a's t^lu' shalt thou B0' Vwrap?
* phaisg e, did he not (. Paisg e, sAa/Z he not )
Plur. DoDo
phaisg sinn, did we not
phaisg sibh, did ye or you not,1
S- wrap '.
Plur f Pa'so s'nn> shall we not
Nach1 1 Do phaisg / -J Paisg sibh, sAaZZ ye or yoa no<,1
J- wrap ?
iad, did they not } Paisg iad, shall they not J

Sing. Do phaisg mi, if I did not "i ( Paisg mi, i/- / shall or wiZZ nof
Mur Do phaisg thu, if thou didst not \ wrap. Mur 1 ^a'so t^iu' l/" '^0M snalt 01 wHt not wrap.
Do phaisg e, if he did not ) (. Paisg e, if he shall or will not. }
Do phaisg sinn, if toe did not "J
Plur. Do phaisg sibh, if ye or you did not > wrap. Plur <C Paisg sinn, if we shall or will not }
Mur (, Paisg
Mur sibh, if you shall or will not V wrap.
Do phaisg iad, if they did not ) Paisg iad, if they shall or will not J

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. /Ware.
( Phaisginn, / might, could, or would ^ . f Phaisgeas mi, if I shall or wtZZ 1
Sing. < Phaisgeadh tu, thou mightst, couldst, or wouldst \wrap. ' < Phaisgeas tu, if thou shalt or w;iZ< > wrap.
t
[ Phaisgeadh e, he might, could, or would J a t Phaisgeas e, if he shall or will )
C Phaisgeadh sinn, or phaisgeamaid, we might, could, "J pi r ( Phaisgeas sinn, if we shall or will ~l
Plur. 1i Phaisgeadh
or would
sibh, ye or you might, could, or would wraP- ' < Phaisgeas sibh, if you shall or will > wrap.
(.Phaisgeas iad, if they shall or wiZZj
(.Phaisgeadh iad, they might, could, or would J
Sina f Pa'sg'nri> if I might or teere fo
Nani I f>a'sSea(^rj tu> if thou mightst or wert to \ wrap.
(_ Pai
Paisgeadh e,ifhe might or were to )
Paisgeadh sinn, if we might or were to
Paisgeadh sibh, if ye or you might or w wrap.
Paisgeadh iad, if they might or were to
IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.
C Paisgeam, let me wrap. A phasgadh, ) .
Sing. < Paisg, wrap thou. Do phasgadh, )towP-
^Paisgeadh e, let him wrap.
( Paisgeamaid, let us wrap. PARTICIPLE.
Plur. \ Paisgibh, wrap ye or you.
{_ Paisgeadh iad, let them wrap. AgTasSh,}^0^'
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xxv

PASSIVE VOICE.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.


Preterite.
( mi, / was 1 i mi, / shall or wiZZ be *l
Sii Sing < thu, fAou slialt or wi7< 6e > wrapped.
Ph5eadh|^t:rasTra^d- Paisgear
iax ( e, Ae sAaZZ or will be }
C sinn, we were 1 p^ur
p. r (fsinn,
sinn, we shall or will be 1~l
Plur. < sibh, ye or you were I wrapped. . ' < sibh'
Paiserear sibh, ye 0r
or y0W
you shal1
sAaZZ 0r
or will *e
be \t wrapped.
Phaisgeadh (. iad, fAey were ) g ' iad, ZAey sAaZZ or will be )

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD


Preterite. /"uiure.
. C mi, was J f mi, shall I be 1
Sing. < thu, shall thou be > wrapped ?
Am paisgear (.e,
( s/wZZ Ae Ae 3
f sinn, were we ( sinn, sAaZZ
shall we be ~l
, , ,"r.* < sibh, were ye or yo PZur. < sibh, sAaZr ye
^ be J- wrapped ?
wrapped ? Am paisgear ( iad, sAaZZ fAey Ae 3
An do phaisgeadh { iad> 'were iey
"j
f mi, / was not 1 f' mi, / shall not be ~\
Sing. J thu, fAott wert not > wrapped. Sing. < thu, thou shall not be V wrapped,
Cha do phaisgeadh ( e, Ae was not Cha phaisgear I e, hi
he shall not be J
*
C sinn, we were not C' sinn, we shall
sAaZZ not be 1
PZur. ? sibh, ye or you were not J- wrapped. PZur. < sibh, ye or you shall not <be \ wrapped
Cha do phaisgeadh ( iad, fAej Cha phaisgear (. iad, ZAey shall not be J
ZAey were noZ *
C' mi, was I not ( mi sAaZZ / not be ~l
< thu, wert thou notI \ wrapped 7 wrapped ?
Nach do phaisgeadh ( e, was he inot 3 c paisgear ^ ^ snan ne not oe y

( sinn, were we not "i C sinn, shall we not be "J


PZur.
. .'f'<MLr'. \ sibh, were ye not > wrapped ? Plur. < sibh, shall ye or you not be > wrapped ?
Nach do pha.sgeadh | M| ^ ^J Nach paisgear (.iad, sAaZZ /Aey nor be )
f mi, if I was not ~i f mi, t/" / sAoZZ not Ae 'i
<Stnsr. Smg. < thu, if thou shall not be \ wrapped.
< thu, if thou wert not > wrapped, Mur paisgear ( e, if he shall not be
Mur do phaisgeadh if he was not 3 )
C sinn, if toe were not ~l r sinn, i/ we sAa/Z nor Ae
be )
PZur. < sibh, if ye were not V wrapped. T' < sibh, i/ you sAaZZ nor Abe S wrapped.
Mur do phaisgeadh (iad, if they were not ) Mur paisgear ^ ^ shaU wt fbe )

Sing. ( mi, if 1 were "1


< thu, if thou wert ^wrapped.
Nam paisgeadh ( e, if he were )
Plur fsinn, if we were 1
Nam paisgeadh ) sib'1'#f" were >""W^
r 3 t iad, 2/ <Aey were J

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
f mi, iI could or would be . ( mi, if I shall be 1
< thu, thou couldst or wouldst 6e| wrapped. wrapped.
Phaisgteadh (e, Ae could or would be Ma phaisgear }e>(/-^,jW/6fl j

we could or would be 1 . (" sinn, ?/ we shall be "1


PZur. sibh, ye couZd or would be
Ae J-itwrapped. , " sibh, if you shall be > wrapped.
Phaisgteadh iad, ZAey couZcZ or would be J Ma phaisgear \ itlA, if they shall be S
{
IMPERATIVE MOOD. PARTICIPLE.
*a'Sgte' au ) wrapped.
Sing. C mi, let me be ~l
Air pasgadh, ) -,r
Paisgtear <( thu, Ae tAou V wrapped.
e, Zer him be )
C sinn, let us be ~l
Plur.
Paisgtear <(. sibh, Ae ye > apped.
iad, Zer ZAem Ae 3
A GRAMMAR OF

PAISG, DECLINED WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB BI AND THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
ACTIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE MOOD.
Present. Preterite.
f Tha mi } ( I am C Bha mi ~i (I was 1
Stag. < Tha thu I ' pasgadh, < thou art wrapping. Sing. < Bha thu > 'pasgadh, < thou wert > wrapping.
(Thae ) [ he is (Bhae 3 ( he was )
( Tha sinn ( Bha sinn ^
Plur. \ Ilia sibh ^ a pasgadh, ^ ye are > wrapping, Plur. < Bha sibh \ a pasgadh ye were wrapping
( Tha iad they are } ( Bha iad J they were J
Future. Future.
( Bithidh mi ~l ( I shall be ( Bithidh sinn ~\ ( we shall be 1
It be} wrapping.
Sing. < Bithidh tu \ ']pasgadh, < thou shall Plur. < Bithidh sibh >a pasgadh. < you shall be > wrapping.
[ Bithidh se 3 [ he shall be ) (Bithidh siad ) ( they shall be )

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Present. Preterite.
( Am bheil mi Cam I An robh mi 1
Sing. ' Am bheil thu , < art thou wrapping : Sing An robh thu V 'pasgadh, ! wert thou \ wrapping i
[ Am bheil e Y [is he An robh e 3 [ was he )
( Am bheil sinn "1 are we ~\ An robh sinn
- .... 3 "1 ( were we
Plur. < Am bheil sibh > a pasgadh { are ye V wrapping ? Plur An robh sibh > a pasgadh, < were ye wrapping :
( Am bheil iad J 1 are they ) An robh iad j ( were they }
Future. Future.
( Am bi mi "I ( shall I be ( Am bi sinn "J ( shall we be
Sing, x Am bi thu V 'pasgadh, < shall thou be wrapping '. Plur. * Am bi sibh [ a pasgadh, < shall ye be wrapping :
(Am bi e J [shall he be ( Am bi iad 3 [ shall they be)
f Cha 'n 'eil mi "i (I am not ~\ ( Cha robh mi "1 ( I was not
Sing. I Cha 'n 'eil thu \ 'pasgadh, < thou art not > Sing. ^ Cha robh thu \ 'pasgadh, -J thou wert not
(Cha 'n 'eil e 3 ( he is not ) ( Cha robh e ) ( he was not
(Cha 'n 'eil sinn ~l ( we are not ' ( Cha robh sinn "i we were not '(
Plur. < Cha 'n 'eil sibh V a pasgadh, < you are not Plur. < Cha robh sibh \ a pasgadh ye were not
(Cha 'n 'eil iad 3 ( they are not 1 ( Cha robh iad ) they were not .
( Cha bhi mi "i (I shall not "1 ( Cha bhi sinn "j we shall not
Sing. < Cha bhi thu > 'pasgadh, < thou shalt not ' S Plui . \ Cha bhi sibh 1 a pasgadh you shall not J- if
(Cha bhi e 3 ' he shall not } ( Cha bhi iad ' they shall not ) 5
Present Preterite.
( Nach 'eil mi "J ( am I not ~\ ( Nach robh mi C was I not ~\
Sing. I Nach 'eil thu J- 'pasgadh
' , < art thou not \ wrapping : Sing. ' Nach robh thu pasgadh, < wert thou not > wrapping ?
( Nach 'eil e ) [ is he not ) ( Nach robh e l_ was he not J
( Nach 'eil sinn i ( are we not C Nach robh sinn ~l C were we not
Plur. -J Nach 'eil sibh J- a pasgadh, < are ye not rapping: Plur. < Nach robh sibh \ a pasgadh, l were ye not
( Nach 'eil iad J are they not J ( Nach robh iad ) [were they not [
Future. Future.
i Nach bi mi C shall I not ^ i Nach bi sinn 1 C shall ivc not
Sing. I Nach bi thu pasgadh, < shall thou not > s% Plur. < Nach bi sibh V a pasgadh, < shall ye not *1
( Nach bi e ( shall he not J { Nach bi iad j ( shall they not
Present. Preterite.
f Mur 'eil mi ^ if I am not
(if "1 ( Mur robh mi "i if I was not "i
Sing. < Mur 'eil thu > 'pasgadh , < if thou art not J. ' Sing. < Mur robh thu v 'ipasgadh 8if thou wert not J-
( Mur 'eil e ) ( if he is not ) ( Mur robh e } if he was not )
f Mur 'eil sinn^ C if toe are not "( ^ Mur robh sninn "i (if we were not
Plur. Mur 'eil sibh J- a pasgadh, < if ye are not Plur Mur robh sibh i a pasgadh, < if ye were not
( Mur 'eil iad ) [if they are not . (Mur robh iad 3 [ if they were not )
Future. Future.
( Mur bi mi 1 (if I shall not ~l ( Mur bi sinn ~i ( if we shall not
Sing < Mur bi thu V 'pa:isgadh, < if thou shalt not V g & Plur.. < Mur bi sibh J-Va pasgadh, -j^/
if ye shall not
( Mur bi e ) ( if he shall not ) | ( Mur bi iad ) if they shall not
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xxvii

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( Bhithinn 'i CI would be 1 S> I Ma bhitheas mi "i C if I shall be 1
Sing. < Bhitheadh tu > 'pasgadh, < thou wouldst be I Sing. < Ma bhitheas tu i 'pasgadh, < if thou shalt be J
f Bhitheadh e 3 {he would be 31 ( Ma bhitheas e ) {if he shall be 3

THE PRETERITE DECLINED WITH CHA.


( Am bithinn 1 C would I be ~\
Sing. < Am bitheadh tu > 'pasgadh, < wouldst thou be V wrapping ?
{ Am bitheadh e 3 [would he be y
( Am bitheamaid ^ C would we be ~\
Plur. < Am bitheadh sibh > a pasgadh, < would ye be J- wrapping 1
{ Am bitheadh iad 3 ' would they be )
( Cha bhithinn "1 f / would not be 1
Swigr.-J Cha bhitheadh tu S- 'pasgadh, -J iAom wouldst not be \ wrapping
{ Cha bhitheadh e j {he would not be )
( Cha bhitheadh sinn "1 (we would not be ~\
Plur. < Cha bhitheadh sibh > a pasgadh, < ye would not be \ wrappit
{ Cha bhitheadh iad ) { they would not be )
C Mur bithinn "i ( tf I would not be 1
Sing. < Mur bitheadh tu Vpasgadh,< if thou wouldst not be V wrapping.
{ Mur bitheadh e 3 {if he would not be )
C Mur bitheamaid, or\ , -r 7J . , -
n, II Mur
u ,bitheadh
... ! /
sinnf JC tf
r. we would not ,be }I
P'"ri Mur bitheadh sibh>a P^M */> k
I Mur bitheadh iad ) * * *** W0*W no' 6e 3

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
{ Bitheam 1 i let me be ~\ ( Bitheamaid 1 ( let us be "1
Sing. < Bi, bi thusa Vpasgadh, < be thou > wrapping. Plur. < Bithibh I a pasgadh, < 6e ye > wrapping.
( Bitheadh e 3 I &' ) v. Bitheadh iad 3 { Jet r/iem be )

INFINITIVE MOOD.

PASSIVE VOICE. *
AFFIRMATIVE.*
Present. Preterite.
i Tha mi 1 { / n 1 ( Bha mi 1 f / wets 1
s Tlia thu \ paisgte, < thou art J- wrapped. Sing. < Bha thu V paisgte, rAoi werf
wert J.^wrapped.
i
(. Tha e 3 ( Ac is 3 I Bha e 3 ( he was )
( Tha sinn f tie are 1 f Bha sinn ~\ ( we were 'J
Plur. < Tha sibh J- paisgte, < ye are V wrapped. Plur. < Bha sibh \ paisgte, < ye were wrapped.
{ Tha iad ) { they are } { Blia iad 3 ' they were J
Future.
C Bithidh mi "1 (I shall be 1
Sing. l Bithidh tu ' paisgte, < thou shalt be V wrapped.
{ Bithidh se J {he shall be )
( Bithidh sinn ^ ( uc shall be 1
Plur. < Bithidh sibh paisgte, I ye shall be \ wrapped.
{ Bithidh siad ) ( they shall be )
Another form of the present, preterite, and future affirmative is, Tha mi air mo phasgadh, J>c. ; Bha mi air mo pha&gadh, 4r. ; Bithidh
mo pha*gadhr Ifc.
xxviii A GRAMMAR OF

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Present. Preterite.
fbheilmi") Cam I ) f robh mi } Cwas I "i
^ f { bheil thu > paisgte, { art thou \ wrapping ? " \ robh thu \ paisgte, < wert thou \ wrapped ?
Am (bheil e ) (.is he ) (.robh e } I was he )
p; IC bheil
bheil sinn
sibh )i paisgte, \C are we "i\ wrapping ? p,A'{f robh
V:"r" are ye robh sinn
sibh "J\ paisgte, <C were
were we
ye ~\V wrapped ?
(bheil iad J ( are fAey) (robh iad ) ( were they )
Future.
Sing. <( bi
bi
mi "1 f sAa/Z / Ae 'J
thu V paisgte, < sAaZf thou be > wrapped ?
Am ( bi e 3 ( sAaZZ Ae Ae J
f bi
sinn f shall we be ~l
^Am ' i< ^'
bi
sibh ^V paisgte, Z< shall ye be V jwrapped ?
s'^^
( bi
iad J ( sAaW <Aey Aebe )
Present. Preterite.
Sina ( e'' ml ] Cam I not . f robh mi ") T was I not ~i
vJl l 'eil thu
i>dcn^,eile j V paisgte, < art thou
(isAenot not \
) wrapped ? N ?'< robh
mcn(robhe ) thu V paisgte, <
(was he not )V wrapped ?
it;erZ thou not

Plur f S'nn } f arC We n0t 1 P/r f rkk s'nn 1 C were we not }


Nach I e'' s'^^ 1* Pa'sSte> i are Ve not \ wrapped ? N h I r0^^ s'^)'1 t Pa**S*e> i were ^e no' ( wrapped ?
('eil iad ) (.are they, not ) ac (robh iad ) ( were they not )
Future.
Sina f D' m* ) ( shall I not be ~i
Nach ) ^' t*lu i P^o*6' I s^a^ ^0M not be > wrapped ?
(bi e j ( shall he not be J
Plur ( s'nn 1 f shall we not be "i
Nach 1 ^' 1 Pa'sote> \ shall ye not be V wrapped?
( bi iad ) ( shall they not be J
Present. Preterite.
Sinn S >6-' mi ) C I am not ~l . r robh mi ^ f / was no< ^
Cha n 1 t'lu I Pa'sote' ) t^l0U art not ( wrapped. i,?^" < robh thu \ paisgte, < thou wert not i wrapped.
( 'eil e ) ( Ae is not ) una ( robh e ) ( Ae was not J
Plur ( e'.' s!nn ) ( we are not 1 PI ( roD^ smn 1 ( we were not )
>n' \ 'eil sibh S paisgte, < ye are not \ wrapped. c?r' < robh sibh > paisgte, < ye were not > wrapped.
( 'eil iad ) ( they are not ) una ( robh iad, ) ( they were not )
Future.
Sina f bhi mi "J ( I shall not be "i
qj~' < bhi thu \ paisgte, < thou shalt not be > wrapped.
t bhi e J (he shall not be )
Plur f s'nn 1 iwe s'ia" be ~\
gjla' \ bhi sibh V paisgte, < ye shall not be V wrapped.
( blti iad ) ( fAey shall not be )

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future,
t Bhithinn "i C I would be 1 fmi^ (if I shall be ~\
Sing. < Bhitheadh tu V paisgte,* < thou wouldst be ' wrapped. M 7?"?: < tu V paisgte, < i/- thou shalt be > wrapped.
(Bhitheadhe ) (he would be ) Ma bnitheas ^ j (if he shall be )
( Bhitheamaid, or ~\ , ,,, .
p. ) Bhitheadh sinn ( . t (*>e would be j fsmn"! f / we sW Ae "i
P'ur^ Bhitheadh sibh >Palsgte,^ye would be ^wrapped. M bhitheag "J bh ^paisgte, ^i/ye sAa fee Woj^d.
( Bhitheadh iad j * V ' I. iad j 1 1/ they shall be )

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


e- f^v6-^ ) tfefflwk 1 ' A bhith paisgte, i <0 6e d.
Sing. < Bi, bi thusa \ paisgte, < be thou V wrapped. Do bhith paisgte, ) rr
( Bitheadh e J (let him be J
( Bitheamaid ) ( let us be 1 PARTICIPLE.
Plur. < Bithibh, bithibhse \ paisgte, < Ae ye S wrapped. Air bhith paisgte, having been wrapped.
( Bitheadh iad J ( let them be J
Another form of the preterite and future subjunctive is, Bhithi in air mo phasgadh, Sfc; Mu bhitheas mi air mo pkasgadh, Ifc.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE.

THE SECOND CONJUGATION.*

OL, drink.

ACTIVE VOICE.

INDICATIVE, or AFFIRMATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
C mi, / drank. ( mi, I shall or will ~l
Sing^'l < thu, thou drunkest. Olaid'h I tu' '^ou s^a'' or \ drink.
Dh' e, he drank. t se> Ae shall or >iZZ )
PZht f 8mn> we drank. Plur ( Smn' We s',a" or 1
Dh' 61 1 ye drank. Olatdh 1 s'^' ye sllal1 or >^'-nA.
t iad, they drank. siad, they shall or un'ZZ j

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
C mi, did /
I drink, or Aat>e
have /
I "1
) .
c<.^ C
f mi, sna/Z
sWZ or wiZZ / ~\
Sing
"d' b\ 1 t^1U' '^ou drink, or AasZ <Aou S- drunk ? ^ ? j < thu, shalt or wiZ/ <Aou > drink ?
An t e, did he drink, or Aas Ae ) t e> sAaZZ or wiZZ Ae )
piur C sinn, did we drink, or have we ~i Plur f s'nn> sAaZZ or wiZZ we 1
An d'ol 1 s'bh> *^ ye drink, or Aaue ye > drunk ? ^n -j sibh, sAaZZ or will ye \ drink ?
{_ iad, did they drink, or have they ) {_ iad, shall or wiZZ they )

Sing 51 C1 mi, /'^0U


did not drink, or Aaue not "i f mi, I shall or wiZZ no* 1
^dst not drink, or AasZ not > drunk. Cha^ri'ol 1 t^lU' '^0M s^a'' or no' r drink.
Cha d (.e, Ac did not drink, or Aas not J ^e, Ae shall or uu'ZZ not )

Plurr ( sinn, we did not drink, or have not ~\ Plur f sinn> we shall or ifiZZ not ~l
Cha d''61 J( s'^' Ve did not drink, or have not \ drunk. < sibh, ye sAaZZ or u;iZZ no/ V drink.
iad, fAey did not drink, or have not ) (. iad, they shall or wiZZ not J
( mi, did / not drink, or Awe / not ~\ f mi, sAaZZ or wiZZ o< / "1
Sing
'h d'61 J ^>u> didst thou not drink, or hast thou not j- drunk ? ^ erf 61 *AaZZ or wilt not thou i drink?
Nach (. e, did Ae not drink, or Aas Ae not j ' e, shall or will not he J
piur ( sinn, did we not drink, or have we not "i Plur (smn> shall or will not we 1
N ach d'ol
ach d' 61 \^iau,
s'^> did ye not drink, or have ye not V drunk? Nach 61 1 s'^> sAaZZ or will not ye \ drink?
(^iad, ata
did tney
they not
riot arinit,
drink, or nai
have they not ) t iad, shall or wiZZ not they )

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( Dh' 61ainn, / would or could 1 ( mi. if I sliall or will 1
Sing. \ Dh' oladh tu, fAou wouldst or couldst \ drink. M < tu, ?/ rAoa sAa// or wilt V drink.
I Dh' oladh e, Ae wouZd or coZd ) Ma Utl 0,as ( e, i/Ae shall or will )
( Dh' 61amaid, or dh' oladh sinn, we would or could} PZr f s'nn' I/'u'e *AaZZ or will 1
Plur. -I Dh' oladh sibh, ye would or could \ drink. ^ | . < sibh, if ye shall or will \ drink.
I Dh' oladh iad, they wotdd or could j 1 aS (. iad, i/ <Aey sAaZZ or jriZZ )

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


. ( $Jam' to' me , A dh* 61, <o drinA.
SiHj. < 01, ol thusa, drink thou.
Oladh e, let him drink.
., , . t PARTICIPLE.
T Olamaid, let us drink.
Plur. < Olaibh, drink ye. Ag 61, drinking.
(, Oladh iad, let them drink.

* The second conjugation, as has been said, comprehends all those verbs which begin with a vowel or with the letter /".
-f- It does not appear necessary to exemplify, any further, the preterite subjunctive inflected with the various particles of conjunction.
The young student cannot be at any loss if he but turn back to the preceding verbs.
XXX A GRAMMAR OF

PASSIVE VOICE.
This verb is not often used in the passive voice, excepting in the third person singular and plural.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
Sing. Dh' 61adh e, it was drunk. Sing. 6lar e, it shall be drunk.

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
Sing. Cha d' 61adh e, it was not drunk. Sing. Cha 'n olar e, it shall not be drunk.
Plur. Cha d' oladh iad, they were not drunk. Plur. Cha 'n 61ar iad, they shall not be drunk.
Sing. Nach d' oladh e, was it not drunk? Sing. Nach 61ar e, shall it not be drunk ?
Plur. Nach d' olar iad, were they not drunk ? Plur. Nach olar iad, shall they not be drunk '.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
Sing. Dh' 61tadh e, it would be drunk. Sing. Ma dh' 61ar e, if it shall be drunk.
Plur. Dh' oltadh iad, they would be drunk. Plur. Ma dh' 61ar iad, if they shall be drunk.
IMPERATIVE MOOD. PARTICIPLE.
Sing. Oltar e, let it be drunk. Olta, oilte, ) drunk.
Plur. dltar iad, let tliem be drunk. Air 61, j

ORDUICH, order.

ACTIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
Sing. (mi, I Sing. C mi, I shall or will
< thu,
Dh' orduich te, he t
thou ^ ordered. Orduichidh <tu, thou shalt or wilt \ order,
he shall or will )
sinn, we "i Plur f sinn, we shall or will ^
Plur.
Dh' orduich sibh, ye V ordered. Orduichidh I s'Dn> Ve shall or will \ order.
{ iad, they ) ( iad, they shall or will )

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD


Preterite. Future.
Sing. C mi, did I order, or have I ~\ Sing. mi, shall or will I "1
An d' orduich <\_ e,
thu, didst thou order, or hast thou > ordered ?
did he order,
i or has he j An orduich thu, shalt or wilt thou \ order ?
e, shall or will he )
Plur { sinn, did we order, or have we ^ , shall or will we 1
Plur. sibh, shall or will ye \ order '.
An d' orduich i ?ibh' did ye order' or have ye ( ordered ? An orduich
(_ iad, did they order, or have they } iad, shall or will they )
did I not, or have I not mi, shall or will I not "i
Sing. Sing. thu, shalt or wilt thou not > order ?
Nach d' orduich > thu, didst thou not, or hast thou not \ ordered? Nach orduich e, shall or will he not j
{_ e, did he not, or has he not j
sinn, did we not, or have we not 1 sinn, shall or will we not ~\
Plur. Plur.
Nach orduich %t sibh, shalt or wilt thou not \ order f
Nach d' orduich sibh, did ye not, or have ye not > ordered ?
{ iad, did they not, or have they not j iad, shall or will they not j

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
Preterite. Future.
Dh' orduichinn, / would ~i ( mi, if I shall or will }
Sing. Jtu, ifththou shalt or wilt \ order,
Sing.
nng. ^1 1Dh' orduicheadh tu, thou wouldst > order. Mu dh' orduicheas
Dh' orduicheadh e, he would ) ( e, j/ he shall or will )
Dh' orduicheamaid, or dh' orduicheadh sinn,
( sinn, if we shall or will 1
Plur.
Plur. ^s Dh' we would sibh, if ye shall or will J- order.
orduicheadh sibh, ye would ^ order. Mu dh' orduicheas I iad, (/" <Aey s^a/i or wiZZ J
vDh' orduicheadh iad, they would
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xxxi

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


C Orduicheam, let me order. Dh* orduchadh, i (g .
Sing. < Orduich, order thou. A dh' orduchadh, $
[ Orduicheadh e, let him order.
{ Orduicheamaid, let us order. PARTICIPLE.
Plur. I Orduichibh, order ye.
^ Orduicheadh iad, let them order. Ag orduchadh, ordering.

PASSIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( mi, I
1 was 1 Sing. ^ mi I shall or will be }
Sing. < thu, thou wast > ordered, thu, thou shall or wilt be > ordered.
Dh' orduicheadh te, he was Orduichear ^ e, he shall or will be
J 3
we were "1 Plur. sinn, we shall or will be 1
Sing. ye were v ordered, sibh, ye shall or will be \ ordered.
Dh' orduicheadh Orduichear iad, they shall or will be }
they were j {i

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite, Future.
Sing. f mi, was t I 1 Sing. f mi, shall
s I be ~\
An d' orduicheadh J thu, wert thou J- ordered ? An orduichear ] thu, shalt thou be V ordered ?
t e, wcwas he ) (_ e, shall
sAi he be J
C( sinn, were we ~\ . ( sinn, shall we be ~\
> sibh,
An d' orduicheadh I sibh, were ye > ordered? a orduichear
An j 1' i \ s>bh,
| jad shMshalltJhey
ye bebe \\<ordered ?
{_(. iad, 1were they )
f mi, was I not 1 . 3(mi,
t u, shall
Sing. or will I not be ~\
Sing.
Nach d' orduicheadh -! thu, wert thou not > ordered ? Nach orduichear ^( sW< or wiVi f6o not be \ ordered ?
^ e, iwis Ae not
) 3 e, shall or will he not be )
Sing. sinn, were we not ~l C sinn, sAnZ/ or wi/Z we not be "i
Nach d'orduicheadh sibh, were ye not J- ordered ? Nach orduichear ) sib,h' * or "f, ?e not' *f
{ iad, were they not ) iad, sfta or wiM </tcy not 6e 3

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
Sin<7. T mi, / would or coaW be 1 f mi, if I shall or will be ~i
< thu, <n<w wouldst or couldst be > ordered. Sing. < thu, if thou shalt or wilt be > ordered,
Dh orduichteadh Ma dh' orduichear
[e, fie would or could be 3 U,iJ if he shall or ?7Z 6e 3
P/ur ( smn' wc would or cou/d 6e "i f sinn, ifive shall or will be "1
Dh' orduichteadh { slb^'Je wouldoT C0"ldJ>f \ 0rdered Plur. < sibh, /"ye s/iaZZ or will be J ordered.
fee S< Ma dh' orduichear
^ iad, they would or could be ) t iad, if they shall or iti/Z 6c 3
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. C mi, let r,me be~\ Plur. sinn, let us be }
Orduichtear < thu, 6c thou
i \ ordered, Orduichtear sibh, 6c ye \ ordered.
{ e, fef him
6t; be ) iad, let them be J
PARTICIPLE.
Orduichte,
.. j i JL ); ordered.
,
Air orduchadh, J

FILL, fold.
ACTIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
J . ( mi, I shall or will \
folded. Fillid'h 1 tU' t^l0U s^a'' or \ fold-
[ se, he shall or will J
Plur. ( sinn, we 1 p[ur ( sinn, we shall or will "1
< sibh, ye \
Dh' fhill {_ iad, they ) folded. Fillidh 1 8'^1' ^c s',a" or f fold-
11 (.. siad,
sia " they shall or u;i/i j
xxxii A GRAMMAR OF

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
f' mi, did
d Ifold, or have I C mi, sAa/Z
. or ?<nZZ / 1
Sing. < thu, didst thou fold, or hast thou J- folded7, Sing sW? or wilt thou > /bid ?
An d' fhill (e, dit .1. Am fill
did he fold, or has he j sAa/Z or wt'ZZ Ae 3
sftaZZ or wiZZ we 1
Plur. <C sinn,
sibh,
did we fold, or have we "1
did ye fold, or have ;ye > folded ? Plur. f sinn, shall or will ye V fold ?
And' fhill ( iad, did they fold, or Aat>< Am fill shall or wi'ZZ they )
have they J

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( Dh' fhillinn, / would or couZd mi, if 1 shall or will ~l
Sing. tu, if thou shalt or wilt \fold.
Sing < Dh' fhilleadh tu, ZAou wouldst or couldst \fotd. Ma dh' fhilleas
( Dh' fhilleadh e, Ae would or cohZcZ e, i/" he shall or we'ZZ 3
Ir .
Dh', fhillearnaid,
... .' or 1! we would or could} Plur. C sinn, zy we sAaZZ or will }
< sibh, i/" ye shall or wiZZ Vfold.
Plur )\ Dh fhilleadh sum )
Dh' fhilleadh sibh, ye would or could
I ij
iJ Ma dh' fhilleas ( iad, t/ ZAey shall or wZZZ )
I Dh' fhilleadh iad, ZAey would or could
IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.
( Filleam, let me fold. Dh'
A dh'fhilleadh,
fhilleadh, }) tofl<L
. r,,
Sing.< Fill, fold thou.
( Filleadh e, let him fold.
( Filleamaid, let us fold. PARTICIPLE.
Plur.l Fillibh, fold ye. A filleadh, )
(Filleadh iad, let them fold. Ag filleadh, )fld9-

PASSIVE VOICE.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE xMOOD.


Preterite. Future.
( mi, /I was ~l~i . C mi, / sAaZZ or will be ^
Sing. <Aou wast \> _folded. Fillear 1 t'lu' ^'ou s^a^ or ^e \ folded.
Dh' fhilleadh <(e,
thu, ZAou
Ae was 3) ( e, Ae shall or will be J
Plur. ( sinn, we were ~\ ( sinn, we shall or will be
Dh' fhilleadh <(iad,
sibh, ye were \
they were )
Fi^Ue 'r ^ s'kh, Ve sn"H or oe
( iad, they shall or will be
^ folded.
)

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future,
C mi, was I C mi, shall
s or wZZZ / be
Sing. < thu, werZ thou \i Jfolded? . ^'I-'?,' <j thu,', sAaZZ or .
wilt
An d' fhilleadh (e, was he Am hllear , thou
, be ^folded?
j \_( e, sh<
tAaZZ or wiZZ hi be
f sinn, were we 1 Plur \ smn> sna^ or u;e ^e
Plur. < sibh, were ye > folded? ^m fillear * s'^' s*a^ or #e ^e folded?
An d' fhilleadh (iad, were they }
{ iad, shall or will they be }
f mi, was / noZ (mi, I shall or will not be "i
Sing. Sing.
Nach d' fhillear <(e,
thu, werZ ZAou not folded ?
w
was he not j Cha 'n fhillear < thu, ZAou shalt or wilt not be \ folded,
(e, he hi shall or will not be j
C sinn, w>>ere we not ~i sinn, we shall or will not be "1
Plur. Plur.
Nach d' fhillear <( sibh, were
w ye not > folded ?
Cha 'n fhillear sibh, ye shall or wtZZ not be \ folded.
iad, were
we; they not J { iad, they shall or wiZZ woZ be )

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. FuZi/re.
f mi, JI would or couZd be "i mi, if I shall or will be 1
Sing. < thu, ZAom wouldst or couldst be > folded, Smg. thu, ZAoa sAoZZ or wiZZ 6e > folded.
Dh' fhillteadl (e, he
Ae would or couZcZ Ze Ma dh' fhillear e, t/" Ae sAaZZ or wiZZ 6e 3
sinn, we would or coZdZ Zie Z>e "i sinn, if we shall or wt'ZZ Ae ~l
Plur. sibh, ye would or couZd Z>e J- folded Plur.
Ma dh' fhillear sibh,
' 6e 1 i/y6 shall or will be V folded.
Dh' fhillteadh {iiad, zAey would or coZ<Zdie * iad, i/" <Aey sAaZZ or will be }
V
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. \xxiii
IMPERATIVE MOOD. PARTICIPLE.
( mi, let me be "I Fillte, ) ... ,
Filitear i thu' be thou ( folded- Air fh'Ueadh, ) Jolaea-
\_ e, let him be )
piur ( sinn, let us -be "1
Fimeav]sif'bfye , \flded-
{_ iad, let them be )
The learner, having come thus far, can have no difficulty, it is presumed, in declining the compound tenses of any
verb, as they are, both in the active and passive voices, similar to those of the first conjugation, to which I refer him.

A TABLE OF VERBS,
REGULAR AND IRREGULAR,
ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED, EACH WITH ITS PRETERITE, PAST AND PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
Imperative. Preterite. Past Participle. Present Participle.
Abair, say, Thubhairt, Air radh, Ag radh.
Adhlaic, bury, Dh' adhlaic, Adhlaicte, Ag adhlac, or -adh.
Atn&h,ftnd, Dh' amais, Amaiste, Ag amas.
Ainmich, name, Dh' ainmich, Ainmichte, Ag ainmeachadh.
Aisig, restore, Dh' aisig, Aisigte, Ag aiseag.
Aithn, command, Dh' aithn, Aithnte, Ag aithneadh.
Aithnich, know, Dh' aithnich, Aithnichte, Ag aithneachadh.
Amail, hinder, Dh' amail, Amailte, Ag amal.
Arduich, exalt, Dh' arduich, Arduichte, Ag arduch, or -adh.
Bac, hinder, Bhac, Bacta, bacte, A bacadh.
Bean, touch, Bhean, A beanachd, a beantuinn.
Bearr, crop, Bhearr, Bearrta, bearrte, A bearradh.
Blais, taste, Bhlais, Blaiste, A blasdachd.
Biath, feed, Bhiath, Biathta, biathte, A biathadh.
Bogaich, soften, Bhogaich, Bogaichte, A bogachadh.
Bris, break, Bhris, Briste, A briseadh.
Bruadair, dream, Bhruadair, Bruadairte, A bruadaradh.
Buail, strike, Bhuail, Buailte, A bualadh.
Buain, cut down, Bhuain, Buainte, A buaineadh.
Buair, tempt, Bhuair, Buairte, A buaireadh.
Buidhinn, win, Bhuidhinn, Buidhinte, A buidhneadh.
Buin, deal with, Bhuin, Buinte, A buntuinn.
Cull, lose, Chaill, Caillte, A call.
Caith, spend, Chaith, Caithte, A caitheamh.
Ciallaich, mean, Chiallaich, Ciallaichte, A ciallachadh.
Cinn, grow, Chinn, A cinntinn.
Caomhain, spare, Chaomhain, Caomhainte, A cuomhnadh.
Ceangail, bind, Cheangail, Ceangailte, A ceanpladh.
Ceil, conceal, Cheil, Ceilte, A ceiltinn.
Ceill, declare, Cheill, Ceillte, A ceilltin n.
Cearmuich, buy, Cheannuich, Ceannuichte, A ceannuchadh.
Cluinn, hear, Chual, A cluintinn.
Codail, sleep, Chodail, A codal.
Coghain, aid, Choghain, Coghainte, A cbghnadh.
Coinnich, meet, Choinnich, Coinnichte, A coinneach, or -adh.
Coirich, blame, Choirich, Coirichte, A coireachadh.
Coisg, extinguish, Choisg, Coisgte, A cosgadh.
Coisich, travel, Choisich, Coisichte, A coiseachd.
Coinhdaich, cover, Chomhdaich, Comhdaichte, A comhdachadh.
Creach, spoil, Chreach, Creachta, creachte, A creachadh.
Crath, shake, Chrath, Crathta, A crath.
Crioslaich, gird, Chrioslaich, Crioslaichte, A crioslachadh.
Croch, hang, Chroch, Crochta, A crochadh.
Ciurr, hurt, Chiurr, Ciurrta, A ciurradh.
Crup, shrink, Chrup, Crupta, A crupadh.
Cuimsich, hit, Chuimsich, Cuimsichte, A cuimseachadh.
Cuir, put, Chuir, Air chur, A cur.
xxxiv A GRAMMAR OF
Imperative. Preterite. Past Participle. Present Participle.
Cum, hold, Chum, A cumail.
Cuitich, quit, Chuitich, Cuitichte, A cuiteachadh.
Daighnich, strengthen, Dhaighnich, Daighnichte, A daighneachadh.
Dealbh,/b/7tt, Dhealbh, Dealbhta, A dealbhadh.
Dean, do, Rinn, Deanta, deante, A deanamh.
Diobair, forsake, Dhiobair, Diobairte, A diobradh.
Diol, pay, Dhiol, Diolta, diolte, A dioladh.
Dion, protect, Dhion, Dionta, dionte, A dionadh.
D6irt, spill, Dh6irt, D&irte, A d6rtadh.
Duin, shut, Dhuin, Duinte, A dunadh.
Duisg, waken, Dhiiisg, Duisgte, A dusgadh.
Dilraig, dare, Dhuraig, A durachdainn.
Eid, clothe, Dh' eid, Eidte, Ag eideadh.
Eigh, shout, Dh' eigh, Ag eigh.
Eirich, rise, Dheirich, Ag eiridh.
Faic, see, Chunnaic, chunna, A faicinn, a faicsinn.
Faigh, get, Fhuair, A faotainn, a faghail.
Fainich,/ce/, Dh' fhainich, Fainichte, A faineachadh.
Fan, wait, Dh' fhan, A fanachd, a fanticinn.
Falbh, go, Dh' fhalbh, Air dol, A falbh.
Fas, grow, Dh' fhas, Air fas, A fas.
Feith, wait, Dh' fheith, A feitheamh.
Feuch, shew, Dh' fheuch, A feuchainn.
Faisg, squeeze, Dh' fhaisg, Faisgte, A fasgadh.
Figh, weave, Dh' fhigh, Fighte, A figheadh.
Fifl,/oW, Dh' fhill, Fillte, A filleadh.
Fliuch, wet, Fhliuch, Fliuchta, A fliuchadh.
Folaich, hide, Dh' fholaich, Folaichte, A folachadh.
Fosgail, open, Dh' fhosgail, Fosgailte, A fosgladh.
Fuin, bake, Dh' fhuin, Fuinte, A fuineadh.
Fuirich, wait, Dh' fhuirich, A fuireach.
Fuaigh, sew, Dh' fhuaigh, Fuaighte, A fuaghal.
Fulaing, suffer, Dh' fhulaing, Fulaingte, A fulang.
Gabh, take, Ghabh, Gabhta, A gabhail.
Gair, laugh, Ghair, A gaireachdaich.
Gairm, proclaim, Ghairm, Gairmte, A gairmeadh.
Geall, promise, Gheall, Gealltuinte, A gealltuinn.
Gearr, cut, Ghearr, Gearrta, gearrte, A gearradh.
Geum, low, Gheum, A geumnaich.
Gin, gion, produce, Ghin, Ghion, Ginte, gionta, A gintinn, a giontuinn, a ginmhuinn.
Glac, catch, Ghlac, Glacta, A glacadh.
Gleidh, keep, Ghleidh, Gleidhte, A gleidheadh.
Gluais, move, Ghluais, Gluaiste, A gluasad.
Gnathaich, use, Ghnathaich, Gnathaichte, A ghnathachadh.
Goil, boil, Ghoil, A goileadh.
Goir, crow, Ghoir, A goirsinn.
Grab, catch, Ghrab, Grabta, A grabadh.
Grabh, engrave, Ghrabh, Ghrabh ta, A grabhadh.
Greas, hasten, Ghreas, Greasta, A greasdachd.
Iarr, request, Dh' iarr, Ag iarruidh.
Iomain, drive, Dh' iomain, Iomainte, Ag ioman.
Ith, eat, Dh' ith, Ithte, Ag itheadh.
Labhair, speak, Labhair, A labhradh.
Las, kindle, Las, Lasta, A lasadh.
Leagh, melt, Leagh, Leaghta, leaghte, A leaghadh.
Lean, follow, Lean, A leantuinn, a leanachd, a leanmh u in n .
Leig, let, Leig, , Leigte, A leigeil,
Leighis, cure, Leighis, Leighiste, A leigheas.
Leir, torment, Leir, Leirte, A leireadh.
Lub, bend, Lub, Lubta, lilbte, A lubadh.
Leugh, read, Leugh, Leughta, leughte, A leughadh.
Lion, fill, Lion, Lionta, A lionadh.
Loisg, burn, Loisg, Loisgte, A losgadh.
Lomair, shear, Lomair, Lomairte, A lomairt.
Luchdaich, burden, Luchdaich, Luchdaichte, A luchdachadh.
Luidh, lie, Luidh, Air luidhe, A luidhe.
Mair, last, Mhair, A marsuinn, a mairsinn.
Marbh, kill, Mharbh, A marbhadh.
Marcaich, ride, Marcaich, A marcachd.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. AXXV
Imperative. Preterite. Past Participle. Present Participle.
Meal, enjoy, Mheal, A mealtuinn.
M>-. ill. cheat, Mheall, Meallta, A mealladh.
Meas, estimate, Mheas, Measta, A measadh.
Meil, grind, Mheil, Meilte, A meilleadh.
Mill, spoil, Mhill, Millte, A milleadh.
Minich, explain, Mhlnich, Mlnichte, A mlneachadh.
Mionnuich, swear, Mhionnuich, Mionnuichte, A mionnuichte.
Mosgail, waken, Mhosgail, Mosgailte, A mosgladh.
Miith, change, Mhuth, Muthta, A muthadh.
Naraich, shame, Naraich, Naraichte, A narachadh.
Naisg, bind, Naisg, Naisgte, A nasgadh.
Nigh, wash, Nigh, Nighte, A nigheadh.
i)b, refuse, Dh' 6b, Obta, Ag obadh.
Oibrich, work, Dh' oibrich, Oibrichte, Ag oibreachadh.
Ol, drink, Dh' 61, Olta, oilte, Ag 61.
Orduich, order, Dh' ordujeh, Orduichte, Ag orduchadh.
Paigh, pay, Phaigh, Paighte, A paigh.
Paisg, wrap, Phaisg, Paisgte, A pasgadh.
Pian, pain, Phian, Pianta, A pianadh.
Pill, return, Phill, Air pilltinn, A pilltinn.
Put, push, Phut, A putadh.
Reic, si II, Reic, Reicte, A reiceadh.
Reub, tear, Reub, Reubta, A reubadh.
Ruathar, dig, Ruathar, Ruathairte, A ruathradh.
Ruig, reach, Rainig, A ruigheachd, a ruigsinn.
Ruith, run, Ruith, A ruith.
Sabh, saw, Shabh, Sabhta, saibhte, A sabhadh.
Salaich, soil, Shalaich, Salaichte, A salachadh.
Saltair, tread, Shaltair, A saltairt.
Saoil, think, Shaoil, A saoilsinn.
Sath, thrust, Shath, Sathta, saithte, A sathadh.
Sdiuir, steer, Sdiuir, Sdiurta, A stiuradh.
Seachain, shun, Sheachain, Seachainte, A seachnadh.
Seall, look, Sheall, A sealltuinn.
Searg, wither. Shearg, Seargta, seargte, A seargadh.
Seas, stand, Sheas, A seasamh.
Seid, blow, Sheid, Seidte, A seideadh, a seidil.
Sgain, burst, Sgain, Sgainte, A sgaineadh.
Sgaoil, spread, Sgaoil, Sgaoilte, A sgaoileadh.
Sgap, scatter, Sgap, Sgapta, Sgapte, A sgapadh.
Sgar, teparate, Sgar, Sgarta, A sgaradh, a sgarachduinn.
Sgath, prune, Sgath, Sgathta, sgathte, A sgathadh.
Sgeaduich, adorn, Sgeaduich, Sgeaduichte, A sgeaduchadh.
Sgoilt, split, Sgoilt, Sgoilte, A sgoltadh.
Sgrlob, scratch, Sgriob, Sgriobta, A sgriobadh.
Sgriobh, write, Sgriobh, Sgriobhta, sgriobhte A sgriobhadh.
Sguab, sweep, Sguab, Sguabta, A sguabadh.
Sguir, stop, Sguir, A sgurachd, a sgur.
Smuainich, think, Smuainich, Smuainichte, A smuaineachadh.
Snaidh, hew, Shnaidh, Snaidhte, A snaidhcadh.
Snaig, creep, Shnaig, A snagadh.
Snaim, hn.it , Shnaim, Snaimte, A snaimeadh.
Snaiuh, swim, Shnamh, Snamhta, snaimhte, A snamhadh.
Sniomh, spin, Shniomh, Sniomhte, A sniomh.
Spoth, geld, Spoth, Spothta, spothte, A spothadh.
Srachd, tear, Shrachd, Srachta, A srachdadh.
Tachair, meet, Thachair, A tachairt.
Tachrais, waul, Thachrais, Tachraiste, A tachras.
Tagh, choose, Thagh, Taghta, taghte, A taghadh.
Taisg, lay up, Thaisg, Taisgte, A tasgadh.
Taom, pour, Thaom, Taomta, A taomadh.
Tarruing, draw, Tharruing, Tarruingte, A tarruing.
Teagaisg, teach, Theagaisg, Teagaiste, A teagasg.
Teanail, gather, Tlieanail, Teanailte, A teanaladh.
Teasairg, save, Theasairg, Teasairgte, A teasairginn.
Teich,jfy, Thcich, A teicheachd.
Teirig, wear out, Theirig, A teireachduinn.
Thig, come, Thainig, Air teachd, A teachd, a tighinn.
Thoir, thabhair, give, Thug, A toirt, a tabhairt.
xxxvi A GRAMMAR OF
Imperative. Preterite. Past Participle. Present Participle.
Tilg, throw, Thilg, Tilgte, A tilgeadh, a tilgeil.
Tionndaidh, turn, Thionndadh, Tionndaidhte, A tionndadh.
Tionsgail, contrive, Thionsgail, Tionsgailte, A tionsgladh.
Tionsgain, begin, Thionsgain, Tionsgainte, A tionsgnadh.
Tiormaich, dry, Thiormaich, Tiormaichte, A tiormachadh.
Tochail, dig, Thochail, Tochailte, A tochladh.
Tog, lift, Thog, Togta, togte, A togail.
Togair, desire, Thogair, A togradh.
Toinn, twist, Thoinn, Toinnte, A toinneamh.
Tbisich, begin, Thbisich, Tbisichte, A tbiseaehadh.
Treig, forsake, Threig, Treigte, A treigsinn.
Treoruich, lead, Threoruich, Treoruichte, A treoruchadh.
Tuig, understand, Thuig, A tuigsinn.
Tuirling, descend, Thuirling, Tuirlingte, A tuirling.
Tuislich,yaZ/, Thuislich, Tuislichte, A tuisleachadh.
Tuit, fall, Thuit, Air tuiteam, A tuiteam.
Uigheamaich, dress, Dh' uigheamaich, Uigheamaichte, Ag uigheamachadh.
Uraich, renew, Dh' uraich, Uraichte, Ag urachadh.

THE AUXILIARY VERB* BI, BE.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.


Present. Preterite. Future.
Sing. ( mi, / am. . C mi, / was. Sing. ( mi, I shall or will "1
Ta or tha thu, thou art. Bha' 1 tbu' t^lOU wert' Bithidh < tu, he
thou shalt J- be.
e, he is. [ e, he is. (se, shall J
Plur. sinn, we are. Plur.$S\' we are- Plur fS,nn we shall or will
Ta or tha) sib,h\f are' Bha 1 . ye are' Bithidh J s'kh> ye s^a^ joe.
{_ iad, they are. (.iad, they are. ( iad, they shall

NEGATIVE, on INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Present. Preterite. Future.
Sing mi, am I? I mi, was I? f mi, i
shall or will I
Sing. Sing
tAm bheil thu, art thou ?
e, is he ? An robh {thu, wert thou ? Am shalt thou joe?
(.e, w
was he ? shall he
sinn, are we ? sinn, Plur.r^. <fs!nn'
Plur Plur. i , were we ; ., shall or wtU we
Am bheil sibh , are you : An robh 1 s,bh> Am 1 (iad, sibh, shall you ^be.
iad, are they ? {" iad, were they r shall
i they
mi, / am not. ( mi, Ii shall or will not '
Sing. thu, thou art not. Sing. <f mi, /i was no<. Sitig. <thu, thou shalt not
iCha 'n 'eil. e, he is not. Cha robh (.e, Ae <Ao
thu, j^ert nor.
was not. Cha bhi [e, he shall not )
be.

sinn, we are not. , I sinn, we were not. C sinn,, we shall or will not
Plur. cCbh\^>yuweTenot; Cha bhi I s'bh> 2/M s'ia^ "of
Cha 'n 'eil , sibh, you are not.
iad, they are not. iad, they were not. ( iad, they shall
joe.

C mi, am I not? were I not ? Sing C thu'


mi, .shall or will I not ~l
Sing. < thu, art thou not ? Sing. f mi, , wert thou not ?
Nach 'eil [ e, is he not ? Nach robh J thuwas he not ? Nach k )le, shalt thou not
shall
si he not J
\ be ?

sinn, are we not ? C sinn, were we not ? Plur i smn> shall or will we not
Plur. sibh, are younot? Plur.
Nach robh I sl^' were Vou not iach bi ^ s'^n> s^a^ 3/0" not
Nach 'eil iad, are they not? ( iad, were they not ? ( iad, sAa7 f/te?/ not

* Dean, do, or make, and rach, go, are often used as auxiliary verbs; as, dean luidhe, lie down ; dean seasamh, stand;' literally,
make a lie down ; make a stand ; chaidh mo chreachadh, I was plundered, i. e. my plundering is gone or past ; rachadh mo bhualadh, J would
be struck, i. e. the striking of me would have passed or happened. These auxiliaries are declinable with all the conjunctive and adverbial
particles.
f Am bheil is, almost always, pronounced 'm bheil or bheil; in some districts of the Highlands, as in Badenoch, they say am beil.
I 'Eil for bheil. After the conjunctive particles cha, nach, mur, bheil is written 'eil ; and in order to separate the two vowels, and also
to prevent an hiatus, we insert the letter n, and write elm 'n 'eil, rather than cha 'eil.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xxxv ii

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future,
Bhithinn, / would ( mi, if I shall
sha or will
Sing Bhitheadh tu, thou wouldst Sing.
Bhitheadh e, he would Ma bhitheasf <t e, tu, if thou shall or wilt \be.
><
if he sha
shall or will )
Bhitheamaid, or Bhitheadh sinn, we would ( sinn, if we- shall or will ^
Bhitheadh sibh, you would Plur. <
Ma bhitheas f iad,sibh, if you shall or will > be.
Bhitheadh iad, they would if they shall or will )
Sing. Bithinn, would I . C Bhithinn, / would not, ~l
Bitheadh tu, wouldst thou Ch' \ Bn'tneadh tu, thou wouldst not
Am* Bitheadh e, would he a ( Bhitheadh e, he would not }\ be.

Plur Bitheamaid, or Bitheadh sinn, would we 1 Plur { Bhitheamaid, or Bhitheadh sinn, we would not}
Bitheadh sibh, would you
Am Bitheadh > be. jia' < Bhitheadh sibh, you would not \ be.
{ iad, would they y '( Bhitheadh iad, they would not J
Bithinn, if I would C Bithinn, would I not
Sing. Bitheadh tu, if thou wouldst Nach I B'theadh tu, wouldst thou not
Nam Bitheadh e, if he would ( Bitheadh e, would he not
{
Bitheamaid, or Bitheadh sinn, if we would ~l Plur f B'tneama'd, or Bitheadh sinn, would we not 1
Plur. f Bitheadh sibh, if you would > be. Nach I Bitheadh sibh, would you not \ be?
Nam ) Bitheadh iad, if they would ) {_ Bitheadh iad, would they not }

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


( Bitheam, let me be. A bhith, do bhith, to be.
Sing. < Bi, bi-sa, bi thusa, be thou.
( Bitheadh e, let them be. PARTICIPLE.
C Bitheamaid, let us be. Perf. Air bhith, having been.
Plur. < Bithibh, be you. Fut. Gu bhith, ri bhith, to be, or about to be.
(, Bitheadh iad, let them be.

IS, am.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.


Present. Preterite.
~. ( mi, or mise, it is I. (f Bu mhi,
mm, or mhise, it wawas I.
"'<r tu tnen *c thou. Sing. < Bu tu, tusa, it was thou.
(^e, esan, it is he. ( B' e, esan, it was he.
piur ( sinn, sinne, it is we. ( Bu sinn, sinne, it was we.
js ' < sibh, sibhse, it is you. Plur. < Bu sibh, sibhse, itt was you.
(.iad, iadsan, it is they. ( B' iad, iadsan, it iwas they.

INTERROGATIVE, on NEGATIVE MOOD.


Present. Preterite.
Am mi, or mise, is it I? bu mhi, or mhise, was it I?
An tu, tusa, is it thou ? Sing bu tu, tusa, was it thou ?
an e, esan, is it he ? Am b'e, esan, was it he '(
An sinn, sinne, is it we ? bu sinn, sinne, was it we ?
Plur. bu sibh, sibhse, was it you ?
Plur An sibh, sibhse, is it you ? Am b' iad, iadsan, was it they ?
An iad, iadsan, is it they ?
bu mhi, or mhise, was it not /?
Sing. mi, or mise, is it not I ?
tu, tusa, is it not thou ? Sing. bu tu, tusa, was it not thou ?
Nach e, esan, is it 7iot he ? Nach b' e, esan, was it not he?
{i . .
( sinn, sinne, is it not
n we ? bu sinn, sinne, was it not we?
Plur. Plur. bu sibh, sibhse, was it not you ?
sibhse, is it not you ?
Nach <( sibh,
iad, iadsan, is it not
i they ? Nach b' iad, iadsan, was it not they ?
mhi, or mhise, it is not I. . t bu mhi, or mhise, it was not I.
Sing. <i tu, tu in9- J bu tU( tusa, it was not thou.
Cha l'a e,tusa, it is not thou.
esan, it is not he. CI ( b' e, esan, it was not he.
piur ( sitin, sinne, it is not we. f bu sinn, sinne, it was not we.
qu_' \ sibh, sibhse, it is not you Plur. < bu sibh, sibhse, it was not you.
( 'n iad, iadsan, it is not they.
th Cha ( b' iad, ia>
iadsan, it was not they.

Bitheadh is often contracted biodh. t lihtthcat is often written bliios, both in prose and in verse.
xxxviii A GRAMMAR OF

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present, Preterite.
mi, or mise, if it be I. (' bu mhi
mhi, or mhise, if it were I.
tu, tusa, if it be thou. ' < bu tu, tusa, if it were thou.
esan, if it be he. esan, if it were he.
(. b' e, es
Plur f smn> s'nne> if *' oe we- (' bu sinn, sinne, if it were we.
y. ,' < sibh, sibhse, t/"i< be you. Plur. < bu sibh, sibhse,
: if it were you.
a s iad, iadsan, if it be they. Nam {_ V iad, ia< iadsan, if it were they.

IMPERSONAL VERBS.
The Preterite Affirmative of Neuter Verbs, and the Future of the Negative or Interrogative Mood of Active Verbs,
are often used impersonally ; as, gkuileadh, buailear, gluaisear, faicear, faighear. Any verb used in this way may be
declined with the compound pronoun learn, through all its persons ; yet it is not accounted so elegant to express the
pronoun, as to leave it to be supplied according to the sense of the context. The impersonal verbs are used after this
manner.
Sing. learn, / ^ Plur ( le'bb, we
Buailear , leat, thou \ struck. Buailear I 'emn> Ve
{!leis, he J {_ leo, they

OF IRREGULAR VERBS.
The Irregular Verbs are reckoned ten; seven of the first conjugation, viz. dean, cluinn, beir, rack, rvig, thig, thoir,
or thabhair ; and three of the second, viz.faic,faigh, abair. '

THE FIRST CONJUGATION.


DEAN, make.

ACTIVE VOICE.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.


Preterite, Future.
(mi, I }
Sing. < thu, thou V made. ( mi, I shall or will
oj/. ^ ^QU>
Sing s^j^ or w^
Rinn (e, he Ni < thu, t make.
) (. e, he .shall or will
Plur. we Plur f smn' we s^a^ or ")
Rinn ye \made. ^ ' < sibh, ye shall or will make.
they (. iad, they shall or will )

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
( mi, did 1 "i ( mi, shall or will I "i
Sing. < thu, didst thou \make? Sing.
An do rinn [ e, did he J An dean <^ e,
thu, shalt or wilt thou V make ?
shall or will he y
Plur. ( sinn, did we ~1
Plur. ( sinn, shall or will we ~l
< sibh, did ye > make ?
An do rinn t iad, did they y An dean <. sibh, shall or will ye > make ?
{_ iad, shall or will they
( mi, did I ") ( mi, shall or will I not
Sing. < thu, didst thou > make ? Sing.
Nach do rinn f e, did he j Nach dean (. thu,
< shalt or wtZ< thou not \ make ?
e, shall or wtZZ he not
( sinn, did we ( sinn, sAaZZ or will we not 1
Plur. Sing.
Nach do rinn <t sibh, did ye
iad, did they }
make ?
Nach dean (. sibh,
< shall or w;i/Z ye not > mae ?
iad, tM or wiZZ they not 1
(mi, I did not 1
Sing.
-J thu, thou didst not V make. Sing. ( mi, / shall or wiZZ no/
Cha do rinn
(. e, he did not J Cha dea <\e, thu, thou shalt or wiZtf not
he shall or wn'ZZ not }
Plur. ( sinn, we did not 1 ( sinn, we s/iaZZ or will not
< sibh, ye did not V make. Plur.
Cha do rinn
t iad, they did not ) Cha dean < sibh, ye shall or wiZZ no* J- wiaAe.
(. iad, <Aey shall or wtZZ not }
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xxxix

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( Dheanainn, / would or could Sina f n" 1 %hall or will
Sing. < Dheanadh tu, thou would or couldst make. Ma ni J thu' thou shalt or ">iZt make.
( Dheanadh e, he would or could } {_e,if he shall or wiZZ
C Dheanamaid, we would or could ~l P/wr. f s!nn' we sAa^ or W*M
Plur. < Dheanadh sibh, ye would or could \ make. Ma ni J ?ibl,'.l/j'e s>ial1 or wiZZ
[ Dheanadh iad, they would or could J (v iad,? if
they shall or wi'ZZ
e- f deanainn, if I would or could } i. f mi, t,if I shall or will not
ST?" \ deanadh tu, if thou wouldst or couldst * make. Sing
Murrdean]thu- ' u,if thou shalt or wilt not
{_ deanadh e, if he would or could if he shall or will not
Plur ( deanamaid, if we would or could Plur S S-nn' Vwe or not
j^an" \ deanadh sibh, if ye would or could 1 make. Mur dean 1 sibh' s^aW or wiW no'
t deanadh iad, i/ they would or couta )' (.iad, i,"
if they shall or will not
IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.
C Deanam, let me make. A dheanamh, to do, or make.
Sing. < Dean, make thou.
{_ Deanadh e, let him make. PARTICIPLE.
( Deanamaid, let us make. A, or ag deanamh, (foin^r or making
Plur. < Deanaibh, make ye.
{_ Deanadh iad, let them make.

PASSIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
Sing. (mi, II was 1
Sing. (mi, 1I shall or will be
Rinneadh <(e,
thu, thou wert \ made,
Nithear \ thu, thou shalt or wilt be made.
he was J (e, he shall or will be
we were
Plur.
ye were made. Plur. sinn, we shall or will be
Rinneadh
they were } Nithear sibh, ye shall or will be made.
{ iad, they shall or will be

INTERROGATIVE, or NEGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
Sing. mi, was I 1 f mi, s
shall or wiW / 6e
Sing.
An do rinneadh thu, wert thou \ made ? An deanar < thu, shalt or wiZZ tAou 6e made ?
e, was he j \e, shall
shi or weiZ Ae Ae
Plur. sinn, were we ~\ ( sinn, sWZ or wiZZ we be
sibh, were ye > made ? Plur.
An do rinneadh
iad, were they ) An deanar ( sibh,
< sAaZZ or will ye be made ?
I iad, shall or wi'ZZ *Aey be
Sing. mi, was I not } ( mi, shall
s or wi'ZZ / not be
thu, wert thou not > made ? Sing
Nach do rinneadh e, ] thu,
Nach deanar (. e, sA< shalt or wiZ< thou not be |-na<fe?
was he not ) sliall or will he not be
Plur. sinn, were we not sinn, shall or wiZZ we not be
Plur
Nach do rinneadh sibh, were ye not made?
Nach deanar sibh, sAaZZ or wj'ZZ ye not be made?
iad, were they not { iad, sAaZZ or will they not be }
Sing. mi, / was not ' mi, / shall or will not be
thu, tAou wer* not made. Sing.
Cha do rinneadh Cha deanar fi thu, tAou shalt or wiZ< not 6e made.
e, Ae was not [ e, he shall or wi'ZZ not be
Plur. ( sinn, we were no ( sinn, we sAaZZ or wi'ZZ not be
< sibh, ye were not _,, PZur.
, n sibh,Mgyye shall oror wiZZ
Cba do rinneadh
(, iad, they were not Cha deanar ^ iad> ^notw<befce

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future,
Sing. ( mi, I would
wo or could be f mi, if I shall or wi/Z 6e
Sitig
Dheantadh <(, e,
thu, r/ioi
thou wouldst or couldst be j made.
Ma nithear < thu, if thou shalt or wi'ZZ 6e
Ae woi
would or could be ( e, (/' Ae sliall or wi'ZZ Z>e
Plur. f sinn, we woidd or conZ<i 6c piur ( sinn we shall or wiZZ 6e
Dheantadh sibh, ye would or couM 6e Ma nithear ) ^'V? r w<" *t
iad, tAey would or couZd 6e } (. iad, if they shall or will be
A GRAMMAR OF
Preterite.
(' mi, if I would or could be 'i mi, iif I shall or will be
(mi, "J
Sing. J thu, if thou shalt or wilt be > made,
Nan deantadh <(e,thu, ifif thou wouldst or couldst be \ made. Nan deanar (e, i/
if' hi
he would or could be 3 if he shall or will be )
( sinn, if we would or could be~l (' sinn, if we shall or wit// be "i
Plur. Plur.
Nan deanar ( sibh,
< if ye shall' or wiZZ be > made.
Nan deantadh sibh, if ye would or could be > made.
<
iad, if they shall
sha, or will be j
( iad, i/
i, they would or could 6e J

IMPERATIVE MOOD. PARTICIPLE.


Deanta, deante, done.
Sing. made.
Deantar

Plur. <( sinn,


sibh,
let us be
made.
be ye
Deantar ( iad, let
i them be )

CLUINN, hear.

ACTIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
(mi,
mi, 1I heard, or did "J .
. (| nu,
mi, i/ siuui
shall ur
or ivui
will "i
Sing. < thu, thou heardst, or didst > hear. "'"ju
/-.i - '* tu, tAou sAfil? or wilt > Aear.
Chual (e, he heard, or did J Cluinniah 1 se,' Ae , sAaZZ
, or will
.,, )t
f smn,
sinn, we heard, or did
Plur. sibh, ye heard, or did > /tear. Plur. <( sinn, we shall or will 1
sibh, ye shall or wi/Z i Aear.
Chual <'iad, they heard, or did ) Cluinnidh ( iad, tAey sAaZZ or will )

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. .Future.
(mi,
mi, isAa/Z or wiZZ / ^
Sing. < thu,did
(mi, /
hear ? Sing. < thu, sAaZt or wilt thou \ hear ?
An cual e, did he thou
didst An cluinn ( e, /.
shall or will he )

Plur. ' sibh,


sinn, did we
did ye } hear ? Plur. <(sinn,
' sinn, sAaZZ
shall or will we ~i
An cual iad, did they J An cluinn ( iad, sAaZZ < or will ye > Aear ?
sibh, sAaZZ
or wiZZ tAey J
( mi, did / not Sing. ( mi, sAaZZ
. or wiZZ / not 'J
Sing. < thu, didst thou not ^ /tear ?
Nach cual ( e, did he not Nach cluinn <thu, s/iaZf or wilt thou not > Aear ?
sAaZZ or wiZZ Ae not
(e, s/ J

Plur. <( sinn,


sibh,
did we not "i
did ye not > hear ? Plur.
sinn, sAaZZ or will we not "1
< sinn
Nach cual (iad, did tAey 1 sibh , shall or wiZZ ye not )- Aear ?
Nach cluinn (iad,
not) sAaZZ or will they not )

Sing. mi, / did not (mi,


mi, 1/ sAaZZ or will not "1
Sing.
Cha chual thu, tAou didst not \ hear.
e, he did not j
< thu, tAou shalt or wiZt
Cha chluinn (e, Ae sAaZZ or will not not > Aear.
j
PZur. ( sinn, we did not "I C' sinn, we sAaZZ or wiZZ not "J
PZur.
Cha chual < sibh, ye did not > Aear. Cha chluinn <(.iad,
sibh, ye shall or wiZZ not \ hear.
(.iad, tAey did not 3 t/iej sliall or will not )
they

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( Chluinninn, / could or would "1 (mi, if I shall or will 1
Singr. < Chluinneadh tu, thou couldst or wouldst > Aear. Sing.
Ma chluinneas < tu, i/- tAou s/iaZt or wilt > Aear.
( Chluinneadh e, he could or would J (e, i/
i Ae shall or wiZZ 3
( Chluinneamaid, we co?dd or would ~i (' sinn, iif we shall or will ~i
Plur. < Chluinneadh sibh, ye couZd or would \ Aear. PZur.
(.Chluinneadh iad, tAey could or wouZd) Ma chluinneas <(iad,
sibh,
' >if
i you shall or will > Aear.
if
i/ they shall or wiZZ )
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xli

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


( Cluinneam, let me hear. A chluinntinn, to hear.
Sing. < Cluinn, hear thou, or do thou hear.
( Cluinneadh e, let him hear.
PARTICIPLE.
( Cluinneamaid, let us hear.
Plur. < Cluinnibh, hear ye. A cluinntinn,. hearing.
( Cluinneadh iad, let them hear.

PASSIVE VOICE.
Preterite. Future.
C mi, /1 was
Si,!afadh]thu,' "1 mi, I shall or will be ~l
thou wert > heard, Sing. ("J7thou shalt or wilt be > heard.
Chu; \_e, he was Cluinnear | g ^ shall or will be
)

Plur. C sinn,, y<w e were "i C sinn, we shall or will be ~\


Plur. < sibh, ye shall or will be > heard,
Chualadh <( sibh, ye were > heard,
Cluinnear (iad, ;they shall or will be )
iad, the
they were )

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
Sing. < thu, was
( mi, I
Sing r mi, shall or will I be
.
An cualadh wert thou ^ heard ? An cluinnear thu,'. slmlf or will Ihau be 1 heard?
near <Jle,
( e, was he shall or will he be
si

Plur. ( sinn, were we *i Plur. shall or will we be 'J


;e 6e
, shall
.irritu or
u; will
(tat ^6
ye Oe
be J-\ Jheard ?
An cualadh <( sibh, were ye V heard ?
iad, were they j An cluinnear sAaW or will they be J

Sing. C mi, was I not "i ( mi, shall or will I not be '
! thu, wert thou not > heard ?
Nach cualadh ( e, was he not } Nach cluinnear thu,
< , shall thou not be %
shall or wiZZ /te not be J
> heard !

C sinn, were we not ~\ sinn, sAaZZ or will we not be ~l


Plur. Plur.
Nach cualadh ( sibh,
< were ye not > heard ? sibh, shall or toiZZ ye not \ heard ?
Nach cluinnear
iad, iwere they not J { iad, shall or wiZZ rAey not be )

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
Sing. ( mi, I cou!
could or would be 1 fj" mi, iy / sAaZZ or wiZZ oe 1
< thu, Mom couldst or wouldst be V heard, Sing. < thu i/" tAoit sAaZi or wiZi 6e > heard,
Chluinnteadh ( e, he could Mu chluinnear (e, if he shall or wiZZ oe
coui or would be ) j
pfur f sinn, toe couZd or would be 1 PZur f sinn, i/" we sAaZZ or will be ~\
Chluinnteadh I S'D^> ^e co"Zd or would be V heard. ii ' I sibh, if ye shall or will be > heard.
( iad, rAcy cou/d or would be ) Mu chluinnear 1 . , , , {
iad, z/ they shall or 117ZZ oe )

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
( mi, let me be~l ' sinn, Zef us be
Sing. < thu, be thou > heard. Cluhvntear \ s'Dn' oe He \ ^ec > - '.
Cluinntear I e, Zer. Aim 6e ) ( iad, let them be j

THIG, come.
ACTIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
. C mi, / came, or did 1 . ( mi, / sAaZZ or will ~i
m y'. < thu, fAou earnest or didst ) come. Thf^ 1 t^ou s^a^ or | co - <
Tham* U Ae came or did j ( e, Ae shall or will )
pj r f sinn, toe came, or did "i Plur ' <f sinn, we shall or zoiZZ
sibh, ye sAaZZ or toiZZ
^
i co/i
. '. < sibh, ye came, or did > com Thig' (iad,
* (iad, rAet/ came, or did) :Ziey sAaZZ or J
A GRAMMAR OF

INTERROGATIVE, or NEGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Prererife.
Sing. ( mi, did I
1 1 Sing ( mi, did I not 1
thu, didst
An d' thainig <* e, dids thou > come ? Nachd'thain . < thu, didst
dids thou not \ come ?
did he 8 ( e, did Ae not )
sinn, did we "I ( sinn, d
did we not ~k
Plur Plur.
An d' thainig sibh, did ye V come ? Nach d' thainig < sibh, did
d ye not > come ?
4 iad, did they J (. iad, du
did they not )
Future, Future,
(mi, shall or will I
Sing. thu , Shalt or wilt thou come ; Sing. (mi, shall or will I not "1
An tig <(e, s Nach tig < thu, shalt or wilt thou not \ come ?
shall or will he le, sishall or will he not j
Plur. sinn, shall or wiZZ we 1 ( sinn, shall or will
Plur. < sibh, shall or wiZZ ye not we not
An tig sibh, sAaW or wiZZ ye > come? Nach tig come '.
I iad, sAaZZ or will they ) shall or wiZZ fAey not }
Preterite. Future.
mi, /I came not, or did not
(mi, Sing. (mi, 1
I shall or will not "1
Sing. < thu, thou earnest not, or didst not come. ti ithu' rAou sAaZZ or wilt not > come.
Cha d' thainig (.e, he came not, or did not } Cha (. e, he shall or wiZZ not 3
sinn, we came not, or did not ~l sinn, we shall or wiZZ not "i
Plur. sibh, ye came not, or did woZ > come. Plur. f sibh, ye sAaZZ or will not \ come.
Cha d' thainig iad, <Aey came nof, or did not ) Cha tig J iad, fAey
{ sAaZZ or wiZZ woZ ^

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( Thiginn, / would ~\ ( mi, i/"
if / sAaZZ or will ~i
Sing ' < thu, i,if thou shalt or wilt > come.
Sing. < Thigeadh tu, ZAoit wouldst S- come. Ma thig
Thigeadh e, Ae would j Ae shall or wiZZ 3
( Thigeamaid, we would 1 PZr f smn> if w sAaZZ or will
PZur. < Thigeabh sibh, ye would > come. Ma thie I ?ibh' shal1 or come.
(.Thigeadh iad, <Aey would ) 6 (. iad, if they shall or will }
( Tiginn, if I had or would 1 . ( Tiginn, if I had or would not ~l
N^n I Tigeadh thu, if thou kadst or wouldst V come. Mar' 1 Tigeadh thu, if thou hadst or wouldst not \come.
Tigeadh e, if he had or would J (. Tigeadh e, if he had or would not 3
Plur (T^S63111^, if we had or would ~k PZr.{ T|eadh sinn" } Vwe had or w(MtW M<")
,T an ' < Tigeadh
Tigeadh sibh,
iad, ifi/"they
ye Aad
hadororwould
would J> come. Mar J Tigeadh sibh, i/"ye Aad or would not rcomc-
V. Tigeadh iad, if they had or would not J

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


( Thigeam, let me come. A thighinnn,
nnn, )
Sing. < Thig, come ZAom. A theacrid, ) to come.
t Thigeadh e, let him come.
( Thigeamaid, let us come. PARTICIPLE.
Plur. < Thigibh, come ye. A tiarhinn, )
( Thigeadh iad, Zer <Aem come. Ateachd,'\c9-

BEIR, bear.
ACTIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
Sing. < thu, Ithou
(mi, bore,
horest.
I shall
Sing. (mi, thou shalt or will bear,
Rug {_ i, she < thu, or wilt bear,
Beiridh (. si, Sishe shall or will
sh bore. bear.
Plur. sinn, we bore. we shall or will bear,
sibh, ye bore. Plur.
Rug Beiridh ye shall or will bear,
{ iad, tliey bore. they shall or will bear.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xliii

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
( mi, did I bear ? ( mi, shall
sAaW I/ bear ?
didst thou bear ? Sing
!"beir I t*lu' s^a'' t^l0u oear'
Andorug|id;.did she bear ? Am ( i, shall she bear ?
piur ( sinn, did we bear? PZwr f s'nn> sAaZZ we 6ear ?
An do rue 1 8'^' ^e *ear ' Am beir i s^> s^a^ Ve oear ?
( iad, did tliey bear ? ( iad, sAaZZ *Aey 6ear ?
( mi, 1I bore not, or did not
Sing Jthu, thou barest not, or didst not^ bear. Sing <(mi, mi, J shall or wtZZ no* i "I
thu,
Cha do rug Cha bheir (i, sh , fAou sAaZl or wilt not > fcear.
( i, she bore not, or did not sAe shall or wt/Z no* 3
Plur. ( sinn, we bore not, or did not Plur ' <( sinn, we shall or will not ~\
Cha do rue J s'^^' ^e ^ore no'' or ^ > Aear. sibh, ye shall or will not } bear.
* ( iad, they bore not, or did not Cha bheir
' (.iad, they shall or will not )
(mi,
mi, did
i I not ~l ' mi, shall I not "i
{thu, didst thou not > bear ? Sing thu, shall thou not > bear ?
Nach do rug Nach beir i, shall she not
did she not J }
( sinn, did we not
Plur.
Nach do rue <~\ sibh,
Bum> did
alt* ye not Plur. ' sinn, shall we not 1
nof * ^cor '
e ( iad, did they not J Nach beir sibh, shall ye not > bear ?

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( Bheirinn, / could or would ~\ ( mi, iy / sAaZZ or kiiZZ 1
Sing. < Beireadh tu, thou couldst or wouldst > bear. Sing. i/" thou shalt or wiZf > bear,
Ma bheireas
' Bheireadh i, sAe cou/rf or would j inif she shall or will j
( Bheireadhmaid, we could or would 1 sinn, t/"we sAaZZ or wtZZl
PZur. < Bheireadh sibh, ye cowZd or would > Sear. Plur. sibh, t/"ye sAaZZ or will > 6ear.
Ma bheireas
( Bheireadh iad, they could or wouZcZ j 1 iad, if they shall or wiZZ )

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


( Beiream, let me bear. A bheirsinn,
'iur'}<o6ear-
A bhreith,
Sing. < Beir, bear thou.
( Beireadh i, let her bear.
PARTICIPLE.
( Beireamaid, let us bear.
Plur. < Beiribh, bear ye. A beirsinn,
nn' | bearing.
( Beireadh iad, let them bear., A breith

PASSIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
(mi, 1I was "i (mi, I shall be
Sing. \ tu, tl
thou wast V born, Sing thu, thou shalt be \ born,
Rugadh (e, Ae was J Beirear <(e, he
ht shall be y
sinn, we shall be 1
Plur. <( sinn, Plur sibh, ye shall be \ born.
sibh, ye were born.
Rugadh (iad, they Beirear iad, tliey shall be J
I were } -{

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Preterite.
( mi, was I } %n/j ( mi, / was not
Sing.
rugadh I, thu'
. Sing.
' rugadh j" thu,
thu, <Aou wert not \ born.
An do wert thou \ born ? Cha do ^ <Awaas not
6 (.e, was
w he }
Plur. (s!"' were we ) ( sinn, we w ere not
Plur. < sibh, ye wtere not > born,
AndorUgadh(^S;J born? Cha do rugadh (iad, they were
u not )
xliv A GRAMMAR OF
Future. Future.
Sing. ( mi, ;shall I be 1 Sing. ( mi, /I shall not be ~\
< thu, shalt thou be > born ? Cha bheirear < thu, tthou shalt not be > born,
Am beirear (_e, sh
shall he be j [e, lie .shall not be j
shall we be Plur. sinn, we shall not be ~l
Plur. shall ye be J. born ? sibh, ye shall not be > born.
Am beirear Cha bheirear
shall they be J { iad, they shall not be )

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Preterite.
ing f mi' I could or would be "1 Sing. ( mi, if I could or would be ~\
Sing thou couldst or wouldst be V born \ thu, i/
f thou couldst or wouldst be > Aorn.
Bheirteadh
irteadh J(.e, ^ Nam beirteadh (e, if'h,
Ae could or would be ) Ae cou/e? or would be )
sinn, we could or would be ( sinn, iy we cowZrf or would be }
Plur. \( sibh, ye , could or would be > Aoro. Nam beirteadh j !^'.jfjP cou^or w0"^ bke \ born-
Bheirteadh (. iad, ZAey cou/d or would be ) (_ iad, if they could or would be J
Future.
(mi,
mi, i/i
i/" / shall be
,T ,i ?*rtearjthu',f
< thu, if thou shalt be j> born.
Mabheiitearl. >*LthjUbe
le, i/Ae
( sinn, i/"
if we shall be "1
Plur < sibh, i/"
t/ ye shall be ' Aora.
Ma bheirtear I iad, i/" ZAey sAaZZ be J

IMPERATIVE MOOD. PARTICIPLE.

Sing. (mi, ,let me be 'J Air breith, born.


Beirthear, Beirtear < thu, be thou \ born,
(e, let
le him be )
Plur. let us be "I
Beirthear, Beirtear , be ye > born,
let them be )

RACH, go.

ACTIVE VOICE.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
Sing mi, / went, or did mi, / sAaZZ 1
Chaidh e, he went,wentest,
thu, thou
or did
or didstI
\go.
J
v thu, <Ao
Theid (.' e, he shallshalt > 30.
4: j
Plur \ Slnn> we vent, or did}
Chaidh sibh' ye went' or did < PZur,4 sinn, we shall 1
iad, ZAey went, or dieZ Theid sibh, ye sAaZZ >jfo.
iad, fAe^ shall J

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite, Preterite.
(mi,
Sing. < thu, did I ( mi, did I not "i
didst thou Sing.
An deach < thu, didst thou
Nach deach I e, cZitZ Ae not not > gro.'
le, <ft
did he J
Plur. did we ( sinn, did we not "1
did ye PZur.
An deach
did they Nach deach (. sibh,
< did ye not > go!
iad, did they not )
Future. Future.
Sing mi, shall or will I 1 ( mi shall or will I not
Sing.
An d' theid thu, sAaZi or wilt thou J go? Nach d' theid
thu, shalt or wiZf thou not go?
sAaZZ or wiZZ Ae J shall or wiZZ Ae not
Plur. shall or wiZZ we Plur f sinn, sAaZZ
shall or will
wiZZ we not
noZ ^
An d' theid , shall or wiZZ ye J- </o ? Nach cTtheid i ?ibh' s/toW or wiU ye mt i 90 ?
sAaZZ or will they } (. iad, shall or will they not J
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE.
Preterite Future.
Sing. f mi, /I did not ~l ( mi, I
/ shall or will not
< thu, thou didst not i^ go. Sing.
Cha deach (. e, he did not y Cha d' theid (e, he shallshalt
< thu, i
thou or wilt not
or will not
Plur. we did not C sinn, w<we shall or will not "i
ye did not ^ go Plur. < sibh, y< shall or will not J- go
ye
Cha deach they did not Cha d' theid (.iad, they
the shall or will not

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( Rachainn, / would or could "1
Singr. < Rachadh thu, fAou wouldst or couldst > go. Sing. {thu, i/"/tAou
f' mi, i
i/" shall or tot//
shalt or wiZt jfO.
[ Rachadh e, he would or could } Ma theid i/- Ae shall or wiZZ
C Rachamaid, we would or could "i PZur f Smn' !/"M,e s'ta" or *>*tf 1
P/tw. < Rachadh sibh, ye would or could \ go.
Ma theid <)( :_j
sibh, i/" e sAa/Z
_t_ororwiZZ > <yo.
(. Rachadh iad, they would or could J iad, i/" tAey shall _vW
?t;i j

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


C Racham, let me go. A dhol, to go.
Sing. < Rach, go thou.
( Rachadh e, let him go.
PARTICIPLE.
( Rachamaid, let us go.
Plur. < Rachaibh, go ye. A dol, going.
[ Rachadh iad, let them go.

RUIG. reach.

ACTIVE VOICE.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
Sing. C mi, I reac
cached, C mi, I shall or will "1
Sing
Rainig <{_ thu, thou reachedst.
e, he react
reached. Ruigidh thou shalt or wilt > reach,
he shall or will )
Plur 4 sinn, we reached. sinn, we shall or will~i
Plur. |^ s'Dn> Ve s^a^ or
Rainig sibh, ye reached. Ruiidh \ reach.
iad, they reached. . iad, tAey shall or w.'iZZ J

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Preterite.
Sing. f ' did /
mi, die "J p. f mi, did 7 not ^
< thu, di
dids*
An do rainig t e, did Ae tAou V reach ? xr i_ j \ thu, didst tAou not \ reach?
) Nachdoram.g|e> j.dAeno< j

Plur. C sinn, di did we pjur ( sinn, did we not 1


< sibh, dii
did ye ^ reach ? xt i. j ' \ sibh, did we not > reach ?
An do rainig ( iad, did they J Nachd0ra,n,l iad, did tLy not)
Future. /Ware.
Sing. < thu,shall
C ' mi,
shalt
I
thou
t
"1
> reacA ?
o- f mi, sna/Z / not "1
An ruig ( e, sAaZZ he - - < thu, sAaZ< tAou not > reacA ?
Nach ruisr ^1 e, shall he
, not

Plur. J( sinn, shall we 1


sibh,, shall ye V reacA ? Plur. <C sinn, sAaW ?A'e not "J
An ruig sibh,, sAa/Z ye not > reacA ?
(. iad,, sshall they J Nach ruig (iad, (sAaZZ tAey not )

Preterite. Future.
. C mi, / reached not, or did not }
Sing ' < thu, /tAou
C ' mi, sAaZZ or will not "i
Cha'do raini I t^,u' '^0U Teac^ie(^st no'' or didst not > reach. sishalt or ?uiZt not J- reach.
I e, Ac reached not, or did not ) Cha ruig ( e, Ae sAaZZ ior wiZZ not }
PZr. ( sinn,
smn, we reached not, or did not 1 C sinn, we shall or wi/Z not ^
ye reached not, or did not > reach. Plur,'. < sibh, ye sAaZZ or wiZZ not ' reach.
Cha do rainig < sibh,f Aey Cha ruig
(. iad, i reached not, or did not j (.iad, tAey
tAei shall or tt'iZZ not )
xlvi A GRAMMAR OF

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
C Ruiginn, / would "1 (mi, if
i I shall or will
Sing. < Ruigeadh tu, thou wouldst \ reach. Sing.
Ma ruigeas \ tu> if
i thou shalt or wilt.1,
\ reach,
(_ Ruigeadh e, he would ) f.e, if he shall or will y
C Ruigeamaid, we would \
Plur. < Ruigibh, ye would \ reach. Plur. ( sinn, if we shall or will ~\
(_ Ruigeadh iad, they would y Ma ruigeas 1 sibh, if ye shall or will V reach.
iad, if they shall or willy

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


( Ruigeam, let me reach. A ruigsinn, )
Sing. < Ruig, reach thou. A ruigheachd, 5 reach.
[ Ruigeadh e, let him reach.
( Ruigeamaid, let us reach. PARTICIPLE.
Plur.l Ruigibh, reach ye. A ruigsinn, ) ..
[ Ruigeadh iad, let them reach. A ruigheachd, )ch9-

THOIR, or THABHAIR* give.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future-
Sing f mi, I
/ gave, ox did ) |mi,/iattor ^ 1
Thug < thu,, rthou gavest, or didst [give. JJ< thu thou shalt or wilt Uwe.
t e, Ae, ;gave, or did ) I e, he shall or will )
D, C sinn, we jfave, or did
P^r- \ sibh ye Jaw, or did [give.) pfor. f sinn, we shall or
Bhei ] ?*\ *6 shfn0T *% \ wiZZ |
ThuS \ iad, they gave, or did J * l d, ** 01 > jwe.

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite.
Sing. ( mi, did /
Sing f mi, did I not
An tugf <t e,
thu, didst thou.1> (jive
Nach tug . thu, didst thou not give '
did Ae y L e, did Ae woZ
Plur. <( sinn, did we
sibh, did ye owe 1 Plur. j" sinn, did we not ^
An tug (.iad, did Nach tug) ^'JidJe mt Pive?
Aey } 6 ^ iad, did they not )
FuZure. Future,
mi, / shall or wi/Z mi, shall or will I
Sing thu, fAom shalt or wiZ< V owe. Sing' J th
Bheir e, he shall or u>i# y )ir J shall or or
An toir thu, sAaZf wilt thou
will he
sinn, we sAa// or will ~l shall or wt7Z we
Plur. sibh, ye sAa/Z or will \ give. Plur
Bheir iad, they shall or wiZZ 3 An toir sibh, shall or wiW ye J- owe
{ iad, shall or wiZZ ZAey
Preterite. Future.
Sing ( mi, did / not ( mi, sAaZZ
1 or wiZZ / not
< thu, didst
c thou not j-jriue Sing
Nach tug (. e, did . < thu, shalt or wiZ< ZAom nott ^givel
Nach toir
did he not (.e, shall
sh or wiZZ Ae not
Plur. sinn, did we not ") shall or wiZZ we not
sibh, did ye not > <jriue ' Plur.
Nach tug iad, did Nach toir shall or wiZZ ye not J- owe ?
{ they not y shall or wiZZ ZAey wo<
Sing. <f mi,
thu,
/ did wo*
thou didst not
^
I Sing (mi, /. shall or will not
Cha tug e, he did not ir
'lr iI thu'
Cha toir e, hi thou shalt or wilt not |jfii;e.
y he shall or >will not
PZur. ^(sinn,
sibh,
we did not~l
ye did not \ give. Plur ( sinn, we sAaZZ or will not }
Cha tug (. iad, they - < sibh,
Cha toir " , ye shall or will not \i
did not y '"(iad,,they shall or will not} "

* Thabhair is also written tabhuir. t lug is also written a" thug by some of our best writers.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xlvii

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Preterite.
C Bheirinn, / could or would ~\ p. C tugainn, I would not 1
Sing. < Bheireadh tu, thou couldst or wouldst > give. \ tugadh tu, thou wouldst not % give.
t Bheireadh e, he could or would give y ' tugadh e, he would not )
( Bheireamaid, we could or would ~l Plur { tugamaid, we would not ~l
Plur. < Bheireadh sibh, ye could or would > give. na" < tugadh sibh, ye would not > give.
f. Bheireadh iad, they could or would ) {_ tugadh iad, they would not y
Future. Future,
mi, if / sW/ or will
Sing. fJ<?,J Plur. if we shall or will
Mabheirithu'f' thou shall or wilt \give. Ma bheir if ye shall or will give.
le, t/Ac shall or iwW if they shall or will }
Preterite. Preterite.
. f toirinn, / would not 1 Plur f t>reamucl, would not 1
Cha J to'rea'"1 tu> '^0,t wouldst not i give. Q^a' < toireadh sibh, ye would not >give.
{ toireadh e, he would not J [ toireadh iad, they would not J

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


( Thoiream, thugam, let me give. A thoirt, ) .
Sing. < Thoir, thug, give thou. A thabhairt, } * 9we'
( Thoireadh e, thugadh e, let him give.
C Thoireamaid, thugamaid, let us give. PARTICIPLE.
Plur. < Thoiribh, thugaibh, give ye. A toirt, ) . .
^Thoireadh iad, thugadh iad, let them give. Atabhairt,}^'"^

PASSIVE VOICE.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.


Preterite.
p. C mi, I was (mi, was
i I 1
m_ < thu, thou wast given. Sing.
Thu&adh U,he < thu,
An tugadh (e, was wert thou K given ?
w he )
Plur. sinn, we were } C sinn, were we
sibh, ye were V given. AnPlur.
tugadh {*.''<'.?' ;.'/'""'
Thugadh iad, they were J they)
Future.
Sing. C mi, I shall be ~l
Sing. (mi, shall I be
Bheirear < thu, thou shalt
- i
be\ given. < thu , shalt thou be J- given ?
be\,
(. e, he shall be An to i rear (e, s
shall he be )
Plur. <C sibh,
sinn, we shall be
ye shall be given. Plur. C sinn, shall we be~\
Bheirear {_ iad, they shall bi An toirear t sibh,
< shall ye be > given ?
iad, shall they be )
Future.
Sing. ( mi, / was not ~l ( mi, / shall not be ~\
Sing.
Cha tugadh <( thu, thou wert not \given. Cha toirear < thu, thou shalt not be J- given.
e, he was not J e, he shall not be J
C sinn, we were not 'J Plur f s'nn> we shall not bebe 1
ChaPlur.
tugadh) ?ib.\r were nott (9"- Cha toirear I s'^^' ^e s^a^ not oe >e % given,
(. iad, they were not J {_ iad, they shall not be)
'

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future
Sing. ( mi, / would be ~l ( mi, if
i I shall be 1
< thu, thou wouldst be \ given. Sing. < thu, if thou shalt
halt be \
Bheirteadh Ma bheirear
(. e, he would be ) (e,i/if he shall be )
piur ( sinn, we would be "i sinn, if we shall be 1
Bheirteadh ) ?ib,\f \ given. Plur. sibh, if ye shall
Ma bheirear iad, if they shall be }yi
given.
(. iad, they would be ) { be )
xlviii A GRAMMAR OF
Preterite. Preterite.
mi, I would not be sinn, we would not be "i
Sing. Plur. sibh, ye would not be > given,
thou wouldst not 6e j given.
Cha tugtadh < thu,
he would not be Cha tugtadb iad, they would notthe)
{
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
mi, let me be ~i sinn, let us be 1
ThSing.
crih $ ' ^e ^ {9*ven' Plur. < sibh, be ye > given.
^ [e, let him be Thugthar {_ iad, let them be

FA 1, see.
ACTIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or NEGATIVE MOOD
Preterite.
Sing. mi, /7 saw, or did 1 . mi, / s/m/ or will
} thu, thou sawest, or didst see. jjj \ thu, Aou sAa/ or wilt > see.
Chunna, or Chunnaic (, e,
he saw, or did 3 ^ e, Ae shall or wtZZ 1 )
Plur. we saw, or did
'id } Plur f s'nn> we sAa/i or wiZZ "1
ye saw, or did
id t
J- -
sec. rlii'
( < sibh, ye shall or will > see.
Chunna, or Chunnaic iad, they shall or wiZZ )
they saw, or did
did)

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Preterite
mi, did
a I mi, did I/ not
woi 1
Sing ' < thu, didst thou J- see? Sing. < thu didst thou not > see?
Am fac (. e, did
di< he Nach fhac [e, did he not J
sinn, did we sinn, did we not
Pi did ye > see; Plur. < sibh, did ye not V
Am "fac]8*/1'
(.iad, did ZAey Nach fhac {_ iad, did they not
.Future.
Futu; Future.
( mi, shall
s I
Sing. -thu, shalt thou ^ sfii> ? , shall I not
Sing. u, shalt thou not J- see ?
Am faic {_ e,, sA<
shall he Nach fhaic sAa no
Plur. sinn, shall we 1 sinn, sAaZ/ we not "i
Plur.
. ,,. . < sibh, shall ye not >see?
aie 1 sibh,
Am faic j
iad,
shall ye > see ?
shall they Nachfha,c liad, sAaZZzLyno 5
Preterite. Future.
Sing. Cha 'n fhac mi, / did not see. <Sii(r. Cha 'n fhaic mi, / shall not see.
Plur. Cha 'n fhac sinn, we did not see. Plur. Cha 'n fhaic sinn, we shall not see.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( Chithinn, / would ( mi, if I shall ~l
Sing. < Chitheadh thu, thou wouldst \ see? Sing. < thu, if thou shalt \ SCI'.
(_ Chitheadh e, he would Ma chi [e, if he shall
Chitheamaid, we would 1 Plur is'nn if we shall
Plur. < Chitheadh sibh, ye would Vsee. Ma chi. <1 sibh,
ja(j ' if
ye shall
[ Chitheadh iad, they would if they shall }
faicinn, if I would or could "1 n; rfaiceamaid,
Vf or y> if
.. sinn, .r ., ,,
Sing. S faiceadh thu, if thou wouldst or couldst \ see. Plur. y faiceadh J we would or could (I
Nam I faiceadh e, if he would or could J ser
Vam } faiceadh sibh, if ye would or could ^
v. faiceadh iad, if they would or could
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Faiceam, let me see. ( Faiceamaid, let us see.
Sing. < f'aic, see thou. Plur. < Faicibh, see ye.
{_ Faiceadh e, let him see. t Faiceadh iad, let them see.

INFINITIVE MOOD. PARTICIPLE.


A dh' fhaicinn, > A faicinn,
f . ' )} seeuw.
Dh' fhaicsinn, 5 0 sec. A taicsinn, S *
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. xlix

PASSIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
o. C mi, / was "I a- C mi, / shall be 1
nnacadh* ) thu.' thou wert \ seen' Chlfhear ] thu.' th?u,^U be \
\_ e, he was ) {_ e, he shall be J
Plur. S T?' WB W6re ) Plur. f 8!I!u * WB !* )
unnacadh)s,b,h',f were \seen- Chithear ) slb,h',f shf *! J
I lad, fAey were J (, lad, fAey sliall be )

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
fC mi, was 7I "I1 ^. C mi, sAaW j' ^e
m'' *^" 1
Amfecadh
n fecadh ]\ thu' we;'
^ '*ow [J sccn?
seen ? Am fafcear ]1 thu'.
ih\ sA;a" 'Ao
'*0B 6e [ (seew '
^ e, was he J {_ e, sAati Ae oe J
( sinn, were we 1 Plur V 8'nn> sAaZi we be 1
< sibh, were ye \ seen? Am fjjear \ sibh, sAa// ye fie V i >
iad, were they ) (. iad, shall they be j
Sing. Nach fhacadh mi, was I not seen ? Sing. Nach fhaicear mi, shall I not be seen ?
Plur. Nach fhacadh sinn, were we not seen ? Plur. Nach fhaicear sinn, shall we not be
Sing. Cha 'n fhacadh mi, I was not seen. Sing. Cha 'n fhaicear mi, / shall not be seen.
Plur. Cha 'n fhacadh sinn, we were not seen. Plur. Cha 'n fhaicear sinn, we shall not be seen.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Preterite.
a. C mi, / would be ^ n- C mi, if I would be 1
Chiteadh ) thu,' thou %ldst be \ Nam faicieadh ] thu>/lf thou fdst be \ seen-
{_ e, Ae would be J [_e,if he would be )
Plur f S'nn' we wou^d be "1 C sinn, if we would be 1
Chiteadh i ?ibh' ye would be t sce"' Nam falcteadh i sibh' & ye would be ( seen-
{_ iad, they would be J iad, if they would be )
Future.
g. ( mi, if I shall be ~l Plur ( sinn, if we shall be 1
km l-A. \ thu, if thou
Ma ch.thear^ ^ shaUhe shalt be j> seen. Ma chithear | sibh, if ye shall
. < shallbe^yseen.

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


Faicthear, )..-., Dh' fhaicinn, ) .
faicear e, } ht U be seen- Dh1 fhaicsinn, \ t0 see'

FAIGH, get.

ACTIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
Sing. Fhuair mi, / got, or did get. Sing. Gheibh mi, / shall or will get.
Plur. Fhuair sinn, we got, or did get. Plur Gheibh sinn, we shall or will get.

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
Stng. An d' fhuair mi, did I get ? Sing. Am faigh mi, shall I get ?
Plur. An d* fhuair sinn, did we get ? Plur. Nach faigh sinn, shall we get ?
Sing. Nach d' fhuair mi, did I not get ? Sing. Nach faigh mi, shall I not get ?
Plur. Nach d' fhuair sinn, did we not get? Plur. Nach faigh sinn, shalt we not get?
Sing. Cha d' fhuair mi, I shall not get. Sing. Cha 'n fhaigh mi, I shall not get.
Plur. Cha d' fhuair sinn, we shall not get. Plur. Cha 'n fhaigh sinn, we shall not get.
Also written Chunnacas.
h
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
f( Gheibhinn,
Uheibhinn, /I would or could J
Sing. < Gheibheadh tu, thou wouldst or couldst >get. Sing. ( mi, if I shall
Ma gheibh < thu, if thou shall \ get.
(.Gheibheadh e, he would or could } [ e, if he shall )
Gheibheamaidh, or sinn, if we shall ~i
we would or could Plur.
I "8'' if shal1 >?
Gheibheadh sibh, ye would or could " iad, if they shall )
(. Gheibheadh iad, they would or could J
' faighinn, if I would or could IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing.
Nam } '^gbeadh tu, if thou wouldst or couldst get. ( Faigheam, let me get.
{_ faigheadh e, if he would or could } Sing. < Faigh, re thou.
{faigheamaid, or ,. t Faigheadh e, let him get.
faigheadh sinn, } l* we would or could v f
faigheadh sibh, if ye would or could ( $e ' ( Faigbeamaid, let us get.
Plur. < Faighibh, get ye.
faigheadh iad, if they would or could } ( Faigheadh iad, let them get.

INFINITIVE MOOD. PARTICIPLE.


A dh' fhaotuinn, . A faotainn,
A dh* fhaghail, \t03et- Afaghail, '<9ettmS.

PASSIVE VOICE.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
Sing. (mi, 1/ was Sing. jthu, /1 shall be
(mi,
Fhuaradh J the, thou wert J- found, thou shall
halt be \ got.
(.e, he was j Gheibhear te, he shall
be )
we were
.Plur, ( sinn, ye were V found, Plur <( sinn, we shall be ~1
Fhuaradh Gheibhear sibh, ye shall be J-s
ear(iad,(they
MS' they were J shallI be S

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite, Future.
Sing. ( mi, was I ( mi, shall I be 1
Sing.
An d' fhuaradh {_ thu,
< wert I hau ^ found?
e, was he
< thu, shalt thou
Am faighear {_ e, shall he be be >
j
( sinn, w ,e 1 ( sinn, shall we be
Plur. < sibh, were
ye J- found ? PJur' J sibh, shall ye be
An d' fhuaradh {_ iad, were
we they J Am faiShearliad, shall they be)
"

Sing. Nach d' fhuaradh mi, was I not got ? Sing. Nach faighear mi, shall I not be got ?
Plur. Nach d' fhuaradh sinn, were we not got ? Plur. Nach faighear sinn, shall we not be got ?

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
( mi, / was 1 Si?ig. (mi,
mi, if I shall be ~l
Sing. < thu, thou wert > got. An. if thou shalt be \got.
{thu,
Gheibhteadh (. e, was Ma gheibhear
} if he shall be
te, if )
sinn, we were Plur. ( sinn, if we shall be
Plur. sibh, ye were J- got. < sibh, if ye shall be \ got.
Gheibhteadh iad, they were } Ma gheibhear
{ I iad, if they shall be )

Sing. Nam faighteadh mi, if I would be got. IMPERATIVE MOOD.


Plur. Nam faighteadh sinn, if we would be got. Faightear, faighear e, let it be got.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE.

A BAIR, say.

ACTIVE VOICE.

AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. i-uZwre.
( mi, /I said, or did ( mi, / shall or wz7Z
1
Sing. < thu, thou Sinjf. \ thu, fAou sAaZZ or wilt say.
t saidst, or didst,1
Vsay. Their (e, Ae shall or wiZZ
Thubhairt (e, Ae said, or did J }
sinn, we said, or did ) p. f sinn, we shall or wtZZ "1
Plur sibh, ye said, or did > say. , T' < sibh, ye sAo/Z or wiZZ J- say.
Thubhairt iad, they said, or did ) lnelr (iad, they shall or will)
1

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Preterite.
f mi, odid I } i mi, did / noZ
not "i
Sing. Sing. < thu, didst thou not >say?
J thu, didst thou > say ? Nach dubhairt ( e, did he not
An dubhairt (e, di<
did Ae ) J
D/ ( sinn, did we nof 1
P/r. say: . ,"!'', ._. < sibh, did ye not \ say ?
An dubhairt Nach dubhalrtl iad,, die
did they not )'
Future. .FuZure.
shall or will I ( mi, sAaZZ
i or will I not
Sing. ir (I mi, i Sing . < thu, shalt or wilt thou not say!
thu' shalt or wilt thou say? Nach abair (e, shall or will he not
An aba (e, sh shall or wiZZ he }
}
p, f sinn, sAaZ/ or will we ~i sinn, shall or wiZZ we Hot
Plur sibh, sAaZZ or will ye not say ?
An abair | fb-h' S-Aa-?' 0r f Say ? Nach abair iad, shall or will they not )
. iad, sAaZZ or wiZZ ZAey ) I
Preterite. Future.
( mi, I/ said not, or did not ( mi, 1I shall or will not ,
Sing Sing. < thu, thou shalt or wiZ< not
J thu, thou saidst not, or didst not I say. Cha 'n abair (e, Ae shall or wiZZ not
Cha dubhairt (e, Ac said not, or did not
sinn, we said not, or did no< ' p. f sinn, we shall or wiZZ not
Plur. VMr*, . ? sibh, ye shall or will not
sibh, ye said not, or did noZ Cha n abair ^ thgy shM m wM JM<
Cha dubhairt iad, fAey said not, or did woZ ,
{
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Preterite. s
( abairinn, abrainn, if I would
Theirinn, / would T."3' < abaireadh, abradh tu, if thou wouldst
Sing Theireadh tu, <Aou wouldst.1
S- say. (abaireadh, abradh e, if he would
{ Theireadh e, Ae would )
p. C abaireamaid, abramaid, if we would ^
' Theireamaid, we would ~l \fMr" \ abaireadh, abradh sibh, if ye would S
Plur. -J Theireadh sibh, ye would > say. an ( abaireadh, abradh iad, if they would J
I"Theireadh iad, ZAey would } Future.
abairinn, abrainn, would I not ( mi, iif I shall or will 1
Sing. s abaireadh, abradh tu, woxddst thou not say! Sing
Nach abaireadh, abradh e, would he not \f thou shalt or wiZf \ say.
} Ma thelrle,V if he shall or will J
abaireamaid, abramaid, would we not C sinn, if we shall or will
Plur. abaireadh, abradh sibh, would ye not say: Plur.'. <1 sibh, if ye shall or will \say.
Nach abaireadh, abradh iad, would they not Ma their
3,r(iad,iif they shall or will J

IMPERATIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE MOOD.


( Abaiream, abram, let me say. A radh, to say.
Sing. < Abair, say thou.
(Abaireadh, abradh, e, let him say.
( Abaireamaid, abramaid, let us say. PARTICIPLE.
Plur. < Abairibh, abraibh, say ye. Ag radh, saying.
(Abaireadh, abradh iad, let them say.
lii A GRAMMAR OF

PASSIVE VOICE.
AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
Sing. *Thubhradh e, it was said. Sing. Theirear e, it shall be said.

NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.


Preterite. Future.
An dubhradh e, was it said? An abairear, abrar e, shall it be said ?
Nach dubhradh e, was it not said ? Nach abairear, abrar e, shall it not be said ?
Cha dubhradh e, it was not said. Cha 'n abairear, abrar e, it shall not be said.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
Theirteadh e, it would be said. Ma theirear e, if it shall be said.
Nan abairteadh e, if it would be said.
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Abairear, abrar e, let it be said.

DEFECTIVE VERBS.

The defective Verbs are, Arsa, 01, Feudaidh, Theab, Tiucainn.

ARSA, says, said.


Arsa, says, said, always precedes its verb, as, area Seumas, said James. When it is declined with the personal
pronouns, it throws them into the emphatic form ; as,
. C mise, said I. Plur f 8mne> sa^ we-
Arsa 1 tnusa> saidst thou. Arsa' ) s'khse> sa^ Ve-
(. esan, or ise, said he or she. (. iadsan, said they.

FEUDAID H,f may.


AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Future.
C mi, / was able. u
Sing. jT'ItruaUe; .
Sing, C mi, / may.
f'7^"
Dh' fheud ) thu,.' thou "f? Me- Feudddh ] thu' thou mayesU
he was able. {_e,
[e, he may.
Plur \' sinn, we were able. Plur
pjr {C s'nn
sinn, we may.
Dh' fheud ) si^h',f were ab[e: FeudTidh ) ?*h'jf
~,yemay.
(.iad, they were able. (.'ad, they may.
may

INTERROGATIVE, or NEGATIVE MOOD.


Future. Future.
C mi, may I?
Sing. < thu, mayst thou ? . C mi, / may or must net.
Am feud I e, may he? n, , , , < thu, thou mayst or must not.
Ona n t neud ^ ^ ^ ^ Qt ^ wf
lT C sinn, may we?
Plur PI $ sinn, we may or must not.
Am feud )\_ ttZJZ
eud ??
iaa, may they ?
Cha 'nflieud ] "f' f or must <-
^ iad, they may or must not.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Preterite. Preterite.
( Dh' fheudainn, / might. e f mi, if I may.
Sing. I Dh; fheudadh tu, thou mightst. M dh> ] thu, tf thou mayst.
{_ Dh flieudadh, he might. {. e, if he may.
( Dh' fheudamaid, we might. p, C sinn, if we may.
Plur. \ Dh' fheudadh sibh, ye might. M .'! \ sibh, t/ ye may.
I Dh' fheudadh iad, they might. ma a lneuaas ( iad, if they may.

* Some write dubhradh, which rather belongs to the Irish dialect. t Feudaidh and feud are often written/a<xfau/A and food-
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. liii
Feudaidh is often and elegantly used impersonally, either with or without the compound pronoun.
g. (' dhomh, / must. fdhuinn,
f< we must.
i.ruj \ dhuit, thou must. , ur\ < <
Isfheudar(dha, he must. Isfheudar|( dhuibh, ye must.
[ dhoibh, they must.

TIUCAINN, come along.


IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. Tiucainn, come along. Plur. Tiucainnibh, come ye along.

THEAB, had almost.


AFFIRMATIVE, or INDICATIVE MOOD.
Sing, (mi, 11 had almost. Plur f s'nn> we hod almost,
Theab{J thu thou hadst almost. Theab J s'^^' ^e almost,
(.e, he had almost. {_ iad, they had almost.
NEGATIVE, or INTERROGATIVE MOOD.
Sing. ( mi, ,
had I almost ? (mi, had I not almost ?
< thu, hadst thou almost ? Sing.
An do theab (e, had
hi he almost ? Nach do theab thu,
\ hadst thou not almost ?
had he not almost ?
Plur. had we almost ? had we not almost ?
had ye almost ? Plur.
An do theab Nach do theab had ye not almost ?
had they almost ? had they not almost?
Sing. ( mi, 1I had not almost, Sing. (mi,
mi, if I had not almost.
Z thu, thou hadst
Cha do theab ^e, he had almost. not almost, < thu, if
if thou hadst not almost,
Mur do theab le,ifh,
he had not almost.
Plur. sinn, we had almost.
I sibh, ye had almost. sinn, if we had not almost.
Plur. sibh, if ye had not almost.
Cha do theab , iad, they had almost. Mur do theab
{ iad, if they had not almost.

OF THE ADVERB.
The Adverb, in Gaelic, expresses Place, Time, and Manner or Quality. Gu, before any adjective, imparts to it
adverbial meaning.
Adverbs of Place, are such as signify,
1 . Motion or rest in a place. Bhos, on this side.
A bhan, bhan, down, downwards. C'aite, where.
A bhan is a'n airde, \ dotm' Deas, south.
\I VPV
upwards and downwards. Ear, east.
A bhos, bhos, on this side. Fas as,
A mach, mach, out, without. Fad air falbh, \far away.
Ait astar, afar. Fad air astar,
Air deireadh, ),.> . f^8' X near.
Airdheireadh,}^'' **""' Fogus, )
Air thoiseach, ) - . - Far, where, in which.
Airtoiseach, \ first, foremost. Iar, west.
Air tus, first, foremost. Iolar' * below there.
Am fad, afar. Ioras, } '
Am fagus, near, at hand.
An cein, afar.
An cois, near. , Oir, east.
An gar, near. Ris, exposed, bare.
An laimh, t'n custody, in hands. Shios, east, below there, or yonder.
An sin, there. Shuas, west, up there, or yonder.
An so, here. Tarsuing, across.
An sud, yonder. Thall, on the other side.
An taic, close, adjoining. Thar, }
A steach, steach, within. Thair, \ over.
A stigh, stigh, within. Thairis, j
A thaobh, sideways. Tuath, north.
Bhan, doion, downwards. Uthard, up.
A GRAMMAR OF

2. Motion to, or towards a place. H-uig agus uaithe, to and fro.


Le leathad, down hill.
A leth-taobh, aside, to a side. Leis, with, or down, the stream.
A 'n airde, upwards, up. Mu 'n cuairt, round.
A nail, to this side. Nail, hitherwards.
A null, )
.A nunn, ) to the other side ; over. T^' \ to the other side.
Nunn, 5
Air ais, backwards. Ri bruthach, upwards.
Air adhairt, ) -
Airaghaidh,}/ , 'r .' Ri leathad, downwards.
Sios, east, eastwards.
A sios, eastwards, downwards. Suas, west, westwards.
A suas, upwards, westwards.
Cia 'n car? ) whither ? in what direction ? 3. Motion from a place.
Cia 'n taobh? ) 1
C ionadh? whither? to what place? A deas, from the sotith.
A nuas, nuas, down, from above.
Gus aTairde deas, } to the south> >****>*** A tuath, from the north.
Gus an airde an ear, to the east, eastward. O 'n ear, from the east.
O 'n iar, from the west.
Gmm aiide tuath, } to the north' ^rthward.

Adverbs of Time are twofold; namely, such as signify,

Some specific period, either past, present, future, An traths', ) now, at this time.
or indefinite. An trath-so, '
An uair, when.
A cheana, cheana, already. An uiridh [an uair ruith], last year.
A chianamh, chianamh, a little while ago. Aon uair, once.
A chlisge, chlisge, soon, quickly. A so suas, henceforward.
A choidhch, choidhch, 1 f As ur, a-new.
A chaoidh, chaoidh, y J C uine, when.
A ghnath, always, usually. Do Ik, do lath, by day.
A nis, ~l Dh' oidhche, by night.
A nise, $ now. Dh' oidhche is do la, by night and by day.
Air ball, immediately. Fathast, fhathast, yet, still.
Air bho 'n de, yesterday. Fbs, yet, still.
Air bh6 'n raoir, the night before last. Idir, at all.
Air bh6 'n uiridh, the year before last. Mar tha, as it is.
Air deireadh, ),,,_, . Mu dheireadh, at last, at length.
AirdheireadUZas'' Ni 's mo, any more.
Air a mhionaid, immediately, this moment. Nur [an uair], when, whilst.
Air an uair, presently. O cheann fad, long ago.
Air thoiseach, O cheann ghoirrid, lately.
....
Air , J)> Jfirst,
toiseach,
- . foremost.
'J
-
O chian, of old.
Air tSs,S' } atfirst>f0- Riamh, ever, (in reference to the past.)
Roimh laimh, beforehand.
Air uairibh, at times, occasionally. Seach, seachad, past.
A la, by day. Uair, once, once on a time.
Am bliadhna, this year. Uair
TT . gin,
&. : ))> sometime.
..
Am fad agus, whilst. Uair eigin,
Am feadh, ) , ., .
Anfheadh,}wA^- 2. Continuance, vicissitude, or repetition of time.
Am feasd, for ever, never in future. A ghnath, ) ,
Am maireach, to-morrow. Do ghnath, J "'"^
An ceart 'air,
uair, )} mediately,
. , . . . just. now. Ainmig, seldom.
An ceart Air uairibh, at times, sometimes.
An de, yesterday. Am bidheantas,
An dearas, since, seeing that. An , .,, ))J continually
. comhnuidh, .. .
s
An cleigh laimh, afterwards. An cumaint, commonly.
An diugh, to-day. Cia fhad ? how long ?
An drasda [an trath so], at this time. Cia minic
. ?, ? j)> how
, often
r. ,r
An Cia trie J
An ear-thrath,
iar-thrath, }) the., ^
, after ^morrow.
Fad, long.
An la roinih, the other day. Fhadsa, as long as, so long.
An nochd, to-night. Gu brath,
An raoir, Gu la bhrath, \) Jm
f ever.
tor
An reidhir, )5 la$t
, . . ,.
Gu dllinn, to the end, or failing of time.
An sin, then, thereupon. Gu minig, often.
An so, then, hereupon. Gu sior, 1 f
An trath, when. Gu siorruidh, yJfor evermore.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE.
t iu siorruith, Ma seach, ~\
Gu suthainn, for evermore. Mu seach, \ alternately , by turns.
Gu suthainn siorruidh Mu 'n seach, 3
Gu trie, frequently, often Re seal, i -
O so suas, henceforward. Re sealladh, ) * or a time.

Adverbs of Marnier and Quality.


Ach beag, almost. Cuideachd, together, in company.
Ach gann, nearly. Cuige ( why I wherefore?
Air achd, ~l C'uime? why ? for what? about what ?
Air mhodh, > in a manner. Dh' aindeoin, in spite of.
Air sheol, ) Dh' aon ghnothuch,
Dh'aon }^ purposely.
.
Air athais, leisurely. obair,
Air a chuthach, ) , Do dheoin, spontaneously.
Air bhoil, ) Do dhith, a wanting.
Air i hull, lost. Do nreadh, really, actually, indeed.
Air charn, outlawed. Fa leth, severally, individually.
Air choir, aright. Far nasgaidh, gratis.
Air chor, in a manner. Gle, very.
Air chor eigin X somehow or other. Gu beachd, clearly.
Air chor no chor eigin, )
Air chuairt, sojourning. GuSach;}'*07"0^^' ";*ofly-
Air chuimhne, in mind, by heart. Gu dearbh, truly, certainly.
Air chuthach, mad. Gu deimhin, truly, verily.
A dh' aon obair, 1 el Gu fior, truly, in truth.
A dh' aon ghnothuch, j Gu leir, altogetlier, wholly.
A dheoin, spontaneously. Gu leoir, enough.
A dh' aindeoin, mi s;jite o/". Gu taobh, aside.
Air eigin, with much ado. Gun amharus, doubtless.
Air fbgradh, ) fa exffc Gun chaird, incessantly.
Am fbgradh, ) Idir, at <///.
Air ghleus, in trim ; tuned ; ready /or action. Leth mar leth, nay and na(/".
Air iomadan, adrift. Le cheile, together.
Air iomroll, astray. Maraon, together, as one, in a body.
Air ionndrainn, amissing. Mar an ceudna, also.
Air lagh, ready for action. Mar chomhladh, } .
Air mhodh, in a manner. Mar chomhluath, \ "
Air seachran, astray. Mar gu, as if.
Air sgeul, found, not lost. Mar sin, so, in that manner.
Am bidheantas, habitually. Mar so, thus.
Am feabhas, convalescent. Mar sud, in yon manner, so.
Amhain, on/y. Ma seach, i
Amhuil, ) ... Mu seach, V alternately.
Arahluidh, J Mc> "s- Mun seach, )
An
. coinnimh
, ,chinn,
' >) headlong.
, ,,
An comhair chinn, y 3 | not, /ef not.
An coinnimh chuil, } , , , Nach, not.
A comhair
An , . chuil,
... 'J) backwards. Nasgaidh, gratis.
A dhith, wanting, without. Ni, not.
An deidh, >\ desirous,
, . . love.
. Ni h-eadh, no, not so, it is not so.
An geall in Os aird, openly.
An nasgaidh, gratis. Os iosal, privately, secretly.
An t6ir, in pursuit, after. Rlreadh,
Araon, together, both. Rireamh, )\ . , rea^-
As an aghaidh, outright. Ro, very.
As a cheile, asunder, loosened. Roimh cheile, prematurely, hurriedly.
Car air char, rolling. Seadh, yes, it is so ; really !
Cia mar ? how ? Thar a cheile, disordered.
C* arson ? why ? Theagamh, perhaps.
C* ionnas ? how ? Troimh cheile, in confusion ; stirred about.
Cha, not. Tuille fos, moreover.
Comhladh, ) . ., Uidh air an uidh, by degrees.
Comhluath, J "
Ivi A GRAMMAR OF

OF PREPOSITION.

Prepositions, in Gaelic, are either simple or compounded.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS.
A, as, of, out of. Fo, fodha, fu', fuidh, beneath. Re, ri, ris, to.
Ag, aig, at. Gu, gus, to, until. Ro, roimh, before.
Air, on, after. Le, leis, with, by, along. Seach, past, in comparison with.
An, ann, in. Mar, like to, as. Tar, thar, thair, thairis, over, across.
Bharr, off. Mu, about. Thun, to.
Car, during. O, from. Tre, troimh, throimh, through.
Do, of, to. Os, above. Trid, through ; by means of.
Eadar, between. Re, during. U&,from.
Fa, upon.

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.
The Compound Prepositions are, for the most part, made up of a Simple Preposition and a Noun. They
commonly govern the Noun in the genitive case.
A chois, near to. As leth, in behalf.
Air beulaobh, before, in front of. A bhrlgh, because.
Air cheann, at the end, against. A chbir, near.
Air culaobh, behind. A chum, to, towards.
Air fad, throughout, during. A dhlth, for want, without.
Air feadh, throughout, during. A reir, according to.
Air muin, on the back, on the top. A thaobh, concerning.
Air sgath, for the sake. Do bhrlgh, because.
Air son, for, on account. Do ch6ir, near.
Air tbir, in pursuit. Do chum, to, toward.
Am ffianuis,
. >)
a tochair, . presence. Do dhlth, for want, witftoul.
Am r Dh' easbhuidh, > . want
Am measg, among, amidst. Dh' uireasbhuidh, W
An aghaidh, against. Dh' fhios, l . .
Dh'ionnsuidh,r''owards- ,
An ceann, in the end.
An Do reir, according, in proportion to.
. codhail,
i i> to
, meet.,
Do thaobh, concerning, with respect.
An coinneamh, J
An cois, near to. Fa cho'mhair, )\ PP<>*te,
Fachomhar,' .. against.
. .
An dail, to meet hostilely, towards.
An deaghaidh, * Fa chilis, because, by reason.
An deigh, | after. Ghios, {contr. for dh' ionnsuidh), to, towards.
An deis, Mu choinneamh, opposite.
An eiric, in recompense. Mi thimchioll, around, about.
An lathair, in presence. O bharr, from the top.
An lore:, )) m
. conse(luence- Os ceann, above.
An toir Re, during.
As
. easbhuidh,
, ' l5 without.
.,, . Tareis, after.
As eugmnais, 5

INSEPARABLE PREPOSITIONS.
There are various syllables, viz. an, ain, ana ; aim, aimh ; ao, ea, eu ; eas, ais, ath ; bith, co, com, comh, con ; di, do ;
tm, iom ; in, ion ; mi, mio ; neo, and so, which may be called Inseparable Prepositions, being found only in composition
with other words, the signification of which they change or modify.

[ Ain-eolach, ignorant.
An-aoibhinn, joyless.
Aim-beartas, poverty.
Signifies/ Aim-leathann, narrow.
as Aodochas,
Negation or privation, ~i
Eadochas, \ despair.
Eudochas, )
Easonoir, dishonour.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE.
f An-stroghail, prodigal.
Immoderate degree, or excess, Ain-tighearn, an oppressor.
Ana-miann, lust.
Ais-eirigh, resurrection.
Again, Ath-bhuail, strike again.
Frequency, or repetition, Bith-labhairt, incessant talk.
Comh } c^leanSa^' bind togei
Together, community, or equality, Coi' lion, ) ~
Coimh-lion, yu" '
Comith, eating together.
Privation, Di-chionnt, innocence.
Evil, difficulty, Do-dheanta, impracticable.
About, complete, Iom-ghaoth, whirlwind.
Worth, Ionmholta, worthy ofpraise.
Mi-bheusach, unmannerly.
Privation, Mio-runach, spiteful.
Neo-chruadalach, not hardy.
Ease, gentleness, So-thuigsinn, intelligible.

OF INTERJECTIONS.
As Interjection is an indeclinable part of speech, and expresses some sudden emotion of the mind.
Grief; as, och ! ochain! och6in! och nan ochain; och is ochain nan och eire! mo chreachadh ! mo nuar! mo
le6n ! mo thruaighe ! mo thruaighe leireadh ! mo sgaradh !
Wonder ; aobh, aobh ! obh, obh ! O !
Aversion; tut! ab, ab! fuigh !
Disgust ; ach ! ach !
Shame; monaire! mo mhasladh !
Laughter; ha, ha! all!
Demonstration; feuch ! faic! seall !
Calling; h-aoibh! h-oilo.
Tf.rror; h-ugad ! h-ugaibh.

OF CONJUNCTIONS.
A Conjunction is an indeclinable part of speech, and serves to join words and sentences together.
Ach, but. Mu'n,
A chionn, because. Mus, before, ere.
Agus, as, and. Muss ian, )
Co,
Cho,Jax Na, than.
Che Nach, that not.
Cuideachd, likewise. Nam, nan, if.
Fbs, yet. No, or.
Ga, though. O, on, since.
Ged, giodh, though. Oir, before.
Gidheadh, yet. Os-barr, moreover.
Gu, gur, that. 'S (for agus), and.
Is, and. Sol, suil, before that.
Ma, if. Tuille eile, tuille fbs, further.
Mar, as, like as. Uime sin, therefore.
Mur, if not.
There are also several phrases which have a conjunctive force ; as,
Chum as gu, or a chum as gu, ~l
Chum is gu, or a chum is gu, \ so as that, in order that.
Chum agus gu, or a chum agus gu, }
Chum is nach, or a chum is nach, so as that not.
Air chor is gu, so that.
Air chor is nach, so that not.
Air eagal gu, lest, for fear that.
i
lviii A GRAMMAR OF
Air son gu, by reason that. Ged tha, notwithstanding.
D' eagal gu, lest, for fear that. Gun fhios, not knowing, in case.
D' eagal nach, lest not. Ionnas gu, so that.
Do bhrigh gu, by reason that. Mar sud agus, so also.
Do bhrigh nach, by reason that not. Ma seadh, ma ta, if so, then.
Bheil fhios, ) . , T , Mur bhiodh, were it not.
'L fhios J 'S known, I wonder.
Mur bhiodh gu, were it not that.

OF THE FORMATION OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.

Gentile, or Patronymic Nouns, end in ach, and are derived from other proper substantives, as names of
natives; Albannach, a Scot ; Sasunnach, an Englishman ; Suaineach, a Swede ; Lochlinneach, a Dane ; so also, an indi
vidual of a clan, as, from Stiiibhart, Stiubhartach, a Stewart; from Grannd, Granndach, a Grant.
Diminutive Nouns in an and ag are formed most "commonly from substantives; as, leabhar, a book ; leabhran, a
little book ; caile, a girl ; caileag, a little girl; sguab, a sheaf; sguabag, a little sheaf; leanabh, leanaban, a little child.
Collective Nouns are not confined to any particular termination; of these some are primitives, as, clann, a clan;
sluagh, people : and some derivatives, as, oigridh, a band of youth ; laochraidh, a band of warriors. Some collectives
end in ach; as, duilleach, foliage, from duille, a leaf.
Nouns, denoting Agents, in air, ear, oir, ach, iche, are derived from other substantives ; as, sgriobhair, a writer,
from sgriobh ; sgriosadair, a destroyer, from sgrios ; sloightear, a knave, from sloighte, knavery ; ciontach, a culprit, from
ciont, guilt ; oibriche, a workman, from obair, work.

ABSTRACTS.
Comparatives are often used as abstract nouns ; as, doille, blindness ; truime, heaviness ; gile, whiteness.
Abstracts in ad are formed from the comparative ; as, bainead, fairness, from baine ; lughad, littleness, from lugha,
less ; teircead, fewness, from teirce, more few.
Some substantives in as are formed from substantives, and some from adjectives; as, ughdarras, authority, from
ftghdar ; luathas, swiftness, from luath ; cruadhas, hardness, from cruaidh.
Some substantives in achd are formed from substantives, and some from adjectives ; as, iasgaireaehd, fishery, from
iasgair ; caonntachd, parsimony, from caonntach, saving.

OF ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives in ach are formed commonly from substantives; as, ballach, spotted, from ball, a spot; grianach, sunny,
from grian, sun ; peasgach, gashed, from peasg, a gash.
Adjectives in agach, anach, from diminutives in ag and an; as, bachlagach, curled, from bachlag, a curl ; badanach,
tufty, from badan, a tuft. .
Adjectives in mhor, or in its contractions, ar and or, are derived from substantives; as, from sluagh, people, sluagh-
mhor, sluaghar, populous: and from adjectives; as, treunmhor, strong, from treun.
Adjectives in ail and eil, are derived from substantives; as, feumail, needful, from feum, need; lathail, daily, from
lath, day; duineil, manly, from duine, man; gaisgeil, brave, from gaisge, bravery. The terminations ail and eil are
contractions of amhuil, like, and have a strong affinity with the English termination ly ; as, friend/y, i. e. fnen&like,
manly, manlike, gentleman/y, gentlemanlike.
Adjectives in da or ta are derived from substantives ; as, macanta, gentle, from mac ; cailleachanta, cowardly, from
cailleach, an old woman.
Adjectives denoting practicability or facility commonly have so prefixed ; as, so-thuigsinn, intelligible ; so-dheanamh,
easily done.
Adjectives denoting impossibility or difficulty commonly have do prefixed ; as, do-thuigsinn, unintelligible ; do-
dheanamh, not easily done.
OF VERBS.

Verbs in aich are formed from adjectives or substantives characterised by a, o, or w; as, teannaich, tighten, from
teann, tight ; cronaich, blame, from cron, ill.
Verbs in ich are formed from adjectives characterised by i; as, cruinnich, gather, from cruinn, round; minich.
smooth, from min, smooth.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. lix

OF THE COMPOSITION OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.


Composition is effected in Gaelic by prefixing to substantives, adjectives, participles, and verbs a substantive, adjec
tive, verb, adverb, or preposition.
A Substantive with a Substantive.
Grian-chrios, the zodiac ; grian-chearcall, a solar halo ; marc-shluagh, cavalry ; cuach-fhalt, curled hair.

Adjectives with the Substantives prefixed.


Taobh tuath, north country ; bru-dhearg, a redbreast; ceann-lom, bare-headed.

Substantives with the Adjectives prefixed.


Droch-bheart, mischief; treun-laoch, a warrior; fuar-bheann, a cold hill; dubh-fhocal, a dark saying.

Adjectives with Adjectives.


Gorm-eutrom, light blue; dubh-dhonn, livid; liath-ghlas, greyish; gonn-bhreachd, blue spotted; uile-chumhachd-
ach, almighty.
Verbs with Substantives.
Cuairt-imich, walk around ; cridh-bhris, heart-break ; corp-shnas, anatomise.

Verbs with Adjectives.


Geur-lean, persecute ; cruaidh-ruith, run speedily ; beo-sgar, divorce ; min-phronn, pulverise.

Verbs with Prepositions.


Eadar-dhealaich, separate; as-tharruing, extract; roimh-orduich, fore-ordain.

Substantives with Prepositions.


Eadar-sgaradh, separation; timchioll-ghearradh, circumcision; fo-bhuille, an understroke.

Adverbs with Substantives.


Ro-dhuine, an excellent man; ro-fheum, much need; mach-bhailtean, suburbs.

SYNTAX, or CONSTRUCTION.
Systax is the right arrangement of the words of a language into sentences or phrases. Its parts are two,
viz. Concord, and Government or Regimen.
OF CONCORD.
Concord is the agreement which one word has with another, in Gender, Number, Case, or Person.
RULE I. Dnine saibhir. A rich man.
The article is placed immediately before its substantive, Bean ghasd. A chaste wife.
and agrees with it in gender, number, and case ; as, Tighean mora. Large houses.
Am bord. The table.
A bhean. The woman. RULE IV.
An fhoid. The turf. The possessive pronouns mo (my), do (thy), a (his), precede
Na sluic. The pits. the substantive, and throw it into the aspirated form ; as,
RULE II. Mo dhorn. My fist.
Sometimes an adjective comes between the article and its Do chas. Thy foot.
A chlaidheamh. His sword.
Is tu an droch leanabh, Thou art a bad child.
Is e am nor laoch, He is a real hero. RULE V.
The substantive most commonly precedes its adjective ;
RULE III. as,
An adjective agrees with its substantive in gender, num Lann geuT. A sharp blade.
ber, and case ; as, Duine glic. A wise man.
lx A GRAMMAR OF
RULE VI. precede a noun beginning with a vowel, n- is inserted
Some monosyllabic adjectives precede their substantives, between them ; as,
and then the substantives assume the aspirated form ; as, Bhur n-aithrichean. | Your fathers.
Droch dhuine. A bad man.
Og-bhean. A young wife. RULE XII.
Garbh chuan. A rough sea. Possessive pronouns are of the same number with their
antecedents ; as,
RULE VII.
Aig a dhorus. At his door.
If is be the verb of a sentence, the adjective comes before Folt a cinn. The hair of her head.
the noun ; as,
Is domhainn do ) I _ ft % RULE XIII.
chreuchd.Oss. ) | t j
If a sentence or a clause be an antecedent, the pronoun
RULE VIII. is put in the 3d singular masculine ; as,
Two or more substantives in apposition, or signifying the Ged bha mi sgith, cha Though I was tired, I felt
same thing, ought to agree in case ; as, d' aithnich mi orm e. it not.
Oscar *mac bOisein Oscar the son of Ossian,
hnhic bFhionnghail the son of Fingal, the RULE XIV.
mhic Chumhail. son of Cumhal. The nominative is commonly placed after the verb ; as,
RULE IX. Tha iad. They are.
Numerals precede their nouns ; as, Theasd iad. They died.
Ghabh e. He took.
Tri lathan. Three days.
Seach fir. Seven men. RULE XV.
Such instances as the following are excepted : The nominative to the verb is often understood with the
Righ Seoras a ceithir. King George the Fourth. poets ; as,
Righ Uilliam a h-aon. King William the First. Ghabh [e] tuinidh. He dwelt.Oss. Lod.
Bhuail [e] craobh Loduinn. He struck the tree of Lodin.
RULE X. Oss. Lod.
When the possessive pronoun a (her) precedes a substan
tive beginning with a vowel, h- is inserted between them ; as, RULE XVI.
A h-aire. I Her attention. The relative pronouns a, nach, na, come before the verb ;
A h-oillt. Her terror.
* as,
An oigh a sheinn. The maid who sang.
RULE XL Cridhe nach bris. A heart that will not break.
When the possessive pronouns or (our), bhur orar (your), Gleidh na fhuair thu. Keep what you got.

OF GOVERNMENT.
Government is that power which one part of speech has over another, in determining its Form, Mood, Tense,
or Case.
THE GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES.
RULE I. RULE III.
One substantive governs another in the genitive when When a substantive governs another definitely in the
it signifies a different thing ; as, genitive, the article is placed before the latter only ; as,
Inneal ciuil. An instrument of music. Tigh an Righ. The king's house.
Lod dhaoine. A crowd of men. Solus na greine. The light of the sun.
Airde nam beann. The height of the hills.
RULE II. RULE IV.
If a second genitive follows, the former substantive is go A noun governed without the article is commonly in the
verned in the nominative ; as, aspirated form ; as,
Tigh fear na bainnse. The bridegroom's house. Claidheamh Shumais. James's sword.
Ainm mac an Righ. The name of the king's son. Tigh Dhomhnuill. Donald's house.

THE GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES.


RULE L
Adjectives of plenty, fulness, satiety, govern the genitive, Lan arbhair. Full of corn.
and are followed by the preposition de, either simple or Buidheach bidh. Filled with food.
compounded ; as, Sgith dheth. Tired of him or it.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. Ixi
RULE II. Fagus do Lunnuinn. Near to London.
Cairdeach dhomh. Related to me.
Adjectives signifying merit or demerit, knowledge, re
membrance, and some other affections of the mind, are
commonly followed by the preposition air, either simple or RULE V.
compounded; as, Adjectives followed by a noun of measure take the prepo
Airidh air pearias. Worthy ofpunishment. sition air ; as,
Eolach air Seumas. Acquainted with James.
Cuimhneachail orm. Mindful ofme. Seachd troidhean air airde. Seven feet high.
Deidheil air fion. Fond of wine. Tri mile air fad. Three miles long.
Da shlat air leud. Two yards in breadth.
RULE III.
RULE VI.
Adjectives signifying likeness or unlikeness, compassion
or friendship, generally require the preposition ri, either The comparative degree,t when preceded by ni 's, requires
simple or compounded ; as, the particle na ; as,
Cosmhal ri d' athair. Like your father. Ni 's luaithe na 'ghaoth. Swifter than the wind.
Trucanta rithe. Compassionate to her. Ni 's milse na mil. Sweeter than honey.
Cairdeil ris. Friendly to him. Ni 's fhearr na 'n t-or. Better titan gold.
RULE IV. RULE VII.
Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, nearness,* and
relationship, commonly require the preposition do, either Superlatives require the preposition do or dhe, either
simple or compounded ; as,
simple or compounded ; as,
Maith do gach neach. I Good to all. An t& 's grinn dhiubh uile. Thefinest woman of them all.
Feumail dhuit. [ Useful to thee. Am fear is airde do 'n triuir. The tallest man of the three.

THE GOVERNMENT OF VERBS.

RULE I. the preposition le, compounded with a personal pronoun,


An active verb governs its object in the nominative case, either expressed or understood ; as,
which is sometimes put after the verb, and sometimes before Dlrear (leinn) an tulach. We ascended the hill.
it ; as, Seallar (leinn) mu 'n cuairt. We looked around.
Buail an sgiath. Strike the shield. Oss.
Caomhain do sholus. Spare thy light.Id. RULE V.
Mo lann do neach cha gheill. My sword to none shall Bu, was, aspirates the word which follows it ; as,
yield.Id.
Bu chruaidh do chas. I Hard was the case.
RULE II. B' fhuar do chridhe. , Cold was thy heart.
Bu mhise a rinn e. I It was I who did it.
Some active verbs require between them and their objects
a preposition, either simple or compounded ; as,
RULE VI.
Leig leis. Let him alone.
Iarr air. Desire him. The dentals d and t are sometimes aspirated, and some
Labhair ri Seumas. Speak to James. times not ; as,
Bu dorch a laithe. Dark were his days.
RULE III. Oss. Fing.
Verbs in the passive voice have after their nominative Bu thaitneach do shluagh Pleasant to his country
the preposition le, simple or compounded, expressive of the a thir. men.Id.
agent or the instrument, either expressed or understood ; Bu taitneach dha. Pleasant to him was.Id.
as,
Leonadh e le claidheamh. He or it was wounded with RULE VII.
a sword.
Mharbhadh e leatsa. He or it was slain by thee. The infinitive of active verbs governs the genitive ; as,
A chosgadh feirg. [ To appease wrath.
RULE IV. A thogail creich. To gather booty.
Verbs used impersonally commonly require after them

Adjectives of nearness have also the preposition air, either simple or compounded ; as, fagus orm, near me.
f There is a form of comparison, already mentioned, among the Gael, which has sometimes the meaning of a substantive, and some
times of an adjective ; as, feairrd, meisd, moid, lughaid, giorraid, ttoithid. Is feairrd mi so, I am the betterfor (Aw; a dol am feairrd,
trowing better, literally, advancing in bcttcrness. The rest are construed after the same manner.
Ixii A GRAMMAR OF

THE GOVERNMENT OF PARTICIPLES.


RULE I. RULE II.
Participles of the present time govern the genitive ; as, Participles of the past time are followed by the preposi
Ag iarruidh comhraig. Wishing for battle. Oss. tion le, signifying the agent or the instrument, either simple
A siubhal an fhraoich. Traversing the heath.Id. or compounded ; as,
Ag ath-cheannuchadh 1 Buailte le claidheamh. Struck with a sword.
na h-aimsir J Redeeming the time.Stew. Le6nta le Seumas. Wounded by James.

THE GOVERNMENT OF ADVERBS.


RULE I. Cha ph&s iad. They will not marry.
Ro, gle, as also fior, sar, used adverbially, aspirate the Cha ghuil i. She will not weep.
noun to which they are prefixed ; as, Clta sometimes aspirates a dental, and sometimes not ; as,
Ro-mhath. Very good. Cha dean e feum, It will do no good.
Ro-dhuine. An excellent man. Cha sir mi ni. I will seek nothing.
Gle ghrinn. Fine enough. Cha tuit iad. They shall not fall.
Fior-mhaiseach. Truly handsome.
Sar-Ghaisge. Heroism. Cha inserts n before a vowel or f aspirated ; as,
Cha n-ann
, , leis Oss.
fein J)> m hero, was not. alone.
,
bha ,nlaoch.
RULE II. The
The negative cha aspirates the following verb, if it begins Cha n-fhiach e. It is of no value.
with a labial or a palatal ; as, The negative ni inserts h before an initial vowel; as,
Cha mhair e. He, or it will not last. Ni h-eadh. I Not so.
Cha chluinn mi. I shall not hear. Ni h-e. He is not.

THE GOVERNMENT OF PREPOSITIONS.


RULE I. - RULE V.
The prepositions, aig, air, an, &c. govern the dative, and The prepositions de, do, fa, or fuidk, fa, gun, mar, mu,
sometimes the nominative, and are always placed before ; o, tre, or troimh, are commonly followed by an aspirated
as. nominative; as,
Aig a chluais. At his ear. Do dhuine. To a man.
Tonn air traigh. A wave on the shore.Oss. Fo bhron. Under grief.
Na 'shoillse. In his sight.Id. Gun mheirg. Without rest.
Air clann nan seod. On the sons of the brave.--Id. Mar thonn. As a wave.
Mu cheann na h-oigh. About the maiden's head.
Air sometimes governs the dative in the aspirated form ; Troimh chruadal. Through hardship.
as,
Air bharraibh nan tonn. | { 0n< toPs fthe waves RULE VI.
Eadar governs sometimes the nominative in the simple
RULE II. and sometimes in the aspirated form ; as,
Eadar talamh is athar. I Betwixt earth and air.
The preposition gun governs the aspirated nominative Eadar bheag is mhbr. | Both great and small.
and dative, but oftener the dative ; as,
Gun cheann. Without head. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.
Gun chloinn. Without children.
Compound prepositions govern the genitive; as,
RULE III. Air feadh na tire. Throughout the land.
Air deireadh na feachd. In the rear of the army.
The prepositions gu, or gus, and mar govern a definite A dh' ionnsuidh na h-aimhne Towards the river.
noun in the nominative ; as,
Gus an solus. To the light. INTERJECTIONS.
Mar a chraobh. Like the tree.
Some interjections are followed by the preposition do,
RULE IV. either simple or compounded ; as,
Is an-aoibhinn duit. | Woe unto thee.
But if the article be not prefixed to a noun, gu or gus
commonly governs the dative, and mar either the nomina Mo naire ! is followed by the preposition air, either
tive or dative ; as, simple or compounded, expressed or understood ; as,
Gu crich na cruinne. To the world's end. Mo naire ! [ort] Shame ! [upon thee]
Mar sholus corr. As a bright light. Mo naire ! [oirbh] Shame ! [upon you]
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. Ixiii
Cho
Cho or
Mo thruaighe is often followed by the nominative case ; co chinnteach Jnsabhas.
) . ,, ,
cinnteach As sure as death.
Mo thruaighe mi ! Woe's me !
Woe be to him ! Choghlan S*aak ' As bright as gold.
Mo thruaighe e !
RULE HI.
CONJUNCTIONS.
Mur, gur, and gu, gum, or gun, precede the interrogative
RULE I. mood; as,
The conjunctions agus, as, or is, and no or na, couple Mur tige. If he shall not comt.
like cases and moods; as, Gu bheil sinn. That we are.
Gum faic sinn. That we shall see.
A sguabadh chlod 's chlach. \( Sweeping turfand stones.
Vllin. Gun toir e. That he will give.
' He shall not enjoy peace nor
Cha mheal e sith no solas. comfort. RULE IV.
Thig no cha tig e. He shall come, or shall not.
Nam or nan, has after it the preterite substantive ; as,
RULE II. Nam faighinn. If I got.
Nan tuitinn. If Ifell.
Co, or cho, as, may have after it an adjective in the as
pirate or initial form ; as, Ged may precede any mood except the future indicative.

PROSODY.
The great excellence of any language consists in the power which its sounds possess, of communicating certain im
pressions or meanings.
The Gaelic, being a branch of the primeval tongue, has this quality in a far superior degree to any language, the
structure of which is concocted or complex. It is a language of nature ; and its sounds may be truly said to be echoes
to the sense. Hence arises its success in descriptive poetry, and in all its addresses to the passions. When the nature
of the object described is harsh and hard, sounds of a similar kind are employed, which impel their meaning to the mind,
by noisy, hard-sounding consonants : whereas, in subjects of tenderness, solemnity, or of mournful interest, scarcely is any
sound perceived, but the music of mellow vowels and diphthongs.
Mr. Shaw, to whose ill-requited labour the Gaelic owes a great deal, observes correctly, that the combinations ai, ei,
are cheerful and soft; and ao, solemn. He might have added that oi, ao, aoi, are significant of softness and affection, and
ui, ua, uai, of sadness. Among the consonants, 11 is soft and mild ; so is the gentle aspiration mh, as in caomh, mild ;
seimli, quiet ; cr, dr, and tr, are hard, loud, and violent.

VERSIFICATION.
The Gaelic Bards had peculiar facilities in composing ; as they were not restrained by any fixed law of verse. A
termination of lines by similar letters was never deemed requisite ; for, if the closing syllable, or the penult of corresponding
lines, were somewhat similar in sound, it was reckoned sufficient for the purposes of rhyme, and was all that they usuallv
aimed at
The following Verses exemplify this Remark.
Thug an deise do Ainnir gaol,
Ach air Goll bha 'gorm-shuil chaoin,
B' e cuis a h-aisling anns an oidhche,
'S cuis a caoidh mu 'n chaochan choillteach.
Cha b' ionnan is Garna na gruamaich,
Mar lasair 's an toit ag a cuartach.'Oss. Cathluno.
Another method of rhyme consisted in a conformity of sound between the last word, or part of the last word, of a
foregoing verse, and some word, or part of a word, about the middle of the following.
Ciod am fa bhi 'g udal cuain,
Is eilean faar na geotha crom,
A sgaoileadh a sgiath na'r coinneamh.
Gu 'r dion o dhoinionn na h-oidhche. Ullin.
Mar dha bheum sleibh o 'n fhireack
Le cheile a sireadh gu gleanntai. - Oss.
lxiv A GRAMMAR OF
Sometimes there is a conformity of sound between the last word of a foregoing verse, and a word in the beginning of
the following.
Cha do thuit e gun chliu san draich,
Bu ghabhaidh le moran 'imeachd ;
Mar thorunn ro' choillte, no mar dhealan,
'G a falach an deigh an leir-sgrios.Ardar.
In some stanzas of four lines, there is sometimes observed a double conformity ; that is, in the concluding words of
each couplet, and in other words throughout the preceding line of every couplet. This kind of verse possesses great
beauty.
Sheid gaoth dhileas air beann
'S cha b' fhann air buillean 'g a c<i<;Anadh;
Sinn a bualadh mhullach nan tonn,
'Sgach sonn is a shuil ri cowifeug. Ullin.

MEASURE.
The poetry of the ancient Gael, as it has come down to us, resembles that of the present day, in its setting every law
of scanning at defiance. Ossian, and the poets of his time, adapted their compositions to the song ; in other words, they
set them to music : and there seem to be but two suppositions on which we can account for the irregularity of their verses.
Either the music itself must have been very anomalous, or, the strains having been forgotten, and thus the guides to
uniformity lost, the poems must have suffered from the liberties which had been, taken with them, by the rehearsers of
succeeding ages. I am inclined to think, however, that the music was simple and uniform, and that the poetry was
correctly adapted thereto. However irregular the music may be imagined to have been ; as the bards must have
accurately set their verses to it, there would be observable in their poems a regular recurrence of similar irregularities.
This is not the case. The anomaly of their verses must, therefore, be owing to the reciting Bards, who, in some parts,
suffered words and turns of expression to fall into oblivion through their indolence ; and introduced, in others, expressions
which their own conceit informed them were superior to the original ; for there never yet was a poet so transcendently
good, that a worse did not suppose himself in many respects better.
Add to this, that the language was pronounced differently in different districts, and at different periods of time ; yet
in these abused fragments of ancient poetrythese remains of Ossian's ruins, we have numberless displays of the might
and magnificence of his genius.
Notwithstanding the freedoms which have been taken with the works of the Fingalian poet, they afford numberless
examples of correct and measured rhymes ; and this circumstance affords a strong presumption that the rhyme, or at least
the measure of the poetry, was uniform and regular throughout.
The verses of the Fingalian poets seldom exceed eight syllables ; and most frequently the second foot and the third
are dactyles, with a short syllable at the beginning of the verse, and a long syllable, or a trochee at the end.

COUPLETS.
The Measure.
- 1 \" i; v - 1 -j
Tha | 'Ceumanna | flatha.il air [ lorn,
Nur | thog Tad ri | aghaidh nan | torn ;
Is | b' eagal di | sealladh an | righ
A | dh' fhag i am | Atha. nam | frith. Temora.

ALTERNATE RHYMES.

Cuir | OscaTr cuir | mlse san | uaigh.


Cha | gheill mi an | cruas do | threun
'S mi 'n | toiseach na | strlghe fo | chruaidh,
Gabh | eolas nam | buadh uam | fein.Fingal.
The ancient poems published by Dr. Smith of Campbelton, are still more irregular in their measure than those
collected by Macpherson ; it being seldom that the same measure applies to four successive lines. They cannot be
scanned, therefore, by any set of rules I can devise. In one of these poems, entitled Conn, there is preserved a wild
effusion an incantation of the Scandinavian priests. It consists of five stanzas of four lines each. The last line of each
staff has six syllables, consisting of a short syllable, a dactyle, and a trochee ; the rest four, consisting of a trochee and a
pyrrhic.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. Ixv

The Measure.

" | " " " | " " | fourth line.



Cheo na ( Lanna
Aom nan '| cara;
'S buair an | codal,
Chruth | Lodda nan | leir-chreach.
Sgap do | dhealan;
Luaisg an | talamh ;
Buail an | anam ;
'S na | maireadh ni | beo dhiubh.
The modem Gaelic poems are more regular and measured, as they are almost all composed to some known air.

Iambics offour feet.

--|--|--|--|
O cair | ibh mi | ri taobh | nan allt,
A shiubh | las shuas | le ceum | aibh ciuin ;
Fo sgail | a bharr | aich leig | mo cheann,
'S bi thus, | a ghrian | ro chaird | eil rium. The Bard's Wish.

Macintyre, our Burns, an uninstructed shepherd, and a man of extraordinary talents for poetry, wrote pieces which
may stand comparison with the pastoral and descriptive poetry of any land or age. As the structure of some of them is
peculiar, a view of their measure may not here be unacceptable, or misplaced. His best poems are Coire Cheathaich, Beinn
Dobhrain, and Mairi Bhan bg. The first of these is divided into strophes of eight verses each ; but they might have been
more judiciously arranged in stanzas of four lines. The measure repeats at every second line. There is, moreover, in
every first line, a conformity of sound between the first syllable of the second and third foot ; and in the second line,
between the first syllable of the second, and the middle of the third, foot. This poem may be scanned by an amphybrach
and trochee alternately on the first line ; the second line is the same, excepting that it terminates with a long syllable.

---|--[---|--

'S a' mhadainn | chiitin gheal, | ann am dhomh | rfusgadh


Aig bun na | stih'ce | b' e 'n su</radh | leam ;
A chearc le | sgtwcan | a. gabhatl | tucha\n,
'San coileach | cuirteTl | ag diirdail | trom.
An dreathan | swrdail, | 's a ribhid | chiuil aige
A cur nan | smuid dheth | gu Zuthar | binn
An, trwid sam | bri* dhearg | le moran | unaich
Re ceileir j sunntach | bit shiubhlach | rann.

Or, thus :
Three first, | " " * | " "
Last, " |"
'Sa mhadainn | chiuin gheal
Ann am dhomh | di\sgadh,
Aig bun na | stuice,
B* e 'n siigradh | leam ;
A chearc le | sgiucan,
A gabhail | tuchain
'S an coileach | cuirteil
A durdail | trom, &c.

Beinn Dobhrain is similar in measure to a much older poem, entitled, Moladh Mhbraig. It contains three distinct
measures : first, the urlar ; secondly, siubhal, quicker than the urlar ; and thirdly, criln-luath, the most rapid of the three.
These terms are taken from corresponding strains in piobaireachd. The first stanza, urlar, consists of spondees and dactyles.
k
Ixvi A GRAMMAR OF
B' i sin | a mhaois | leach luaineach
Feadh [ oganan ;
Blolaichean | nam bruach
'S aite | comhnuidh dhi
Duilleagan | nan craobh,
Criomagan | a gaoil.
Cha b' e 'm | fotaras.
A h-algn | e eu | trom suairc;
Gu Ao | bhach ait | gun ghruaim
A ceann | bu bhrais | e ghuan | aiche,
Ghoraiche.
A chre | bu chean | alt stuaim.
Chalaich | T gu | buan ;
Aim gleann | a bharr | aich uaine.
Bu | nosaire.

The Second Part, or Siubkal,


May be scanned thus ; the first, third, fifth, sixth, and seventh lines, a short syllable, adactyle, apyrrhic; for the
second, fourth, and last, a short syllable, a dactyle, and a trochee.
'S i *n | eiltd bheag | bhinneach,
Bu [ ghunaiche | sraonadh,
Le | cuinnean geur | biorach,
Ag | slreadh na. | gaoithe ;
Gii | gasganach | speireach,
Feadh | chreachan na [ beinne,
Le | eagal ro | theine,
Cha | teirinn 1 [ aonach.

The Third Part, or Crun-luath,


Consists of a short syllable, a dactyle repeated, for the first, third, fifth, sixth, and seventh lines; and for the second,
fourth, and last, a short syllable, a dactyle, and a spondee, or a trochee.
Cha. | b' aithne dhomh | co | leanadh T,
Do | fheara. na | roinn Eorpa;
Mttr | faiceadh e | deagh | ghean orra,
'S tighinn | farasda. ] na. ) co-dha.il;
Gu | faiteach bhith | 'n a | h-earalas,
Tighinn | 'm faigse dh' 1 | m' an | carraich i,
Gu | faicealach | gle | earalach,
Mu 'm | fairich i | na | coir e.

The beautiful love song, entitled, Marai bh&n bg, so often imitated, but never equalled, may be scanned thus ; a short
syllable, three trochees, and a pyrrhic, for the first line ; and, for the second, a short syllable, a trochee, a dactyle, and a
long syllable.
-|--|--|--|--|
- - - i

Do | chuach-fhalt | ban air | fas cho | barrail ;


'Sa | bharr lan | chamag is | dhual;
T' aghaidh ghlan | mhalta, | narach, | bhanail :
Do | dha chaol- | mhala gun | ghruaim.
Suil ghorm, | liontach, | mhln-rosg | mheallach,
Gun dlth | cur fal' ann | do ghruaidh ;
Deud gheal | iobhrai [ dhionach | dhaingean,
Beul [ bith nach | canadh ach | stuaim.

I shall conclude this exemplification of Gaelic verse with one of those famous songs of incitement to battle, called,
Brosnachadh. catha. These songs were not all precisely in the same measure ; but they were all quick, rapid, and ani
mating, descriptive of hurried movements, activity, and exertion. The whole song measures like the first staff.
THE GAELIC LANGUAGE.

A mhac | atn cheann,


Nan cur | san strann.
Ard leum | nach righ | nan sleagh,

Lamh threun | 's gach cas,


Cridhe ard | gun sgath.
Ceann airm | nan roinn geur goirt ;

Gearr sios gu bas,


Gun bharc-sheol ban,
Bhi snamh mu dhubh Innistore.

Mar thairnich bhaoil,


Do bhuill' a laoich,
Do shuil mar chaoir ad cheann ;

Mar charaig chruinn,


Do chridhe gun roinn,
Mar lasan oidhche do lann.

Cum fuar do sgiath,


Is craobh-bhuidh nial,
Mar chith o reul a bhais.

A mhacain cheann,
Nan cursan strann,
Sgrios naimhde sios gu lar.
FOC LAIR

GAILIG AGUS BEURLA.

A, a. (ailm, the elm.) The first letter of the Gaelic alphabet. A,' the sign of the vocative. O. (Corn, a.) Caomhain do
It has three sounds : (1.) both long and short. Long, like sholus, a ghrian, spare thy light, 0 sun. Oss. Trathal.
a in bar, car; as al, brood, ar, slaughter. Short, like a in A Sheallama, theach mo ghaoil ! 0 Selma, thou home of my
fat, cat; as fait, hair, cas, foot. (2.) Both long and short, heart! Oss. Gaul.
when immediately preceding dh, and gh ; in which state it A, (for ann), prep. In, into, within, on. Ciod chuir sin a
has no corresponding sound in English. Long, as adhradh, d'cheann, what put that into your head? A d'chridhe, in
worship; aghrahor, fortunate. Short, as lagh, law; tagh, your heart.
choose; adharc, horn. (3.) Short and obscure, like e in A, sometimes a sign of the preterite tense. Nuair a thuirt e
Under; as an, am, a, the; ma, nam, nan, if; and the rium, when he said to me. Sm.
plural terminations a, or an, as laghanna, laws, beanntan, A, obj. pron. Him, her, it Cha n'urrainn iad a thogail
mountains. In the interrogative pronouns an and am, a is no'fhagail, they could neither lift nor leave him. Oss. Derm.
scarcely ever pronounced. Theab iad a marbhadh, they had almost killed her.
A, article. The. Used before words beginning with aspiration; A, pers. pron. [for e.] Him, he, it. A is never written for e,
as, a chraobh, the tree ; a bheinn, the hill, or mountain. but, in many districts of the Highlands, e, he or him, is
A, rel. pron. Who, which, whom, what, that. An duine a pronounced a ; as, Bhuail iad a, they struck him ; thainig
bhuail mi, the man whom I struck; mar aisling chaoin a a, he came.
chaidli seach, like a pleasant dream that has passed. Ull. A, prep, and used be/ore a consonant. Out, out of, from ;
B'esan a rinn so, it was he who did this. also in. Na h-earb a foirneart, trust not in oppression.
Stew. 0. T., a so, from this time. Arm., a so.
A, pos. pron. His, her, hers, its. Caireadh gach aon air a A is often used before many ndverbs, prepositions, and conjunc
leis a lann, let every one gird his sword on his thigh. Ull. tions, and some numerals: a bharr, besides, a bhos, here, on this
Grad theichidh a geillt 's a bruadar, speedily her terror and side, a choidhch, for ever. A clieann, already; a clu'ile, each
her dream shall vanish. Oss. Taura. Where the succeed other, a chianamh, a little ago. A cheann, because; a chlisgeadh,
ing word begins with a vowel, this pronoun is ellipsed ; as, in a start, soon. A chum, in order to; a dhu, two; a dim dheug,
thuit e bharr' each, hefellfrom his horse : in speaking of a twelve. A ghnatli, always; a h-aon, one; a li-aon deug, eleven ;
female, however, the pronoun is used, and; to prevent an a latba 's a dh'oidhche, day and night; a lathair, present. A letli-
hiatus, h, with a hyphen (h-), precedes the noun ; as, thuit taobh, aside; a mach, out; a mhain, only; a muigh, without;
a nail, hither; a nios, up. A nis, n nise, now; a nuas, down
i bharr a h-each, shefellfrom her horse; but the pronoun is hither ; a null, a nunn, thither, across ; a rir, according to.
omitted if the preceding word end with a vowel ; as, a dus- A ris, again. A sios, downwards; a suas, upwards.
gadh le h-osnaich, awakening with her sobs. Oss. Taura. + A, s. A chariot, car, waggon.Glossary of Colum Cillc.
Syr. ha, ah. Heb. a. Chald. eh. Arab. ha. Pers. ou. f A, s. An ascent, hill, promontory.
Gr. iv. Tr. a. Manx. e. Corn, e, i. t Ab, negative particle ; as ablach, i. e. ab-laoch, a brat.
A", (for ag), the sign of the present participle. If the parti Ab, g. aba, s.f An ape ; a spell, anciently any little crea
ciple begin with a vowel, ag, or 'g, is most frequently used, ture. Dan. abe. Du. aap. Sued. apa. W. epa. Sclav.
and a', if it begin with a consonant. A gaol 'g a caoidh apinia. Finland, apini, an ape.
is ise ag acain, her beloved deploring her, and she wailing t Ab, aba, s. m. A father, a lord, an abbot; n. pi. aban,
bitterly. Oss. Taura. Le h-osnaich o cadal a dusgadh, or abannan, abbots. Heb. ab, or abh. Chald. ab. Turk. aba.
with her own sobs awakeningfrom her sleep. Id. Ta h-anam Greek, **. Dor. D. ^o{. Lat. abbas. Span. abad.
ag imeachd gu neoil, her spirit is travelling to its clouds.Id. Calmuc Tartars, abagai. Hung. apa. Grisons, bab. Syra-
It may be said, that in general this particle is used, though cusan and Bithynian, pappas. Syr. abba. W. abad. Arm.
with infinitely more elegance and propriety, in the same and Corn, abatee, abad. It. papa. Hottentots, bo. Antilles,
sense as the English use a, when they say, he is a walking, baba. Herodotus tells us, that the Scythians called father
he is ajishing, tha e ag imeachd, tha e ag iasgachadli. Jove papeeus ; a modern author says that the Scythian term
A, the sign of the infinitive, To. for father was pappas.
ABA A B H
f Ab, aba, s. m. Water. Pers. ab, river. Turk. ab. Mogul, Abairt, s.f. (from abair.) Education; politeness, breeding ;
ab, river. Heb. saab, carry water ; from sa, carry, and ab, speech, articulation. Jr. abairt.
water. Ethiop. abbi, wave. Armen. ahp, pool. Pers. ab, t Abairt, s.f. Custom, use, habit, usage. See Abhairt.
ap, av, water. Jap. abi, wash with water. Abait, aite, s.f. (ab-kite). An abbey,
This word is found in Martin's description of the Hebrides, and t Abaoi, s.f. Sunset, descent. Eng. eve.
in Irvine's nomenclature on the word Amis, which is the name of
a lake and river in Argyllshire (Awe) ; so Ab-us is a name given t Abar, air, s. m. Speech.
to the Humber. Wytfleet, in his Supplement to Ptolemy's Geo Abar, air, s. m. A marsh, bog, fen; marshy ground. Arab.
graphy, calls the place where Columbus first landed in America, ybr, margin of a river, and abar, wells. Heb. by met.
Cuanabi, or Guanahani. Both these words have the same signifi baar. Jr. abar.
cation, meaning a bay, harbour, or sea of water. Cuan is a harbour,
and nb is water, and i seems to be an Indian termination. Guana Abarach, a. (from abar.) Fenny, boggy, marshy; of or
hani : Guan is the same as cuan ; g and c, being palatals, nre easily pertaining to a marsh ; likewise of or pertaining to Loch-
changed the one into the other, and an [see an] or han is water : aber; a Lochaber-man ; also bold, daring. Gu h-aghrohor
the i, as in the former instance, is an Indian adjection. abarach, in a brave and bold manner. Old Song. Com.
Aba, gen. sing, of ab; of an ape ; of an abbot. and sup. abaraiche, bolder, boldest.
Aba, s. m. A cause, affair, matter, circumstance, business. Abarachd, s.f. Marshiness, bogginess.
Syr. and Chald. aba. Abar da ir, s. m. (from abair.) A dictionary.
Abab ! interj. Tush ! fie ! oh ! for shame ! nonsense ! pshaw ! Abardairiche, s.m. (from abardair.) A lexicographer.
t Abac, aic, s. m. See Abhag. Abartach, a. (from abair.) Bold, daring, forward, impu
t Abach, aich, s. m. Entrails of a beast; pluck; also pro dent, talkative. Com. and sup. abartaiche, more or most bold.
clamation. Ir. abhach. Abartachd, s. f. (from abair.) A mode of speech; an
Abachadh, aidh, s. m. A ripening, the circumstance of idiom; talkativeness.
ripening ; a growing to maturity. Abartair (from abair), s. A dictionary.
Abachadh (ag), pr. part, of abaich. Ripening. Tha 'n Abartairiche, s. m. (from abartair.) A lexicographer.
t-arbhar ag abachadh, the corn is ripening. Aber, s. m. (Corn. aber. Heb. habar, to join together;
t Abachd, s.f. Exploits; gain, lucre. haber, a companion; heber, ajunction; Chald. Syr. Ethiop.
Abachd, s.f. Ripeness, maturity. Contr. for abaicheachd, habar, to unite.) A place where two or more streams
the regularly formed, though not used, derivative, of abaich. meet, a confluence, a conflux, as Aberfeldy ; a place where
f Abact, s.f. Irony, jesting. Glossary of Colum Cille. Now a river falls into the sea, as Aberdeen, in Scotland ;
written abhachd. Aberistwyth, in Cardiganshire. " Seu mari," says Box-
\ Abadii, aidh, s. m, A lampoon, a satirical poem; n. pi. horn, " seu duo fluvii junctis aquis consociantur, locus in
abaidhean. quo fit hsec conjunctio Britanaice vocatur aber." The place
Abaich, a. Ripe, mature, at full growth ; ready, prepared, where a river falls into the sea, or where two rivers join,
expert. Com. and sup. abaiche, more or most ripe. Ir. is, in the old British tongue, called aber. Boxhorn seems
to thiuk that aber is a Phenician word. In some districts
abaidh. Manx, appee. W. adhved. of the Highlands, as Breadalbane and Strathtay, this word
Abaich, v. Ripen; bring or grow to maturity. Pret. a. dh' is improperly pronounced obair.
abaich, ripened ; fat. aff. a. abaichidh, shall or will ripen; Abh, s. m. A landing net; a sack net; an instrument.
fut. pass, abaichear, shall be ripened.
Aba ich f.a d, eid, x. m. and /'. Ripeness, maturity ; increase f Abh, s. m. Water. Tonq. hai, sea. Shans. ab, and aw,
in ripeness, advancement in ripeness. Air abaichead 's gum water. Arab, ahha, pool. Pers. awe. Gr. AEol.
bi e, however ripe it shall be. Tha e dol an abaichead, Lat. a-qua. Dan. aae. TV. aw. Fr. eau. Gothic, a.
Jsl. aa. Low Germ. aa. Swed. a, a river. Old Sat.
it is growing more and more ripe. a, ea, eha. See also Ab.
Abaichear, fut. pass, of abaich ; shall be ripened. Abh, in its original acceptation, is a fluid, and from this root
Abaichidh, fut. aff. a. of abaich ; shall or will ripen. are derived all words that imply fluidity, or the action or motion
Abaid, aide, s.f. (i. e. ab-aite, the place of an abbot), an of fluids, as well as many words which imply motion. Hence also
abbey ; also an abbot. Pers. abad, a booth ; plur. abadan. amnis, a river, and abhuinn, a river; properly abh-an, the flowing
Dan. abbedie. Span, abbadia. N. pi. abaide, or abaidean, element. See also amh.
abbeys. Lios an abaid, the abbot's court. Arm. les an abad. Abh ac, aic, (more properly abhag.) A terrier; a dwarf, a
Abaide, gen. sing, of abaid. sprite; also, in derision, a petulant person. N. pi. abhaic,
or abhacan.
Abaideachd, s.f. (from abaid), an abbacy. Abh-cii>il, s f. A musical instrument.
Abaidh, gen. sing, of abadh. Abhacan, n. pi. of abhac. Terriers.
t Abaidh, s. f. A bud, blossom. Heb. and Chald. abi, Abhacas, *. m. and f. Diversion, sport, ridicule, merriment;
green fruits. boisterous day. Ball abhacais, a laughing stock.Stew. Jer.
t Abail, s.f. Death. Arab. Hebil. Fear na h-abhacais, a merry fellow, a man for merriment.
Abailt, An abbey; more frequently abaid ; which see. f Abhach, a. Joyful, glad, humorous ; sportful, merry.
t Abailt, s.f. Death. Arab. Hebil. Comp. and sup. abhaiche, more or mostjoyful ; now written
Abair, v. irr. Say, speak, utter, pronounce. Pret. a. thu- aobhach; which see.
bhairt, said ; fut. aff. a. their, shall or will say ; fut. neg. Abhaiche, com. and sup. of abhach, more or most joyful.
dubhairt. Abair ri, ris, riu, say to her, him, than ; na Abhachd, s.f. (from abhach.) Joy, humour, hilarity ; gibe;
h-abair sin, or, na abair sin, do not say that. IV. ebru. irony ; jesting ; also capability. Ri h-abhachd, merry
Jr. abair. Eng. jabber. Du. jabberen. Heb. dabar. making. Macint. A togail abhachd, raising joy. Old
ABAiREAMt-/frf sing, imper. a. of abair. Let me say, speak, Song.
utter, or pronounce. Abhachdach, a. Humorous, merry, joyous, joyful ; jolly,
Abairear, fut. and imper. pas*. Shall be said, let be said ; corpulent ; inclined to gibe, jesting, or raillery. Gu li-ab-
abairear e, let it be said. It is often contracted abrar. hachdach, joyfully.Macint. Com. and sup. abhachdaiche,
Stew. Luke, rtf. more or most humorous.
A B H A B 1
Abmachda jctte, j. m. {from ahhaeh.) An humorous person ; Abhaistiche, comp. and sup. of abhaisteach. More or roost
one who ia fond of jesting or raillery, a railer. customary,
Abbachdaiche, com. and sup. of abhachdach. More or Abhal, ail, s.m.n.pl, abhlan. An apple; an apple-tre.
most humorous, joyful or jocose. Abhal fiadhain, a crab-apple ; crann abhail, an apple-t,ree,
Abhachdail, . (from abhach.) Joyful, humorous, jocose. Stew. G. B. Ruaidhe nan abhal, the ruddiness of apples.
The terminations ail and eil of adjectives are but smoothings Old Song. W. aval. Dan. aeble. Jr. abhall. Arm.
and contractions of amhuil, like; abhachdail, therefore, is afall and aval. Corn, aval and avel. Old Germ, eflfel.
abhachd-amhuil. The case is the same in English : as, Mod. Germ, apfel. Lith. apfal. Old Pruss. wabelko.
gentlemanly, i. e. gentlemanlike; cowardly, cowardlike. and Procopius, in Cherson Taur. apel. Servia, iablo.
Abhachdas, ais, i. tn. {front abhach.) Merriment, ridicule, Turk, and Hung, alma, by transposition for amal. The
snort; clamorous joy. right orthography of this word is abhall, being derived
Abbadh, aidh, s.m. An instrument; abhadh-ciuil, a musical from the pure Celtic term ball, any round body ; in Stiria
instrument. Stew. Ecdes. and Carinthia they say iablan ; in Bohemia., gabion ; Isl.
eple ; Runic, eple ; Little Tartary, apel.
Abiiadh, aidh, *. m. A landing-net, a sack-net; a fold; Abhal ghort, or, abhall-ghort, gen. abhall -ghoir, s. m.
a hollow.
Abhadh, aidh, 4. m. A flying camp, Ir, id. An orchard. Sometimes written all-ghart. Dan. aeble-
gaart. W. afallach. Jr. abhal-ghort.
Abhadh-ciuil, s. m. A musical instrument.Stew. Ecc.
Abhall, aill, s. m. An apple; an apple-tree. Ar 0' abhall 's
Abhag, aig, *. m. A terrier; a contemptuous name for a ar ubhlan, our appbx-trees and apples. Old Song. Written
petulant person ; rarely a dwarf ; a spectre. An abhag also abhal.
bh' aig Fionn, the terrier which Fingal had.Fingalian Abhall-ghortach, a. Abounding in orchards; of or
Poem. Neas-abhaig, a ferret. Ueb. abhak, dust. pertaining to an orchard.
Abhag acr, a. (from abhag.) Like a terrier ; of or relating A bhan, adv. Down, downwards. See Bhan.
to a terrier; petulant, snappish, waspish. Abhar, air, s. m. A reason, cause, motive. Chald. abhor;
Abhag ml, i. e. abhag-amhuil, a. (from abhag.) Like a more frequently written aobhar, which see ; n. pi. abhair
terrier; waspish, snappish. and abharan.
Abbaoan, r. pi. of abhag. Terriers. t Abharach, aich, *. m. A youth under age, who acts as
Abhag as, ais, s. m. A report, a rumour, a surmise. a man. Gr. i8%b, a delicatefemale.
Abhaic, gen. sing, and n. pi. of abhac. Abhlain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of abhlan, which see.
Abu aig, gen. sing, and n. pi. of abhag. t Abhlabhra, a. Dumb, mute, speechless.
Abh ail, gen. sing, of abhal. Abhlan, n. pi. of abhal and abhall.
t Abhail, *. m. Death. Jr. Bisc. Hivil. Abhlan, ain, s. m. (Dan. ablad. Jr. abhlan.) A wafer;
Abu a ill, gen. sing, of abhall. a round cake ; whatever is taken with bread in the way of
Abu a inn, (i. e. abh-an, theflowing element; tec abh and an), sauce, or condiment, vulgarly called kitchen. Shaw.
s.f. gen. abhann, or aibhne. A river, a stream. Bruach A bhlas mar abhlain, its taste like wafers.Stew. Exod.
na h aibhne, the bank of the river; n. pi. aibhnean and N. pi. abhlain and abhlana. Abhlan, signifying kitchen, is
aibhmchean, ruithidh na h-aibhnean, the riversjlow.Stew. more frequently written and pronounced annlan, which
Pro. Written also amhamn and abhuinn. hat. amnis. see. Abhlan coisrichte, a holy wafer.
W. afon, or avon. English, + afene. Swed. aen, or an. Abhlanach, a. Like a wafer, wafery.
Arm. afon. Ir. abhan. Corn. auan. Manx. aon. Germ. am. Abhlan-coisrigte, s. m. A holy wafer, such as is used by
One may venture to assert that all over the globe, more especially the Roman Catholics in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.
in Europe and Asia, the names of rivers ending in an, ane, en, Abh-mhathaiu, mhathar, s.f. A mother abbess,
eine, ein, in, on, onne, &c. are derived from the old Celtic root, t Abhra, a. Dark. Shaw.
*, signifying an element, water; see an. The Seine is a contraction
ofseiinh-on, the smooth water ; and a more descriptive name of that Abiira, abhradh, *. m. The eye-brow. Gr. efyif. Arm.
majestic river could not be given. Rhen-us, the Rhine, is reidh- abrant. Jr. abhra.
an, the placid mater ; a name which well accords with the general Abhrais, gen. sing, of abhras.
appearance of that river. Garumn-us, Garonne, is garbh-an, the
rough rcater. Marne, marbhan, the dead water. So also fad-an-us, t Abhran, ain, * m. A song-Shaw.
the Po ; and the Asiatic rivers, Arn-on, Jord-an, Gib-on, Jih-on, Abhran, *. pi. Eye-lids. W. amrant. Corn, abrans.
dec. I have been agreeably surprised to find that in some of these Abhras, ais, *. m. Yarn; flax and wool, stuff for spinning;
remarks I had been anticipated by a few learned and ingenious also a ready answer. Ag abhras, spinning. Ir. abhras.
etymologists.
Abhrasach, a. (from abhras.) Of or belonging to yarn,
Abh ainneach, a. (from abhainn.) Fluvial; abounding in
rivers ; of, or pertaining to, a river. t Abhsan, ain, *. m. A hollow; a furrow.
Aiihai r, gen. sing, of abhar. Abhuinn, aibhne, s.f. A river. See Abhainn.
t Abhais, s.f. A bird. Arm. afais. Lat. avis. Abhuinneach, a. (from abhuinn.) See Abhainneach.
Abhuist, s.f. See Abhaist.
Abhaist, aiste, s.f. (Heb. davash.) Custom, habit, usage,
manner, consuetude; also adjectively, usual, wont. A t Abhus, uis, s. m. Any wild beast; also a stall for cattle.
leanachd an abhaist a b' aoibhinn, following the habits that Ablach, aich, s.m. A mangled carcass ; carrion; the re
once were pleasant.Oss. Gaul. Cha b' e sud abhaist mains of a creature destroyed by any ravenous beast ; a
Theadhaich, that was not the manner or custom of Tedaco. term of personal contempt, a brat. Ablach gun deo, a
Old Legend. Tha thusa an sin, a chnoc an easain, aim ad breathless carcass. N. pi. ablaich and ablaichean. In the
aheasamh raara b' abhaist, hillock of the dark torrent, thou sense of a brat, ablach ought perhaps to be written ablaoch.
mrt there standing as usual.Macint. N. pi. abhaiste and Ablaich, gen. and voc. sing, and n. pi. of ablach. Ablaich
abbaistcan. tha thu ann ! you brat, that you are !
Abhaisteach, a. (from abhaist.) Customary, usual, ha Ablaichean, n. pi. of ablach. Carcases.
bitual, adhering to custom; according to use, custom, or Ablaoch, laoich, s. m. (ab neg. and laoch.) A brat; a
habit. Coutp. and sup. abhaistiche, more or most customary. \ pithless person. Ablaoich tha thu ann I You brat, thatyou are!
A C A A C D
Ablaoich, gen. ting, of ablaoch. Oss. Dargo. When acain is preceded by 'g or ag, it is, as
t Abrad, a. Exalted; far removed. Arm. brat, sovereign. are most substantives in a similar situation, rendered as the
Abram. Contracted for abaiream, which see. present participle. Crathaidh e a cheann 's e 'g acain,
f Abrann, *. 77i. Bad news. he shall shake his head, moaning ; literally, and he moaning.
t Abrann, a. Lustful, lecherous, lascivious. Acaineach, a. (from acain.) W. acwynawl, a. Plaintive;
distressful ; causing sorrow or wailing ; sobbing. Guth
Abraon, aoin, s. m. April. Ir. abran. acaineach, a sobbing voice ; comp. and sup. acainiche, more
Abrar, for abairear, fut. and imper. pass, of abair. Shall or most plaintive.
or will be spoken. Aca in ear, ir, s. m. (acain, and fear.) A complainer, mourner,
Abstoil, gen. sing, of abstal. weeper, wailer; one who ails. IV. acwynwr.
Abstol, oil, s. m. An apostle. Gr. airoaro^-o;. Lat. apostol Acainiche, s. m. (from acain.) A wailer, a mourner,
us. Ir. absdol. Fr. + apostre. Arm. apstol. Corn. a sobber, weeper, complainer.
abestel. The letter of the apostle, litir an abstoil ; the Acainiche, comp. and sup. of acaineach. More or most
letters of the apostles, litrichean nan abstol. N. pi. abstoil plaintive.
and abstolan.
Abstolach, a. (from abstol.) Apostolical; of or belonging Ac air, s.f. A ship's anchor; n. pi. acraichean, anchors;
acair an anama, the anchor of the soul. Stew. Heb. Ceithir
to an apostle. acraichean, four anchors. Stew. Acts. Ir. accair.
Abstolachd, s.f. (from abstol) Apostleship. Gras agus Acair, s.f. An acre of ground; n. pi. acraichean, acres.
abstolachd, grace and apostleship. Stew. Rom. Pers. akar. Gr. ay^t. Lat. ager. Maeso-Goth. akrs.
Abu ! interj. The war cry of the ancient Irish l'sl. akur, akker, and akkeri. Swedo-Goth. aker and akrs.
Abuchadh, aidh, s. m. The process of ripening, the circum Swed. acker. Dan. ager. Anglo-Sax. acere. Ir. acra.
stance of ripening, a ripening, progress toward maturity. Ann. acre. Germ, akar, akare, achre, acker. High
Written also abachadh. Germ, acker. Low Germ, akker. Heb. ickar, a ploughmoyn.
Abuchadh, (ag) pr. part, of abuich. Ripening, mellow Syr. akoro. Arab, akkoro. This is one of the few'words
ing, maturating. which have come down to us from the original language of
Abuich, v. Ripen, mellow, maturate. Pret. a. dh' abuich, man.
ripened; fut. off. a. abuichidh, shall or will ripen; fut. Acair-pholl, phuill, s. m. (acair and poll.) An anchorage,
pass, abuichear, shall or will be ripened. a harbour, a road for ships ; n. pi. acair-phuill. Ir. id.
Abuich, a. Ripe, mellow, mature. M' arbhar abuich, my Acairseid, (from acair,) s.f. A port, harbour, haven;
ripe corn. Stew. 0. T. Ir. abuidh and abuigh. anchorage ; a road for ships ; n. pi. acairseidean, harbours.
Abuichead, eid, s. Ripeness, advancement in ripeness. Ir. id.
Tha 'n t-arbhar dol an abuichead, the corn is growing riper. t Acais, s.f. Poison. Ir. id.
Abuichear, fut. pass, of abuich. Shall or will be ripened. t Acalla, *. Conversation.
ABUicHEAS,/f. sub. a. of abuich. Used with the conjunc Acanaich, s.f. (from acain.) Wailing, moaning, sobbing,
tion ma, if, nur, when ; ma dh' abuicheas e, if it shall ripen. weeping; grief. Iadsan a b' aille m' acanaich, they who
would desire to partake of my grief. Old Song.
t Abulta, a. Strong, able, capable. Gaisgich abulta, \ Acar, a. (Lat. acer. Fr. aigre.) Sharp, sour, bitter.
able warriors. Old Poem. Jr. abulta.
t Abultachd, s.f. (from abulta.) Strength, ability, capa Acarach, a. Gentle, obliging, mild, moderate, kind, com
bility. Abultachd ur feachd, the strength of your army. passionate, merciful ; respectful. Comp. and sup. acaraiche.
Old Poem. Acarachd, s.f. (from acarach.) Gentleness, kindness,
t Ac, aca, m. A denial, a refusal ; also a son. Hence, mildness, moderateness, compassionateness, mercifulness ;
mac, a son. respectfulness. Gun acarachd, without mercy. Smith.
Ghlac e sinn le h-acaraclid, he grasped us (our hands) with
t Ac, aca, s. m. Speech ; tongue. kindness. Old Song.
Aca and ac', comp. pron. (Corn, aga, theirs.) Of them, with t Acaradh, aidh, s. m. Profit; the loan of anything;
them, on their side, at them, on them, in their possession; usury. See Ocar.
also their. Tha moran ac' ag radh, many of them say.
Smith. Tha e aca na sheirbheiseach, he is with them as a Acaraiche, comp. and sup. of acarach. More or most
servant ; aca sud, in the possession of those people.Smith. gentle, kind, respectful, mild, or compassionate.
An tigh aca, their house ; i. e. an tigh th' aca, literally, the t Acaran, ain, s. m. Lumber.
house which is to them ; chaidh ac' air, they conquered him ; t Acartha, a. See Acarach.
theid ac' orm, they shall conquer, or get the better of, me. Acasa, acasan. Emphatic form of the comp. pron. aca,
t Acadamii, daimh, s.m. (ac, speech, and tdamh, learning.) which see.
An academy. Gr. axafajua. Lat. academia. Ir. aca- Acasdair, s.m. An axle-tree. N. pi. acasdairean. Ir.
damh. acastair.
Acaid, s.f. (Ir. aicid.) Pain; hurt; a transient lancinating Acasdairean, n. pi. of acasdair.
pain. Is trom an acaid tha 'm lot, intense is the pain in my Acastair, s. m. An axle-tree. N.pl. acastairean, axle-trees.
wound.Macint. Acastairean, n. pi. of acastair.
Acaideacii, a. (from acaid.) Painful, uneasy ; also groan Acastarain, gen. sing, of acastaran.
ing. Comp. and svp. acaidiche, more or most painful. f- Acastaran, ain, s. m. An axle-tree. N. pi. acastarain,
t Acaideadh, idh, s. m. An inhabitant, tenant. or acastarana.
Acaidiche, comp. and sup. of acaideach. More or most Acduinn, s.f. Tools, instrument, utensil, tackle, tackling ;
painful. furniture ; equipage, harness ; also a salve. Macfar.
Acain, s.f. (perhaps ath-chaoin.) W. acwyn and ocain. Acduinn gunna, the lock of a gun; acduinn eich, horse
A moan, a sob, plaintive voice; wailing, weeping, murmur; harness ; written also acfuinn, acfhuinn, and achduinn ;
rarely a tool, tackle, furniture. Acain 'g a taomadh an 77. pi. acduinnean.
comhnuidh, hit plaintive voice pouring forth incessantly. Acduinneach, a. Of or pertaining to tools, tackling,
Oss Fin. and Lor. Acain air acain, moan upon moan. harness ; equipped, harnessed ; expert, able, sufficient,
A C R
active. Com. and sup. acduiniche, written also acfoinneach, Achdairpholl, phuill, s.m. A road for ships; written
acfhuinneach, and achduinneach. also acairpholl.
Acduinnean, n. pi. of acduinn. Achdairseid, s.f. An anchorage, a harbour, port; a road
Acduinniche, comp. and tup. of acduinneach. for ships. See Acairseid.
Ac fuinn, s.f. Tools; instrument, utensil, tackling, tackle, + Achdra, ai, s.f. A naval expedition,
harness, equipage, furniture ; also a salve. Macfar. Ac- t Achdran, ain, s. m. An adventurer, a foreigner. Jr. id.
fuinn gunna, the lock of a gun; acfuinn is inneal ciuil, t Achdran ach, aich, s. m. A foreigner, an adventurer,
instrument! ofdeath. Smith. Acfuinn sgriobhaidh, writing t Aciidranach, a. Foreign; adventurous.
utensils.Stew. Ezek. Acfuinn na luinge, the tackling of a
skip. Stew. Acts. N. pi. acfuinnean ; written also Achduinn, s. f. Instrument, tools, tackle, harness,
acduinn, acfhuinn, and achduinn. equipage, furniture ; also a salve. Grinn achduinn na
h-eachraidh, the beautiful harness of the stud. Old Poem.
Acfuinneach, a. (from acfuinn.) Of or pertaining to tools, JV. pi. achduinnean, written also acduinn and acfuinn.
tackling, harness, or furniture; equipped, harnessed;
expert, able, sufficient, active. Comp. and sup. acfuinniche, Achduinneach, a. Of or relating to tools, harness, or
more or most expert. Ir. acfuinneach. furniture ; also equipped ; expert, able, sufficient. Comp.
and sup. achduinniche.
Acfuinnean, n. pi. of acfuinn.
+ Achiar, a. (Ir. id. Lat. acer. Fr. aigre.) Sharp, sour,
Acfhuinn, s.f. See Acfuinn or Acduinn. bitter.
Acfhuinneach, a. (from acfhuinn.) See Acduinneach, t Acladh, aidh, s. m. A fishery,
or Acfuinneach.
t Aclaidh, a. Smooth, fine, soft.
Acfhuinnean, n. pi. of acfhuinn. See Acduinn, or
Acfuinn. Achlais, aise, s.f. The arm, armpit; bosom, breast. Lag
na h-achlais, the armpit. N. pi. achlaisean. Raimh ann
Ach, conj. (Goth. ok. Ir. ach. Lat. ac. Germ, auch.) But, achlaisean ard-thonn, oars in the bosoms of lofty surges.
except, besides. Cha do rinn neach ach thusa e, none but Macfar. Ir. achlais.
you did it ; ach co sud air a charraig mar che6, but who is
yonder on the hill like a mist.Oss. Dh' fhalbh iad uile Achlais, gen. sing, of achlas.
ach h-aon, they all departed but one ; ach beag, almost. Achlaise, gen. sing, of achlais.
Ach! ach! An interjection expressive of disgust. Achlas, ais, s.f. A bundle; a little truss; also the arm
t Ach, acha, s.f. A skirmish. pit, the arm.
Ach, *. m. A field. See Achadh. t Achmhaing, a. Powerful.
t Acha, ai, t.f. A mound or bank. Bisc. Acha,, a rock. Achmhasain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of achmhasan.
Achadh, aidh, s. m. (Sax. haga. Scotch, haugh.) A field, a Achmhasan, ain, s. m. ; n. pi. achmhasain. (Corn, acheson,
plain, a meadow ; a corn field. An t-achadh a cheannaich guilt.) A reproof, reprimand, scold, reproach. Thug
Abraham, the field that Abraham bought.Stew. Gen. A athair achmhasan da, his father rebuked him.Stew. Gen.
ceangal sguab san achadh, binding sheaves in the cornfield. Achmhasain teagaisg, the reproofs of instruction.Stew.
Id. N. pi. achanna. Pro. Fuath no eud no achmhasan, nor hate, norjealousy,
nor reproach. Old Puem.
Achaidii, gen. sing, of achadh.
Achmhasanach, a. Causing a rebuke; liable to rebuke;
t Achaiuh, s. f. An abode, a home. This vocable is of or pertaining to a rebuke ; prone to rebuke ; repre-
seldom or never used by itself ; but it is very common to hensive. Comp. and sup. achmhasanaiche, more or most
say, dachaidh and dh'achaidh, home or homewards ; n. pi. prone to rebuke.
achaidhean.
Achmhasanaich, v. Rebuke, reprove, chide, censure;
Achain, s.f. A prayer, entreaty, supplication ; a wailing pret. a. dh'achmhasanaich, rebuked; fut. off. a. achmha-
voice ; petition. 6' amhluidh sin achain nan slogh, sanaichidh, shall or will rebuke.
such were the prayers of the people. Mac Lach. The
proper orthography of this word would seem to be ath- Achmhasanaiche, s. m. One who rebukes or censures.
chutnge, which see. Achmhasanaiche, comp. and sup. of achmhasanach.
Achaineacii, a. (from achain.) Supplicatory; perhaps AciiMHASANAiciiiDHj/ui. aff. a. of achmhasanaich. Shall
atk chuingeach. or will rebuke.
Achainiche, s. m. A petitioner; perhaps ath-chuingiche. t Achran, ain, s. m. Intricacy, entanglement, perplexity.
t Achamair, a. Soon, timely, short, abridged; perhaps + Achranach, a. Intricate, entangled, perplexed.
ath-chumir. Achuinge, s.f. (for ath-chuinge.) A supplication, prayer,
t Aciiam aireaciid, s.f. Abridging, abridgment; per petition, request. See Ath-chuinge.
haps ath-chuimireachd. Achuingeach, a. (from achuinge.) Petitionary; prone to
t Achar, air, s. m. A distance. supplicate or pray ; of or pertaining to a petition or
+ Acharadh, aidh, t. m. A sprite; a diminutive person. prayer.
Ach-beao, adv. Almost, well nigh. Ir. acth beag. t Acomail, v. Heap together ; increase ; congregate.
Ac Hi), s.f. (Dan. act. Swed. ackt, purpose. Germ, echt, a + Acomail, s.f. An assembly, a meeting, a gathering,
law.) An act, statute, decree ; deed ; case ; account; state, t Acon, ain. A refusal, denial.
condition ; way, manner, method. Air an achd so, in this f Acor, oir, s.f. Avarice, penury, covetousness ; written
way ; air aon achd, on any account, in any case. Smith. now ocar.
Achd parlamaid, an act ofparliament. Acrach, a. (JF. acrev. Gr. a*^,faint.) Hungry; also an
t Achd, s.f. A body; peril; a nail; a claw. hungry person. Ant-anam acrach, the hungry soul.Stew.
Achdair, s.f. An acre. See Ac air. Pro. ref. Biadh do 'n acrach, food to the hungry. Smith.
Achdair, t. f A ship's anchor; n. pi. achdraichean, Comp. and sup. acraiche, more or most hungry ; written also
ar n-achdair, ar siuil 's ar be airtean, our anchor, our ocrach, which see.
tails, and tackling. Macfar. Written also acair, which Acraiche, comp. and sup. of acrach.
Acraichean, n. pi. of acair. See Acair,
ADH Adh
Acrais, gen. sing, of acras. Adhalach, a. (from adhal.) Like a flesh-hook ; of or per
t Acrann, ainn, s. m. A knot ; perplexity, entanglement. taining to a flesh-hook.
t Acrannach, a. Knotty, knotted ; perplexed, entangled. t Ad hall, a. Deaf; dull, stupid, senseless.
Acras, ais, s. m. (Gr. oxgaa-ia, hunger; and axjo?, faint. t Adiiall, aill, s. m. Sin, corruption- Ir. id.
Ir. acras.) Hunger; famine. Tha acras orm, I am hungry ; t Adhallach, a. Sinful, corrupt, perverse. Comp. and
tha mi air acras, I am hungry ; bheil acras ort, oirre, air, tup. adhallaiche.
oirbh, orra, art thou, is she, he, are you, they, hungry ? mar + Adhaltan, ain, s. m. A simpleton; a dull stupid fellow.
mhiol-choin air acras, like hungry dogs.Roy Stewart. Adhaltranach, aich, s. m. An adulterer; n.pl. adhal-
Acsa, acsan ; emphatic form of aca, which see. tranaichean.
+ Acuil, s.f. An eagle. Lat. aquil a. Ir. acuil. Adhaltranach, a. Adulterous. Ginealach adhaltranach,
Acuinn, s.f. A tool, tackle, tackling, equipment. See an adulterous generation.Stew. Mat. Leanabh adhaltran-
Acfuinn. nach, an adulterous child; urr adhaltrannach, an adul
Acuinneach, . (from acuinn.) Provided with tools, terous child.
tackling, harness ; equipped, harnessed ; of or pertaining Adhaltranachd, s.f. The practice of adultery.
to a tool or harness. Adhaltranaich, gen. sing, of adhaltranach.
t Ad, s. m. Water. Ir. id. Adhaltran aichean, n. pi. of adhaltranach. Adulterers.
Ad, aid, s.f. A hat. Ad a bhile 6ir, the gold-laced hat. Adhaltranais, gen. sing, of adhaltranas. Fear adhal-
Macint. Bile na h-aid, the rim of the hat. tranais, an adulterer.
Ad, provincialfor iad. Adhaltranas, ais, *. ffi. Adultery. A dianamh adhal
Ad, a. pron. (for do.) Thy, thine. Ann ad ghialaibh, in thy tranais, committing adultery. Stew. Jer. Lan do adhal
jaws. Stew. Ezek. 'N ad chluais, in thine ear. Qss. tranais, full of adultery.Stew. 0. T.
Fing. * Adhaltras, ais, m. Adultery. Urr adhaltrais, an adul
A' d', ad, (for ann ad, or, ann do.) In thy, as a. Na bi terous child; written also adhaltrus.
a'd'uamhas domh, be not a (as a) terror to me.Stew. Jer. Adiialtrasach, a. (from adhaltras.) Adulterous.
t Ada, adai, s.f. Victory. Adhaltrasachd, s. f. The practice of adultery.
Adag, aig, s.f. (Ir. adag.) A shock of corn, consisting of Adhaltrus, uis, m. Adultery. Luchd adhaltruis, adul
twelve sheaves ; by the Lowlanders called stook ; also a terers.Stew. 0. T.
haddock. N.pl. adagan; an da chuid nah-adagan agus an Adhaltrusach, a. Adulterous; guilty of adultery.
t-arbhar, both the shocks and the standing corn. Stew. Judg. Adhaltrusachd, s.f. The practice of adultery.
Adag ach, a. (from adag.) Abounding in shocks of corn; Adhamh, s. m. Adam; from adh, bless; and literally
of or pertaining to a shock of corn. meaning the blessed person.
Adagachadh, aidh, s. m. The employment of making Adhann, gea. ; adhainn and aidhne, s.f. A pan ; a goblet ;
shocks of corn. Scotch, stooking. more commonly aghann ; also coltsfoot. Ir. adhann.
Adagachadh, (ag), pr. part, ofadagaich. Gathering corn Adhannta, a. Kindled; exasperated, inflamed.
into shocks.
Adag aich, v. Gather corn into shocks. Pret. a. dh'adagaich ; t Adiianntach, a. Bashful, modest.
fut. aff. a. adagaichidh, shall or wilt gather corn into shocks. t Adhanntachd, s.f. A blush; bashfulness.
Adagaichte, p. part, of adagaich. Gathered into shocks. Adh ar adm, aidh, s. tn. and/". Worship, adoration; more
Adagan, n. pi. of adag, which see. frequently written auradh.
Adhar, gen. adhair and adheir, s. m. (Heb. aver. Syr. air.
t Adamhair, s.f. Play, sport, diversion, Gr. ari%. Croatian, aier. Dal. aer. Brazilian, arre. Laf.
t Adamhair, v. Play, divert, sport, aer. Span. ayre. //, aria. Corn, and W. awyr. //-. aedhar.)
t Adamhradh, aidh, s. m. (Lat. admiratio.) Admiration; The atmosphere, the air, firmament, sky, cloud. Tha 'n
wonder, fhardoch gun druim ach adhar, the dwelling has no roof
t Adh, adha, s. m. A law. but the sky. Oil. Gaul. Boisge teine o 'n adhar bholg-
Adh, adha, s. m. Prosperity, good luck, happiness, joy ; also dhubh, flashes offlamefrom the dark bellying cloud. Id.
an heifer ; a hind ; but in these two last senses it is oftener Adhar ach, a. (from adhar.) Aerial, atmospheric; airy;
written agh, which see. Is mor an adh, great is thejoy. glorious.
Macint. Adharail, a. (i. e. adhar-amhuil), from adhar. Aerial,
f Adhach, a. (from adh.) Prosperous, lucky ; happy, joyful. atmospheric. W. awrawl.
Comp. and sup. adhaiche, more or most prosperous. Adharc, aire, s.f. A horn; a sounding horn. Bisc. adurra.
Adhachd, s.f. Prosperousness, luckiness, happiness, joy- Ir. adharc.
fulness. Adharcach, a. Horny; also horned.
Adh ail, gen. ting, ofadhal. Adharcan, ain, m. A lapwing. Adharcan luachrach,
-f- Adiiailg, s.f. Desire; will, inclination. a lapwing.Stew. Lev.
Adhainn, gen. sing, of adhann ; written more frequently Adharc-fhudair, s.f. A powder-horn.
aghann, which see. Adharcan-luachrach, s. m. A lapwing.Stew. Lev.
Adhairc, gen. sing, of adharc. Adhart, airt, *. m. (Ir. adhart.) Linen; bed-linen; pillow ;
Adhairceach, a. (from adharc.) Horned; having large bolster. B'i m'adhart a chreug, the rock was my pillow.
horns. Bo adhairceach, a horned cow. Ir. adharcacb. Oss. Conn.
Adhaircean, b. pi. of adharc. Horns. Adhart, airt, s. m. Forwardness; seldom used but in
Adhaircean, ein, *. m. A lapwing; written also adharcan. connexion with the prep, air, as, thig air d' adhart, come
Adhairt, gen. of adhart. forward, advance ; air d' aghart, come on, go on; tha i teachd
Adhairt, s. Forwardness, front ; van. Jr. adhairt. See air a h-adhart, she is very forward, she is coming on.
Aghairt. Adhartach, a. (front adhart.) Like linen, of or belonging
Adhal, ail, s. m. A flesh-hook.Shaw. to linen.
6
A G A G A
Adhartach, a. Forwards ; having a wish or a tendency to Ag, aig, s. m. (Swed. agg, grudge.) Doubt, scruple, hesita
be onwards or forwards; progressive; diligent, assiduous. tion, contradiction ; a hesitation, or lisp in speech.
Adhartan, it. pi. of adhart. A pillow, a bolster; linens, Ag, v. Doubt ; hesitate ; refuse, contradict. Pret. a. dh'ag,
bed-linens. doubted; fut. aff. a. agaidh, shall or will doubt.
t Adhartak, air, s.m. A dreamer. t Aga, s.f. The bottom of any depth.
+ Ad ii as, a. Good; proper. Agach.o. Inclined to doubt or refuse ; scrupulous; sceptical ;
Adhastar, air, s. m. A halter; properly aghastar, which see. stammering, lisping.
f Adhbha, ai, s. m. An instrument ; a musical instrument. Ag ad, comp. pron. (aig and tu.) At thee, on thee, with thee ;
See also Abhadh. in tliy possession. Agad is also used in the sense of
t Adiibhadii, aidh, s.m. A house, palace, garrison. a possessive pronoun ; as, an tigh agad, a bhean agad, thy
house, thy wife. This use of agad is not often met with in
+ Adhbhaghan, ain, s. m. (dim. of adhbha.) A musical our classical writers ; but in common language it is very
instrument. frequent. Tha, is or are, is understood, as, a bhean
Adhbhar,, air, *. m. Cause, reason. Air an adhbhar sin, th'agad, your wife ; uxor qua; est tilii. The same remark is
therefore. Stew. Gen. ref. Adhbhar mulaid, a cause of applicable to all the pronouns compounded of aig, as,
grief.Macint. Written also aobhar. agam, aige, aicc, againn, agaibh, aca.
t Adhbharas, ais, s.m. Carded wool; also yarn. See Agadh, aidh, s. m. Doubt, hesitation, contradiction. Gun
Abii ARAS. agadh sam be, without any contradiction.Stew. Hcb. ref.
t Adhbharsach, aich, s. m. A comber or carder of wool. Ir. agamh.
t Adhbhuidii, s.f. Joy, merriment. Agadsa, agadse. Emphatic form of agad, which see.
Adhlac, aic, s. f. A burial, interment, funeral. Aite- t Agag, aig, s.f. An habitation or settlement.
adhlaic, burying ground. Agaibh, comp. pron. made up of nig and sibh. At you, on
Adhlacadh, aidh, s. m. The ceremony of interring. Aite you, with you ; in your possession ; of you ; from among
adhlacaidh, a burying ground. Ir. adhlacadh. you. Co agaibli do 'n iarrar i? whom ofyou is she sought
Adhlacadh (ag), pr. part, of adhlaich. Burying, interring. for ?Fingalian Poem. Chaidh agaibh orra, you got the
Adhlac air, s. m. (adhlac-fhear.) A burier, an undertaker. better of them. It is also used as a possessive pronoun,
Adhlaic, v. Bury, inter. M' anam adhlac' an scle6, to your; as, an tigh agaibh, your house; in which sense it
bury my spirit in the mist. Oss- Carthon. Pret. a. seems to be contracted for a th' agaibh ; as, an tigh th'
dh'adhlaic, buried ; fut. aff. a. adhlaicidh, shall or mil agaibh, your house ; literally, the house which is to yoif ;
bury ; p. part, adhlaicte, buried. which, though bad English, is as correct in Gaelic as
t Adhlaic, s.f. A longing desire for what is good. it is in Latin.
Adhlaicear./u/. pass, of adhlaic. Shall or will be buried. Agaibhse. Emphatic form of agaibh, which see.
Adhlaicidh, fut. aff. a. of adhlaic. Shall or will bury. Agaidh, gen. sing, of agadh.
Adhlaicte, p. part, of adhlaic. Buried, interred. Ir. Agail, (i.e. ag-amhuil), a. Doubtful; in jeopardy; scep
adhlaicthe. tical: suspicious; lisping.
t Adhlan, ain, *. m. A hero, champion.Jr. Agaileachd, *._/". (from ag.) Doubtfulness, suspiciousness ;
scepticism ; a tendency to lisp, a habit of lisping.
Adhmhoire, comp. and sup. of adhmhor.
Againn, comp. pron. (Corn, agan, ours,) made up of aig and
Adhmhol, r. Praise, extol. Pret. a. dh' adh-mhol, praised; sinn. At us, of or from amongst us, with us, or in our
fut. off. a. adhmholaidh, shall or will praise. possession. Gras do gach aon againn, grace to every one
Adh-mholadii, aidh, s. m. Praise. of us.Stew. Eph. It is also, like all the pronouns com
Adhmhor, a. {from adh.) Prosperous, fortunate, lucky, pounded of aig, used as a possessive pronoun, our ; as, an
joyous, happy ; comp. and sup. adhmhoire. Ir. adhmhor. crodh againn, our cattle ; in which sense it is contracted
Adhnadh, aidh, s. m. A kindling of fire. for a th' againn, which is or are to us.
Adh'or. See Adhmhor. Againn-ne. Emphatic form of againn, which see.
Adhrach, a. (from adhradh.) Devout, religious ; written Agair, v. Plead, plea, accuse, charge, lay to one's charge,
also aorach. crave; require, demand. Pret. a. dh' agair, pled; fut.
Adhrachail, a. (i. e. adhrach-amhuil), from adhradh. off. a. agairidh, or, agraidh. Cha d' agair mi cruaidh e,
Devotional. Dleasnasan adhrachail, devotional duties. I did not plead hard with him. Old Song. Na agrar orra e,
Adhradh, aidh, s. m. (Ir. adhradh. Dan. aere, honour.) let it not be laid to their charge ; agraidh se, he will demand.
Worship, adoration, devotion. Thoir adhradh, worship; Stew. 2 Chron.
bbeir mi adhradh, I will worship; written also aoradh, Agairg, s.f. (agaricus.) A species of mushroom.Jr. id.
which see. Agairidh, fut. aff. a. of agair.
Adh-uamharra, a. Abominable. Aoairt, s.f. Pleading, plea, accusing; craving. Annan
Adh-uamharrachd, s. Abomination, abominableness. agairt a chuise, in the pleading of his cause.Stew. Pro.
A d-ola ins, s.f. Felt. Agait, s.f. An agate. Macd.
t Aduadii, aidh, s. m. Horror, detestation. Agaiteach, a. Like an agate, of or pertaining to an agate,
t Aduarra, a. (i. e. ad-uamharra.) Horrid, detestable. full of agates.
Atraigue, . f. A rising or preparing for battle.//-. Agall, ail, s. m. Speech; dialogue. Jr.
Ao, (perhaps another form of aig), prep. At. It is the sign Agall-ach, a. Conversational; of or pertaining to a
of the present participle. Ag iarruidh, ag iasgachadh, speech or dialect. Com. and sup. agallaiche.
ag acain, asking, fishing, wailing ; literally at asking, at Agam, comp. pron. (Ir. agam), made up of aig and mi. At
fishing, at wailing. It is prefixed to words beginning with me, with me, on me, or in my possession. Cha 'n eil mo
a vowel, though sometimes it is seen before words begin ghunn agam, I have not my gun; chaidh agam air, I got
ning with a consonant ; as, ag ruidh a reis, running a race ; the better of him.Smith. Agam, like all the pronouns
ag dol a mach, goingforth.Smith. compounded of aig, is used also as a possessive pronoun,
7
A G H A I C
my, mine; as, an claidheamh agam, my sword; which an solus gu agh'or, ere the light shone joyfully. Oss.
expression seems to be a contraction of an claidheamh a Ir. aghmhar.
th' agam, (gladius qui est mihi), the sword which is to me, Agrach, a. (from agradh.) Accusatory; pleading, craving;
consequently my sword; againn fhein, at or with ourselves. inclined to accuse, plead, or crave.
Corn, agan honan. Agradh, 3 sing, and pi. imper. of agair, which see.
f Agan, a. Precious, dear. Agradh, aidh, s. m. An accusation ; craving, pleading.
Ag arach, aich, *. m. {from agradh.) A claimer, a pretender. Agraidii, gen. sing, of agradh.
Ir. id. Agraidh, (for agairidh^yW. aff. a. of agair, which see.
Aoarach, a. (from agradh.) Prone to plead, plea, or Agrar, fut. pass, of agair. Shall or will be accused. See
crave, or accuse; litigious; vindictive. Comp. and sup. Agair.
agaraiche, more or most prone to plea. t Agsal, a. Generous, noble. Ir.
Agartach, a. (from agairt.) Inclined to accuse, plead, or Agus, conj. (Dan. og. Corn. ag. hat. ac.) And; as.
plea; accusatory; litigious; quarrelsome. Com. and sup. Thusa agus mise, thou and 1 ; tha e ceart cho mhath agus
agartaiche. Ir. id. a bha e, it isjust as good as it was. The contracted form
Agartachd, s. f. (from agairt.) Quarrelsomeness; liti- [is or '*] of agus is used both in prose, poetry, and com
giousness. mon language. See is, and 's.
Agartaiche, com. and sup. of agartach. More or most f Ai, s. A controversy; a cause; a region, territory; in
quarrelsome. heritance of land, possession.
Agartas, ais, s. m. A plea, a suit at law; prosecution, t Ai, s. A herd; a sheep; a cow; also a swan. Jr. id.
accusation. Agartas coguis, remorse ; fein-agartas, self- f Aibh, s.f. Likeness, similitude, resemblance. Ir. id.
reproach, compunction ; inntinn saor o fhein-agartas, a mind Aibhe! interj. (La/, ave. Ir. aibhe.) Hail! all hail 1
freefrom self-reproach.Macfar. Ir. id. Aibheis, s.f. The sea, ocean; a gulf; boasting; empti
Agh, aighe, s. A heifer, a young cow; a fawn ; rarely an ness. Ri aodann aibheis, on the surface of the sea.
ox, bull, or cow. Agh thri bliadhna dh' aois, an heifer Macdon. Ir. id.
three years old.Stew. Gen. Reamhar mar agh, fat as a Aibheisear, ir, s. m. The adversary, the devil.
heifer. Stew. Jer. Air t6ir nan agha ciar, in pursuit of the Aieiighitir, s.f. Alphabet, hat. abgetorium.
dusky fawns. Oss. Luaithre aighe, the ashes of an heifer.
Stew. Heb. Aibiiideach, a. Great, monstrous, enormous.
Agh, aigh, m. Joy, happiness; success, prosperity; Aibhirsear, ir, s. m. The devil. Ir. See Aibhistear.
also joyful, happy. Choinnich sinn Lochlinn 's cha b' Aibiiist, s.f. Ruin, destruction ; an old ruin. Ged tha e
agh dhuinn, we met Lochlin, and it was not a gay meeting. 'n diugh na aibhist f huar, though it be to-day a cold ruin.
Ull. Bidh agh aig na naoimh, the holy shall havejoy.Smith. Oss. Conn.
A threin a b' fhearr agh, thou hero who excelledst in success. Aiehisteach, a. (from aibhist.) Full of ruins; like a ruin.
Old Song. Written also adh. Aibhistear, ir, s. m. The devil; a destroyer. This is the
Agh, aigh, s. m. Fear, astonishment, awe. Gr. myv, old Celtic term for the devil. Diubhol (whence Ji/3o?io{,
veneration. diabolus, diavolo, diable) is much more modern. It
literally means, a man of ruin.
+ Agh, aigh, s. m. Battle, conflict.
Aibhistearachd, s.f. Demonism, the conduct of a devil,
Aghach, a. (from agh.) Warlike, brave, prosperous, suc of a destroyer ; destructiveness.
cessful, conquering; joyous, happy. Com. and sup.
aghaiche, more or most warlike. Aibhle, s.f. Fire, spark; more frequently written cibhle.
Ir. id.
Aghaidh, s.f. Face, visage, countenance ; brow; surface. Aibhleag, a./-. ( dim. of aibhle.) A burning coal; a little
Aghaid h na talmhainn, the face of the earth.Stew. 0. T. fire ; rarely a flake of snow. See Eibhleag.
Thoir aghaidh dha, oppose him ; gabh air d' aghaidh, pass
on, go on, go forwards. Stew. Pro. Cuir an aghaidh is Aibhlitir, s.f. Alphabet. N. pi. aibhlitirean.
fhearr dh' fheudas tu air, put the best face on it you can; Aibiilitireach, a. Alphabetical. Ordugh aibhlttireach,
an aghaidh, the face, also against ; cuir an aghaidh, alphabetical order.
oppose, contradict, thwart; cuir na aghaidh, oppose him, Aibiine, gen. sing, of abhainn, which see.
thwart him. Stew. Eiod. Cuir na h-aghaidh, oppose her ; Aibhneach, a. (from abhainn.) Fluvial; abounding in
cuir nan aghaidh, oppose them; as an aghaidh, outright. ruins.
Aghaidh, (an), prep, governing the genitive. Against, in Aibiinichean, n. pi. of abhainn. Rivers, streams. Ri
opposition. An aghaidh na gaoithe, against the wind ; an taobh nan aibhnichean, beside the streams. Smith.
aghaidh raic an righ, against the king's son. Stew. 1 Citron. Aibiise, s. m. A spectre; sprite; a diminutive creature.
Aghaidhichte, a. (from aghaidh.) Opposed, opposing; Ir. id. Hence taibhse.
fronting, facing ; confronted. Aibhseach, a. (from aibhse.) Like a spectre or sprite ;
Aghais, s.f. Ease, leisure. See Athais. enormous.
Aghaiseach, a. (from aghais.) Easy; slow; at leisure. t Aibid, s.f. Habit. Ir. id. hat. habit-us.
Athaiseach. Aibideae, eil, s.f. Alphabet. N. pi. aibidealan, alphabtts.
+ Aghanaich, s. m. An advocate, a pleader. Aibidealach, a. Alphabetical. Ordugh aibidealach, alpha
Aghart, airt, s. m. (from aghaidh.) Advance; forwardness. betical order.
Air d' aghairt is buail, forward and strike. Oss. Tern. t Aic, aice, A tribe, family ; a nourishing; a desire;
Rach air d' aghairt, go on. a prop. Ir.
A ice, comp. pron. At her, with her, on her, in her posses
Aghann, gen. aghainn, and aighne, s.f. A pan ; a goblet. sion ; in her remembrance. Tha duslach 6ir aice, it hath
Aghastar, air, *. m. (aghaidh-stiuir.) A horse's halter. gold dust.Stew. Job. Aice, like all the other compounds
Aohmhor, and Agh'or, a. (from agh.) Pleasant, joyful, of aig, is often used as a possessive pronoun ; as, an tigli
prosperous, happy; bold, brave. Gu hagmhor, abarach, aice, her house, which may be considered an abbreviated
in a bold and brave manner.Old Song. Mun do bhoisg form of an tigh a th' aice.
A I D A I G
\ Aice, adv. Near, dose, at hand. Aidmheint, (Lat. adventus.) The advent.Shaw.
Aicear, a. Angry, severe, cruel. Lat. acer. Aidmhich, v. a. Confess, own, acknowledge. Pret. a.
Aichbheil, *. f. Revenge, vengeance. Thoir dhomh dh' aidmhich, confessed; fut. aff. a. aidmhichidh, shall or
aichbheil, revenge me.Stew. G. B. Written also aichmheil. will confess.
Aicbbheileach, a. {from aichbheil.) Revengeful, vindic Aidmiiichte, p. part, of aidmhich. See Aidich.
tive, full of vengeance. Com. and sup. aichbeiliche, more t Aifir, s.f. Blame, fault.
or most revengeful. Aifrionn, inn, s. m. The Romish mass. Jr. aifrionn.
Aicubheileachd, s.f. (from aichbheil.) Revengefulness, Aia, prep. At, on, or in possession. Tha claidheamh aig
vindictiveness. an duine so, this man has a sword. Aig often imparts to
Aicheadh, s.m. Refusal, denial, disavowal, recantation. the noun it governs, the signification of a genitive case,
Cuir as aicheadh, deny, disavow; thug e dhomh an aicheadh, and then it may be considered as an abbreviated form of
he gave me the refusal. th'aig; as, an stoc aig Fionnghal, Fingal's horn ; (i. e. an
Aicheadh, v. a. Deny, refuse, disavow, recant, renounce. stoc a tha aig Fionnghal.) Oss. Fing.
Pret.a. dh'aicheadh, refused; fut. aff. a. aicheadhaidh, t Aig, s.f. This ancient vocable is now gone into disuse;
shall refuse; aicheadhaidh mise esan, I will deny him. but it is seen in composition with other words; as,
Stew. Mat. aigcal, aigean. It means the source of all substances ;
Aicheadhaidh, fut. aff. a. of aicheadh. Shall or will deny. also a sea, a shoal. The word aigo, in Languedoc and
Aicueun, v. a. Deny, refuse, disavow, recant, renounce. in Cantabria, has the same signification.
Fret. a. dh' aichean, denied;fut. aff. a. aicheunaidh, shall deny. Aioe, comp. pron. At him, with him, on him, in his posses
t Aicliill, a. Able, powerful ; dexterous, handy. Ir. sion ; at it, with it ; also his ; its. Ir. id.
f Aichilleachd, s.f. Strength; dexterity. Ir. t Aigbheil, s.f. Terror ; now written eagal.
t Aicid, s.f. A disease, sickness; accident; a stitch; a t Aigbheileach, a. Terrific, terrible, fearful ; now written
sudden pain. eagalach.
Aichmheil, *. f. Vengeance, revenge; written also Aigeach, ich, s. m. (aigh, mettlesome, and each, horse.) A
aichbheil. stallion.
Aichmheileach, a. Revengeful, vengeful; written also Aigeal, eil, s. m. (from f aig.) The deep; an abyss,; pool ;
aickbheileach. sea ; bottom of an abyss. Do bhreacan air uachdar
t Aid, s. m. A piece, portion, morsel. aigeil, thy plaid [floats] on the surface of the pool.Old
Aideachadh, aidh, s. m. Confession, acknowledgment. Song. Iuchair an t-sluichd gun aigeal, the key of the
Aideachaidh, gen. sing, of aideachadh. bottomless pit. Stew. Rev. ref. N.pl. aigealan. Ir. aigiol,
Aideachail, (i. e. aideach-amhuil), a. Affirmatory ; con the bottom of a valley ; written also aigean, which see.
fessing, acknowledging. Aigealach, a. (from aigeal.) Of or pertaining to an
t Aidhbheam, s. m. A stranger, foreigner. Ir. abyss ; full of abysses.
+ Aidhbiif.il, *. A wonder ; a boasting. Aigealan, n. pi. of aigeal. Abysses, seas, pools.
t Aidbhf.il, s. Huge, enormous, vast. Aigeallacii, a. Puffed up, elate; spirited, mettlesome,
t Aidhbiisean, ein, *. m. A spectre, a phantom, sprite. gallant. Com. and sup. aigeallaiche, more or most spirited.
t AiDHE.\cn, ich, s.f. A milch cow. Shaw. Aigealladh, aidh, s. m. Speech, conversation, language;
A i mi f. \ it, ir, s. m. Joy, gladness ; firmament. Dhuisg an a dialogue. Ag eisdeachd aigeallaidh do blieoil, listening
aidhear, their joy broke forth. Oss. Trath. Rinn e an to thy speech. Old Song.
t-aidhcar, he made thefrmameut.Stew. Gen. ref. Written Aigeallaiche, com. and sup. of aigeallach. More or most
also, except in the last sense, aighear, which see. spirited. Is e 's aigeallaiche na thusa, he is more spirited
Aidhearach, a. Joyful, glad. than thou art ; is tu 's aigeallaiche dhe 'n triuir, thou art
the most spirited of the three.
Aidhle, t.f. A cooper's adze.
Aigeallan, s. m. A breast-pin ; a jewel; ear-ring; tassel;
t Aidhme, Dress, decoration. See Aigheam. toy. Ir. aigilin.
t Aidhne, s.f. Age. Aigean, ein, s. m. (from fug.) Gr. oxuw-or, ocean. W.
Aidich, v. a. Confess, own, acknowledge; affirm, avow, eigiawn. Jr. aigean. An abyss ; deep ; pool ; sea ; the
avouch, l'ret. a. dh'aidich, confessed; fut. aff. a. aidichidh, bottom of an abyss. Aghaidh an aigein, the surface of the
shall or will acknowledge ; fut. neg. aidich, cha n aidich mi, deep.Stew. Gen. Written also aigeal.
I will not confess. Aigeanach, a. (from aigean.) Of or belonging to an
Aidicheam, (for aidichidh mi), 1 sing. fut. off. a. of aidich. abyss ; full of abysses.
I will confess. Aideacheam thu, / will confess thee. Aigeannach, a. (from aigne.) Spirited, mettlesome ; mag
Stew. Rom. nanimous; cheerful.
Aidicheam, 1 sing. imp. a. of aidich. Let me confess, own, Aigeannachd, i.(y>om aigne.) Mettlesomeness ; sprightli-
or acknowledge. ness ; magnanimity ; cheerfulness.
Ai dichear,fut. pass, of aidich. Shall be confessed, owned, Aigeantach, a. (from aigne.) Spirited; sprightly; mettle
or affirmed. some ; cheerful ; magnanimous ; written also aigeannach.
Aidichte, p. part, of aidich. Confessed, owned, acknow
ledged, affirmed. Aigeantachd, (from aigne.) Spiritedness, sprightli-
ness; cheerfulness; magnanimity; written also aigeannachd.
Aidmiif.il, s.f. Confession, profession, declaration, ac
knowledgment. A reir bhur n-aidmheil, according to your Aigeich, gen. sing, of aigeach, which see.
frofesaon.Stew. 1 Cor. Aidmheil na firinn, the acknow Aigeil, gen. sing, of aigeal. Of an abyss ; of a pool.
ledgment of the truth.Stew. 2 Tim. Aigein, gen. sing, of aigean.
A i dm ii f.i leach, a. (from aidmheil.) Of or belonging to a Aigh, a. Happy, prosperous; liberal; auspicious; proud;
confession ; declaratory. mettlesome ; glorious. An reul aigh Iulorno, the glorious
Aidmheilear, ir, s. m. (aidmheil-fhear.) A confessor, a star Iulorno. Oss. Dargo.
professor; a declarer. Aigh, s. m. Happiness j prosperity ; joy ; mettlesomeness ;
C
A I L All
liberality ; gloriousness, glory ; auspiciousness ; also deer. The atmosphere, air, breath ; smell, savour ; the sense of
An do threig thu mi sholuis m' aigh? hast thou left me, smell. Tra chaidleas sa ghleann an t-aile, when the air
thou light (beam) of my joy1! Oss. Dargo. Meirg righ sleeps [is still~\ in the valley.Oss. Dutkona.
Lochlinn an aigh, the standard of the king of Lochlinn the Aile, a. Handsome ; more properly aille ; which see.
glorious ; aigh do choillte fein, the deer of thine own woods. Ailebeart, beairt, s.f. A halbert. N. pi. ailebeartan.
Oss. Cathula. D'aighean ciar, thy dusky deer. Id. Ail-each, eich, s. m. (f ail, stone, and each, horse.) A stone-
Aigh e, gen. sing, of aighe. Of a heifer.Stew. Heb. horse, a stallion.
Aioheach, a. (from aigh.) Happy, joyous. Ir. id. Aileach, a. (from aile.) Atmospheric, aerial; savoury;
Aighean, n. pi. of aigh. Deer. Aighean siubhlach, the of or belonging to the atmosphere, air, breath, or smell,
wandering deer.Macint. longantas aileach, an atmospheric phenomenon ; iongantas-
Aighean ach, aich, *. m. A thistle; a place where thistles an aileach, atmospheric phenomena.
grow. Aileach, a. (from aile.) Causing marks or impressions.
Aigheannaich, gen. sing, of aigheanach. Aileadh, aidh, s. m. A smell, odour; the sense of smell ;
Aigheann, aighne, s.f. A pan; a goblet; a skillet; a air, atmosphere. Aileadh deadh bholaldh, an odour of
small kettle or boiler. N. pi. aigheannan; aigheannan sweet smell.Stew. Eph. Sroine gun aileadh, noses without
a ghabhail luaithre, pans to contain ashes. Stew. 0. T. the sense of smell.Smith. Written also title.
Written also adhann and oigheann. Aileag, eig, Hiccup.Macint. Ir. id.
Aighear, eir, Gladness, mirth, joy, gaiety, festivity. Aileagach, a. (from aileag.) Causing the hiccup, hiccupy,
Tha aighear a bruchdadh na shall, gladness bursts from relating to the hiccup.
his eyes. UU. Ce61 is aighear, music is mirth. Oss. Ailean, a. pi. of ail. Marks, impressions, traces.
Derm. Aighear d' 6ige, the joy of thy youth. Smith. Ailean, ein, s. m. A meadow, a plain. Cath air an ailean
Written also aidhear. reith, a battle on the level plain.Mac Lach.
Aighearach, a. (from aighear.) Glad, mirthful, joyous, f Aileanta, a. (from aile.) Atmospheric, aerial.
gay, festive. Ailear, eir, m. A porch. Stew. Acts, ref. Ir. id.
Aighearachd, s.f. (from aighear.) Gladness, mirthful-
ness, joyousness, festivity. Ai'leathan, a. (for aimh-leathan.) Narrow; strait; light.
Aighne, gen. sing, of aghann and of aigheann, which see. Aile-bheathail, a. Vital air, oxygen.
f Aighneach, a. Liberal. Comp. and sup. aigniche, more Aile-mheidh, (aile and meidh.) An anemometer.
N. pi. ailemheidhean.
or most liberal.
Aiglean, ein, s. m. An ear-ring, a tassel, a toy. Ailghios, s.f. (perhaps aill-fhios.) Will, pleasure, longing,
desire, pride. Naeh lub air ailghios na garbh ghaoith,
Aigleanach, a. Hung with tassels ; gaudy, beauish. that will not bend at the pleasure of the [rough wind ] storm.
Aigne, s.f. Mind, temper, disposition; spirit, affection, U11. Ailghios dhaoine, the pride of men. Smith.
thought. Is cianail m' aigne, sad is my mind.Ardar Fearann gu 'r n ailghios, land to your will. Mac Co.
Written also aigneadh. Ir. aicne. Jr. ailgheas.
Aigneach, a. ( from aigne.) Spirited; affectioned; of or Ailghiosach, a. (from ailghios.) Wilful, headstrong,
belonging to mind, temper, affection, or thought. proud. Com. and sup. ailghiosaiche, more or most wilful.
Aigneadh, idh, s. m. Mind, temper, disposition; spirit, Ailghiosachd, s.f. (from ailghios.) Wilfulness, pride.
affection, thought. Fionn an aignidh chianail, Fingal Ailghiosaiche, comp. and sup. of ailghiosach.
whose mind is sad.Death ofCarril. Lean mi le h-aigneadh
neo-ghlic, / followed with unwise affection. Mac Lacfi Ail-innisean, ein, s. m. (from aile, atmosphere, and innis,
Written also aigne. tell.) Au anemoscope.
f Aill, s.f. A rugged bank; a rough steep ; a steep river-
Aignidh, gen. sing, of aigneadh. bank ; a bridle, course, place, stead.
Ail, gen. sing, of at, which see. fAiLL, s.f. Praise.
Ail, s. m. A mark, impression, trace. Ail do chois, the Aill, s.f. Desire, will, pleasure. Na 's aill le chridh,
trace of thy foot. what his heart desires.Smith. Literally, that which is
t Ail, s. m. A mouth; a rebuke; a stone; a request; a pleasure to his heart ; an ni nach b' aille, the thing I
weapons. would not.Slew. Rom. Ciod a b' aill leat ? what wouldst
Ailbhe, s.f. A flint; a stone; a rock. JV. pi. ailbhean. thou have f ma 's aille leibh cliu dhuibh fein, if you desire
Ailbheach, a. (from ailbhe.) Fliuty, stony, rocky. Cm fame for yourselves. Old Song. Is aill learn so na sin, I
and sup. ailbhiche, more or most rocky. prefer this to that.
Ailbheag, eig, s.f. A ring; a ring of any coarse metal Aillbhil. A bridle-bit. Ir.
AT. pi. ailbheagan. Ailbheagan airgiod, silver rings. Aill-bhruach, aich, s.f. A steep; a rugged bank; a
Mac Lach. Ailbheag cluais, an ear-ring. rocky steep.
Ailbheagach, a. (from ailbheag.) Full of rings; like a Aill-biiruachach, a. Steep, rugged, rocky.
ring ; of or belonging to a ring. Aille, a. (Com. ailla.) Handsome, fair, comely. B' aille
Ailbheinn, s.f. (ail and beinn.) A flint; a rock; Cridhmhor, handsome was Crimora. Oss. Fine. B' aille
mountain rock ; written also ailbhinn. na suil-sa bha Ossian, fairer in her eyes was Osstan.Id.
Ailbhinn, s.f. (ail-bheinn.) A rock ; a flint ; a flinty rock ; a Thuit a cheann aille air an t-sliabh, his comely headfell on
mountain rock. Ag imeachd air an ailbhinn oillteil, walk the hilt.Id.
ing on the dreadful precipice.Oss. Dargo. Do sgiath mar Aille, s.f. Beauty, handsomeness, comeliness. Thainig
ailbhinn, thy shield like a rock. Oss. i na h-aille, she came in her beauty.Oss. Fing. Aille
\ Aile, A stone ; also behaviour, manners, talmhaidh, earthly beauty.Smith. Ir. aille.
t Ailcne, s. pi. Paving stones, Ailleach, a. (from aille.) Beautiful, handsome, comely.
f- Ailcneach, ich, s. m. (from aile.) A pavicr. Ailleachd, s.f. (from aille.) Beauty, beautifulness, hand
Aile, *. (Gr. Aioa-oj. Lot. ./Eol-us, wind; also hal-o someness, comeliness. Ailleachd Eibhir-chaomha, the
breathe ; and perhaps Corn. aual. Ir. aile, smell.) beauty of Evircoma. Oss. Gaul. Bha h-ailleachd gun
10
A I M A I M
choimeas, her handsomeness was unequalled.Oss. Derm. indigent, necessitous ; also mischievous ; calamitous. Tha
A h-ailleachd, her beauty. mi aim-beartach, / am indigent.Sm.
Ail Leah, eig, s.f. (from aille.) A jewel; a gewgaw; a Aimbeartas, ais, s. m. (aim, priv. and beartas.) Poverty,
pretty young maid. Nach cuimhne leat an ailleag? dost indigence ; calamity, mischief,
thou not remember the beauteous maid! Oss. Taura. f Aimhean, a. Pleasant, agreeable, smooth.
Aii.lf.agax, ain, s.m. (from aille.) A little jewel ; a term Aimhleas, eis, s. m. (aimh. priv. and leas. Ir. aimhleas.)
of affection for a young person ; a pretty maid. Soraidh Hurt, harm, mischief ; ruin, misfortune ; perverseness, folly.
slainnte do 'n ailleagan, health to the pretty maid. Old Luchd aimhleis, unfortunate people ; ag iarruidh m' aimhleis,
Song. N. pi. ailleagain and ailleagana. desiring my harm.Stew. 0. T. Aimhleas air a chlaigionn,
Ailleagan, n. pi. of ailleag. Gewgaws, ornaments, jewels ; mischief on his head.Sm. A labhairt aimhleas, uttering
pretty girls. perverseness.Stew. G. B. Ni thu d' aimhleas, thou wilt
Ailleagana, n. pi. of ailleagan. harm thyself.Fingalian Poem.
Aillean, ein, *. m. (from ail.) A causeway. Aimhleasach, a. (from aimhleas.) Unfortunate; mis
Aillean, ein, *. m. Elecampane; a young beau; a minion. chievous ; ruinous ; foolish, imprudent. Comp. and sup.
Macd. Ir. ailean. aimhleasaiche, more or most unfortunate ; nithe aimhleasach,
mischievous things.Smith.
Ailleanta, a. (from aille.) Beautiful, handsome, comely, Aimhleasachd, s.f. (from aimhleas.) The condition or
delicate, bashful ; having an imposing appearance. state of being unfortunate ; mischievousness ; ruinousness,
Ailleantachd, i.f. (from ailleanta.) Personal beauty; imprudence, foolishness.
delicacy, bashfulness, modest reserve. Is i ailleantachd Aimhleasaiche, com. and svp. of aimhleasach. More or
maise nam ban, delicacy is the ornament offemales. most unfortunate.
Ailleig, gen. sing, of ailleag, which see. Aimhleasg, a. (aimh. intens. and leasg.) Lazy, indolent,
Aillein, gen. sing, of aillean. inactive, drowsy, sluggish. Ir. id.
Aillidh, a. Bright, resplendent, beauteous, fair. Lasair Aimhleathan, a. (aimh. priv. and leathan.) Narrow, strait,
nan lochran aillidh, thejtame of the resplendent lamps. Oss. tight. Is aimhleathan an t-slighe, narrow is the way.
Gaul. Og-mhnaoi a b' aillidh leac, a virgin of the fairest Stew. Mat.
cheeks. Oss. Aimhleathanachd, s. f. (from aimhleathan.) Narrow
+ AiLLiN,a. Another, hat. alien-us. ness, straitness, tightness.
Aillse, s.f. A fairy; a ghost; a diminutive creature; Aimhleisge, s.f. (aimh. intens. and leisge.) Laziness, indo
rarely a cancer ; delay. Ir. aillse. In some parts of the lence, inactivity, drowsiness, sluggishness.
Highlands this word is pronounced taillse. Aimhneart, neirt, . m. (aimh. intens. and neart.) Ir. aimh-
Aillseach, a. (from aillse.) Like a fairy, of or pertaining neart. Force, violence, oppression ; more frequently
to a fairy; spectral. written ainneart ; which see.
Ailm, s.f. A helm, stern. An ailm na asgaill, the helm in Aimhneartach, a. (from aimhneart.) Violent, oppressive ;
his arm. Macfar. more frequently written ainneartach. Comp. and sup. aimh-
Ailm, s.f. The first letter of the Gaelic alphabet; also, neartaiche, more or most violent.
though rarely, the elm-tree. (Ir. ailm. Dan. aim, an elm. Aimhneartaiche, com. and sup. of aimhneartach.
Swtd. aim. hat. uhn-us.) N. pi. ailmean. Aimhneirt, gen. sing, of aimhneart.
t Ailmeadh, eidh, s. m. A prayer. Aimhreadh, aimhreidh, s. (aimh. priv. and reidh.) Disturb
Ailmeag, eig, (dim. of ailm.) A little elm, a young ance, disagreement, confusion; also, adjectively, wrong,
elm. -V. pi. ailmeagan. disturbed, disagreeing. Tha so air aimhreadh, this is
Ailmkagan, n. pi. of ailmeag. wrong ; tha thu 'g am chur air aimhreadh, thou art putting
me wrong; cuireamaid an cainnte air aimhreidh, let vs
Ai i. mean, n. pi. of ailm. Elms. confound their language. Stew. Gen. ref. Ir. aimhreidh.
Ailmeig, gen. sing, of ailmeag. t Aimhreidhe, s. pi. Defiles, passes, forests, fastnesses.
Ailmse, s. m. A spectre; a spectral-looking person; a f Aimhreis, a. Difficult, arduous.
mistake. Aimhreit, reite, s.f. (aimh. priv. and r6ite.) Discord, dis
Ailmseach, a. (from ailmse.) Spectral; ghastly. agreement, contention, disturbance.
Ailxe, s.f. (Corn, ailne.) Beauty, comeliness. Aimhreiteach, a. (from aimhreite.) Ir. aimhreighteach.
t Ailp, s. m. A protuberance ; any gross lump ; a mountain. Quarrelsome, litigious, contentious ; of or belonging to a
hat. Alp-es, the Alps. quarrel or disturbance. Com. and sup. aimhreitiche, more
t Ailp, a. White. Gr. aApo and oavo;. hat. albus. Hence or most quarrelsome; maille ri mnaoi aimhreitich, with a
too, perhaps, and not from ailp, a mountain, may be quarrelsome woman. Stew. Pro.
derived Alpes, Alps, as being always white with snow. t Aimhriar, s. m. Mismanagement.
t Ailt, s.f. A house, hat. alt-us, high. Aimhriochd, s. (aimh. priv. and riochd.)
Ailt, a. Stately ; beautiful, comely. (Lat. alt-us.) Aghaidh t Aiminn, a. (hat. ameen-us.) Pleasant, agreeable, smooth.
is ailte lith, a face of the most beautiful colour. Fingalian Aimisichte, a. Bold, daring, resolute; written also aim-
Poem. Com. and sup. ailte, more or most beautiful. sichte.
Ai lte, com. and sup. of ailt. Aimliso, s. f. Confusion, disorder. Is aimlisg e, it is
Ailteaciid, s. f. (from ailt.) Stateliness; comeliness, confusion. Stew. hev. ref.
beauty, handsomeness. Barrachd air d' ailteachd, superi Aimlisg each, a. Confused, causing confusion, of or per
ority over thy handsomeness.Macint. taining to confusion.
Aimbeairt, gen. sing, of aimbeart, which see. Aimrid, aimrit, a. Barren, unproductive. Macfarlane has
Aim beart, beairt, s.f. Poverty, want, indigence ; calamity, properly introduced this word as Gaelic into his Vocabulary;
mischief. Cridh rial an aimbeart, a generous heart in yet Stewart, the translator of the Bible, says it is Irish.
poierty. Old Song. See Gen. xi. 31, ref.
Aimbeartacii, a. (ain, priv. and beartach.) Poor, needy, Aimsgith, a. Profane, impious, mischievous, impure.
11
A I N A I N
Aimsgitheachd, s.f. Profanity, impiousness, michievous- f Aindhiarridh, a. Angry. Ir.
ness, impurity. Le tuairisgeul 's le aimsgitheachd, with Ain-diadhachd, s.f. (i. e. ain-diadhuidheachd.) Ungod
slander and impurity.Old Song. liness, profaneness, iniquity, impiety.Stew. Jer. Ir. ain-
Aimsichte, a. Bold, daring, resolute; written also aimisichte. diadhacht.
Aimsir, s. f. {from am.) Arm. and Corn, amser. Ir. Ain-diadiiaidh, a. (ain, priv. and diadhaidh.) Profane,
aimsir. Weather, time, season. Aimsir ghaillionach, wicked, ungodly, impious, irreligious. Tha 'm faidh 's an
stormy -weather ; an aimsir a dh' fhalbh, the time that has sagairt ain-diadhaidh, the prophet and the priest are profane.
gone by. Ull. An t-sean aimsir, the olden time.Stew. Stew. Jer.
Ecc. Aimsir bhriagh, fine -weather. Arm. amser vrao. Aindiadhuidheachd, (ain, priv. onrfdiadhuidheachd.)
Aimsir a gheamhraidh, the -winter season; aimsir an earraich, See AlNDIADHACHD.
the spring season ; aimsir an t-samhraidh, the summer season ; Ain-dileas, a. (ain, priv. and dileas.) Faithless.
aimsir an fhogharaidh, the harvest season; aimsir fogharaidh,, Aindilseachd, Faithlessness.
harvest weather ; an aimsir so, this weather. Arm. en Aindith, s.f. (ain, intens. and dith, want.) Extreme poverty.
amzer ze, in this weather. Gr. ithhct.
Aimsireil, a. (i. e. aimsir-amhuil,) from aimsir. Temporal, Aindlighe, s.f. (ain, priv. and dlighe.) Injustice, unlaw
worldly ; that lasts but a season. Tha na nithe a chithear
aimsireil, the things which are seen are temporal.Stew. Cor. fulness, usury. Ir. id.
Aindligheach, a. (ain, priv. and dligheach.) Unjust, un
Ain ; an intensitive and privative particle. It is only used lawful ; also, substantively, a transgressor. Jr. id.
in composition with another word, as, ain-tighearnas, Aindligheachd, *. f. Unlawfulness, the practice of
tyranny. injustice.
Ain, a. Honourable, praiseworthy', respectful. D' uirghiol
Ain-dreannach, a. Fretful, peevish. Com. and sup. ain-
ain, thy respectful speech. Old Song. dreannaiche.
t Ain, s.f. Water. Hence amhainn, or, abhainn, a river. Aindreannachd, s.f. Frelfulness, peevishness.
See Abh. Ain is also the gen. sing, of fan, which see.
Aine, s.f. Delight, joy, pleasure ; music, harmony. Aine
Ain-bheach, *. A drone bee; also much rain,
an lath, broad day-light.
f Ainbheach, a. Manifold. f Aine, s.f. Experience; agility, expedition; also a platter.
Ainbheart, bheirt, s.y. (ain, priv. and heart.) A misdeed.
Ir. id. Aineal, eil, s. m. (more properly aineol.) A stranger, a
Ainbheil, s.f. (ain, intens. and bheul.) Impertinent lan foreigner, a guest. Cha n' fheoraich an t-aineal co mac
guage. Morna, the stranger shall not ask who is the son of Morna.
+ Ainbhidh, s.f. Rainy weather. Oss. Gaul.
Ain-bhith, (ain, intens. and bith.) A ferocious animal. Aineal, a. Strange, foreign ; ignorant.
Ain-cheard, cheirde, s. m. A buffoon; also buffoonery, Ainealach, a. (properly aineolach.) Ignorant; strange,
low jesting ; an ingenious thief. Ir. id. N. pi. ain- foreign, unknown. Com. and sup. ainealaiche, more or
most ignorant ; duine ainealach, an ignorant man.
cheirde.
Aincheardach, a. Like a buffoon; of or belonging to Aineamh, eimh, s. m. (W. and Corn. anav. Ir. aineamh.)
a buffoon, or to buffoonery. A fault, blemish, flaw, defect, injury. Da reithe gun
Aincheardachd, s. f. (from aincheard.) The behaviour aineamh, two rams without blemish. Stew. Emd.
of a buffoon ; ingeniousness. Aineamhach, a. (from aineamh.) Faulty, blemished,
maimed ; having defects, or an injury ; causing defects or
Ain-cheirde, gen. sing, of aincheard. blemishes. Com. and sup. aineamhaiche, more or most
Aincheart, a. (ain, priv. and ceart.) Unjust, iniquitous. faulty. Jr. aineamhach.
Aincheart, cheirt, s. m. A prank, or trick; injustice. Aineamhag, aig, s.f. A phrenix.
Ir. id.
Aincheist, s.f. (ain, intens. and ceist.) Danger, jeopardy, Aineamiiaig, gen. sing, of aineamhag.
dilemma ; doubt, perplexity ; puzzle, a riddle. Ainean, s. pi. Liver. Os cionn nan ainean, above the liver.
AiNCiiEisTEACH. a. (aincheist.) Doubtful, puzzling ; of or Stew. Exod.
pertaining to doubt or perplexity ; in jeopardy, doubt, or Aineas, eis, s. m. Joy, passion ; cruelty; frenzy; bravery.
danger. Duthaich gain aineas, afriendly country. Mac Co.
Ainchiall, cheil, s.f. Peevishness; forwardness; testi- Aineasacii, a. (from aineas.) Furious, passionate, enraged,
ness ; madness. raging, frantic; cruel; also brave, hardy. Mar stuadhan
Ainchiallach, . Peevish; forward; testy; mad. aineasach, likefurious billows. Old Poem. Comp. and sup.
Ainchrionailt, s.f. Acuteness, discernment, sagacity. aineasaiche, more or most furious.
Aineasachd, s.f. Furiousness, passionateness, frenzy, fury,
Aingiirionna, a. Acute, sagacious.
t Aindear, s.f. A maid fit for marriage. See Ainnir. t Aineasgair, a. Rude, uncouth, unpolished.
Aindeas, a. (ain, priv. and deas.) Awkward, not clever, Aineil, gen. sing, of aineal.
not ready-handed. AiNEiMH.gen. sing, of aineamh.
Aindeise, s.f. Affliction, calamity ; awkwardness. Aineis, gen. sing, of aineas.
Aindeoin, s.f. (ain, priv. and deoin, will.) Ir. aindeoin. Aineol, s. and a. A stranger, a foreigner; a guest; also
Reluctance, compulsion, force. Co dhiubh is de6in leat strange, foreign. A dol air aineol, wandering abroad.
no 's aindeoin, whether it be thy will or not. Macint. Stew. G. B. See also Aineal.
Dh' aindeoin ort, in spite of thee. Aineolach, a. (ain. priv. and eolach.) Ignorant, unintelli
Aindeonach, a. (ain, priv. and deonach.) Reluctant, un gent, rude, unlearned. Aineolach air so, ignorant of this.
willing. Chaidh e dhachaidh gu h-aindeonach, lie went Stew. 2 Pet. Com. and sup. aineolaiche, more or most
home unwillingly. Ir. aindeonach. ignorant. Ir. id.
Aindeonachd, s.f (ain, priv. and deonach.) Unwilling Aineolaiche, com. and sup. of aineolach. More or most
ness, reluctance, obstinacy, compulsion. ignorant.
12
A I N A I N
A in eolas, i. m. (ain, priv. and eolas.) Ignorance, want of th' air so ? what is the name of this ? Duine do 'm b' ainm
knowledge ; nescience, illiteratenesH. Am bhur aineolais, Aonghas, a man named Angus. Thug iad Seumas mar ainm
the time ofyour ignorance. Stew. Pet. Ir. aineolas. air (or dha), they named him James. C ainm & ? what is his
t Ainer, a. Proud; great; cruel. name ? what is its name ? Maighistir-c'ainm k ? Mr.what's
Ainpheoil, fheola, s.f. Proud flesh, corrupt flesh. his name ?
Pers. nam. Shans. naman. Gr. oop. Lat. nomen.
Aixfhf.ola, gen. sing, of ainfheoil. Macso-Gothic, namo. Swed. namn. Dan. navn. Anglo-
Ainfhiach, fheich,*. (ain, priv. and fiach.) Debt. Ir. ainbh- Sax, nama, and noma. Germ, name, and naam. Fr. nom.
fhiach and ainfhiach. N. pi. ainfhiachan. It. nome. Box. Lex. enw. Ir. ainim. Arm. hanv.
Ainfheich, gen. sing, of ainfhiach. AinmchlAr, chlair, s. A catalogue; an index. A7", pi. ainm-
Ainfhios, s. (ain, priv. and fios.) Ignorance.Stew. Rom. chlaran.
Ir. ainbhfhios. AiNMEACHADH,aidh, s.m. The act orcircumstance of naming,
Ainfiuosach, a. Ignorant; illiterate. Ir. ainbhfhiosach. mentioning, or appointing ; a naming, nominating ; nomi
Ainfhiosrach, a. (ain, priv. and fiosrach.) Ignorant, un nation.
intelligent, illiterate. Com. and sup. ainfhiosraiche, more Ainm each a dh (ag), pr. part, of ainmich. Naming, appoint
or most ignorant. ing ; mentioning, nominating.
Aikfiiiasrachd, s.f. Ignorance ; illiterateness. Ainmeanach, aich, s.m. (from ainm.) Nominative; a nomi
Aingeal, eil, s. m. An angel ; a messenger; also fire, light, nator.
sunshine. Gr. ayyiXo?. hat. angelus. Swed. angel. Dan. Ain-measarrach, Ainmeasarradh, a. Intemperate, immo
angle. Goth, angelus. Belg. engelen. Anglo -Sax. engelas. derate ; vast, huge.
W. angel. angelo. Fr. ange, angel. IV. engyl. Corn.
engil, "fire Ir. aingeal. Ain-measarrachd, s.f. (ain, priv. and measarrachd.) In
temperance, imraoderateness, vastness.
Aixgealach, a. (from aingeal.) Angelic; of or pertaining
to an angel ; of or pertaining to fire. Ainmeil, a. (i. e. ainm-amhuil.) Namely; renowned, famed,
famous. Gu h-ainmeil, especially, famously.
Akgealag, eig, s.f. Angelica. Ir. id.
Ain meileachd, s.f. (from ainmeil.) Nameliness; renown.
Aikgealta, a. (front aingidh.) Perverse, wicked, head
strong, froward. Ainmiif.as, s. m. Reward, recompense.
Aingealtachd, s.f. Perverseness, wickedness, froward- Ainmheid, s.f. (from ainneamh.) A wonder, a rarity.
ness. A gabhail tlachd ann aingealtachd, taking pleasure Ain-mhiann, s. (ain, intens. and miann.) Lust. See An a-
in wickedness. Stew. Prov. Aingealtachd na chridhe, mhiann. Jr. ainmhiann.
frowardness in his heart.Id. Ain-miiiannach, a. See Anamhiannach. Ir. ainmliian-
Ainghean, s.m. (ain, intens. and gean.) Excessive love; nach.
excessive greed or avarice. Ainmhidh, s. m. (Ir. and Corn, ainmhidh.) Animal, brute,
Ainghean acii, a. (ain, inlens. and geanach.) Exceedingly beast. X. pi. ainmhidhean, beasts; an ainmhidhean uile,
attached ; excessively greedy or avaricious. all their beasts. Slew. Gen.
Ainghniomh, s. m. (ain, intens. and gniomh.) A bad deed. AiNMHiDHF.ACH, a. Brutal, brutish; of or belonging to a
Aixghn iu.miiacii, a. Facinorous; wicked. brute.
AiNMiiiDHKACHD, s.f. (from ainmhidh.) Brutishness.
Aingidh, a. Wicked, vicious, bad ; perverse, mischievous ; Ainmich, v. a. (from ainm.) Name, appoint, mention, fix
cross, ill-natured. Comp. and sup. aingidh. aingidhe. upon, nominate. Pret. a. dh' ainmich, named ; fut. aff. a.
Aingidheachd, s.f. (from aingidh.) Wickedness, vicious- ainmichidh, shall or will name. Ainmich do thuarasdal,
ness ; perverseness, iniquity, evil. Aingidheachd a bhaile, appoint your wages.Stew. Gen. Ainmich co e sud, men
the iniquity of the city. Stew. Gen. Aingidheachd ur tion who yonder man is. Mac Lach.
deanadais, the evil of your doings. Slew. Jcr. Jr. ain- Ainmig, Ainmic, a. Seldom, rare, scarce. Is ainmig thig e,
gidheacht. he seldom comes; b' ainmig a leithid, his like (iqual) was
Ainglidh, a. (from aingeal.) Angelic. Ir. id. rare. Macint. B' ainmic bha mo bhuilean fann, seldom
Aixiociid, s.f. (ain, priv. and iochd.) Cruelty; oppression. were my blows weak. Fiugalian J'oem.
Le h-ain-iochd, with cruelty. Stew. Ezek. Luchd ain- Ainmigead, eid, s. m. (from ainmig.) Rareness, scarceness;
iochd, oppressors. Ir. ainiocht. increase in scarceness. A dol an ainmigead, growing
Ain-iochdmhoireaciid, s.f. (from ain-iochdmhor.) Op more and more scarce.
pressiveness ; unfeelingness ; cruelty. Ain m- lite, s.f. A catalogue ; an index.
Ain-iochdmhor, a. (ain, priv. and ioclidmhor.) Oppressive, t Ainn, ainne, s. A circle; a ring. Lat. annus, a year.
unfeeling, cruel. Com. and sup. ain-iochdmhoire. Hence also fainne, a ring.
Ainiosal, a. Haughty. Arm. and Corn, ainisle. t Ainneadii, eidh, m. Patience.
Aixise, s.f. Anise. Macd. Ir. id. Ainneamh, a. Rare, scarce, curious; curiously formed;
t Ainle, a. Fair, comely, well-featured, valuable. Crios ainneamh, a curious girdle. Slew. Exod.
t Aixleaciid, s.f. (from ainle.) Comeliness, Ainneart, neirt, s.f. (ain, intens. and neart.) Oppression,
t Aixleao, eig, s.f. A snare ; a sting. violence. Ainneart air a choigreach, violence on the stranger.
Aixleag, eig, s.f. A swallow.Macd. Ir. ainle. Stew. Jcr. Luchd ainneirt, oppressors. Jr. aineart.
Aixleag-miiara, A black martin.Macd. Ainneartacii, a. Oppressive, violent, tyrannical, over
Ain lean, r. a. (ain, intens. and lean.) Pursue, persecute. bearing.
Pret. a. dh' ainlean, pursued; fut. off. a. aiuleanaidh, shall AiNNEARTACim, s.f The practice of oppression.
or will pursue. Ainnichte, a. Tamed; made patient.
Aix-leaxmhuin, s.f. Persecution. Ainnir, f. A marriageable woman; a virgin, a maid,
Aix-leas, s. m. Difference, mischief, theft. Jr. ainleas. a young woman. Ainnir fo br6n, a maiden mourning.
Aijcm, ainmr, s. m. A name ; a substantive noun. C ainm Oss. Cathloda. Ainnir a cheud ghraidh, the maid of his
th' ort ? what is your name ? Ciod is ainm do so, or c' ainm first love. Oss. Fing.
13
A I R A I R
Ainnis, Ainniseach, a. Poor, destitute, needy, abject. Tha are on him ; cha d' fhuair mi ni air, I got nothing in her
mi ainnis lom, J am poor and naked. Smith. A slugadh an possession ; tha e air paigh, he is bound to pay ; chaidh
ainnis, swallowing up the needy.Stew. Amos. Ir. id. agam air, I got the better of him, or it ; ciod tha cur air,
Ainnis, Ainniseachd, s.f. Poverty; abjectness. what ails him ?
Ainreite, s.f. (ain, priv. and reite.) Strife, quarrel, con Air, gen. sing, of ar; which see.
fusion ; more frequently written aimhreite ; which see. Air, v. Plough, till, cultivate. Lat. aro. Pret. a. dh' air,
Ainriochd, s. A miserable plight; a woful condition; a ploughed; fut. aff. a. airidh, shall or will plough. Iadsan
frightful bodily appearance. Jr. id. a dh' aireas euceart, they who plow iniquity. Stew. Job, ref.
Ainsgeun, Ainsgian, s. Fury; fright, terror. Bhaidh an + Airbhe, s.f. A story; ribs.Ir.
teach air ainsgeun, the horse ran off in a fright. Ir. ains f Airbheart, bheirt, s. Meaning.
gian. t Airbheartach, a. Sagacious.
Ainsgeunach, Ainsgianach, a. Furious, wild; apt to take Airbhre, s.f. A multitude; an host; an army; a legion.
fright ; as a wild horse. Ir. ainsgianach. Airc, airce, s.f. An ark ; a large chest ; a granary. Stad an
Ain-sheirc, *./. (ain, priv. and seirc.) Hatred; excessive aire, the ark rested.Stew. Gen. Heb. argads. Lat. area.
hatred; cruelty. Span. area. Arm. arch. Gr. airc. Old Sax. erk, and eark.
Ain-sheirceil, a. (i. e. ain-sheirc-amhuil.) Hating; abomi Airc, s.f. Trouble, distress, affliction, difficulty, hardship,
nating ; cruel. strait. Saoi na aire, a hero in distress. Oss. Manos. Aran
Ain-srianta, a. Unbridled, uncurbed; obstinate, untamed ; na h-airce, the bread of affliction; tha mi am aire, J am in a
debauched. Ir. ainshrianta. strait.
Ain-sriantach, aich, s. m. A libertine; a debauchee. + Airc, airce, s.f. A cork tree; a sow; a lizard. Aire
Ais-sriantas, ais, s. m. Libertinism; the condition of being luachrach, a lizard.
untamed, as a horse. + Airceach, a. Ingenious; shifty.
t Ainteach, a. Boastful; vain-glorious.
i Airceadh, eidh, s. m. An earnest penny.
Ain-teas, m. (ain, intern, and teas.) Extreme heat; fer
vour ; a violent inflammation.Stew. Deut. Also ardour, Airceann, a. Certain, positive. Ir. aircheann.
enthusiasm, fervent zeal. Ir. ainteas. Airceannas, ais, s. m. Certainty, positiveness.
Arjf-TEASACHD, s.f. (from ainteas.) Feverishness. Airceas, eis, s. m. (from airc.) Sorrow, trouble, distress,
Ainteist, s. m. (ain, priv. and teist) A false witness. pain, difficulty, restraint, straitness. Gun airceas mealaidh
N. pi. ainteistean. sibh, ye shall enjoy without restraint, or, without trouble.
Ain-teisteaneas, eis, s. m. (ain, priv. and teisteanas.) A Smith.
false testimonial ; a false certificate ; an unjust certificate. Airceas ach, a. Sorrowful; troublous; causing sorrow, or
Ain-teisteas, eis, s.m. (ain, priv. and teisteas.) False evi pain.
dence ; false testimony. Airchill, s.f. A keeping.Jr.
Ain-teth, a. (ain, intens. and teth.) Ardent; exceeding Airchis, s.f. A complaint.
hot; vehement; eager. Ainteth chum air, ardent for Aird, gen. sing, of ard ; which see.
battle. Mac Lack. Aird, airde, s. f. An earth, or point of the compass ; a
Ain-tighearn, s.m. (ain, intens. and tighearna.) An op quarter, a cardinal point. Thionail an Fhiann as gach
pressor, a tyrant; an overbearing master or ruler. See aird, theFingalians assembledfrom every quarter. Old Poem.
also Antighearn. Ir. aintighearn. Arab, ardhi. Pers. ard, earth. Maeso-Goth. airtha. Isl.
Ain-tighearnas, ais, s.m. Oppression; tyranny; domi jord. Swed. jord. Germ, aerd and erd. Scotch, airt, art,
neering. Ir. id. airth.
Ain-treun, a. (ain, intens. and treun.) Very strong. Com. Aird, s.f. Preparation, improvement, order, state ; happi
and sup. ain-treine. ness. Dheanadh e aird , he would make preparation.Macint.
Aintreunas, ais, s. m. Great strength. Aird, airde, [an] or 'n aird, adv. Up, upwards, upward;
Aipol, s. m. Apollo. from below. Gun eiridh 'n aird a choidh, never more to
Air, prep, (governing the dative.) Corn. ar. Ir. air. On, rise. Sm. Dh eirich e le buaidh an airde, he rose up
upon ; for, about, of, concerning. Iomradh air do with triumph. Id. O 'n airde, from above ; from on high.
ghliocas, the fame of thy wisdom. Stew. 1 K. Air mo Aird-deas, gen. airde-deas, s.f. The south; the south
shonsa, for me ; on my account. Air mo shonsa dheth, point. Gaoth na h-airde deas, the south wind; dh' ionn-
as for me ; for my part of it.Stew. Gen. Air sometimes suidh na h-airde deas, to the south.Stew. Gen.
takes after it a noun in the aspirate form, as in the follow Aird-an-ear, gen. airde-an-ear, s.f. The east point; the
ing example : Air bharraibh nan tonn, on the tops of the east. Gaoth na h-airde an ear, the east wind; dh' ionn-
waves.Oss. Air eigin, with much ado; air leth, apart, suidh na h-airde an ear, to the east. Stew. Gen.
aside, by itself. Air choir, so that, in a manner; nobly,
properly; as usual. Air lamh, on hand; by the hand. Air Aird-an-iar, gen. airde an iar, s. f. Aird 'n-iar, gen.
mo lamb, on hand; on my hand. Air h-aon, for one. Thuit airde 'n iar, s.f. The west point; the west. Dh' ionn-
tri le Bran air h-aon, Bran,for one, killed three.Of*. Fing. suidh na h-airde an iar, to the west.Stew. Gen.
Air choir eigin, contracted Air choir 'gin, some way or Aird-tuath, gen. airde tuath, *./. The north point ; the
other. Air bheag, almost. Air so, on this, upon this, then. north. Dh' ionnsuidh na h-airde tuath.-Stew. Gen.
Chaidh am bat air, the boat went aground. Air ais, back Airde, s.f. Height, quality, condition; a rising ground,
wards ; air aghaidh, forwards ; air adhairt, forwards, on a high place ; altitude, excellency, highness. Bha t-airde
wards ; air seachran, astray ; air iomrol, astray ; air chuth- mar dharraig sa ghleann, thy height was like an oak of the
ach, mad; air neo, else, or else, in some districts, air dheo. valley. Ull. Bha ghrian na h-airde, the sun was at its
Air muin, on, upon, above. Chaidh e air a muin, he had height; the sun was (on the meridian) at its height.Oss.
carnal connexion with her ; bithidh sin air bhuil, that will Duthona. An airde mhoir, in high condition.Stew. Ect.
come to pass.Stew. Is. Ged eirich 'airde, though his excellency should mount.
Air, cotnp. pron. On him or it; upon him or it; in his pos Stew. Job. Airde na craoibh, the height of the tree.
session ; on him as a duty. Tha 'eudach air, his clothes Airde, com. and sup. of ard. Higher, highest.
14
A I R A I R
AiRTieachd, s.f. ( from airdc.) Highness; greatness, qua AiRGiOD-CAOAiLfE, *. tn. Hearth money.
lity, excellency. Airgiod-Cixx, s. m. Poll money.
Airdeaxxa, s. pi. {from ard.) Constellations. Airgiod-reidh, s.m. Interest of money,
Airdhe, s.f. A wave ; also a sign. t Airgxe, or Airgneadh, s. m. A robbery; pillage,
Airdleag, eig, s.f. A jerk; a sudden pull; more properly plunder.Ir.
airleag ; which see. Airid, a. Particular, special. Gu h-airid, especially.
t Airdreachd, t.f. A synod. Airidh, s. m. Worth, merit, desert. Is math an airidh,
- Aire, s. f A judge; a servant; also a name given to it is well or deservedly done ; is ole an airidh e, it is a pity.
different orders of Irish nobility. Airidh, a. Worthy, excellent, fit, meet, suitable. Is airidh
Aire, s.f. (Jr. aire.) Notice, regard, attention ; thoughts, thu air peanas, thou art worthy of punishment ; is ro airidh
observation, watching. Thug iad aire dhomh, they gave me thu air moladh, very worthy art thou of praise ; airidh air
attention. Aire leagte air saoghail dhorcha, his thoughts aithreachas, meet for repentance.Slew. Acts, ref.
fixed on worlds unknown. Oss. Conn. Fo aire, under oh~
serration; in custody. Oss. Ting. An ti a bheir an aire, Airidh, *. m. A green grove; a place where osiers grow.
he who regards or attends. Stew. Pro. Gun aire dhomh, Thig taibhse gu dian an airidh, ghosts shall issue wildly
unknown to me; without my notice. Thoir an aire, take from the osier meadow. Oss. Temo.
care. Ait aire, an observatory ; tigh aire, an observatory ; Airidh, and Airigh, s.m. {perhaps aire-thigh.) A sheal-
also a house where there is a corpse; a house where vigils ing; hill pasture; a mountain booth or hut ; a shepherd's
art held over a corpse; Scotch, late-wake. Thoir an aire cottage. Thig do 'n airidh mo chailinn, come to the shealing,
dhomh, attend to me. my maid. Old Song. Bothan airidh am braighe Raineach,
Aireach, ich, *. m. {from aire.) A grazier; a keeper of a mountain hut in the braes of Rannoch ; the name of one
cattle ; a shepherd ; a watchman. A', pi. airichean. of thefnest Highland melodies ; airidh dhamh, pasture for
Aireach, a. (from wee.) Watchful, attentive, observant; oxen.Stew. Is.
sober ; rarely hostile, violent. Comp. and sup. airiche, t Airigh, m. A ruler, a prince. Jr.
more or most watchful.Stew. Tit. t Airillean, ein, *. m. A party, a faction.
Aireaciiail, a. (i. e. aireach-amhuil.) Attentive, watchful, Aire-ioxad, s. m. An observatory.
observant, circumspect. t Airis, s.f. A firebrand, charcoal ; also knowledge. (Jr.
Aireaciias, ais, s. m. A pastoral life ; tending cattle ; the airis.) A history. In this last sense airis is now written
occupation of a shepherd ; watchfulness. aithris ; which see.
Aire a >iii, eirah, *. m. {W. eiriv.) Number, quantity; Airiseach, a. See Aithriseach.
numbering, numeration. Gann an aireamh, few in num t Airisean, ein, s. m. An appointment, an order.
ber.Stew. Gen. fAiRLE, s.f. An advice. Though this vocable be gone
Aireamh, v. Number, count, compute. Pret. a. dh' aireamh, into disuse, we have comh-airle, a counsel, advice,
counted ; fut. off. a. aireamhaidh, contr. airmhidh, shall or t Airleac, v. Borrow; lend.
will count ; fut. pass, aireamhar, shall be counted. Airmhidh
tu iad, thou shall number them.Stew. Num. Ai rle ac ac a, a. Ready or willing to lend ; ready to borrow ;
Aireamh ach, aich, s. m. (from aireamh.) An accountant; of or pertaining to a loan,
a numerator. f Airleacadh, aidh, *. m. A borrowing; a lending,
A i ream ii ach d, s.f. Numeration, computation, numbering. f Ai hi. each, ich, .s. m. A skirmish; a rencontre.
Aireamh ar, fut. pass, of aireamh. Airleag, eig, s.f. A jerk, a sudden pull; a shove, a toss,
AutEAMn'EAR, ir, Airea.mhfhear, fhir, s. m. An ac a fling, jostle. Ir. airleag.
countant. Aik.m, n. pi. of arm. (Ir. airm.) Arms, weapons; armour.
Aire .is, ein, s. m. A goadsman. Gen. pi. arm. Fuaim nan arm, the noise of the arms. Oss.
t Aireaxxach, aich, s. m. A beginning. Shaw. Airm aluinn, beauteous armour. Oss. Tin. and Lor. Na
h-airm a bhuin e bho aineal, the armour he took from
t Airear, ir, s.m. Food; satisfaction, choice; a harbour, bay. foreigners.Id. Ball airm, a weapon ; airm theine, Jire
t Airearra, a. Pleasant, satisfactory. arms; airm thilgidh, missile weapons; airm-mhuir, naval
Aieeasg, eisg, s.f. The apple of the eye; vision, sight. arms, a navy. Armoric, arm vor, a navy.
Ir. id. t Airm, s. m. A place.Ir.
Arm pad, prep. Throughout, during. Airm-chrios, s. A shoulder belt.Ir. id.
Air feaDH, prep. Throughout, among, during. Airm-ciieard, cheairde, s. m. An armourer.
Airfideach, a. Musical, harmonious, melodious. Airm-cheardach, aich, ,v. vi. An armourer's forge,
Airfideadh, idh, . m. Harmony, melody, music, t Airmeart, eirt, s. m. An order; custom.Ir.
t Airg, s. m. A prince. Airmiieadh, (3 sing, and pi. imper. a. of aireamh.)
Airgheak, ein, s. m. A bridle rein ; a symptom. Airgheanna Airm hear, fit. pass, of aireamh. Shall be counted. See
bhais, the symptoms of death.Old Poem. Aireamh.
Airgiod, eid, s. m. {anciently airgent and argant; hence Airmhidh, fut. aff. a. of aireamh. Shall or will count.
argenturo.) Silver, money, riches. Uireadair airgeid, a f Airmhidh, *. m. A vow, a promise.Ir. id.
utrer watch ; cha robh mi gun airgiod, I was not without
money. Macint. Airgiod ulTamh, ready cash ; airgiod be6, t Airmid, s.f. Honour, worship, reverence; a custom; a
or beo-airgiod, quicksilver ; airgiod cagailte, hearth money ; swan.
airgiod cinn, poll money ; airgiod reidh, interest of money ; Airmis, v. Find; find by searching. Pr. a. dh' airrais,
airgiod ullamh, ready money. found; fut. aff. a. airmisidh, shall or willfind; dh' airmis
Airgiodach, a. (from airgiod.) Abounding in silver or mi air, /found it, or him.
money ; -.ilvery ; of or pertaining to silver ; having silver Airmiseacii, and Airmseach, a. Exploratory; good at
or money ; rich. finding or at searching.
Airgiod-beo, s. m. Quicksilver, mercury; literally live Airmiseachd, and Airmseachd, s.f (from airmis.) Find
silver ; so the French say vifargent and argent-vif and ing after a search.
the Italians argento vivo. Air.m-lan n, lainn, *. m. An armoury; a depot; a magazine.
15
A I S A I S
Air muin, comp. prep, ^n, upon, above ; on the back ; on f Aisc, aisce, s.f. A request, petition ; damage ; trespass ;
the top, or summit. Air mhuin, on his back, upon him; reproach.Ir.
air a muin, on her; chaidh e air a muin, he had carnal Aisde, comp. pron. {Ir. aiste.) Out of her; out of it. Aisde
connexion with her. thugadh thu, out of her {the earth) wast thou brought.
Airm-theine, s. pi. Fire-arms. Stew. Gen. Earbaidh e aisde, he will trust in her.Stew. Pro.
Airne, (Ir. airne.) A sloe; a wild plumb; a dama f Aisde, s.f. A poem ; ingenuity.
scene ; also a kidney, kidneys, reins. Tha m' airne ga m' Aisdeach, ich, s. m. A gay, diverting fellow.
theagasg, my reins teach me.Smith. Aisdeachan, s. pi. Sports, diversions, pastimes.
f Airneach, eich, s. m. The seed of shrub trees. Aisdridh, s.f. A translation.
Airneach, eich, s. m. The murrain in cattle. Aisead, eid, s. f. Delivery, as in childbed. Tha i air a
Airneag, eig, s. f. {dim. of airne.) A sloe; a wild plumb. h-aisead, she is delivered.Stew. Gen.
N. pi. airneagan; d. pi. airneagaibh. Preas airneag, a Aisead, eid, s.f. A platter; a large plate. Fr. aisiette.
sloe bush.
Airneagach, a. {from airneag.) Abounding in sloes ; like Arm. aczyed.
a sloe ; of, or belonging to, a sloe. Preas airneagach, a bush Aisead, v. Disburden or deliver a woman of a child.
loaded with sloes ; also a sloe bush. Pret. a. dh' aisead ; fut. off. aiscadaidh, shall deliver.
Airneagaibh, dat. pi. of airneag. Stew. IK.
Airneagan, n. pi. of airneag. Sloes ; wild plums. Aiseag, ig, s.f. {i. e. ais-thig.) Jr. aisioc. A ferry; de
liverance; a return; a vomit. Fear aisig, a ferryman;
t Airneamh, eimh, s. in. A grinding stone ; a hone. fear na h-aisig, the ferryman; bat-aisig, a ferryboat.
Airnean, pi. Kidneys; reins. {It. arnione.) A chith na Stew. 2 Sam. N. pi. aiseagan.
h-airnean, who seeth the reins.Stew. Jer. Dat. pi. airnibh. Aiseal, eil, s. m. Jollity, fun, merriment. Ri h-aiseal,
Maille ris na h-airnibh, along with the kidneys.Stew. Lev. merry-making.
Airneig, gen. sing, of airneag. Of a sloe. Aisealach, a. Funny, merry, jolly ; of or pertaining to fun.
Airneis, s. Household furniture ; household stuff; cattle, Aisean, aisne, s.f. {Corn, and Arm. asen.) A rib. N. pi.
stock, chattels, moveables. Am measg an airneis fein, in aisnean, and aisnichean, ribs. W. eisen. Corn. azan. An
the midst of their own stuff. Stew. Jos. Airneis tighe, aisean a thug e o 'n duine, the rib he took from the man.
household furniture.Stew. Gen. Arm. harnes. English, Stew. Gen. Dat. pi. aisnibh. Aon d' a aisnibh, one of his
harness. ribs.Stew. Gen.
Airnibh, dat. pi. of airne, or airnean. See Airne, or Aiseil, gen. sing, of aiseal.
Airnean. Ais-eirich, v. Rise again, as in the resurrection. Pret. a.
Airsan. Emphatic form of the comp. pron. air; which see. dh'ais-eirich, rose again ; fut. off. a. ais-eirichidh, shall
Airse, s.f. An arch, a vault. Lat. arcus. rise again.
f- Airsge, s.f. Contemplation, musing. Ir. Ais-eirigh, s.f. Resurrection; a second rising. Ais-eirigh
Airsideach, a. Unanimous, harmonious; agreeing. Com. nam marbh, the resurrection of the dead. Stew. 1 Cor.
and sup. airsidiche. La na h-ais-eirigh, the day of resurrection.
Airsideachd, s.f. Unanimity; harmony, agreement, con t Aisge, and Aisgidh, s.f. A gift; a donation.
cord. Aisig, s.f. A ferry. See Aiseag.
Airsneag, eig, s.f. Arsenic. Aisig, v. Restore, deliver, give back; ferry over. Pret. a.
Airsneal, eil, s. m. {Ir. airsneal.) Sadness, heaviness, dh'aisig, ferried ; fut. off. a. aisigidh, shall or will ferry ;
distress, sorrow, strait, difficulty, weariness, fatigue, trouble. aisigidh e, he will restore.Stew. Prov. Fut. pass, aisigear,
Co dh' innseas airsneal na Feinne, who can tell the sorrows shall be ferried.
of the Fingalians! Oss. Gaul. Spiorad airsneil, the spirit Aisigear, fut. pass, of aisig.
of heaviness.Stew. 0. T. Aisigidh, fut. off. a. of aisig. Shall or will ferry.
Airsnealach, a. Sad, sorrowful, weary, troubled ; causing ,Aisigte, p. part, of aisig. Restored, delivered ; ferried over.
sadness; vexing. Tir airsnealach, a weary land. Stew. Is. Aisil, s.f. An axletree. N. pi. aisilean, axletrees. Aisil
Air son, prep. For, on account of; by reason of; instead na carbaid, the axletree of the chariot ; aisilean nan roth,
of. Air son an fhuachda, by reason of the cold.Stew. Pro. the axletrees of the wheels. Stew. 1 K.
Air a son, for her ; air an son, for them. Ais-innis, v. Rehearse, narrate; say or tell over again;
Airt, gen. sing, of art ; which see. repeat. Pret. a. dh' ais-innis, repeated; fut. off", a. ais-
Airteagal, ail, s. m. An article.Macd. Ir. id. innsidh, shall or will repeat; fut. pass, ais-innsear, shall
Airtean, ein, s. m. {dim. of art.) A little stone; a pebble; be repeated.
a flint stone. N. pi. airteana. Ir. airtin. Ais-innleachd, s.f. A mischievous contrivance, or inven
Airtein, {gen. sing, of airtean.) Of a pebble; of a stone. tion.Stew. Ecc. ref. N. pi. ais-innleachdan ; dat. pi. ais-
Airtneul, neil, s. m. See Airsneal. innleachdaibh.
Airtneulach, a. See Airsnealach. Ais-innleachdach, a. Plotting, mischievous, crafty,
scheming. Ann an comhairlibh ais-innleachdach, in crafty
f Ais, s. m. {Ir. ais.) A hill, a strong hold, a covert; shingles counsels. Stew. G. B. Com. and sup. ais-innleachdaiche,
to cover houses ; dependence ; a loan ; a cart, or waggon,
more or most crafty.
f Ais, s. m. Money. Lat. ees. Ais-innsear, fut. pass, of ais-innis. Shall or will be re
t Ais, *. m. Back. This word is seldom or never used but hearsed.
in composition with some other word, as the prep, air; and Ais-innsidh, fut. aff. a. of ais-innis. Shall or will rehearse.
then it signifies backwards, or back ; like the Latin re.
+ Aision, m. A relic ; a diadem,
Ais, [air], adv. Back ; backwards. Thig air ais, come back,
return; cum air t-ais, keep back; cum air t-ais, a ghaoth, t Aisith, s.f. Strife, disturbance, discord.
keep back, O wind. Oss, Fin. and Lorm. Bheir mi iad air Aislear, eir, s. m. (ais and lear.) A spring-tide.Ir.
an ais, I will bring than back.Stew. Zech. Thig i air a Aisleine, *./. A death-shroud. N. pi. aisleintean.
Ji-ais, she will return. Aisleir, gen. sing, of aislear.
16
A I T A I T
Aisling, s.f. (Ir. aisling.) A dream, a reverie, a vision. Aiteann, inn, *. m. (Ir. aiteann.) Juniper; also furze.
Eirich an aisling mo chadail, rise in tie dream of my sleep. Dearcan &itinn,juniper berries ; preas aitinn, a juniper bush.
Oss. Fin. Lor. Mhosgail e o aisling an laoch, he awoke the Aiteannach, a. Abounding in junipers, or in furze; like
hero from his dream ; chunnaic e aisling, he saw a vision ; juniper, or furze ; of, or pertaining to, juniper, or to furze.
aisling chonain, a lascivious dream. N. pi. aislinge, and Aiteannach, aich. *. A place where junipers grow; a
aislingean. Aislinge faoin, empty dreams. Stew. Zech. quantity of juniper bushes.
Hat. pi. aislingibh. Aiteas, eis, *. m. (from ait.) Old French, haite, joyous.
Aislikgeach, a. Dreamy, dreaming, visionary ; of, or re Gladness, joy; laughter, fun. Aiteas an suit Ghorm-
lating to, a dream. aluinn, gladness in the eye of Gormallin. Oss. Oimara.
Aislingean, n. pi. of aisling; which see. Aiteas air na sleibhte uaine, joy on the green mountains.
Aislingiche, s. m. (from aisling.) A dreamer. Tha an Oss. Duthona. Cuirm chum aiteis, a feast for laughter. ,
t-aislingiche so a teachd, this dreamer is coming. Stew.Gen. Slew. Ecc.
Ir. aislingtheach. Aiteig, gen. sing, of aiteag.
Aisling chonain, *. m. A lascivious dream. Aiteil, gen. sing, of aiteal.
Aisne. gen. sing, of aisean ; which see. t Aith, *. m. A hill ; a skirmish,
Aiskeach, a. Ribbed; having strong ribs, having large f- Aith, a. Keen ; sharp ; anxious.
ribs ; of, or belonging to, a rib. Aith, an iterative particle ; more commonly written ath.
Aisneis, s.f. A rehearsing. See Ais-innseadh. Aith-cheas, chise, s.f. A whore, a bawd.
Ais-inns eadii, idh, s. m. A telling, a rehearsing, a repeating. Aithchuimir, a. Compendious; brief; abridged,
Aisre, and Aisridii, s. An abode ; a receptacle; a hill; a f Aitiie, s.f. Revenge.Jr.
path. Aisridh nam ban, the abode ofwomen ; a seraglio.
Fingalian Poem. An ruath aisridh, the red path.Macint. t Aithe, a. Keen.
Ais-sith, s.f. (perhaps ais-shith.) Discord, strife, wrangling, t Aitheach, ich, *. m. A giant ; a clown; a sow. Ir. id.
disturbance. Siol-chuiridh e ais-sith, he will sow discord. Aitheach, a. Gigantic; clownish; swinish.
Stew. Prov. ref. Aitheadh, idh, *. m. An elf shot.
Aisteidii, s. The hatches of a ship. Aitheamh, eimh, s. m. A fathom. Fichead aitheamh,
Ait, a. Glad, joyful, cheerful. Ir. ait. Old French, haite. twenty fathoms.Stew. Acts. N. pi. aitheamhan ; contr.
Ait, aite, s. m. (Gr. <*iJ-i<*. Lat. aed-es, a house. Ir. kit.) aithean.
A place; part; spot, region. N. pi. aitean, and aiteachan, Aithean, . pi. The liver.Macd.
places. C ait, where? Aitheas, eis, s. m. A reproach ; a blemish,
Ait- aire, *. m. An observatory. t Aitheasg, eisg, s.f. An admonition, advice.
t Ait-cheas, s.f. A warrior's concubine. Aith-ohearr, aith-ghearradh, *. m. An abbreviation; a
Ait-c h io m a c 1 1 , aich, s. m. A petitioner. N. pi. ai tchiomaichean . contraction ; a short way ; a short time. Gu h-aith-ghearr,
Ait-comhnuidh, s.m. A dwelling place; a dwelling, or shortly, soon.
abode. Thog sinn ait-comhnuidh do 'n mhnaoi, we built a Aitii-ghearr, a. (W. ehegyr.) Short; quick, brief; soon,
dwelling for the dame. Ull. instantaneous. Sgaoil sinn cho aithghearr, we dispersed so
Aitxacii, eich, s. m. (from ait.) Habitation; dwelling. soon.Roy Stewart. Gu h-aithghear, shortly, quickly, soon.
Bheil an aiteach fuar? is their dwelling cold! Oss. Tern. Aith-ghearr, v. Cut again; subdivide; shorten, curtail.
N. pi. aiteacha, and aiteachan, dwellings ; aiteacha comh- More frequently written ath-ghearr ; which see.
nuidh, habitation. Stew. Exod. Aitheimh, gen. sing, of aitheamh.
t Aiteach, s. Anxious; careful. t Aith id, *. m. A viper; a snake.
Aiteach a oh, aidh, . m. (Ir. aitiughadh.) The circumstance t Aithidean, ein, (dim. of aithid), *. m. Any venomous
of inhabiting ; a placing. Luchd-aiteachaidh, inhabitants. reptile ; a little beast.
Aiteacha dii (ag), pr. part, of aitich. Inhabiting, dwelling. Aitiiinne, *. m. (Ir. aithinne.) A firebrand. Mar aithinne
Ag aiteachadh an domhain, inhabiting the earth. as an losgadh, like afirebrandfrom the burning.Stew. Amos.
Aiteach as, ais, *. m. A colony; an inhabiting. Aith i r, s.f. A serpent. Stew. G. R. More frequently
Aiteag, eig, s.f. A shy girl ; a coquette. N. pi. aiteagan. written nathair.
Aiteagach, a. Coquettish ; shy, indifferent, scornful. Ain- Aithir-lus, luis, *. tn. Ground-ivy.
nh* aiteagach, a shy maid. f- Aithis, r. Reproach, rebuke, abuse, affront. Pret. a.
Aiteal, eil, s. m. Juniper. Freumhan an aiteil, juniper dh' aithis, rebuked ; fut. off. a. aithisidh, shall rebuke.
roots. Stew. Job. Fuidh chraoibh aiteil, beneath ajuniper Aithis, s.f. A reproach, rebuke, affront, scandal ; a check,
tree. Stew. 1 K. abuse; ease, leisure. Gun tuit e ann an aithis, that he
Aiteal, eil,*. m. (IV. adyL) A blast, a breeze, a breath mayfall into reproach. Stew. Tim. Bheil thu air d' aithis,
of wind; light; music. Aiteal an earraich, the breeze of are you at leisure ?
spring. Oss. Fing. Gun aiteal bho reul air sail, on the Aithiseach, a. Reproachful, abusive, scandalous; slow;
deep without starlight. Oss. Gaul. leisurely, tardy, dilatory.
Aitealacii, a. Abounding in juniper ; of or pertaining to Aithiseach, ich, *. m. (from aithis.) An abusive person ;
juniper. a dilatory person.
Aitealacii, a. Breezy; bright; shining, luminous. Aithiseach ADif, aidh, *. m. Defamation; abu3e.
Aiteam, eim, *. m. and f A people, a tribe; folk, persons. Aithmheal, eil, *. m. Repentance, compunction, fear.
A i team chathach, a warlike people. Old Poem. Is beann- Lan aithmheil, a man full of compunction.Old Song.
aichte an aiteam, blessed are the people.Smith. t Aithmheas, *. m. The ebbing of the sea.
t Aiteamu, eimh, s. m. A convincing proof ; an argument, Aithmeileach, a. Repentant.
demonstration. Aithn, v. Command, order, bid, direct, enjoin. Pret. a.
Aiteamu, eimh, *. m. A thaw; fresh weather. Tha 'n lath dh' aithn, command ; fut. aff. a. aithnidh, shall or will com
ris an aiteamh, the day thaws. mand; fut. neg. aitlin; as, chan' aithniad, they shallnot order.
17 D
A I T ALA
Aithhb, s. f. A command, commandment, order, injunc Aithrisibh am measg an t-sluaigh, tell among the people.
tion, mandate, direction ; a charge ; rarely a store. N. pi. Smith. Aithrisibhse agus aithrisidh sinne, report you, and
aitheantean; dat. pi. aitheantibh. Laghnan aitheanta, we will report.Stew. G. B. Sgeul ri aithris, a tale to be
the law of the commandments.Stew. Eph. Thug mi aithne told. Oss. Lodin.
dhuit, I ordered you. Aithrisbacii, a. (from aithris.) Tautological, repeating,
Aithne, s. f. Knowledge, discernment, acquaintance. traditionary.
(Sued, ana, to foreknow) Cha n eil aithne agaim air, Aithriseachd, s. f. (from aithris.) Frequent repetition,
J hate no knowledge of him ; cuir aithne air, get acquainted tautology.
with him, make yourself known to him. Aithriseadh, eidh, s. m. The act of repeating; a repetition.
Aithne-an-lAtha,*./. Broad day-light ; the height of day. Aithrisiche, s. m. A tautologist ; a tale-bearer ; a reciter;
Aithneachadh, aidh, s. m. A recognising, knowing, dis a narrator ; an imitator.
cerning. Aitich, v. a. (from ait.) Inhabit, cultivate, settle ; place ;
Aithneachadh, (ag), pr. part, of aithnich. Knowing, re give place to. Pret. a. dh' aitich, inhabited; fut. aff. a.
cognising. aitichidh, inhabited.
Aithneadail, a. {from aithne.) Familiar, knowing. Aitichte, p. part, of aitich. Inhabited ; settled ; placed.
Aithneadair, s. m. (from aithne.) A man of general Gu tlr aitichte, to an inhabited land.Stew. Exod.
knowledge ; a learned man. Aitidh, a. Wet, damp, moist. Tha t-aodach aitidh, your
Aithneadh, eidh, s. m. The act of commanding; a com clothes are damp.
manding, ordering. Aitidh eachd, s. f. (from aitidh.) Dampness, wetness,
Aithneadh, (ag), pr. part, of aithn. Commanding, order moistness.
ing, charging, enjoining. Aitreabii, eibh, s. (perhaps aite-threabh.) An abode, dwell
Aithnich, v. (from aithne.) Know, recognise, feel ; have ing ; a building ; a steading. Theid an aitreabh sios, their
sexual intercourse. Pret. a. dh' aithnich, knew ; fut. aff. a. building will decay.Stew. Ecc. W. athrev, a house, and
aithnichidli, shall know; fut. neg. and interrog. aithnich; adrev, home. N. pi. aitreabhan. Written also aitreamh.
fut. pass, aithnichear, shall be known. Cha d' aithnich mi Aitreabhach, a. (from aitreabh.) Of, or pertaining to, an
orm e, I did not feel it ; cha n' aithnichteadh orra e, it abode, or building ; domestic.
would not be known on them. Aitreabhach, aich, *. m. (from aitreabh.) An inhabitant;
Aithnichean, ein, s. m. A stranger, visitor, acquaintance. a lodger ; a tenant ; a farmer. N. pi. aitreabhaiche.
Stew. Lev. ref. Aitreabhan, n. pi. of aitreabh.
Aithnichear, fut. pass, of aithnich. Shall be known. Aitreach, eich, s. m. Contr. for aitreabhach ; which see.
AiTHNiCHiDH,/uf. aff. a. of aithnich. Shall or will be known. Aitreamh, eimh, s.m. An abode; dwelling-house. Written
Aithniciite, p. part, of aithnich. Known, recognised. also aitreabh ; which see.
Dean aithnichte, make known.Stew. Rom. Arm. anzad, Aitreamhach, eich, s.m. (from aitreamh.) See Aitre
known. Swed. ainsichte, aface. abhach.
Aithre, s. c. A bull, a cow, ox. N. pi. aithrean. f Al, v. Nurse ; praise. (Eat. alo.) Pret. a. dh' al,
Aithreach, a. Wonderful, curious, strange, droll ; sorry, nursed; fut. aff. a. alaidh, shall nurse.
penitent. Dh' eisd sinn is b' aithreach leinn, we listened, Al, ail, *. m. (Ir. al.) A brood; litter, offspring; the young
and surprised wt were. Ull. Nior aithreach leis, nor does of a bird ; a generation. A solar dhearc dha h-al beag,
he repent. 8m. Is aithreach leinn do bhuaidh, we are gathering berries for its callow young. Oss. Gaul. Al
amazed at thy prowess. Fingalian Poem. Is aithreach an stiallach, speckled offspring. Stew. Gen. Trom le h-al,
t-oglach thu, you are a drollftllow. heavy with young.Id. lad fein 's an cuid ail, themselves
Aithreachail, a. (aithreach-amhuil.) Penitent, repent and their young. Old Song. An t-41 a tha ri teachd, the
ing, repentant. generation to come. Sm. Eat. al-o, to rear. IV. al.
Aithreachais, gen. sing, of aithreachas. t Al, ail, s. m. A rock, a stone ; fear ; a horse. For this
Aithreachas, ais, *. m. 'Repentance, penitence, regret. last sense, see All.
Dean aithreachas, gabh aithreachas, repent ; ni mi aith Al, ail, *. m. Nurture ; food.Ir.
reachas, or gabhaidh mi aithreachas, I will repent; gun f Ala, ai, s. m. A trout ; a wound.Ir.
aithreachas cha bhi maitheanas, without repentance there Alach, aich, *. m. (from al.) Brood, the young of a bird,
shall not be forgiveness.Stew. N. T. a litter ; tribe, crew, generation. Mar iolair Laoir air
Aithreachag, aig, s.f. A female penitent N. pi. aithre a h-alach, like an eagle of Lora over her young. Oss.
achagan. Tra thig un sealgair gun fhios air alach, when the hunter
Aithreachan, ain, s. m. A penitent. comes unexpectedly on a brood.Orr.
Aithreachd, s.f. (from athair.) Ancestry, ancestors. A Alach, aich, s. m. The nails in a boat; a new set; activity-,
chaoidh cumaibh an cuimhne ur n-atthreachd, ever keep
your ancestry in mind. Old Song. alacrity; also a request. Macdon. Alach-ramh, a bank
of oars.Macfar.
Aitiirichb, and Aitiirichean, n. pi. of athair. Fathers,
ancestors. See Athair. Alach, a. Of, or belonging to, a brood; prolific.
Aitiirichibh, dat. pi. of athair. Alach-ramh, raimh, s. m. A bank of oars.
+ Ait iiridhe, s. f. Repentance, sadness, tears, sorrow. Alach ag, aig, s. m. A hook, a crook ; a peg, a pin, N. pi.
Aithridheach, a. (from aithridhe.) Repentant, sad, sor alachagan.
rowful. Alachagach, a. Full of hooks, or crooks ; full of pegs ;
t Aithrine, s. m. A calf.Ir. like a crook, peg, or pin.
Aithris, s.f. (Ir. aithris.) Report, repetition, rehearsal, t Aladh, aidh, *. m. Wisdom, skill ; also malice, a lie.
recital, narration; imitation; tradition, tale. Aithris anraidh, Aladh, aidh, s, m. (from al.) A nursing.
a tale of distress.Oss. Cathula. N. pi. aithrisean. Alain, a. White; bright, clear. Ir. alain.
Aithris, v. Rehearse, report, narrate, relate, tell, repeat. Axaineachd, s.f. (from alain.) Beauty; whiteness; bright
Pret. a. dh' aithris, told; fut. aff. a. aithrisidh, shall tell. ness, clearness.
18
ALL ALL
A LATiiAiR, adx. Present, at hand; in existence, in life. Allail, a. (from alladh.) Noble, illustrious, excellent,
See also Lath air. glorious. Daoine allail, illustrious men. Stew. 1 Chron.
t Alb, a. (Lat. alb-us.) White. Greek, according to Hey- Written also alloil ; which see.
schius. izxpo;. Chald. alban, to be white. Syr. alben, to Alla-mhadadh, aidh, s. m. A wolf. Chual an t-alla-
whiten. Teut. alp; a swan. mhadadh an fhuaim, the wolf heard the sound.On. Conn.
t Alb, ailb, s. m. An eminence; a height. t Allbiiuadhach, aich, s. m. A prince's hall.
Alea, Albainn, and Albuinn, s.f. {Corn. Alban.) Scotland. Allbhuadhach, a. (from f all, great, and buadhach.)
Eididh na h-Alba, the costume of Scotland ; tha mi dol dh' Triumphant, victorious, conquering,
Albuinn, 1 am going to Scotland; Albainn bheadrach, be t Allciiur, s. m. Transposition.
loved Scotland ; a chlann Alba nam buadh, ye sons of victo Allghloir, s.f. Gibberish, jargon, vainglory, gasconading.
rious Albion. Fingalian Poem. All-ghl&rach, a. Inclined to utter jargon ; vainglorious,
The oldest name of Britain is allowed to have been Albion. boastful.
This is the name given to Scotland by the Scotch Celts: and
tb*y do not know it by any other appellation. " Sed hoc nomen," Allghort, ghoirt, s. m. An orchard. Contracted for
says Buchanan, " magis e l'ibris eruitur, quam in communi sermone abhall ghort ; which see.
usurpatur, nisi pra'sertim apud Scotos, qui se Albinich, regionem Allmhadadh, aidh, s. m. A wolf. Written also alia'
suam, Albin adhuc vocant." mhadadh.
Albaxnacii, a. Scotch, Scottish ; of or belonging to Scot Allmiiaidh, a. Fierce, terrible, wild, boisterous. Armailt
land. Eorp ag amharc Ghaidheal Albannach, Europe allmhaidh, a terrible army. Old Poem. Written oftener,
beholding the Scotch Gael. Old Song. allaidh and alluidh.
Albaxxach, aich, s. m. A Scot, a Scotsman. Is Albannach Allmhara, Allmharach, a. Foreign, strange, transmarine,
an duinc so, this man is a Scot ; is fior Albannach e, he is exotic; wild, ferocious, untameable. W. allmyr, a place
a true Scotchman. N. pi. Albannaich, Scotchmen. beyond the sea.
Albaxxaich, gen. sing, and n. pi. of Albannach. Allmharach, aich, m. A stranger, a foreigner, an alien,
Ald, uild, *. m. A rivulet; a mountain stream. Ag aomadh a barbarian ; one from beyond the seas ; a foreign foe ;
thar an uild, bending over the stream. N. pi. uild. Old a transmarine foe. Iarmad nan allmharach, the remnant of
British, aled, aflowing stream. the strangers.Sm. Luingeas nan allmharach, the ship
Aldan, ain, s. tn. (dim. of aid.) A rivulet; a streamlet. ofJhe sea-borne foe.Old Poem. Ir. id.
Oss. Tent. Allmharachd, s.f Barbarity, cruelty ; the state of being
Aldaxacii, a. Abounding in rivulets ; of or belonging to foreign.
a rivulet. t Allod, adv. Formerly, of old.Ir.
t Alfad, aid, *. m. Cause, reason. Alloil, a. Noble, excellent, illustrious, glorious, renowned.
t Alga* a. Noble, great. Ir. Daoine alloil, men of renown.Stew. Num. ref. Is alloil
t Alsachd, s.f. Nobleness, greatness, nobility. thusa, thou art glorious. Stew. G. B. Written also allail.
t All, aill, *. m. A horse. Alloileachd, s.f. Nobleness, excellentness, illustrious-
This is an ancient Celtic vocable, long gone into disuse among ness, gloriousness, renown.
the Gael ; but we have it in composition with cab, or cap : as Alloxta, a. Brave, noble ; excellent, of good reputation.
caball, or capall, a horse or mare ; literally a tamed horse, or a Alloxtaciid, s.f. Bravery; good fame,
horse accustomed to the bridle; from cab, mouth, and all, horse. t Allraon, raoin, *. m. A foreign expedition; a journey
t All, Aill, s.m. (Corn. als. all.) A rock, a cliff; to a foreign land.
a great hall ; a generation ; race.
Arab, lihal, high. Chald. hhali, high. Syr. hholi, height. Allsaciiail, a. Prone to respite ; worthy of respite.
ChalJ. bhalas, height. Hcb. hal, above. Teut. hel, high. Allsachd, s.f. Respite; reprieve; suspension.
Pers. and Arab, al, high. In some parts of Africa, alle, Allsaicii, v. a. Respite; reprieve; suspend. Pret. a. dh'
high. Ethiop. alal, to elevate. Turk, al and ali, high. allsaich, respited ; fut'. aff. a. allsaichidh, shall respite ; fut.
Mantcheou Tartars, alin, a hill. Alin, a mountain, in pass, allsaichear, shall be respited.
Mosul. Malacca, ala, surpass. Dan. holl, a hill. Sax. hull. Allsmuaixx, s.f. A great buoy; a float.
English, hill. Etrurian, alse. It. alzare, to elevate. Turk. Allt, uillt, s. m. A mountain stream ; a rill, a brook.
allah, God, or the High Being. Jap. ala, God. Armen. ael, N. pi. alltan and uillt. Bruach an uillt, the bank of the
God. Pun. ille. Syr. eloha, God. brook ; threig torman nan allt, the murmur of the brooks has
t All, a. (Ir. all. Gr. <***-<><, other. Arm. all. Arab, hhal, subsided. Oss. Diarm. hat. alt-us, deep. Old British,
high. Chald. hhali.) Foreign ; great, prodigious. Seldom aled, a running stream. Written also alld.
used but in composition with some other word, as all- Allta, and Alltadh, a. (Ir. allta.) Fierce, wild, foreign;
mharacb. strange. Beathaich allta na machrach, the wild beasts of
All, a. White. thefield. Sm. Mar leomhann allta, like afierce lion. Id.
Tlii* word has long been obsolete; but we see it in the name W. allda, a stranger.
it' a strcum that runs into the Tweed, namely, Allan ; i. e. All-an, Alltax, n. pi. of allt; which see.
at Ali-amhuinn, the white or foaming stream. Anciently Alzeen. Alltax, ain, *. tn. (dim. of allt.) A brook; a little mountain
t Alla, s. m. The Most High. stream ; a streamlet. Drochait air gach alltan, a bridge
Allabav, ain, s. m. Wandering, deviation, aberration. over every streamlet.Macint.
' Allaf.iiair, s. m. (All, cliff, and labhair.) An echo.Ir. Alluidh, a. (Ir. alluigh.) Wild, ferocious, fierce, savage,
Alladh. aidh, s. m. Fame, report, greatness. Alladh boisterous, terrible; also. beauteous. Stoirra alluidh, ter
Dbaibhidh, the fame of David. Stew. 1 Chron. ref. Deagh rible storms. Oss. Trath. B' alluidh do shuil, fierce was
alladh, a good report ; droch alladh, a bad report. thine eye. Oss. Temo. Dh' aom e air a sgeith umha
Allaidh, a. (from all.) Corn. alta. Wild, ferocious, alluidh, he bowed over his beauteous shield of brass. Oss.
savage, terrible; boisterous; also beauteous. See All- Gaul.
cidii. Beathaiche allaidh, wild beasts. Corn, beathuige Alluigh, a. See Alluidh.
aJta. + Alluix, a. Fair, handsome. Now written aluinn.
19
A L T A M A
t Almachadh, a. Charitable, Altuich, v. a. Written also altaich; which see.
t Alp, ailp, s. m. A mountain. f Alughain, s.f. Potter's clay.
Alt, uilt, m. (Jr. alt.) A joint; a joining; a condition, Aluinn, a. Beautiful, fair, handsome, elegant, goodly.
state, order, method. N. pi. altan ; dat. pi. altaibh ; as Meas chraobh aluinn, the fruit ofgoodly trees.Stew. Lev.
an alt, out ofjoint. Stew. Gen. Eadar altaibh na luirich, Ir. aluin.
between thejoints of the harness.Stew. 1 -ST. Am, def. art. before words beginning with b,f, m, or p, when
t Alt, uilt, s. m. Jr. alt.) A nursing, rearing, feeding. not aspirated ; as am baile, the town ; am fear, tie man ;
hat. alt-um, to nourish. am mor'ear, the grandee ; am paisd, the child.
t Alt, s. m. A section of a book ; time. Am, interrog. particle ; used before verbs beginning with b, f,
t Alt, s. w. A high place, a hill, eminence; exaltation; m, or p. Am buail thu ? will you strike 1 Am fag thu mi
a leap; a valley, hat. alt-us, high. W. alht. Corn, als, am aonar? wilt thou leave me alone?Oss. Fing. Am
a hill, or a cliff. maith thu dha? wilt thou forgive him! Am paigh thu mi?
Altach, aich, s. m. A grace at meat. N. pi. altaichean; wilt thou pay me ?
d. pi. altaichibh. 'Am, a colloquial abbreviation of agam ; used in the following
Altachadh, aidh, s. m. The act of saluting, or of thanking; phrases : Cha n-'eil fhios *am, / do not know (twn est nolitia
a saluting; a salute; a bracing, as of the joints ; moving, mihi) ; cha-n'eil fhios 'am fhein, I do not know ; cha n-'eil
budging. fhios am fhein gu dearbh, I do not know, I am sure ; I really
Altachadh, (ag), pr. part, of altaich. Saluting, thanking; do not know.
bracing, as of the joints ; moving, budging. Am, [for mo], poss. pron. My. Ann am lagh, in my law.
Altachadii-beatha, s. m. A salutation; a greeting; a Stew. Exod. Corn, am, my.
welcome. Am, [contr. for ann mo.] In my. Ghlac mi am shuain mo
Altaich, v. a. Salute; thank; inquire after one's welfare; shleagh, 1 grasped in my dream my spear. Oss. Dargo.
relax the joints ; also brace, move, budge. Pret. a. dh' Am, [for anns am.] Lagain am bi na ne6inein, dells where
altaich, saluted; fut. aff. a. altaichidh, shall salute; fut. daisies grow. Macint.
pass, altaichear, shall be saluted. Dh' altaich iad beath a Am, [for ann am.] In the. Tha anam am m6rchuis, his
cheile, they askedfor each other's welfare. Stew. Exod. soul is in (actuated by) pride.Oss. Tern. Am buthaibh,
Altaich, gen. sing, of altach. m tents.Stew. Gen. Am faoghaid fasaich, in the forest
Altaichean, n. pi. of altach. chase. Oss. Comala.
Altaichear, fut. pass, of altaich; which see. A*m, s. m. Jr. am.) Time, season, convenience. N. pi.
Altaichidh, fut. aff. a. of altaich. Shall or will brace. amanna, times ; dat. pi. amannaibh, to times ; na h-amanna
so, these times ; am o aois, olden times.Oss. Lodin. Ann
Altail, a. (alt-amhuil.) Arthritic. am na h-oidhche, in the night time. Oss. Fing. San am,
Altair, gen. altair, and altarach, s.f. {Jr. altoir.) An altar. at the time, in the time, in the meantime. Oss. Temo. Sna
Adhaircean na h-altair, the horns of the altar.Sm. Fa h-amannaibh chaidh seachad, in times past.Stew. F.ph.
chomhair na h-altarach, opposite to the altar. Stew. Zech. Ann an am is ann an an-am, in season and out of season.
N. pi. altraichean, or altraiche. Stew. 2 Tim. Am a gheamhraidh, the winter season ; km
Altan, ain, m. Dim. of alt ; which see. an earraich, the spring time; am an t-samliraidh, summer
Altan, n. pi. of alt ; which see. time ; am an f hogharaidh, harvest time.
Alt-cheangal, ail, s. m. Articulation, or the juncture of f Am, a. Soft, moist, damp. Siamese, am, water. Canadian,
bones. am, water. Bisc. ama, sea.
Altrach, aich, s. m. One who fosters ; a nurse. Lat. altrix. f Ama, ai, s. m. A horse's collar.
N. pi. altraichean. A macii, adv. Out; without; out of. Tha e a mach, he
Altradh, aidh, s.m. A man who fosters. Ban-altradh, is without ; thig a mach, come out. Ir. id.
a nurse. Amach, aich, s. m. A vulture; any ravenous bird. N. pi.
Altraiche, s. m. One who fosters. N. pi. altraichean, amaichean.
one who prospers. Amad, aid, *. m. A fool. Ir.
Altram, v. a. See Altruim. Amadain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of amadan.
Altranas, s. m. A fostering; a nursing. Ir. altrannas. Amadan, ain, *. m. (dim. of amad.) Ir. amadan. A fool.
Altruim, v. a. Nurse, nourish, maintain, educate, foster, Bithidh e na amadan, he will be a fool. Stew. Jer. Ni e
cherish. Pret. a. dh' altruim, nursed; fut. aff. a. altru- amadain, he will make fools. Stew. Job. N. pi. amadain.
maidh, shall nurse; altrumaidh mise, I will nourish. Ainadan-m6intich, a dotterel.Jr. id.
Stew. Gen. Amadanach, a. Foolish ; like a fool.
Altrumach, a. Fostering, rearing, educating. Amadanaciid, s.f. Foolishness ; the conduct of a fool.
Altrumachadh, aidh, s.m. The act of fostering; a nursing, Amadan-mointich, s. m. A dotterel. X. pi. amadain -
rearing, educating. mointich, dotterels.
Altrumachadh, (ag), pr. part, of altruimich. Amadanta, a. {from amadan.) Foolish. Ir. id.
Altuumadh, aidh, s. m. A fostering, nursing, rearing, Amaid, a. Foolish, silly; also (substantively) folly, silli
educating. ness ; a foolish woman.
Altrumaich, v. Foster, rear, nourish, educate. Pret. a. Amaideach, a. Foolish. Nithe amaideach, foolish things.
dh' altrumaich, fostered; fut. aff. a. altrumaichidh, shall Stew. Pro. Gu h-nmsadeach, foolishly.
foster. Amaideachd, s.f. Foolishness; folly; silliness. Ann am
Altrumaidh, fut. aff. a. of altruim. faidhean amaideachd, foolishness in prophets.Stew. Jer.
Altruman, ain, s. m. A chief. Seachd altrumain aig loch Amail, a. (am-amhuil), from am. Seasonable, timely; in
Lain, seven chiefs at the lake of Lanno. Fingalian Poem. time ; temporal.
N. pi. altrumain. Amail, v. Hinder, prevent, stop, interrupt, debar, impede.
Altrumain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of altruman. Pret. a. dh' amail, hindered ; fut. aff. a. amailidh, shall at-
Altuchadh, aidh, s. m. See Altachadh. Ir. altughadh. will hinder.
20
A M H AMH
t Amail, adv. Now written amhuil ; which see. Amhachd, s.f. (from amh.) Conduct of a fool, or simpleton.
AMAiLiDH.yuf. aff. a. of amail. Shall of will hinder. AmhAchd, s.f. Rawness, crudeness.
Am a ill, s. f. Hinderance, impediment, interruption. A AMiiAiL,tfrfr.(//wn+arah.) Like to, such as, as. SeeAMiiuiL.
cur amaill orm, hindering me. A mii A in, adv. Only, alone. Jr. id.
Amaill, gen. ting, of amail. Amhainn, s.f. A river. (Comp. of amh and ain.) See also
Am air, gen. sing, of amar ; which see. Abiiainn.
Amais, v. Hit, mark, aim ; find. Pret. a. dh' amais, /ownd; W. afon and avon. English, f afene. Swed. aen, or an.
fut. aff. a. amaisidh, skull or willfind; fut. pass, amaisear, Arm. afon. Corn. auan. Manx. aon. Germ. am. hat.
shall befound. t amanis, contr. amnis ; and in the old dialect of the Scuto-
Brigantes, amon and aman. Jr. amhan. Moorish, aman,
Amaisceach, a. Wanton, lewd, lustful. Gu h-amaisceach, water. Copt, pi-aimen, a lake. Brazilian, amen, rain.
wantonly. Men, or min, a river in China. In Huron, aouen is water ;
AMAiscEACDD,.y. Wantonness, lewdness.Stew.Mark,ref. Chinese, yven, source of a river. In Franche Comti, an
Amaisidh, fut. aff. a. Shall or will find. osier is called aivan, as it grows beside waters. Mar-
Amaladh, aidh, s. m. The act or circumstance of hinder an-on, the American name for the river Amazon, seems to
ing ; stoppage, impediment, interruption. be Mor-an, a great flowing stream, with on, an Indian
Amaladh, (ag), pr. part. Hindering, impeding, stopping. adjection.
Tha thu 'g am amaladh, you are hindering me. Amhairc, v. Look, see, behold, observe, regard. Pret. a.
Am all, aill, *. m. A swingle-tree. dh' amhairc, looked; fut. aff. a. amhaircidh, shall or will
t Aman, ain, s.f. Now written amhainn ; which see. look; amhairc thairis, overlook, take no notice of.Stew.
Pro. Amhaircidh mi oirbh, J will regard you, or have
Amar, air, m. (Gr. ipa^a, a drain.) A trough ; a narrow respect unto you.
rocky channel. Dh' fhalmhuich i a soitheach san amar, t A.mhantas, ais, s. m. Royal privilege; good luck,
she emptied her vessel into the trough.Stew. 0. T. Amar
bruthaidh, a wine-press, a press vat. Stew. Hag. Amar t Amiiaon, s. Twins; plurality,
miiin, a vessel for holding urine, a water-pot, or chamber t Amiiar, air, s. m. A vessel for holding malt; music.
pot ,- amar fuail, a water pot, a vesselfor holding urine; amar Amh a rag, s.f. Mustard; also sweet marjoram. Lat.
fuinidh, a baking trough ; amar baistidh, a font. amar-us, bitter ; and amaracus, sweet marjoram.
t Amar, air, s. m. A chain ; a cable. Gr. a^fia. Hence t Amh arc, aire, *. m. A fault.
also the French sea-term amarcr, to bind or fasten. Amharc, aire, s. m. A look ; a looking, viewing, observing,
A m a r a i c ii , s. f. Scurvy-grass. Macd. inspecting; a look, a view ; sight, observation, beholding,
Amar-baistidh, s. m. A baptismal font. inspection.
Amar-bruthaidh, s. m. A wine-press; a pressing vat. Amharc, (ag), pr. part, of amhairc. Looking, viewing,
Stew. Hag. observing, inspecting, beholding.
Amarcacii, a. Fond of. Ir. id. Amhaiicholl, s. Aplhongs.Shaw.
Amar-fuail, *. m. A vessel for holding urine; a urinal; Amhaiitan, ain, s. sr. Fortune, luck, prosperity; also a
a chamber-pot. lucky person.
Amar-fimxidii, s. m. A baking trough.Stew. Exod. Amh artanach, a. Fortunate, lucky, prosperous. Com.
and sup. amhartanaichc, more or most fortunate. Stew.
Am as. ais, s. m. A hitting, aiming, marking; finding; a Deut.
finding after a search. Amhartanachd, s.f. (from amhartan.) Good fortune- ;
A mas, (ag), pr. part, of amais. Hitting, marking, aiming; a course of good fortune, prosperity.
finding ; finding after a search. Is tearc iadsan tha ag Amuarus, uis, s. m. (//. amharus.) Doubt, suspicion,
amas oirre, few there be thatfind it.Stew. N. T. distrust. Fuidh amharus, in doubt, suspected ; fuidh amh
Amasadii, aidh, *. m. A hitting, marking, aiming ; finding; arus umaibh, in doubt about you. Stew. Gal. Gun amh
a finding after a search. arus, without doubt, indeed ; am bi thusa gun amharus a' d'
Amasadii, (ag), pr. part. a. of amais. Hitting, marking, rlgh? wilt thou be indeed a king ISlew. Gen.
finding. Amharusach, a. Distrustful, suspicious, doubtful; am
t AMASGAiDn, a. Profane; helter skelter. biguous. Deisboireachd amharusach, doubtful disputation.
Amascaidheaciid, s.f. Profaneness. Stew. Rom. Com. and sup. amharusaiche, more or mo*t
A measg, prep. Among, amongst. suspicious. Ir. id.
Ann, *. m. A fool, a simpleton ; a dwarf. Amiiarusaciiadh, aidh, s. m. A mistrusting, a doubting.
Amh, a. (Ir. amh.) Raw, crude; unsodden, unboiled, Amiiarusachd, s.f. (from amharus.) Distrustfulness, sus
unroastcd ; naughty. Feoil amh, raw ficsh. Slew. Sam. piciousness, doubtfulness.
Na ithibh dheth amh, cat not of it (unrnastedj raw.Stew. Amharusaich, r. Mistrust, suspect, doubt. Pret. a. dh'
Esod. amharusaich ; fut. aff. a. amharusaichidh.
t Amh, *. m. Water; ocean. Amh as, ais, *. m. (Ir. amh as, wild.) A madman ; a wild un
Gr. ol. water. Lot. a-qua. Shans. ab and aw. governable man ; also a dull, stupid person. N. pi. amhasan.
Pert. awe. Aa, a river in Courland. Dan. aae. Fr. eau. Amhasach, a. (from amhas.) Wild, ungovernable ; like a
Goth. a. Isl. aa. law G erm. aa. Swed. a, a river ; and madman ; also dull, stupid. Com. and svp. amhasaiche,
perhaps Gr. avl, a blast. Chin, ho, river. Tart, ou, water. more or mast wild.
See also Abh. Amhasag, aig, s. m. A foolish female. AT. pi. amhasagan.
+ Amh, adv. Even, so, as, like. Hence amhuil. Ir. amhasag.
t Ami, i. A denial. t Amhasan, ain, s. m. A sentry.
Amoacii, a. Like a dwarf ; like a fool. Amhasan, n. pi. of amhas.
Amhacii, aich, s. m. (Gr. av^n.) Neck. Brisidh tu' amhach, Amiigiiair, gen. sing, of amhghar; which see.
thou shall break its neck.Stew. Exod. G' ar n-amhach, Amhghar, air, 4. m. (Lat. angor. W. avar. Ir. amhgar.)
up to our necks. Macint. N. pi. amhaichcan. Affliction, anguish, trouble, sorrow, distress, adversity,
21
AMU A 5- A
calamity. Dh' amhairc e air m' amhghar, he looked on my + Amus \ch, a. (from amus.) Of or pertaining to an ambush-
affliction. Stew. Gen. Am tharruingeas ar n-amhghar gu Ax, def. art. (Corn. an. Ir. an.) The. An oidhche dhubhradb,
ceann, a time which shall draw our troubles to a close. the gloomy night. Oss, Com. An steud each san t-sliabh,
Mac Lack. the war-horse in the hill.Id. An is also written 'n, as,
Amhgharach, a. (from amhghar.) Distressed, distressful, 'n t-al a tha ri teaclid, the generation to come ; an t-eun,
troublous ; calamitous. Com. and sup. amhgharaiche, more the bird ; the other def. art. is am, which is used before
or most distressful. words beginning with b,p,f,m, not aspirated; in other
Amhgharaiche, t. m. A distressed person ; one who has instances an is used.
long been in distress. An, prep, for ann. In. Mar dharraig an gleann, like an oak
Amhgharaiche, a. ; com. and sup. of amhgharach. in a valley. Oss. Fing.
t Amhlabbair, a. Mute, dumb, speechless. Corn, anlavar. An, priv. particle. Not; equivalent to the English un. As,
Amhladh, aidh, t. m. A duplicate; a copy ; a transcript. an-aoibhinn, joyless. In the Coptic tongue, an means not.
Amhlair, s. m. A fool, an idiot; a brutish man ; a boor. Arm. an, a priv. particle. Gr. at, and ami, without.
Sparradh tu ceill san amhlair, thou wouldst drive wisdom Old Fr. ana, without. Old Sax. and Old Germ, an, a priv.
into a fool. R. N. pi. amhlairean. particle. Eng. un, a priv. particle.
Amhlaireach,!. Foolish ; brutal; like an idiot; boorish. An, an intensatixe particle, as, antighearnas, tyranny.
Com. and sup. amhlairiche. An, interrog. particle. An d' thig iad ? will they comet An
Amhlaireachd, *./. (from amhlair.) Foolishness; bruta d' fhuair thu i, mar eal' air chuantai? found you her like
lity; boorishness. a swan on the deep? Oss. Conn. An is often written ',
Amhlaisg, s.f. Bad beer; taplash. as, 'n d' thig thu ? wilt thou come?
Amhlaisgeach, ich, *. m. A brewer of bad beer; also, t An, jr. m. (IV. and Ir. an. Old Swedish, ana, water.) An
adjectively, insipid or weak as bad beer. element; a principle ; water.
Amhluadh, aidh, s. m. Confusion; trouble; astonishment. From An are derived the names of a great variety of rivers
Amhluadh air na sagairtibh, astonishment on the priests. throughout Europe; as, Anio, in Italy; Anemo, near Ravenna;
Anapus,'\\\ Sicily, in Illyria,and inChaonia; Anaurus in Thessaly;
Stew. 0. T. Is amhluadh e, it is confusion.Stew. Lev. aud many others.
Air an amhluadh cheudna, in like manner. Stew. Is. A great antiquary observes, that there is a striking resemblance
Amhluaidh, gen. sing, of amhluadh. between many words in the Celtic and Darien languages which
Amhluidh, and Amhlui', adv. As, like as, in like manner, might give rise to very useful disquisition. Antilles, is a general
name for those islands which lie beyond Bermudas, towards the
resembling, so. Amhlui' mar shruth a ruitheas bras, like gulph of Mexico, including the Lucayan, Bahama, and Caribbees;
as a stream that runs amain.Sm. Ni h-amhluidh sin " and it signifies," says he, " muter lands, from t an, mater, and
a bhios na daoine peacach, not so shallbe the wicked men. Id. tealla, land." There is certainly much ncuteness, and seemingly
Amhnarach, a. Shameless, impudent. much truth, in this observation ; for it will be fou^pd that, in many
languages, the word which signifies island, means also mater land :
t Amhnas, ais, s. m. Impudence, shamelessness. what is insula, for example, but unda-soluml undergoing, in the
t Amiira, ai, s. m. A dream ; a poem ; a sword-hilt.Ir. course of time, the following changes : undasol, unasol, by trans
t Amhra, a. Great, noble, good; dark. position, unsola, and lastly insula, an island.
t Amiiradh, aidh, s. m. Mourning, wailing, lamentation. An, priv. and intens. particle.
t Amhran, ain, s. m. A song. f An, a, Still; pleasant; pure; noble; true; swift. Ir.
Amiiras, s. p/. Eyelids. W. amrant. Written also abhran, f An, ain, s. m, A falsehood ; also a planet. Hence comes
and fabhran. luan, [which, by metathesis, is the Latin luna] moon; being
Amhuil, adv. (W. evel. Corn. avel. Arm. hanvel, evel, and compounded of luath, swift, and an, planet.
eval.) Like, resembling, as, in like manner, so, such as. An, poss. prun. Their. Na diehuimhnich an uir, forget not
Amhuil ce61 tannais ag eiridh air cuile na Leig mall, like their dust. Oss. Temo.
the strain of a ghost rising amid the reeds of slumbering t Ana, s. Riches; fair weather; a silver cup.
1-rgo. Ull. Amhuil sin, so, in like manner. Stew. Unm. Ana, priv. and intens. particle; sometimes used for an,
Amhuil tonn air traigh, like a wave on the shore. Ull. as, anameasarach, immoderate.
Amhuil mar so, even as this, just like this. Armoric, evel Anabaich, a. See Anabuich.
ma so. Amhuil mar an duine so, just like this man. An abaisteach, ich, s. m. (from an, intens. and baisteach.)
Armoric, evel ma zeo den. An anabaptist. N. pi. anabaistiche.
f Amhuil, v. Spoil, plunder. Anaban, s. Excess, superfluity, too much, redundance;
Amhuinn, s.f. An oven ; a furnace. Amhuinn dheataich, rioting ; written also anabhar ; which see.
afurnace ofsmoke.Stew.O.T. Germ, offen. Goth. auhn. Anabarrach, a. Excessive, superfluous, exceeding ; shock
Amlach, a. Curled; having ringlets; flowing as hair; ing, terrible. Meudaichidh mi thu ga h-anabarrach, J will
tressy. Fait amlach or-bhuidh, curled yellow locks. increase you exceedingly. Stew. Gen. Com. and sup. ana-
Fingalian Poem. Com. and sup. amlaiche. barraiche, more or must excessive ; ni 's "ro anabarraiche,
Amladh, aidh, s. m. A stop, hinderance, impediment, in much more exceeding.
terruption. Anabas, ais, s. m. Refuse, dregs, oftscouring.
Amlag, aig, s.f. A curl, a ringlet. N. pi. amlagan. Anabasach, a. Full of dregs; muddy. Com. and sup.
Amlagach, a. Curled ; tressy; full of ringlets. Aralagach, anabasaiche.
cleachdach, curled and tressy.Macint. Anabasachd, s.f. The state of being full of dregs;
Amraidh, s. f. A cupboard. Ir. amri. Fr. armoirie. muddiness.
Lot. armarium. Anabeachd, . f. (ana, intens. and beachd.) A strange
Amuigh, adv. Out, without. An taobh amuigh, the outside, fancy ; a wild idea ; ambition.
i Amus, uis, t. tu. An ambush, surprise; sudden onset; Anabeachdail, a. Fanciful; wild; chimerical; haughty;
also leisure.Ir. ambitious.
Amusach, aich,. m. Qrnvwho is punctual to an appoint Anabeachdalachd, s.f. Fancifulness ; wildness ; haughti
ment. N. pi. amusaicft*"' ness; ambitiousness.
22
ANA ANA
Axabuarr, *. Excess, superfluity, too much, redundance; Anacleaciid, s. m. Inexperience. Is mor d' anachleachd,
rioting. Ri h-anabharr, going to excess. great is thy inexperience.
Ana-bhioracii, aich, *. m. {from ana, intens, and biorach, Anacneasda, Anacneasta, a. (ana, priv. and cneasta.)
sharp.) A small venomous insect. Inhuman, cruel, unjust, perverse. Le beul anacneasta,
Ana-bhioracii, a. (from ana, intens. and bioracli, sharp.) with a perverse mouth.Stew. Pro.
Very sharp, very pointed. Anacneasdachd, Anacneastachd, s. f Inhumanity,
As ablas, ais, s. m. (a.an,priv. and bias.) Tastelessness, insi cruelty, perverseness.Stew. Pro. ref,
pidity. Anablas t-uirighioll, the insipidity of thy eloquence. Anacothrom, oim, s.f. Injustice, violence, oppression,
Old Song. unfairness, disadvantage. Luchd-anacothrom, oppressors.
Axablasda, a. Insipid, tasteless. Deoch auablasta, an Shw. Cor. ref.
insipid drink. Anacothromach, a. (ana, priv. and cothromach.) Unjust,
Ana-blasdachd, s.f. Insipidness, tastelessness. violent, oppressive, unfair. Gu h-anacothromach, oppres
As a b r a i s , s. f. Lust.Macd. sively.
Anabuich, a. (an, priv. and abuich.) Unripe, raw ; prema Anacreideach, ich, s. m. (for anacreidimheach.) A sceptic,
ture ; abortive. Fion-dhearcan anabuich, unripe grapes. infidel, unbeliever. An lathair nan anacreideach, before the
Stem. Job. Torrachas anabuich, a fxtus, an untimely unbelievers.Stew. 1 Cor.
birth, an embryo.Stew. Job. and Eccles. Anacreideach, a. (an, priv. and creidimheach.) Sceptical,
Avabuidu. See Anabuich. unbelieving. Bean anacreideach, an unbelieving wife.
Stew. 1 Cor.
Anabuidheachd, s.f. (an, priv. and abuidheachd.) Un
ripeness, crudity, immaturity, abortiveness. Anacreidimh, s.f. (ana, priv. and creidimh.) Infidelity,
unbelief, scepticism. Jr. aincreideamh.
t Axac, aic, *. m. A wound.
Anacriosd, s. Antichrist. Thig an t-anacriosd, Antichrist
Anacail, s.f. Quietness, tranquillity, repose,; preserva shall come. Stew. 1 John.
tion, safety, lr.
Asacriosdaciid, s. f. (contr. fur anacriosduigheachd.)
Anacail, v. Preserve, deliver, save, protect, secure. Pret. Paganism, heathenism, infidelity, irreligion.
a. dh' anacail, delivered ; Jut. ajf. a. anacailidh.
Anacriosduidii, s. m. A heathen, pagan, infidel.
Anacainnt, s.f. (ana, intens. and cainnt.) Abusive lan
guage ; ribaldry ; blasphemy.Stew. Eph. ref. Anacriosduigheachd, s.f. ana, prir. flnrfcriosduidheachd.
See AnaCRI03DACIid.
As ac nxxTEACii, a. Abusive in speech; prone to ribaldry; Anacuimse, (ana, priv. and cuimse.) Vastness, im
blasphemous. Gu h-anacainntcach, abusively.
mensity; immoderateness, intemperateness. Fear na h-
Asacair, s.f. ; more properly anshocair ; which see. ana-cuimse, an intemperate man.
Axacaithtkacii, a. Extravagant, wasteful, prodigal. Anacuimseach, a. (ana, priv. and cuimseach.) Vast, im
Com. and sup. anacaithtiche. mense ; immoderate, intemperate. Gu h-anacuimseach,
Asacaithtiche, s. m. A spendthrift, a prodigal. immoderately.
Ah acaitheadii, eidh, Akacaitheamii, eimh, s. m. and f. Anacuimseachd, s.f. (ana, priv. and cuimseachd.) Im-
Extravagance, prodigality, profusion, waste ; riot. Fear na menseness ; immoderateness, intemperateness.
h-anacaithcadh, the waster. Stew. Pro. Thaobh ana- Ana-cul, s.f. (ana, priv. and cul.) A lean condition of
eaitheimh, on account of riot.Stew. Tit. body. Is baileach a chaith gu h-anacul, how very lean you
t Axacal, ail, s. m. A quiet person. '-Shaw. have become !
Anacaladh, Anacladii, aidh, s. m. A preserving; a Anaculach, a. Lean, thin, slender. Comp. and sup. ana-
delivering; preservation; deliverance. culaiche, more or most lean.
Anacaladh, Anacladii, (ag), pr. part, of anacail. Pre Anaghlais, s.f. Hog-wash. Shaw.
serving, saving, securing, protecting. Anaghn Atii, s. m. (ana, priv. and ghn&th.) Bad custom ;
Axaceart, a. (ana, priv. and ceart.) Unjust, impartial, irregular habit; innovation. N. pi. ana^hnathana.
iniquitous, unfair. Gniomh anaceart, an unjust deed. Anagnathach, a. (ana, priv. and gnathach.) Unusual, not
Anaceartas, ais, s. m. (ana, priv. and cearlas. Injustice, customary, irregular. Com. and sup. anagnathaiche, more
iniquity, oppression, unfairness, partiality. or most unusual.
Akaceist, s.f. A puzzle, a riddle ; a difficulty, dilemma. AnagnIthana, . pi. of anagnath. Bad customs. D. pi.
t Anach, aich, *. m. A path. ; also a washing, a cleansing. anagnathanaibli.
t Anaciiain, s.f. Danger, peril, hazard, misfortune, crisis. Anagoirkas, eis, *. m. (ana, priv. and goireas.) Excess,
+ Ahaciian, ain, s. tn. One who keeps in the way; an in want of moderation ; inconvenience. " Chaidh e gu h-
truder. . anagoireas, he went to excess.
t Anach RAcn, a. Full of pity, compassionate. Anaooireasach, a. Excessive, immoderate ; inconvenient.
t Anaciiuadii, aidh, s. m. A wretch, an object of pity. Com. and sup. anagoireasaiche, more or most excessive.
+ Akaciiras, ais, s. m. Pity, compassion. Anagoireasaciid, s.f. Excessiveness, immoderateness.
Akachaoin, v. Lament, deplore to excess. Pret. a. dh' An ail, gen. anaile and analach, s.f. (7r. anal.) Breath,
auachaoin. breeze, air. A caoidh air anail na gaoithe, her moan on the
Avacuaoin eadh, idh, s.f. Excessive weeping, wailing. breath of the winds. Oss. Derm. Anail nan speur, the
breath of the shies, i.e. wind. Oss. Fin. and Lor. Anail a
Anachinnteach, a. Uncertain, unsure. shroin, the breath of his nostrils.Stew. Job. Bias a
Avachruas, ais, s. m. Avarice, extreme avarice. h-analach, the smell of her breath; leig t-anail, draw your
Aiaciiuram, aim, *. tn. Care, anxiety. breath, take rest ; leigibh ur n-anail, rest yourselves. Stew.
An achuramach, a. (ana, inttns. and curamach.) Anxious, Gen. Gabh t-anail, take rest. Com. anal and anadl.
solicitous, over anxious. Gu h-anachuramach, over- W. anadyl, breath of life. Swed. andhal, a breathing hole.
asuiously. An aim, gen. and voc. sing, of anam. Anaim chrin air d' ais,
Ana-cinnte, (ana, priv. and cinnte.) Uncertainty. back, thou lit tit soul. Oss. Fin. and Lor.
23
ANA AND

Ax-aimsir, s. f. (an, priv. and aimsir.) Unfavourable san anamoch, sweet at evening is the voice of Lora.Oss.
weather ; tempest ; improper time. W. anamser. Taura.
Axaimsireil, a. (an. priv. and aimsireil. Unseasonable, Anamiann, s. m. (an, intens. and miann.) Sensuality, lust ;
ill-timed. If. anamserawl. written also anamhiann.
t Anaithne, s. m. (an, priv. and aithne.) A private man, Anamiannach, a. (an, intens. and miannach.) Sensual,
an obscure man. lustful, carnal ; written also anamhiannach.
t Anaithniciite, a. Unknown, obscure, unnoticed. Anaobh acii, a. (an, priv. and aobhach.) Cheerless, joyless,
gloomy. Anaobhach gun solus do chiiiWsn,joyless, without
A nall, adv. Hither, to this side; over, from the other the light of thy song.Oss. Taura. Com. and tup. anao-
side. Jr. an' all. bhaiche, more or most joyless.
Akt-am, s. m. (an. priv. and am.) Unseasonable time, un-
Anaoibiiinn, s. (an, priv. and aoibhinn.) Woe, grief. Is
seasonableness. anaoibhinn dhasan, woe unto him.Stew. Jer. Is anaoi
Anam, aim, s.m. {Gr. tji*-of. Lat. anim-us. Fr. Ime. biiinn duit, woe unto thee.Stew. Matt. Ir. id.
Ir. anam.) The soul ; life ; spirit ; love. Is aoibhinn d' Anaoibhinn, Anaoibhneach, a. Joyless, mournful, un
an am a'd ne6il, joyous is thy soul in thy clouds. Oss. Truth. happy. Anaoibhinn airson mhic Dhuibhne, mournful for
Teich airson t-anam, escape for thy life.Stew. Gen. the son of Duno. Oss. Derm.
Anam fais, a vegetative soul; anam fasmhor, a vegetative
soul.Macd. Anam reusonta, a reasonable soul; anam Anaois, s.f. {an, priv. and aois.) Non-age, minority.
mothachail, a sensitive soul. Air m' anam, on my soul. Anart, airt, s.m. Linen. Anart grinn,^ne linen; anart
An-amacii, a. Late; unseasonable. Com. and sup. ana- buird, table linen; anart gealaichte, bleached linen; anart
maiche. Gu h-anamach, unseasonably. glas, doxclass ; anart canaich,y$fiaw.
Anamadacii, a. {from anam.) Lively, sprightly; having t Anasda, a. Stormy. Shaw.
soul, life, or animal spirits. \ Anasoar, a. Restless; irksome.
Anamadail, a. {from anam.) Lively, sprightly; having t Anasgarachd, s.f. Restlessness ; irksomeness.
soul, or life, or spirits. Macint. A nasguidh, a. Gratis; for nothing; as a present; more
An amain, gen. and voc. si?ig. of anaman. frequently 'nasguidh ; which see.
Anaman, ain, s. m. {dim. of anam.) A little soul. Anamain AnAthach, a. Fierce; fearless. Gu h-aigeantach an-
chrine nan gniomh neoghlic, thou little soul of deeds athach, in a joyous and fearless manner. Old Song.
unwise.Mac Lach. An t-anaman truagh, the poor soul; Anbarrach, a. Exceeding, excessive, overmuch; awful,
anaman de, a butterfly. terrible. Le ball-chrith anbarraich, with exceeding [dismay]
Anaman-de, s. m. A butterfly. Na h-anamain de, the trembling.Stew. Gen. Written also anbharrach.
butterflies. t Anbhail, a. Shameless, haughty.
Anamanta, a. {from anaman.) Full of soul, of life, or t Anbhal, a. Prodigious.Shaw.
auimal spirits. Anbhann, a.; more properly anfhann ; which see.
An am-ciiara, s. m. A bosom friend. Anbharrach, a. (an, intens. end barrach, topped.) Exceed
Axam-charaid, s. m. A bosom friend. N. pi. anam- ing, excessive, overmuch ; awful, terrible. Anbharrach
chairdean. fireanta, overmuch righteous. Stew. Ecc. Com. and sup.
+ Anam ciiaidh, a. Brave. anbliarraiche, more or most excessive ; ni 's ro anbharraiche,
Anameasarra, Anameasarach, a. Intemperate, immo much more excessive.
derate, vast, licentious. Caitheamh anameasarach, im Anbharraiche, a.; com. and sup. of anbharrach.
moderate expense or extravagance. Anbhas, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and bhas.) A sudden death ;
Anameasarrachd, s. f. Intemperateness, immoderate- a shocking death ; a catastrophe.
ness, vastncss, licentiousness, excess. Anbhathadh, aidh, s. m. A deluge, inundation ; a melan
Anameineach, a. Perverse, stubborn, malicious. Com. choly drowning.
and sup. anameiniche. Anbhlas, ais, s. m. (an, priv. and bias.) A bad taste, an
Anameineachd, s. f. Perverseness, stubbornness, ma insipid taste. W. anmlas.
liciousness.Stew. Rom. ref. Anbhochd, a. (an, intens. and bochd, poor.) Extremely poor.
+ Anamhacii, a. Lively, sprightly. Anbhociiduinn, s. m. (an, intens. and bochduinn.) Extreme
t Anamhain, s. m. A panegyrist. poverty ; extreme misfortune.
Anamiiarus, uis, s. m. Extreme distrust or suspicion, t Anbhrod, oid, s. m. A tyrant.
fiuailteach dh' anamiiarus, liable to extreme diitrust. t Andach, aich, *. m. Wrath, anger; evil.
Macfar. AndAn, a. (an, intens. and dan.) Impudent; presumptuous.
Anamharusacii, a. (an, intens. and araharusach.) Sus Com. and sup. audaine.
picious, jealous, extremely suspicious, extremely jealous. Andanadas, ais, s. m. {aa,intens. and danadas.) Impudence,
Com. and sup. anamharusaiche, more or mostjealous. presumption,
Anamhiann, s. (ana, intens. and miann.) N. pi. anamhi- t Andadh, a. Just.
annan ; dot. pi. anamhiannaibh. Sensuality, lust. Fear An de, adv. Yesterday. Air bho 'n de, the day before
anamhiann, a sensualist ; luchd anamhiann, sensualists ; yesterday ; an diugh san de, to-day, and yesterday.
anamhiann na feola, the lusts of theflesh.Stew. N. T. An deidh, adv. In love; fond; desirous. Tha e 'n deidh
An amhiannach, a. (ana, intens. and miannach.) Ir. anbhi- oirre, he is fond of her ; an deidh air an b\,fond of drink
anach. Sensual, lustful, carnal. Fonn anamhian'nach, ing; written ' deidh, when a vowel precedes.
sensual detire, lust of concupiscence. Stew. 1 Thess. Com. An DEiGH,arfi\ After; behind. An deigh an duine sin, behind
and sup. anamhiannaiche, more or most sensual. that man ; 'mo dheigh, behind me ; 'na d heigh, behind him ;
Anamhrus, uis, s.m. See Anamiiarus. n'a deigh, behind her; nan deigh, behind them; written
Anamurusach, a. See Anamharusacii. 'ndeigh, when a vowel precedes.
Anamoch, a. Late, unseasonable ; also the evening. Tha An deigii-laimh, a. Afterwards ; after-hand ; behind-hand.
e anamoch, it is late, he is late; is binn guth Laoire Written 'n deigh laimh, when a vowel precedes.
24
A N F A N I
An-didrach, a. Mournful; tearful; weeping excessively ; Anfhannaich, v. a. (an, intens. and fannaich.) Weaken,
causing excessive grief. debilitate, make infirm. Pret. a. dh' anfhannaich, weakened;
Andeistinn, s.f. Squeamishness ; loathsomeness. fat. aff. a. anf harmaichidh, shall weaken ; fut. pass, anf lian
An-deistinxeach, a. Squeamish; loathsome. naichear, shall be weakened.
Andiadh'achd, s.f.; contr. for aodiadhaidheachd. Anfhaxnaiciiidh, fut. aff. a. of anfhannaich. Shall or
Axdiadhaidh, An di a Dim ion, a. (an, priv. and diadhaidh.) will weaken.
Ungodly, impious, profane. An-fharsuixg, a. (an, priv. and farsuing.) Narrow, strait,
tight.
AnDIADIIAIDHEACHD, An D I ADHU1 DUE ACH D, S.f. Un- An-fharsuingeaciid, s.f. (an, priv. and farsuingeachd.)
godliness, impiousuess. profanity, irreligion. Narrowness, straitness, tightness.
An" diugii, adv. To-day. Written also 'n diugh, when pre Anfueillidii, a. (an, priv. and feillidh.) Loud, boisterous,
ceded by a vowel, as, thig e 'n diugh, he will come to-day. rough, unhospitable, wild. Le toirm anf heillidh, with a
Andochas, ais, *. m. (an, intens. and d6chas.) Presumption ; boisterous noise. Oss. Conn.
sanguine expectation. Jr. andothchas. Anfhios, s. m. (an, priv. and fios.) Ignorance. Luchd anfhios,
Axdochasach, a. (an, intens. and dochasach.) Presump ignorant people.
tuous ; sanguine.Macd. Ir. andothchasach. Anfiiiosach, a. (an, priv. and fios.) Ignorant, untaught,
A*. :: it.nr.4. Illegality; injustice. Fear andlighe, an un unlearned, illiterate. Com. and sup. anfhiosaiche.
just man. Anfjiios-rach, a. (an, priv. and fiosrach.) Ignorant; un-
Andligheach, a. Illegal, unjust; also a transgressor. apprized, not aware. Stew. Lev.
ANDOiGH,JS.i.(an,/)riii.onrfdoigh.) Badcondition; bad state. Anfhiosrachd, s.f. Ignorance; the state of not being
Axdolas, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and dolas.) Sadness ; priva aware or apprized.
tion of comfort. Axfiiocail, gen. sina- of anfhocal.
Asdolasach, a. (an, intens. and dolasach.) Sad ; comfort
less ; sorrowful ; irksome. Com. and sup. andolasaiche, t Anfiiocain, s.f. Danger, hazard.
more or most sad. Anfhocal, ail, s. m. (an, intens. and focal.) A bud word ;
t Andras, ais, s. m. A fury; an infernal divinity. an improper expression ; a taunt; a reproach.
An drasd, adv. Now, at present. An drasd 's a ris, now Anfhoigiiideann, inn, s. m. (an, priv. and foighideann.)
and then ; more properly an truths. Impatience, restlessness.
Axdrasdaich, adv. provincial. Now, at present. Anfiioighidinneach, a. (an, priv. and foighidinneach.)
+ Axdrobiilasach, aich, m. A spendthrift. Impatient, restless.
t As drobhlasaciid, s.f. Extravagantness, prodigality. t Anfhoralamh, aimh, s. m. Constraint; danger.
t Axdualarasc, s. ffl. (//. id.) The figure in rhetoric t Axfhorlan, ain, s. m. Power; plundering; oppression.

called catachresis. Shaw.
Anduine, s. m. (an, priv. and duine.) A wicked man. Ir. Anfhuras, a. (an, priv. and furas.) Not easy, difficult.
t Akdul, uil, s. m. Avidity. t Ang, aing, *. m. Renown ; rank ; a string ; a twist.
Aneadargnaidh, s. m. A stranger. t Angach, a. Full of nails.
Aneagal, ail, *. m. (an, intens. and eagal.) Astonishment, Axgadii, aidh, s. m. The gusset of a shirt.
extreme terror. Anganach, aich, s. m. A snare.
Askagalach, a. Timid ; also formidable, or causing terror. Angar, air, s. m. A stall for cattle; anger.
Axearb, v. (an, priv. and earb.) Distrust; suspect. Pret. a. Ang atiilanx acii, a. Glittering, bright, burnished.
dh* anearb, distrusted. An-ghlaodh, s. m. (an, intens. and glaodh.) A loud shout ;
Axearbsa, Anearbsadh, aidh, s. m. Distrust, suspicion, a piercing cry. Ir. id.
jealousy ; non-reliance. Angiilaodiiaich, s. A loud shouting, a continued loud
Anearbhacii, a. (an, priv. and earbsach.) Distriistful, shouting.
suspicious, jealous ; also causing suspicion or distrust. Anglonn,o. Very powerful ; very strong ; brave.
Anearbsachd, s.f. (an, priv. and earbsachd.) Distrustful- Anglonn, oinn, s. m. Adversity; danger; strength. Jr.
ness, suspiciousness. Axgloxn'acii, a. Very powerful ; very strong ; brave ; also
Axfadh, aidh, s. m. A storm, a tempest. Anfadh cuain, adverse; dangerous.
a storm at sea; written also anfadh.Ir. id. Axgnatii, j. m. See Axaghnatii.
Axpadhach, a. Stormy, tempestuous. Cuau anfadhach, Angnathach, a. See Anagiin athach.
a stormy sea.
t Ahfas, ais, s. m. Fear, terror. Angiiradh, aidh, s. nr. (an, intens. and gradh.) Great
attachment, ardent love, doting fondness.
Axfiiainxe, com. and sup. of anfhann.) More or most
weak. Iadsan a b' anfhainne, those who wen weaker. Axghradhach, a. Very fond, dotingly fond, ardently
Stew. Gen. fond ; ardently loved.
Akfhainneacud, s.J. (an, intens. and fann.) Weakness, Axgiiradh aiciie, s. m. A dotard; one who loves to
debility, infirmity. excess.
Anfiiaxn, a. (an, intens. and fann.) Corn, anvan. W. anfan. Axgrach, a. Angry, provincial.
Weak, feeble, infirm ; tender. Suilean anfhann, tender t Angraidh, s. m. (from ang.) A man of rank ; a ruler ;
eyes.Stew. Gen. Com. and sup. anfhainne. nobility.
Akfuaxx aciiadh, aidh, m. The circumstance of en f Angrais, s. m. An engine ; a machine.
feebling, or making less strong; a weakening, a de Aniartas, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and iartas.) An unreason
bilitating. able demand ; a mandate.
Axidaxn ACiiADii (ag), pr. part, of anfhannaich. Weaken An-iochd, s. f. (an, priv. and iochd.) Cruelty; want of
ing, enfeebling, debilitating. feeling; rigour; oppression. Le h-an-iochd, with rigour.
Axfhaxnacjid, (an, intens. and fannachd.) Weakness, Stew. Lev.
infirmity, debility. Aniochdar, a.; more properly aniochdmhor.
25
ANN A N R

Aniochdmhoire, com. and sup. of aniochdmhor. More or Ann, comp. pron. In him, in it. Cha 'neil ann ach an
most cruel. crochair, he is but a rascal.
Aniochdmhor, a. (an, priv. and iochdmhor.) Cruel, un t Annach, a. Clean.
feeling, merciless, uncompassionate, imperious. Bha i an An nad, (for ann tu.) In thee. Ir. ionnad.
iochdmhor, it was cruel. Stew. Gen. Creachadairean f Annadii, aidh, *. m. Delay.
aniochdmhor, merciless plunderers. Macfar. Annag, aig, *. m. Evil, anger, displeasure.
A nios, or, 'nios, adv. Up, from below; from the east. Annaibh, comp. pron. (for ann sibh.) In you, within you.
Thig 'nios an so, come vp here. Cha 'n eil ciall annaibh, you have nojudgment.
A nis, or, 'nis, adv. Now ; at this time. Dean a nis e, do Annaibhse, emphatic form of annaibh ; which see.
it at this time ; a nis mata, now then. Annainn, comp. pron. (for ann sin.) In us, within us ; in
t Aniudadh, a. Depraved. Shaw. our .power. Annainn fein, in ourselves.
t Aniuid, s.f. Error; depravity. Ann am, comp. pron. (for ann mi.) In me, within me ; in my
Anlaoch, aoich, s. m. (an, intens. and laoch.) A bloody power. Ir. ionnam.
warrior. Fo chasaibh nan anlaoch, under the feet of the Annamh, a. Few, rare, scarce, seldom; curious. See
bloody warriors. Oss. Trath. Ainneamh.
Anlaoich, gen. arid roc. sing, and n. pi. of anlaoch. Annas, ais, s.m. 'Rarity; change for the better; perhaps
Anluchd, s. m. A grievous weight; an oppressive burden ; annos, from an, priv. and nos, custom.
overweight. Fo anluchd, oppressed. Annasach, a. (from annas.) Rare, unusual, strange;
Anluchdaich, v. Overload; surcharge. Pret. a. dh' an- dainty; desirable. Nithe anasach,- dainties, rarities.
luchdaich, overloaded. Stew. Pro. ref. Com. and sup. annasaiche, more or most
Anmhaoin, s. Strife; great riches. rare.
Anmhiann, s. See Anamhiann. Ann lan, ain, s. m. What the Lowland Scots call kitchen ;
Anmhiannach, a. See Anamhiann ach. that is, whatever food, as, butchers' meat, butter, cheese,
eggs, &c. is taken at dinner, after broth, which forms the
Anmhodii, m. (an, priv. and modh.) Disrespect; bad first course of a Scotch dinner. It expresses all the more
breeding ; a bad habit. substantial eatables, ab ovo usque ad mala.
Anmhodhail, a. (an, priv. and modhail.) Disrespectful; An nociid, or, 'nochd, adv. To-night, this night. An nochd
ill bred. is an reidhir, this night and the last.
Anmhor, a. (an, intens. and m6r.) Exceeding, excessive,
very great, exorbitant. Sonas anmhor, exceeding joy. A nois, or, nois, adv. Now, at present, at this time. In
Smith. Ir. id. Com. and sup. anmhoire. the southern districts of the Highlands they say a nis, and
nis.
Anmhuinne, com. and sup. of anmhunn. More or most weak. Annrach, aich, *. m. A stranger. See Anrach.
Anmhuinneachd, s.(from anmhunn.) Weakness, debility, Annrachd, s.f. The highest degree in poetry next the
infirmity, decrepitude, unhealthiness. Anmhuinneachd na oilam h.
feola, the weakness of the Jlesh.Stew. Gal. f Anradh, v. Grieve; aflflict; harass.
Anmhunn, a. Weak, feeble; slender; decrepit; sickly; Annradii, aidh, s.m. A storm, a storm at sea; also a
pliant ; not stiff. Chum nan ceud thoiseach anmhunn, to poet next in degree to an ollamh ; a boon. See Anradh.
the weak elements. Stew. Gal.
Anmhunnachadh, aidh, s. m. (anmhunn.) A weakening, Annsa, and Ansadh, a. (Ir. annsa. Swcd. annse, to respect.)
Dear ; desirable, wished for ; attached ; beloved ; accept
enfeebling. able ; glad; also a love ; a person beloved. Ged nach b'
Anmhunnachd, s.f. {from anmhunn.) Weakness, Feeble annsa dhi an t-6g, though the youth was not dear to her ;
ness, decrepitude, unhealthiness. b' annsa thu na dearrsa grein, more acceptable wert thou
Anmhunnaich, v. Weaken, enfeeble, enervate, make than a sun-beam.Oss. Derm. Fo bhr6n mu m' annsa,
faint. Pret. a. dh' anmhunnaich ; fut. aff. a. anmhun- mourning for my beloved.Id. An caladh aigh annsadh,
naichidh, shall weaken ; anmhunnaichidh e neart nan the joyous wished for harbour. Old Song. B' annsa leo
treuna, he will weaken the strength of the strong. sgur, they were glad to desist. Old Poem.
Stew. Job. Annsachd, s.f. (from annsa.) A person beloved. Tha
The last six words are spelt according to Dr. Stewart's or m' annsachd mar-bhogha san speur, my beloved is like a
thography. See his Translation of the Scriptures, Mat. xxvi. 41 ; cloud in the skies.Oss. Cathluno. Annsachd Dhe, the
Job, xii. 21 ; 1 Cor. i. 25, &c. &c. Macf'arlane's spelling is pre
ferable ; as, anfhann, &c. ; the words being considered, as they beloved one of God. Sm.' Ir. annsacht.
clearly are, compounds of funn. Anra, ai, *. m. A storm, a tempest; misfortune, trouble,
Anmoch, a. (an, priv. and moch, early.) Late. Bithidh tu disaster, calamity. Anra cuain, a storm at sea. Oss. Gaul.
anmoch, you will be late. Com. and sup. anmoiche. T-anra san speur, thy trouble in the sky. Oss. Trath.
Ammoch, oich, . m. Evening; night. Madadh alluidh an Written also anradh.
anmoich, the evening wolves. Stew. Zeph. Annsadh, a. See Annsa.
t Ann, s. m. A circle; a revolution. Lat. ann-us, a revolu Anns, prep. In, within ; used before the definite article.
tion of the earth, or year ; hence also, reann (i. c. re and Anns an t-saoghal, in the world.
ann) a star, and its diminutive reannag. Annsan, comp. pron. (for ann esan.) In him.
Ann, prep. {Ir. ann.) In, therein; in existence, alive. Anrach, aich, s. m. (from anradh.) A stranger;- a dis
Ann fein, in himself, with himself. Stew. Jon. An linn tressed person. Tha dorus Fhinn do 'n anrach tial, FingaVs
a bha ann o shean, the race that existed of old. Oss. Fing. door is open to the stranger.Oss. Is i do gh.nu.is do 'n
Cha 'n ann, not, no, it is not ; bheil thu ann? art thou anrach a ghrian, thy countenance is to the forlorn a sun.
there? an d' thu th' ann'? it it you? is it you that are? are Old Poem.
you there? is it you I see? Is mise th' ann. A chrochair Anrach, a. (for anradhach.) Stormy ; distressed ; floating;
tha thu ann, you rascal, that you are! streaming, as hair in the wind. Air a chuan anrach, on the
Gr u. Lat. in. Arm. en. Goth, and, and ana. Ir. ann. stormy sea.Oss. Gaul. D' fhalt anrach, thy streaming
Teut. an. Bite. an. Span. en. hair.Ull.
26
A N S ANT
A y radii, aidh, s. m. (perhaps an-thrath.) A storm, tempest ; Anstroghail, a. Prodigal, wasteful, extravagant. Duine
distress, misfortune, trouble, disaster. Mac Morna 's e 'm anstroghail, a prodigal.
meadhon anraidh, the son ofMorni in the midst of a tempest. Anstruidhe, Anstruighe, s.f. Prodigality, wastefulness,
Oss. Gaul. Theirgeadh mo dheoir nan teirgeadh gach extravagance. Luchd anstruidhe, prodigal people.
anradh, my tears would cease if every trouble were to vanish. Anstruidheachd, *. f. Prodigality, wastefulness, ex
Id. N. pi. anradhan ; written also anrath. travagance.
Anhadhach, a. (/com anradh.) Stormy; distressed; also Anstruidheachadh, aidh, s. m. The act of wasting or
floating, streaming, as ringlets in the wind. Com. and spending extravagantly.
sup. anradhaiche. Anstruidheasach, Axstruigheasach, a. (an, intens. and
Aneaidh, gen. sing, of anradh. struidheasach.) Profuse, prodigal, wasteful, extravagant.
Axraidh, a. Distressful, sorrowful, sad. Aithris anraidh Com. and sup. anstruidheasaiche, more or most profuse.
mo chreach, the sad tale of my bereavement. Oss. Cathula. Anstruidheasachd, s.f. Profuseness, prodigality, waste
A* rath, aith, s. m. {perhaps an-thrath, from an, priv. and fulness, extravagantness.
trath, season.) A storm, a tempest ; misfortune, calamity. An-tigiiearna, s. m. (an, intens. and tighearna,) A tyrant,
Anrathach, a. (from anrath.) Stormy; distressed; also, a despot. A brosnuchadh nan an-tighearnan, stirring up the
substantively, a distressed person. tyrants.Macfar.
As reidhir, or, 'nreidhir, adv. Yesternight, last night, Antighearxach, a. Oppressive in governing, tyrannical,
last evening. despotic.
Anriadh, reidh, s. m. (an, intens. and riadh.) Usury, ex Antighearnas, ais, *. m. (an, intens. and tighearnas.)
tortion, exorbitant interest. Despotism, oppression, tyranny. Am fuath th' againn air
Akriagiiai.lt, s. f. (an, priv. and riaghailt.) Disorder, antighearnas, the hatred we have of despotism.Macfar.
confusion, tumult, uproar, riot ; misrule, mismanagement. Antogar, air, *. m. (an, intens. and togar.) An inordinate
Asriaghailteach, a. (an, priv. and riaghailteach.) Con wish ; ambition ; an unreasonable desire.
fusing, disordering, disordered, riotous. Com. and sup. Antogarach, Aktograch, a. (an, intens. and togarach.)
an-riaghailtiche. Lustful; covetous; immoderately desirous.
t Axrodhach, a. See Anradhach. Antogradh, aidh, s. m. Lust; concupiscence; cOvetous-
t Akrodhaidii, s. m. (Jr. id.) Affliction, trouble; more ness; immoderate desire Stew. N. T.
properly anradh ; which see Antlachd, s. (em, priv. and tlachd.) Dislike, displeasure,
An roir, 'kroir, adv. Last night, last evening. disgust, dissatisfaction, discontent. Saor o bhraid ' o
As-so AiNEADii, eidh, j. m. A violent bursting ; a chasm. antlachd, free from theft and discontent. Macdon.
Ak-sgaixteach, a. Apt to burst; apt to open into chasms; Antlaciidmiioire, com. and sup. of antlacltdmhor.
causing chasms. Talamh an-sgainteach, chasing ground. Antlachdmhoireachd, s.f. (an, priv. and tlachdmhoir-
t Axsgairt, v. Shriek aloud, cry.Ir. id. eachd.) Disgustfulness ; unpleasantness.
Axsgairt, s.f. (an, intens. and sgairt.) A loud shout ; a Antlachdmhor, a. Disgustful; unpleasant; causing dis
piercing shriek or cry. Phill sibh le 'r n-ansgairt, you content. Com. and sup. antlachdmhoire.
returned with your piercing shrieks. Oss. Gaul. Also a Antlas, ais, s. m. A ludicrous trick, a frolic: also a cattle
thicket of brambles. fair.
Assg airtf.ach, a. (an, intens. and sgairteach.) Uttering a Antlasach, a. (from antlas.) Frolicsome ; also a frolicsome
loud shriek ; shouting, shrieking ; loud, piercing. fellow.
An-suamiilaciid, s.f. (an, priv. and samhlachd.) Incom- Antoile, s. f. (an, intens. and toile.) Lust, inordinate
parability. desire ; ambition. Fear na h-antoile, the ambitious man ;
Ax-siiamhluichte, part. Incomparable; unmatched. ioma gne do autoilibh, many sorts of lusts. Stew. Tit.
Aiiuankt, s. m. (an, intens. and sannt.) Greed, covetous- Ir. id.
ness; extreme avarice. Antoileacii, a. (an. intens. and toileach.) Lustful ; am
Axshaxntach, a. (an, priv. and sanntach.) Greedy, co bitious ; inordinately desirous. Com. and sup. antoiliche.
vetous, immoderately greedy. Com. and tup. anshann- Antoileil, i. e. antoil-amhuil, a. (an, intens. and toileil.)
taiche, greedier, greediest. Wilful, obstinate, perverse. Gu h-antoileil, perversely.
Axshaxntach, aich, s. m. (from anshannt.) A greedy t Antomhail, s.f. Gluttony. Shaw.
person ; a greedy gut. t Antomhailtear, ir, s. m. A glutton. N. pi. antomh-
Axshaoghalta, a. (an, intens. and saoghalta.) Worldly, ailtearan.
immoderately fond of the world, worldly-minded. Axtrath, (an, priv. and trath.) Unfavourable weather;
Axsiiaoghaltaciid, s.f. (an, intens. and saoghaltachd.) stormy weather ; a storm. This perhaps is the proper
Worldliness, immoderate regard for the world. orthography, and not anfadh, onfad/i, and anradh.
Akshocair, s.f. (a.n, priv. and socair.) Ir. anacar. Distress; Axtratiiacii, a. (from antrath.) Unseasonable, untimely,
disease ; bodily or mental trouble ; restlessness ; disquiet. abortive.
Droch anshocair, an evil spirit ; a bad disease. St'ew. Ecc. Ant roc air, *. f. (an, priv. and trocair.) Mercilessness,
Asshocrach, a. (an, priv. and socrach.) Troubled in mind cruelty, want of compassion. Fear antrocair, a merciless
or body, distressed, afflicted, restless. Sluagh anshocrach, man.
an afflicted people.Stew. Zeph. Com. and sup. anshoc- Antrocaireach, a. (an, priv. and trocaireach.) Merciless,
raicbe, more or most afflicted. cruel. Com. and sup. antrocairiche.
Ajtshoi raiche, com. and sup. of anshocrach ; which see. Antuom, a. (an, intens. and trom.) Grievous to be borne,
Asshogh, *. m. (an, priv. and sogh.) Misery, adversity, intolerable ; oppressive ; atrocious. Com. and sup. an-
mischance. Jr. id. truime.
Anshoguail, a. Miserable, adverse, unfortunate. Antromachadh, aidh, s. m. The act or circumstance of
Axstrogh, trogha, s.f. (an, intens. and strogh.) Prodigality, aggrieving, aggravating, making heavy or burdensome.
waste, extravagance ; written also anstruidhe. Antromachadh (ag), pr. part, of antromaich; which see.
27
A O B A O G
Antromaich, v. Oppress; aggrieve, aggravate ; overload ; Aobrainnean, n. pi. of aobrann.
make insufferably heavy. Pret. a. dh' antromaich, op Aobrann, ainn, Aobrunn, uinn, m. The ancle, the
pressed ; fat. aff. a. antromaichidh, shall make heavy ; dh' ancle-bone, the ancle-joint. Gu ruig na h-aobranna, to the
antromaich e ar cuinge, he made our yoke heavy.Stew. 1 K. ancles ; as, an aobrann, out of the ancle-joint.Stew. Ezek.
Antromaichear, fat. pass, of antromaich. Shall be made N. pi. aobrainnean, aobranna, and aobrunnan, ancles.
heavy. Stew. Acts.
Antromaichidh,/!//. off. a. of antromaich; which see. Aobranna, Aobrunnan, n. pi. of aobrann, and aobrunn.
Antruacanta, a. (an, priv. and truacanta.) Pitiless, mer- Ao-coltacii, a. (ao, priv. and coltach.) Unlike, dissimilar;
ciless. improbable, unlikely. See Eu-coltach. Com. and sup.
Antruacanta, a. (an, intent, and truacanta.) Compas ao-coltach.
sionate, merciful. Ao-coltachd, s.f. Unlikeness, dissimilarity ; unlikeliness,
Antruas, ais, *. m. (an, priv. and truas.) Want of pity, or improbability. See Eucoltachd.
of mercy. Aodach, aich, s. m. Cloth, clothes, dress. Aodach leapach,
Antruas, ais, s. m. (an, intens. and truas.) Great pity, bed clothes ; aodach canaich, cotton cloth, calico ; aodach
sympathy. olladh, wool/en cloth ; aodach sassunnach, English cloth ;
Antruime, com. and sup. of antrom. aodach Tin, linen cloth ; written also eudach.
Antruime, s.f. (an, intens. and truime.) Oppression; bur- Aodachadh, aidh, m. A clothing, a dressing, a covering.
densomeness. Luchd na h-antruime, oppressors.
Anuaibhir, s.f. Excessive pride. Luchd na h-anuaibhir, Aodaich, gen. sing, of aodach.
the excessively proud. Aodaich, v. Clothe, dress, cover. Pret. a. dh' aodaich,
Anuaibhreach, a. (an, priv. and uaibhreach.) Not proud, clothed ; fat. aff. a. aodaichidh, shall or will clothe.
humble, lowly. Com. and sup. anuaibhriche. AoDAiciiEAR,yr. pass, of aodaich. Shall or will be clothed.
Anuaibhreach, a. (an, intens. and uaibhreach.) Proud, Aodaichidh, fat. aff. a. of aodaich. Shall or will clothe.
haughty; proud to excess. Com. and sup. an-uaibhriche. Aodaichte, p. part, of aodaich. Clothed, clad, covered,
Anuaille, s.f. (an, priv. and uaille.) Want of pride, hu dressed.
mility, affability. Aodainn, gen. sing, of aodann.
Anuaille, s.f. (an, intens and uaille.) Extreme pride. Aodann, ainn, s.f. (Arm. adyn.) Face, forehead, front,
Air mhor anuaille 's air bheag ceill, proud and silly. Old visage ; surface. Re aodann sleibhe a leumnaich, bound
Song. ing on the face' of the hill. Oss. Trath. As an aodann, to
Anu air, s.f. (an, intens. and uair.) A storm; unfavourable the face ; clar an aodainn, the brow. N. pi. aodainnean,
weather ; mischief. faces. Written also eudun ; which see.
An uair, adv. When; often written and almost always Aodannach sreine, s. m. The front-stall of a bridle.
pronounced 'nuair, and nur.Ir. id. Aodarman, ain, s. m. A bladder ; properly eutroman.
t Anuais, a. Fierce, barbarous. Shaw. t Aodh, s. tn. A sheep.
Anuallach, a. (an, priv. and uallach.) Not haughty; Though this word be seldom used separately, it is seen in
humble-minded. composition, as in the following vocable.
Anuallach, a. (an, intens. and uallach.) Haughty, proud ; Aodhair, s.m. (aodh-fhear.) Ir. aodhaire. A shepherd;
airy, supercilious. a pastor; a protector. N. pi. aodhairean. Tri aodhairean,
Anuallach, aich, f. (an, intens. and uallach, burden.) three shepherds. Stew. Zech. Bheir mi dhuibh aodhairean,
An oppressive burden ; oppression ; hardship. I will give you pastors. Stew. G. B. Contracted aoir ;
A nuas, adv. Down, from above, from the west. Thig a which see.
nuas an so, come down here. Ir. id. + Aodhair, s. m. A conflagration ; a fiery desolation.
Anuasal, a. (an, priv. and uasal.) Mean, ignoble; not Aodiiaiiieachd, s.f The occupation of a shepherd;
proud. Ir. anuasal. herding.
Anu i if n, s. The eaves of a house. Aodhairean, n. pi. of aodhair. Herds; shepherds; pro
An uihidh, adv. An uair a ruith, last year. Written also tectors ; pastors.
'nuiridh. See Uiridh. Aodiiar, air, m. (Lat. ador-o.) Worship, religious re
Anur, s. m. (an, priv. and ur.) W. anwr. A mean, sorry verence. Bheir sinn aodhar dha, we will worship him.
person ; a wretch, miscreant, Aodhnair, s. m. An owner; an author. N.pl. aodhnairean,
f Aobh, aoibh, s. m. Similitude. owners.
Aohhach, a. Joyous, glad, cheerful ; also beautiful. Ceud Aodhnaireachd, s.f. Ownership; authorship.
ogan aobhach, a hundredjoyous youths. Orr. B' aobhach Ao-dionach, a. (ao, priv. and dionach.) Leaky; not water
mise, glad was I. Macint. Com. and sup. aobhaiche, more proof ; not air-proof ; not affording shelter.
or most joyous. Ao-dionachd, s.f. Leakiness; the state of being not
Aobiiachd, s.f. Joyfulness; also beauty. water-proof; the state of being not air-proof.
Aobhaiche, com. and sup. of aobhach. More or most glad. Ao-dochas, ais, s. m. (ao, priv. and dochas.) Despair,
Aobhair, gen. sing, of aobhar. despondency.
Aobhar, air, s. m. (Corn, ara.) Cause, subject, reason, Ao-DociiASAcn, a. (ao, priv. and dochasach.) Hopeless,
matter. C ait am bheil aobhar uaill ? where is there cause despairing, despondent ; causing despair. Com. and sup.
for pride ?Orr. Thuit iad an deagh aobhar, theyfell in aodochasaiche, more or most desperate.
a good cause. Old Poem. An t-aobhar mu 'n d' thainig Ao-doch asachd, s. f. Despondency, melancholy, tendency
sinn, the reason why we came. Old Poem. Air an aobhar to melancholy.
sin, therefore, for that reason ; aobhar ghair, laughing Aodra.main, gen. sing, and n. pi. of aodraman.
stock ; aobhar bhrbin, cause for sorrow ; aobhar ghuil, Aodraman, ain, s. m. A bladder; better aotroman, or
cause for weeping ; bheir raise aobhar ghuil dhuit, 1 will eutroman.
give you reason to cry; aobhar eagail, a cause of terror ; Aoo, aoig, s. m. Death; a ghost, spectre, skeleton. Dol
aobhar ghearain, a cause of complaint. aog, dying ; neul an aoig, t/ie colour of death ; written also
Aobrainn, gen. sing, of aobrann. eug: which see.
28
A O I A O I
Aogaidii, a. {from aog.) Ghastly, ghostly, spectral, death Aoidhealachd, s. f. Hospitableness, bountifulness. Bu
like. mh6r d' aoidhealachd, great was thy hospitality. Old Song.
Aocail, a. (i. e. aog-amhuil.) Ghastly, ghostly, spectral, Aoidhean, Aoidheanna, n.pl. of aoidhe. Guests. Na
death-like. h-aoidhean, the guests. Stew. K.
Aogaileachd, s.f. (i.e. aog amhuileachd.) Ghastliness, Aoidheil, a. (aoidh-amhuil.) Kind, hospitable. An gasan
ghostliness. aoidheil, the hospitable stripling. Old Song.
Aogas, ais, s.m. (Gr. fi*o;.) Likeness, resemblance; ap Aoic;, gen. sing, of aog; which see.
pearance; image, form, countenance. Aogas do bharca, t Aoigii, s. m. A hero. N. pi. aoighean.
the likeness of thy bark. Oss. Gaul. Is cosmhuil aogas ri
Dearmad, Aisform is like to Dermed. Oss. Derm. D' aogas Aoil, gen. sing, of aoi ; which see.
maiscach, thy lovely countenance.- Stew. Song. Sol. Writ t Aoil, s.f. The mouth.Ir. id. Bisc. ahol.
ten also aogasg. t Aoilbhinn, s.f. A small flock.
Aogasach, a. (from aogas.) Seemly, decent, becoming; t Aoilbhreo, s. m. Limekiln.Ir.
pretty, comely ; of a good appearance. Cow. and sup. ao- f Aoi leach, eich, s. m. A gazing-stock ; dung: for this
gasaichc, more or most seemly. latter sense, see Aolacii.
Aogasachd, s. f. (from aogas.) Seemliness, comeliness, Aoileann, a. Fine, excellent, charming.
decentness. Aoileann, inn, m. A sea maw, a gull. N. pi. aoilinnean.
Aogasaiciie, a.; com. and sup. of aogasach. Seemlier, Corp is gile thu na aoilinnean, a fairer body thou art than
seemliest. the sea maw. Old Poem.
Aogasail, a. (i. e. aogas-amhuil.) Seemly, comely, be Aoileann achd, s.f. (from aoileann.) Beauty, beautifulness.
coming; of an imposing exterior. Aoileanta, a. Beautiful, charming. Oigh aoibhinn aoile-
Aogasg, aisg, *. . Appearance; resemblance. See Aogas. anta, a cheerful beauteous maid. Old Poem. Ir. aoileanda.
t Aogh, *. m. The name Hugh. Aoi linn, gen. sing.
Aognaicu, v. (from aog.) Make pale or ghastly, grow Aoi linneach, a. (from aoileann.) Abounding in sea maws ;
pale or ghastly ; disfigure. Pret.a. dli'aognaich, grew pale ; like a sea maw ; of, or belonging to, a sea maw.
j'ut. aff. a. aognaichidh, shall grow pale ; aognaichidh aogas Aoilseag, eig, s. f. A caterpillar. N. pi. aoilseagan,
nan aonach, the face of the hills shall grow pale.Macfar. caterpillars.
t Aoi, *. (Ir. aoi.) A swan; a compact; a guest or stranger; Aoilseaoach, a. Abounding in caterpillars ; like a cater
knowledge; honour; an island; a trade; a hill; a pos pillar.
session. t Aoin, s. m. A rush ; honour; a fast.Ir.
Aoibii, t. m. A civil look ; a patrimony. Aoin, gen. sing, of aon. Lamh gach aoin, the hand of every
Aoibii, a. Pleasant, comely, joyous, courteous, cheerful. one. Stew. E.rod.
Jr. t Aoine, s.f. Skill.
Aoibheal, eil, s. f. A fire; merriment, rejoicing. Jr. t Aoine, s. Friday. Di h-aoine, Fiiday.
Written more frequently eibhle. ,
Aoineagan, ain, s. m. Wallowing; weltering; rolling on
Aoibhinn, a. Joyful, glad, cheerful, pleasant. Is aoibhinn the ground. 'G a aoineagan fein, wullowing himself
d" anam a' d neoil, Joyous is thy soul in thy clouds. Oss. Stew. Mark, rej'. Written also aoirneagan ; which see.
Truth. Oigr h aoibhinn, ye cheerful youth. Oss. Fin.
and Lor. Aoir, s. Satire, lampoon, ribaldry ; raillery; a curse.
+ Aoibhle, s.f. A sign, mark, omen, token, Aoir, v. Satirize, lampoon. Pret. a. dh' aoir, satirized ;
Jut. aff. a. aoiridh, shall or will satirize.
t Aoibhlicii, v. Explain an omen.
Aoir, s. m. a contraction of aodhair. A keeper of cattle.
Aoibii nf.acii, a. (i.e. aoibhinneach.) Joyful, glad, agreeable,
pleasant. Com. and sup. aoibhneiche, more or most joyful ; Aoireachd, s.f. (from aoir.) The vice of lampooning;
a toirt sgeil aoibhneich, giving glad tidings.Stew. Rom. the habit of satirizing.
Aoibhneas. eis. s. m. Joy, gladness, pleasure. Aoibhneas Aoireadii, eidh, s. m. A satirizing ; a lampooning.
a shlighe, the joy of his way. Stew. Job. Dean aoibhneas, Aoirf.annan, n. pi. of aoir. Herds, or keepers of cattle.
be glad; ni t-athair aoibhneas, thy father will be glad. Tlie aoireunnan uf the Hebrides, according to l'eiuiant, are
Stev. Pro. farm-serviiuts who have the charge of culti\ ating a certain portion
Aoibhneasacii, a. (from aoibhneas.) Joyful, glad, causing of laud, and of overseeing the cattle it supports. Tin s,e have grass
for two milch cows and six sheep, and also the tenth t^caf of the
jov. Com. and sup. aoibhneasaiche, more or most joyful. produce of the said ground, and as many potatoes as they choose
Aoibhsf.ich, gen. sing, of aoibhneach ; which see. to plant.
Aoibhneiche, com. and sup. of aoibhneach. More or Aoirneagan, v. See Aoirnag ain.
most glad. Aoirneagan, ain, s. m. A wallowing, a weltering, a rolling
t Aoide, A web; also a youth. Ir. on the ground. Chum a h-aoirneagan san lathaich, to her
Aoideach, a. Youfhful. Com. and sup. aoidiche, waltowingnn the wire. Stew. 2 Pet.
Aoideao, eig, s.f. A hair lace; fillet. Ir. id. Aois, aoise, s.f. (Gr. "Eto?. Lat. aetas. Corn, huis, and oys.
t Aoidean, ein, s. m. A leak. Ir. aes, and aos.) Age, old age, antiquity. Bloidh sgeith
air a caithe' le n aois, the half of a shield worn with age.
t Aoi deaxacii, a. Leaky; also youthful. Oss. Gaul. Iarguinn na h-aoise, the troubles of age.Oss.
Aoidhe, *. m. A guest, a stranger, a traveller; a skilful Conn. Tha m' aois fo dhoruinn, my old age is sorrowful.
person. N. pi. aoidliean. guests.Ir. id. Oss. Fing. Ann an lan aois, in full age. Stew. Job.
AoiDHEACH. a. (from aoidhe.) Hospitable; also a guest, Thainig e gu h aois, he has come to age.
a stranger ; a hospitable person. Aois-dana, *. pi. (aois, age, and dan, song.) Bards, poets ;
Aoidheachd, t. j. (from aoidh.) Hospitality, bounty; rehearsers of ancient poetry; a genealogist; soothsayers.
lodging ; entertainment. Air aoidheachd, enjoying hospi The uo'ndana were in high esteem throughout the Highlands.
tality. Stew. 1 K. Thug iad aoidheachd dhuinn, they So late as the end of the seventeenth century they sat i;i the
lodged u*, they entertained us. sreuth, or circle, among the nobles and the chiefs of fainiiiss.
29
AON AON
They took precedence of the ollamh, or the doctor in medicine. Aon, gen. aoin, a. (Ir. aon.) One ; alone. Thoir dhomh
After the extinction of the Druids, they were brought in to pre h-aon, give me one; aon air bith, any one; aon eile, one
serve the genealogy of families, and to repeat genealogical tradi other, another ; aon latha, one day, some day or other.
tions at the succession of every chieftain. They hud great influence Bithidh sibhse mar mise aon latha, you shall be like me
over all the powerful men of their time. Their persons, their
houses, their villages, were sacred. Whatever they asked was (one dayJ some day or other. Oss. Fin. and Lor. Aon
liiven them ; not always, however, out of respect, but from fear of seach aon, one from another. Sm. Latha 'gin, la h-eigin,
their satire, which frequently followed a denial of their requests. one day, some day. Ann an aon luing ri allmharaich, in the
They lost by degrees, through their own insolence and importu- same ship with a transmarine foe.Old Poem. Lamh gach
nacy, all the respect which their order had so long enjoyed, and a6in, the hand of evtry one. Stew. Judg. Is tu fein an t-aon
consequently all their wonted profits and privileges. Martin thus duine, you are the only man, you are a proper fellow. Aon
describes their mode of studying and com ting the muse. " They eile, one another. Arm. un eil. Tri laithe bha e na aon,
shut their doors and windows for a day's time, and lay on their
hacks in darkness with a stone upon their belly, and plaids about three days he was alone. Oss. Carricth.
their heads and eyes, and thus they pumped their brains for Gr. if. Lat. un-us. Dan. een. Swed. en. Fr. un and
rhetorical encomiums." une. Sax. an. Scotch, ane. Germ ain and ein. Span, and
Aoisdanachd, s.f. The employment of rehearsing ancient It. un-o. Corn, uynyn. Arm. yunan and un. Teut. een and
poetry; bardism; genealogical tradition. eyn. Du. een and eene. Chald. hena. Malabar, onnou, one.
Aol, v. a. Lime ; plaster with lime ; manure land with lime. Aonach, aich, s. m. A hill, height, heath, desert place;
Pret. a. dh' aol, limed; fut. aff. a. aolaidh. rarely a fir. Ceum do theachd air an aonachd, thy
Aol, aoil, t. m. Lime. Ath abil, a lime-kiln. Ir. id. coming on the heath : literally the step of thine approach.
Aolach, aich, s.m. Manure, dung, mire; dross, rubbish. Oss. Trathal. A siubhal nan aonach ciar, travelling the
Bithidh iad nan aolach, they shall be as dung.Stew. Jer. dusky deserts.Oss. Comala. A direadh nan aonach ard,
climbing the heights sublime. Oss.
Aolachadh, aidh, s.m. The process of manuring with lime.
Aonachadh, aidh, s. m. A uniting, reconciling; a recon
Aolachadji, (ag), pr. part, of aolaich. Manuring with lime; ciliation ; an assenting ; an assent.
liming.
Aoladair, *. m. (aol. and fear.) One who works among Aonachadh, aidh, s.m. Galloping; a hand gallop; swift
lime ; a plasterer. N. pi. aoladairean. running.
Aoladaireaciid, s. f. The occupation of a plasterer; Aonachadh, (ag), pr. part, of aonaich.
plastering ; working among lime. Aonachd, s. f. (Ir. eaondachd.) Sameness; unanimity,
Aoladh, aidh, *. m. A liming, a plastering. harmony ; unity, agreement, one mind. In the sense of
unanimity, perhaps aonachd is but a contraction of aon-
Aolaich, v. a. (from a61.) Lime ; cover with lime; manure bheachd, one mind or opinion. Aonachd an Spioraid, the
with lime. Pret. a. dh' aolaich, limed ; fut. aff. a. aolaichidh, unity of the Spirit. Stew. Eph.
shall or will lime.
Aon-adharcach, a. Unicorned, having but one horn
Aolaisdeacii, a. Slothful, indolent, sluggish.
Aonadii arcach, aich, . m. A unicorn. Neart an aon-
Aolar, [i. e. aol-mhor.] Abounding in lime ; limy. Talamh adharcaich, the strength of the unicorn.Stew. 0. T.
aolar, limy ground. Aonagraicii, v. Wallow, welter. Pret. dh' aonagraich ;
Aol-uisge, s. m. Lime water. fut. aff. aonagraichidh.
Aom, v. a. and n. Bow, bend, droop, incline ; yield ; lean ; Aonaich, v. a. Unite, reconcile, join into one; assent; side
persuade ; dispose ; fall ; belly, bulge ; descend, pass by ; with. Pret. a. dh' aonaich, united; fut. aff. a. aonaichidh,
decay. Pret. a. dh' aom, leaned ; fut. aff. a. aomaidh, shall shall unite ; fut. pass: aonaichear, shall be united.
lean. Dh' aom e air sgiath Threinmh6ir, he leaned on the
shield of Trenmor. Oss. Fing. Com 'nach d' aom thu gu Aoxaichear, fut. pass, of aonaich. Shall be united.
m' aisling ? why didst thou not descend to my dream ? Oss. Aonaichidh, fut. aff. a. of aonaich. Shall unite.
Gaul. Aomaibh in cluas, incline your ear.Stew. G. B. Aonaichtf., p. part, of aonaich. United, reconciled.
Dh' aom e a thriall, he bent his way. Oss. Fing. An t-am Gaidheal aonaichte cruadhaichte, united, hardy Highland-
a dh' aom, the time that has passed by, literally gone down, men.Old Song.
according to the poetical fancy of time flowing in a stream. Aonairt, s.f Wallowing, weltering, a rolling on the ground.
Oss. Fing. Na lai a dh' aom a shean, the days that have Aonairt, i'. Wallow, welter, roll on the ground. 'G a
long gone by. Oss. Fing. Aomaidh an aitreabh, their build aonairt fein, wallowing on the ground. Stew. Mark, ref.
ing shall decay. Stew. Ecc. Aonar, a. (from aon.) Alone, solitary, singular. Tha mise
AoMADilf 3 sing, and pi. imper. of aom. Aomadh e, let him ri faireadh am aonar, / am watching alone. Oss. Gaul.
lean; aomadh iad, let them lean. Rinn e so na aonar, he did this alone.
Aomadh, aidh, s. . A bending, a leaning; drooping, Aonarachd, s.f. Solitariness, singularity.
yielding, inclining ; inclination ; a persuading, a disposing, Aonaran, ain, s.m. (from aonar.) A recluse, a hermit, a
a descending, a passing by: also a descent, a slope; a solitary person. Aonaran liath nan creag, the grey-headed
fall, a downfal; a bellying out from a line ; the surface of hermit of the rock. Oss. Conn.
the sea. A cheann air aomadh, his head drooping. Ull.
Dubhach air aomadh chreag, sorrowful on the mountain Aonaranach, a. (from aonar.) Solitary; desolate; for
side, on the slope of the rock. Oss. GauJ. Air a ghlun ag saken. Aitean aonaranach, desolate places. Stew. Job.
aomadh, bending on his knee. Urr. An t-aomadh, the Clann na mna aonaranaiche, the children of the desolate
downfal. Stew. Is. women. Stew. Gal.
Aonaranachd, s.f. Solitariuess, desolateness ; the state
Aomadh, (ag\ pr. part, of aom. Bowing, bending, drooping, of being forsaken, deserted, or forlorn.
yielding, leaning, persuading, disposing; falling. f Aonardha, a. See Aonar.
Aomaidh, gen. of aomadh. Aon-biieachd, s.f. Unanimity. Often written, iu a con
Aomaidh, fut. off. a. of aom. Shall or will lean. See Aom. tracted form, aonachd.
Aom a h, fut. pass, of aom ; which sec. Aon-bheannach, a. Unicorned, having but one horn.
f Aon, aoin, s. m. A country. Aon-bheannach, aich, s. m. A unicorn.
t Aon, a. Excellent; noble; illustrious. Bisc. on. Ir. aon. Aon-bhith, *. m. Co-essentiality; co-substantiality.
30
AON A O T
AoH-CHATHAiREAcn, a. Of, or from, the same city; having Aontachadh, (ag), pr. part, of aontaich. Consenting, ac
one city. ceding, abetting. Ag aontachadh leis an lagh, consenting
Aox-chridhe, s. Unanimity. to the law.Stew. Rom.
Aox-chridheach, a. Unanimous ; having one heart. Gu Aontachd, s.f. Consent, unanimity, agreement, connivance.
h-aonghuthach, aonchridlieach, with one voice and one heart. Aontadh, aidh, s. m. A lease, license, consent.
Old Song. Aontaich, v. Consent, agree, accede, yield to importunity,
Aoxda, a. Singular, particular. abet, take part, or side with. Aontaich leis, take his part ;
Aoxda, Aondadh, s. m. A lease, a license, consent. Written aontaicheamaid leo, let us consent to them.Stew. Gen.
also aonta. Thug i air aontachadh, she made him yield.Stew. Pro.
Aoxdachd, s.f. Acquiescence; the state of being parti Pret. a. dh' aontaich, consented; fut. off. a. aontaichidh,
cular or singular. shall consent.
Aohdathacii, a. (aon, one, and dath, colour.) Of the same Aontaiche, s. m. An' abettor; a conniver. N. pi. aon-
colour. taichean.
Aontigheachd, s.f. Cohabitation ; a living under one roof.
Aox-dealbhach, a. (aon, and dealbb.) Uniform; similar. Aon-tlachd, s. m. Sole source of joy ; only beloved. M'
Aon-deug, a. (Gr. ttSixet.) Eleven. Bha aon deug aim, aon-tlachd 's mo sholus thu, thou art my light and my only
there were eleven ; aon fhear deug, eleven men ; aon chlach source ofjoy. Old Song.
dheug, eleven stones. Aor, v. (by met. hat. ora, entreat.) Worship, adore ; also
Aok'eachd, Aonfheachd, adv. Together, at once. Per join, adhere. Pret. a. dh' aor; fut. off. a. aoraidh. Aor-
haps aon-bhtachd. aibhse gu ceart, worship in sincerity.Sm. Aoram dhuit,
Aon-fhillte, a. (aon, and filleadh.) Single ; simple, foolish, I will worship thee.Id.
sincere, innocent A deanamh an duine aon-fhillte glic, Aoradh, aidh, s. m. Worship, adoration; also joining,
making the simple (foolish) man wise. Stew. Ps. Na adhering. A deanamh aoraidh, worshipping.Stew. N. T.
daoine aon-fhillte, the simple, i. e. the innocent. Id. Aoradh fein-thoileil, will worship. Stew. Col.
Aox-fiiillteachd, s.f. {Dan. eenfoldighed.) Singleness Aoradh, (ag), pr. part, of aor. Worshipping, adoring;
of mind ; simplicity, sincerity, foolishness. Le aon fhill- also joining, adhering.
teachd, with simplicity.Stew. Rom. ref. Aoraidh, gen. sing, of aoradh.
Aoxfhlaith, gen. sing, of aonfhlath. Aoram, (contr. for aoraidh mi.) I will worship. Aoram
Aosfhi-aitheach, a. Monarchic; of, or pertaining to, a dhuit, J will worship thee. Sm.
monarch. Aornagain, v. a. Wallow. Aornagain thu fein, wallow
Aoxfhlaitheachd, *. m. (from aonfhlath.) Monarchy. thyself.Stew. G. B. Aornagainibh sibh fein, wallow your
Aoxfhlaitheaciidail, a. Monarchical. selves.Stew. Jer. Pret. a. dh' aornagain, wallowed; fut.
Aox-fhlath, aith, s. m. A monarch. N. pi. aon-fhlaithean. aff. a. aornagainidh, shall or will wallow.
Aok-fhuibm, . Uniformity. Aornagan, ain, s. m. A wallowing, a weltering. Aornagan
muic, the wallowing of a sow.
A03-GHIN, *. tn. (Ir. ein-ghin.) An only-begotten. Mar
aon-gbin mic, like an only-begotten son.Stew. Pro. M' f Aos, A community, a set of people.Ir.
aon-ghin cloinne, my only child. Aosar, a. (for aosmhor.) Aged ; old, antiquated.
Aox-ghxetheach, a. (aon, and gneth.) Homogeneous; of Aos-chiabh, a. Aged locks, hoary hair. Com' am bheil
one kind. d' aos-chiabh snitheach ? why are thine aged locks moist f
Aox-ghxetheaciid, s.f. (aon, and gneth.) Homogeneous- UIl. M' aos-chiabh air sgei' na gaoithe, my aged hair on the
ness. wings of the wind.Oss. Conn. N. pi. aos-chiabhan.
Aos-ghuthach, a. Having one voice, or vote ; consonous. Aos-chrann, chrainn, s. An aged tree, a trunk. Aos-
Go h-aon-ghuthach aon-chridheach, with one voice and chrann briste, an aged broken trunk. Oss. Trathal.
heart. Old Song. Aoschrith, s. The tremor of age. Aos-chrith air mo
Aox-ixxtixn, s.f. One mind, one accord, unanimity. Le cheann, the tremor of age on my head. Old Poem.
h-aon inntinn, with one accord. Aos-chritheach, a. Trembling with age.Orr.
Aon-i x xti x n e Am, a. (aon intinn.) One-minded, unanimous, Aosda, a. (from aois.) Old, aged, ancient. A bhaird aosda
consentient. Gu h-aon-inntinneach, unanimously. nan linn a threig:, ye ancient bards of bygone ages. Oss.
Aox-ixxtixxeachd, s.f. Unanimousness. Fin. and Lor. Anns na h-aosda tha gliocas, in the aged is
Aov-vriAC, mhic, s. m. An only son. Thuit e air aodainn wisdom.Stew. Job.
aon-mhic, hefell on the face of his only son.Oss. Cath. Aosdachd, s.f. (from aois.) Agedness, antiquity.
Aoxracain, gen. sing, and n. pi. of aonracan. Aosdana, s. m. A poet, soothsayer, genealogist ; a rehearser
of ancient poetry. Oss. Cathula, and Macfar. See Aois-
Aoxracak, ain, s. m. {from aonar.) A solitary person ; a DANA.
recluse ; a widower, a widow, an orphan ; a deserted per Aoslarach, aich, s. An aged site; an aged ruin. 'N e
son. X. pi. aonracain. 'n torr so d' aos larach ? is this hillock thine aged seat .'
Aos r acaxacii, a. (from aonracan.) Solitary, like a recluse ; Oss. Gaul.
of, or belonging to, a recluse. Aos-i-ia, Aos-liath, a. Grey-haired ; old. Aos-lia, lag, aged
Aoxracanaciid, s.f. Solitariness ; the condition of a re- and weak. Oss. Trathal.
cluae, or of a deserted person, Aosmhoire, com. and sup. of aosmhor.
t AosrsuiRT, s.f. Wallowing, weltering. Aosmoi reach d, s.f. Great age, antiquity, agedness.
Aoitta, Aontadh, aidh, s. m. A lease, license, consent; Aosmhor, a. Aged, old, ancient. Tuigse nan aosmhor,
a bachelor. the understanding of the aged. Stew. Job. Com. and sup.
Aortach, a. Accessory, acceding to, conniving at; ready aosmhoire.
to yield, ready to assent. t Aoth, t. m. A bell, a crown. Ir. id.
Aostachadh, aidh, *. m. A consenting, a yielding, ac f Aothachd, s.f. (from aoth.) A ringing of bells, a chime
ceding, abetting, abetment. of bells. Ir. id.
31
A R A ARB
Aotrom, a. (ao, priv. and trom.) Light; not heavy ; giddy. t Arad, aid, s. m. A ladder. Ir. Sec Aradii.
Written also eittrom ; which see. Com. and sup. aotruime, f Aradain, s. m. A desk, a pulpit.
lighter, lightest. Aradair, s. tn. (ar, plough, and fear, man.) An agriculturist;
Aotrom aich, v. a. (aotrom.) Ease, lighten, alleviate ; make a ploughman ; a tiller.
less heavy. Pret. a. dh' aotramaich, lightened ; fut. aff. a. Lat. aratrum, a plough. Corn, ardar. Arm. arar. Span.
aotromaichidh, shall or will lighten ; fat. pass, aotromaichear, har. Bisc. uoro. Corn, araderur.
shall he lightened. Aradh, aidh, s. m. (Ir. arad.) The reins, loins; also a ladder.
Aotromaichidh, fut. aff. a. of aotromaich. In this last sense aradh is written also faradh ; which see.
Aotromain, n. pi. of aotroman. Bladders. Arag aradii, aidh, s. m. Abandonment; prescience, secret
Aotroman, ain, s. m. (aotrom.) A bladder. N. pi. aotrom anticipation.
ain, bladders. Araich, v. . Rear, bring up, educate. Pret. a. dh' araich,
Aotruime, com. and sup. of aotrom. Lighter, lightest. reared ; fut. aff. a. araichidh, shall or will rear. Ged araich
iad an clann, though they bring vp their children. Stew. Hos.
Aotkuimid, Lightness; also adjectivcly, lighter. Is
aotruinud thu e, thou art the lighter for it. Araich, s. f. (perhaps ar-fhaiche.) A field of battle; a
f Ap. Fit, proper, ripe. hat. ap-tus. plain ; a plain field ; a meadow. Do mhac a teicheadh
o'n arach, thy son flying from the battle field. Oss. Mar
t Ap, gen. apa, s. m. Any little creature. Hence the Welch dhoinionn a dortadh do 'n araich, like aJlood pouring to the
ap, signifying a son, and perhaps -ep-o,s, a grandson. plain. Oss. Dargo.
Ap, apa, s. m. An ape, a mimic. A giulan apa, carrying Araid, a. Particular, certain, special, peculiar. Duinc araid,
apes. Stcic. 1 K. a certain man; gu h-araid, especially. Written also araidh.
Dan. abe. Du. aap. W. epa. Swcd. apa. Germ. affe. Araideacii, a. Joyous, glad, elated, elevated. Cum. and
Ir. apa. Finland, apini. Sclavonic, affinia. sup. araidiche, more or must joyous.
Apach, a. Like an ape ; abounding in apes. Araidh, a. (Gr. ipaio,-, scarce.) Particular, peculiar, special,
Aparan, Apran, ain, s. m. An apron. N. pi. aparain. certain. Duine araidh, a certain man ; gu h- araidh, in par
Corn, appran. Ir. aprun. ticular, especially.
An, poss. pron. Our. (Bisc. ure. Ir. ar.) Ar comhstri ri t Araigii, s. pi. The reins of a bridle.
daimh, our battle with strangers. Oss. Comala. Ara ix, gen. sing, of aran; which see.
f Ar, *. m. A bond, a tie; a guiding, conducting, Arain*.", s. A kidney. N. pi. arainnean, contracted airnean ;
f Ar. Slow. Hence Arar, a river in Provence, meaning which see.
a slow-flowing river. Claudianus says, " Lentus Arar, Arair, s. m. (ar and fear.) IF. aerwr. A slaughterer; a
Rhodanusque celer," the tardy Arar and the rapid Rhone. warrior.
" Arar dubitans quo suos cursus agat," the Arar doubting Ar-amach, s. m. A rebellion, insurrection, mutiny, treason.
which way to flow. Seneca, in Apoth. The Arar is now Rinn iad ar-amach, they have rebelled. Stew. Gen. ref.
called Soane, which is sogh-an, the placid water. Avran, it. pi. of ara. Kidneys; also ladders.
Ar, s. m. {Ir. ar.) Ploughing, tillage, agriculture. Arm. Aran, ain, s. m. (Ir. aran.) Bread, a loaf; livelihood, suste
and W. ar, plough-land. Tha e ris ar, he is ploughing. nance. Aran coirce, oat bread ; aran eorna, barley bread;
Ar, v. a. Plough, till, cultivate. Pret. a. dh' ar, ploughed; aran cruineachd, wheat bread ; aran seogail, rye bread ;
fut. aff. a. araidh, shall or will plough. aran donn, brown bread; aran milis, ginger bread, sweet
Gr. a^-ou, to till, and a^av^a, (a Gael would say ar-uire), bread. Greim araid, a morsel of bread. Stew. Gen. X. pi.
arable ground. Lat. aro. Teut. aeren, to till. Arm. arar, arain, loaves ; cuig arain, five loaves. Stew. Mat.
a plough. Etrurian, arfer, and ar, ploughing. Bisc. ara, t Aran, ain, s. m. A conveisation, or discourse; dialogue.
plough. Isl. aria. Heb. Chald. and Ethiop. haras, to plough. Aranacii, aich, s. m. (from aran, bread.) A pantry.
Syr. and Arab, harath, ploughman. Ir. arancha.
Avr, air, s. m. Battle, slaughter ; field of battle. Dan an
Aranailt, s.f A bread-basket, a pannier.
air, the song of battle; an heroic poem. Oss. Cathula. Arannach-sreine, .?. m. A bridle rein. Macd.
Tuath chum air, a battle-axe.Oss. Manos. Ditliis nan
codal san ar so, two asleep in this field of battle. Oss. Gaul. f Anoin, s.f. A cover, a table cloth.
Gr. *(tK, Mars. Cantabrian, hara. Dan. ar, a wound. Araon, conj. (Ir. araon.) Together; both; as one.
W. aer. Corn. ar. A Chonail 's a Charruil araon ! Coital and Carruil, both
t Aa, s. Land, earth. An ancient Celtic word. of you !
Bisc. ar, land. Etrurian, ar and arv, a field. Lat. arvum, Ar'ar, contr.for arbhar ; which see.
afield. Chald. area and areka, field. Arab, ardhi. Du. aert. Ar'ahacii, a. contr.for arbharach. Abounding in crops;
Old French, aitos, a country. of, or belonging to, a crop; fertile. Gu h-ar'arach porach,
t Ara, ai, s. m. A conference ; a bier. full of crops and grain. Old Song.
Aras, ais, s. m. A house, abode, dwelling; lodging; apart
Ara, s. A kidney. N. pi. ainiean. An da ara, the two ment; settlement. id.
kidneys. Stew. P.vod. Ir id. Arasacii, a. Having many houses, having many apartments.
t Aracii, aich, s. m. A tie, a bond, or collar on a beast ; Arbhach, a. Destructive, slaughtering. Ir.
also restraint ; authority; strength; fishing ware. Ir. Arbiiadh, aidh, s. m. Destruction, slaughtering.
t Arach, aich, s. m. {from ar.) A ploughshare. Ir. Arbhar, air, s. m. (i. e. ar-bhar, the ploughing crop.) Corn,
Arachair, m. An insurer. corn crop, standing corn ; rarely a host, an army. Deas-
Arachas, ais, s. m. Insurance. Fear arachais, an in aichidh tu arbhar, thou wilt prepare corn. Slew. O. T.
surer ; buth arachais, an insurance office ; tigh fo' arachas, Pailteas arbhair, plenty of corn.Stew. Gen. Na hadagan
a house insured. is an t-arbhar, the shocks and the standing corn. Stew. O. T.
Arachd, *. m. A dwarf. See Arrachd. Ir. arbhar.
Arbharach, a. Abounding in corn crops; fertile; of, or
Arachdach, a. Dwarfish; also manly, powerful. Written belonging to, corn crops.
also arrochdach. Arbharachd, *. /. Embattling as an army; forming into
f Arad, a. Strong, brave. Jr. line.
32
ARD ARD
Arbhraigneacii, ich, *. m. A snare. wicked man in his fierce pride. 8m. Ardan gruaidh, pride
t Arc, aire, . m. {W. arc,. Swed. ark. Lot. are a.) An ark. offace. Id. Tha m' ardan na'd chliu, my pride is in thy
Now written aire ; which see. fame.Oss. Fing. Dh' at ardan na chridhe, proud wrath
t Arc, aire, m. A sucking pig; a bee; a wasp, lizard; swelled in his heart. Id. Uabhar is ardan, pride and
arrogancy.Stew. Pro. Gach aon ardan, every one knoll ;
a dwarf ; a body ; impost, tax.
each knoll. Old Song.
Arc a in, gen. sing, and n. pi. of arcan. Ardanach, a. {from ardan.) Proud, haughty; prone to
Arcan, ain, *. m. A cork, a stopple. Arcan buideil, a bottle take offence ; arrogant ; elate. Spiorad ardanach, a haughty
cork, or stopple; arcan bairill, a bung; crann-arcain, a cork spirit. Stew. Pro. Com. and sup. ardanaiche, more or most
tree. N. pi. arcain, corks. haughty. Ir. ardanach.
Arcan-luachrach, aich, *. m. A lizard; an adder. Aedanachd, j./. ( from ardan.) Haughtiness, proudness;
y. pi. arcain-luachrach. arrogancy. Uaille is ardanachd, pride and haughtiness.
t Archu, gen. archoin, s. m. A chained dog, a mastiff, Old Song.
a fierce dog. Ir. f Arda rc, aire, s. m. A blazon; armorial bearings.
t Archuisg, s. f. An experiment. Ard-athair, s. m. A patriarch. Stew. Heb. ref. N. pi.
Arc-luaciirach, aich, m. A lizard; an adder. Ir. id. ard-aithrichean, patriarchs.
t Ard, aird, s. m. God, or the High Being. Written also Ard-bhaile, t. m. A city, metropolis ; a great city. Esan
Art ; hence sag-art, a priest. a ghabhas ard-bhaile, he who takes a city. Stew. Pro.
Ard, a. {Lat. ard-uus. and Corn. ard. Old Persic, ard X. pi. ard-bhailtean, cities ; dat. pi. ard-bhailtibh.
ami art, high, and arta, a hero. Armen. ardyan, a summit. Ard-bhailtean, n. pi. of ard-bhaile, cities; dat. pi. ard-
Hence too the name Arthur. In Calmuc Tartary and bhailtibh.
Mogul, artaga, I put higher ; Gaelic, ard-thog, raise aloft.) Ard-bhandiuchd, s.f. An archduchess.
High, lofty, exalted, loud ; noble, eminent, excellent ; Ard-bheann, bheinn, s. f. A pinnacle ; a mountain. Ait
proud; also an eminent person, a chief. B'ard air carraig mar iolair nan ard-bheann, joyous as the mountain eagle.
a sgread, loud on a rock was her scream. Oss. Trathal. Oss. N. pi. ard-bheanntan ; dat. pi. ard-bheanntaibh.
Fuil ard nan saoi, the noble blood of heroes. Oss. Fing. Ard-bheinn, s.f. The name of a hill in the Highlands.
Sealladh ard, a proud look. Stew. Pro. Fear a b' airde
guth, a man of the loudest voice. Oss. Comala. Uaigh an Also gen. sing, of ard-bheann.
aird, the grave of the chief. Oss. Temo. Com. and sup. Aud-biilath, s. Height of flourish, full flower; flower;
airde ; n. pi. arda. Ard is derived from the Celtic primi prime. Tha i 'n ard-bhlath a h-aimsir, she is in the flower
tive ar, signifying a rock, a mountain ; also high : hence of her life.
many words in other tongues signifying elevation ; as, Ard-bhreitheamh, eimh, s. m. A chief justice. Ard-
Bisc. arre, a rock ; Malay, arang; Arab, and Ethiop. lihar, bhreitheamh cuirt na Righ-Bheinc, chief justice of the
hill; Armen. ar, elevated; Malabar, aria, mountain, and King's Bench.
are, elephant ; Heb. ar, a rock, or mountain. Ard-bhreitheimh, gen. sing, of ard-bhreitheamh.
Ard, aird, s. m. {Ir. ard.) A height, an eminence, a hill, Ard-chantair, s. m. An arch-chanter. N. pi. ard-chant-
a high land, an upland ; heaven. O 'n ard, from the airean.
height. Oss. Temo. N. pi. arda, or ardan ; dat. pi. ardaibh. Ard-chatii, s. m. A general engagement, a pitched battle;
A ruith an aon slugan o ardaibh, rushing in one channel the thick of battle. Gaoir an ard chath, the din of the
from the heights. Oss. Na h-arda ciar, the dusky emi pitched battle. Old Poem.
nences. Oss. Temo. Anns na h-ardaibh, in heaven, on Ard-chathair, chathrach, s.f. A chief city, a metropolis.
high.Stew. Pro. Ard a chuain, the high seas. N. pi. ard-chathraichean ; dat. pi. ard chathraichibh.
Arda, n. pi. of ard, adj. and sub. Cho' fhreagair na creagan Ard-cheann, chinn, s. m. (ard and ceann.) A superior,
arda, the lofty rocks re-echoed. Fingalian Poem. ruler, lord ; head. Ard-cheann na h-eaglais, the head of
Akdaciiadii, aidh, s. m. {Ir. id.) The act of raising, exalting, the church.
or heightening; advancement, promotion, exaltation, honour, Ardcheannas, ais, s. m. Superiority, dominion, command,
preferment. Ardachadh nan amadan, the promotion offools. pre-eminence. Ard-cheannas anns gach uile, pre-eminence
Stew. Pro. Written also arduchadh. in all things.Stew. Col. Ir. id.
Ardachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ardaich. Raising, exalting, Ard-ciieum, chfeim, *. m. A strut; a bound; lofty gait;
extolling, elevating. 'G a ardachadh fein, exalting himself. a prancing.
Stew. Thess. Ard-cheumnaciiadh, aidh, .v. m. A strutting, a bounding,
Ardachaidh, gen. sing, of ardachadh. a walking proudly, a prancing.
Ardak 11, r. a. {from ard.) Exalt, extol, elevate, raise Ard-cheumnaich, v. Strut; bound; walk proudly; prance.
aloft, heighten. Pret. a. dh' ardaich, exalted ; fut. aff. a. Ard-chlachair, s. in. An architect; a master mason.
ardaichidh, shall or will exalt ; fut. pass, ardaichear, shall N. pi. ard-chlachairean.
be exalted. Ardaich i, exalt her. Stew. Pro. Written Ard-ciilachaireachd, s.f. The business of an architect,
also ardaich. or of a master mason ; architecture.
Ardaichear, fut. pass, of ardaich. Shall be elevated. Ard-chnoc-faire, *. m. A great beacon ; a sconce.
Ardaichidh, fut. aff". a. of ardaich. Shall or will elevate. Ard-chomas, ais, s. m. Discretionary power; despotic
Ardain, gen. sing, of ardan. power. Thug e ard-chomas dhomh, he gave me a dis
Ard-aingeal, eil, s. m. An archangel. Le guth 'n ard cretionary power.
aingeil, with the voice of the archangel.Stew. Thess. Ard-chomasach, a. Having discretionary power; despotic.
Ard-aitii kichean, n. pi. of ard-athair. Patriarchs. ARn-ciio>in airle, s.f Parliament; supreme council; a
Ardan, n. pi. of ard. synod. Ball na h-ardchomhairle, a member of parliament ;
Ardan, ain, . m. {from ard.) Pride; proud wrath; childish ard-chomhairle Bhreatuinn, the British parliament.
haughtiness ; spurting, arrogancy ; also a little eminence ; Ard-chuan, chuain, *. m. The high sea. Na h-ard-
a knoll, a hillock. An droch dhuine na aidan borb, the chuantan, the high seas.
33 F
A R D A R F
Ard-chumhachd, s.f. Supreme power, chief power, high Ard-losgadh, aidh, t. m. Extreme burning, extreme heat,
power ; state office ; authority. N. pi. ard-chumhachdan ; or inflammation. Le h-ard-losgadh, with extreme burning.
dat. pi. ard-chumhachdaibh, to the high powers.Stew. Rom. Stew. Deut.
Ar-dhamh, dhaimh, s. in. A plough-ox.Ir. Ard-mharaiche, *. m. An admiral. Priomh ard-mharaiche,
Ard-dhruidh, . m. An arch-druid. lord high admiral.
He was chosen by a plurality of voices from the worthiest and Ardolladh, aidh, s. m. A chief professor; primarius pro
most learned of the order. He was deemed infallible. He was fessor; a principal of an university; an historiographer royal.
referred to in all cases of controversy, and from his judgment Ardorus, uis, s. m. A lintel of a door. N. pi. ardorsan.
there was no appeal. He was president of tlie general assemblies Ard-reachdas, ais, t. m. A general assembly; a con
of the Druids, and had the casting vote. He was likewise named
Coibhi-Druidh. His aid and friendship were much valued and vention.
confided in, as may be learned from the very ancient snying Ard-righ, s. m. A monarch, emperor. N~. pi. ard-righrean.
Ged is figus cluch do 'n Idr, it faigtc na sin cobhair Choibhi; Ard-sgeimhleir, s. m. A curious person. N. pi. ard-
Though a stone be near to the ground, nearer still is Coibhi's aid. sgeimhleirean.
Ard-dorus, uis, *. m. A lintel. iV. pi. ard-dorsan, lintels. Ard-sgoil, s.f. (Ir. id.) An academy, college, high school.
Ard-easpuidheachd, s.f. An archbishoprick. Ard-sgoil Dhuneidinn, the high school of Edinburgh.
Ard-easpuig, s.f. An archbishop. N. pi. ard-easpuigean, Ard-sgoilear, ir, s. m. A student at an university; a
archbishops. student at an academy ; a high school boy. N. pi. ard-
Ard-easpuigeach, a. Archiepiscopal ; of, or pertaining to, sgoilearean.
an archbishop ; like an archbishop. Ard-sgoil-miiaighistir, s. in. A master at an academy;
Ard-easpuigeachd, s.f. An archbishoprick. a professor ; a high school master. N. pi. ard-sgoil-
Ard-fheamanach, aich, s. m. A high steward. mhaighistirean.
Ardfheill, s. f. A great solemnity; a great festival. Ard-shagart, airt, *. m. An high priest. N. pi. ard-
Stew. Ezek. Ard-flieill na h-Eadailt, the carnival. shagairtean, high priests.
Ard-fhuaim, s.f. Bombilation ; a loud noise, a murmur. Ardshagartachd, s.f. An high priesthood.
Ard-fiiuaimueach, a. Sounding, murmuring ; making a Ard-sheanadh, aidh, s. m. A general assembly, supreme
loud noise. council, parliament. Ard-sheanadh na h-Alba, the general
Ard-fhuaimnich, s.f. Any loud noise ; a continued loud assembly of the kirk.
noise. Ard-sheanair, *. 77). A member of a general assembly;
a member of a senate ; a member of any supreme council.
Ard-ghairm, ghairme, s.f. Aloud shout; high calling. N. pi. ard-sheanairean.
Duais na h-ard-ghairm, the reward of the high calling.
Stew. Phil. ARD-9HONA,a.(arda7?tf sona.) Supremely blessed ; supremely
happy.
t Ard-ghaois, s.f. A liberal art. Ard-siion as, ais, s.m. Supreme bliss; perfect happiness.
t Ard-giiaoisear, ir, s. in. A master of arts. Ard-shonas mo chridhe, the supreme bliss of my soul.Old
Ard-ghaoth, ghaoithe, s.f. A high wind. Poem.
Ard-ghaothach, a. Windy, stormy, blowing loudly. A Ardshuidhear, ir, s.m. A president. N. pi. ard-shuidhearan.
bhuilg sheididh, ard-gliaothach, hi* loudly blowing bellows. Ard-thighearna, i. m. A supreme lord. Ar. pi. ard-
Old Song. thighearnan.
Ard-ghleadhraich, s.f. Bombilation; any loud noise, Ardthighearnas, ais, s.m. Supreme rule, supreme power.
a rattling noise. Ahd-threith, gen. sing, and n. pi. of ard-thriath.
Ard-ghl&r, gl6ir, s. m. Bombast, loud speaking; altilo- Ard-thriath, threith, . m. Supreme chief, supreme ruler.
quence ; a boasting ; vainglory. Ard-thriath a chruinne-che, supreme ruler of the universe.
Ardgiilorach, a. Bombast; inclined to speak loud; boast Smith. N. pi. ard-threith.
ing; vainglorious. Ard-uachdaran, ain, s. m. (ard and uachdar.) A chief
Ard-giiniomii, s. m. A feat, exploit; an achievement. ruler, a sovereign. N. pi. ard-uachdarain.
Ard ghniomh an righ, the exploit of the king.Oss. Ting. Ard-uaillsean, Ard-oaislean, *. pi. Nobles ; princes ;
N. pi. ard-ghniomhara, or -an. nobility. D. pi. ard-uaillsibh and ard-uaislibh, to princes.
Ard-ghniomharan, n. pi. of ardghniomh. Feats, exploits. Tair air ard uaislibh, contempt on princes.Stew. Job.
Ard-giiul, ghuil, s.m. Loud weeping, howling.Stew. Mic. Arduciiadh, aidh, s. m. A raising, exalting, extolling,
Tha e ri ard-ghul, he is weeping aloud. exaltation, preferment. Written also ardachadh ; which see.
Ard-ghutii, s. m. A loud voice, a loud cry, a shout. Arduchadh, (ag), pr. part, of arduich.
Ard-ghuthacii, a. Clamorous; loud, shouting loudly. Ard-ughdarras, ais, s. m. Supreme, or sovereign autho
Stew. 1 Chron. rity ; full authority. Fhuair mi ard-ughdarras, / got full
Ard-inbhe, High rank, dignity, eminence. Oirdheirceas authority.
ard-inbhe, excellence of dignity. Stew. Gen. Arduich, v. Heighten, raise aloft, exalt, prefer, promote,
Ard-inbheach, a. Eminent, of high rank, high in office. elevate, dignify, extol. Pr^r. a. dh' arduich, exalted;
Ard-inbheachd, s.f. Eminence, high rank, dignity, station. fut. aff. a. arduichidh, shall elevate ; fut. pass, arduichear,
Ard-inntinn, s.f. Haughtiness, high-mindedness ; a high shall be elevated. Arduichear iad, they shall be exalted.
spirit. Stew. Job. Written also arduich.
Ard-inntinnf.ach, a. High-minded, haughty, conceited, Arduichear, fut. pass, of arduich. Shall be raised.
vain. Na bi ard-inntinneach,6e not high-minded. Stew.Rom. Arduichidh, fut. aff. a. of arduich. Shall or will raise.
Ard-inntinneachd, s.f. High-mindedness, pride, con- Arduichte,^. part, of arduich. Raised, elevated.
oeitedness, vanity, haughtiness. Ard-inntinneachd 'nar Ar-ear, ir, s. TO. (ar, ploughing, and fear.) A ploughman,
measg, pride amongst you.Stew. 2 Cor. ref. a tiller, a peasant. Arm. arer.
Ard-iolach, aich, s. m. A loud shout. Le h-ard-iolaich, Ar-ear, ir, s. in. (ar, slaughter, and fear.) A hero. W. arwr.
with loud shout.Stew. Thess. Arfuntachadh, aidh, *. m. A disinheriting; a forfeiting.
34
ARM ARR
Arfurtaich, v. Disinherit; forfeit Pret. a. dh' arfuntaich, Arm-lawn, lainn, *. m. An armoury, a magazine* a military
disinherited; fitt. aff. a. arfuntaichidh, shallforfeit. depot. N. pi. airm-lainn, magazines.
Arfuwtaichte, p. part, of arfuntaich. Disinherited, for Arm-oilean, ein, s. m. Military discipline, drilling.
feited. Na h-oighreachdan arfuntaichte, theforfeited estates. Arm-thaisg, *. m. A military magazine; an armoury.
t Asg,. White. Gr. atpyof. Ir. arg. Armuinn, gen. sing, of armunn ; which see.
t Aeo, airg, *. m. A champion. Dan. arg, angry. Ir. arg. t ArmiTinn, v. a. Bless, revere.Shaw.
t Arokach, aich, *. m. A robber, a plunderer. Armuinte, p. part, of armuinn. Blessed.
Arcs adh, aidh, . tn. A robbery, pillage, plunder.Ir. Armunn, uinn, s. m. (fromkt.) A hero, warrior; a chief.
Arg air, s. m. A plunderer; a destroyer. Air slios an armuinn, on the warrior's side. Old Poem.
Argcinn, v. (Lat. arguo.) Argue, dispute, contest, wrangle. Suil mheallach an armuinn, the winning eye of the hero.
Pret. a. dh' arguinn, argued; fut. aff. a. arguinnidh, shall Macfar.
or will argue. t Aiin, aim, s. m. A judge,
Arguinn, s.f. An argument Lat. arguens. Jr. arguin. t Arm aids, s. m. A surety, a bond.Jr.
Argvmaid, s.f. An argument. N. pi. argumaidean ; dut. t Aroch, oich, s. m. A little village, a hamlet. Shaw.
pi. argnmaidibh. Le h-argumaidibh, with arguments. t Arocii, a. Straight; upright. Lat. arrect-us.
Stew. Job. Arois, gen. sing, of aros.
Argum aideach, a. Argumentative; fond of argument; t Aroll, oill, s. m. Great slaughter; a great many ; a great
of, or pertaining to, argument deal. Shaw.
t Arigh, $. pi. Chiefs, Aros, ois, s. m. A house, abode, residence. Aros nan long,
-r Arinn, s.f. Friendship. the abode of ships. Oss. Fing. An loisgear aros nam
A his, adv. Again ; a second time ; another time. Fiann ? shall the abode of the Fingalians be burnt 1
A r ith ist, adv. Again; a second time. Tn some districts Oss. Taw.
of the Southern Highlands they say a rithistich. Arosach, a. (from aros.) Habitable; having or containing
Arlas, ais, s. m. Earnest money ; a pledge. Written also houses ; of, or belonging to, a house.
earbit. Arosach, aich, m. (from aros.) An inhabitant; a lodger;
Arleag, eig, t.f. A high flight; a project; a fancy, a a resident householder. A', pi. arosaichean, householders.
whim. Ir. airleog. Arpag, aig, s. f. An harpy; any ravenous creature.
Arleag ach, a. Flighty ; fanciful ; whimsical. Ir. airleo- Macd. N. pi. arpagan.
gach. Arpagach, a. (from arpag.) Ravenous, grasping. Lat*
Ailooh, oigh, s. m. Carting corn. Feisd an arloigh, the harpago, a grappling hook.
harvest feast, the harvest home. Ir. arloigh. t Arr, s. m. A stag, a hind.
Arm, r. Arm; provide with arms; put on arms. Pret. a. ARnA, ai, s. m. Treachery; also a pledge.
dh* arm, armed; fut. aff. a. armaidh, shall arm. Arra-biialaocii, laoich, s. m. A traitor ; a treacherous
Arm, gen. sing. ainn. (Arm. and Ir. arm. Lat. and Span. fellow. Arrabhalaoch garg, a fierce traitor. Old Song.
arma) ; n. pi. airm. Arms, weapon, armour ; also an army. Arracii, aich, s. m. A pigmy, a dwarf; a spectre; an appa
Tha e san arm, he is in the army ; sgian, arm bu mhiann rition ; a centaur, Uaill san arrachd, pride in the dwarf.
leis, a knife, a weapon he was fond of.Old Poem. Dat. pi. Ross,
armaibh, fuidh armaibh, armed, under amis.Stew. Pro.
Arrachar, air, s. m. A rowing, steering; also the name of
Armach, a. (from arm.) Armed; warlike; covered with a place in Argyllshire.
armour, mailed; also an armed person, a warrior. Mar Arrachd, aichd, m. See Arrach.
gbaisgeach armach, like an armed hero. Shi. Labhair an Arrachdach, a. (from arrachd.) Dwarfish, diminutive ;
duhh armach, the dark warrior spoke.Old Poem. spectral ; also manly, able. Written also arraiceach,
Arm acud, s.f. (from Arm.) Armour; arms; feats of arms. Arraciidas, ais, s. m. (from arrachd.) Power, strength,
Nigh iad armachd, they washed his armour. Stew. 1 K. manliness.
Armachd an t-soluis, the armour of light. Stew. Rom.
Arrachogaidh, cm. The hound that first winds, or comes
Armaich, v. a. Arm, gird on arms, clothe with armour. up with the deer.Shaw.
Pret. a. dh' armaich, armed; fut. aff. a. armaichidh, shall t Arradii, aidh, s. m. An armament. Ir.
or will arm. Armaichibh sibh fein, arm yourselves. Stew. Arragi, aideach, a. Negligent, idle, careless. Shaw.
Pet.
Armaichidh, fut. aff. a. of armaich. Shall or will arm. Arragiiloir, s. f. Prattle, garrulity, idle talk.
Armaiciite, p. part, of armaich. Armed, clothed in armour. Arraohloireach, a. Garrulous; given to prattle.
Armailt, ailte, s. m. An army. Ann an armailt, in an Arraiceach, a. Large; able-bodied, effective; manly.
army.Stew. Job. An toiseach na h-armailte, in the front Each arraiceach treasdach, a large thorough-pacing horse.
of the army ; armailt nam Breacan, the Highland army. Old Poem. Com. and sup. arraiciche.
Roy Stewart. Arraiciidean, s. pi. Jewels; precious things.
Armailteach, a. Of, or belonging to, an army; having Arraid, s.f. Vice. Fear lan arraid, a man full of vice.
great armies. Old Song.
t Arm aire, s.f. A cupboard; a bread closet Fr. armoire. Arraid, t>. a. Corrupt, deprave, make vicious,
Armaradii, aidh, s. m. A reproof, a scold, a check. t Arraidh, s. pi. Misdeeds; evil deeds; misconduct.
Arneiseach, a. (ar, slaughter, and miannach.) Warlike, Arraidh, a. Generous, liberal ; hospitable.
sanguinary, bloody. Arraing, s.f. A stitch, convulsion. Jbr. pi. arraingean.
f Armhaigh, s. m. A buzzard. f Arrais, Arrive at, reach.
t Ar-mhiannach, a. Bloody, sanguinary, warlike, bloody- Arronnach, a. Becoming, fit, suitable, decent. Com. and
minded. sup. arronnaiche, more or most becoming.
+ Armhixd, a. Respect, reverence. Arronnachd, s.f. Fitness, suitableness ; decentness.
35
ASA A S C
t Arronnaich, v. a. Fit, suit. Pret. a. dh' arronnaich, AsaD, comp. pron. [as tu.] Out of thee, from thee, in thee,
fitted; fut. aff. a. arronnaichidh, shall or willfit. on thee.
Arronnaiche, com. and sup. of arronnach. More or most Asada, emph.form. of asad. Out of thee, from thee, in thee,
becoming. on thee. Asada rinn ar sinnsir bun, in thee our father*
Arronta, a. Bold, daring, brave; confident. Fior-dheas trusted.Sm.
arronta, truly active and bold.Macdon. + As adh, aidh, s. m. Anchoring, resting, settling.
Arroktachd, ./ Boldness, bravery ; confidence. Asaichte, a. Shod.
Ars\ Arsa, v. def. Said. This verb is never used with Asaid, s.f. Delivery, as in childbed.
propriety, excepting in corresponding expressions, with Asa id, v. a. Deliver, as a female in childbed. Pret. dh'
said I, said he, Sec. In the order of syntax, the nominative asaid ; fut. aff. a. asaididh. Dh' asaideadh mise, J was
case never precedes this verb, not even by a poetical license ; delivered. Stew. 1 K. ref.
and this forms the distinction between it and the correspond Asaidh, gen. sing, of asadh.
ing preterite thubhairt, said. The Gael say, Duine a thu-
bhairt gu, but not duine arsa gu, a man who said that. t Asaidh, s.f. A resting, a settling; reposing, anchoring.
Ars' an ceannaiche, said the buyer.Stew. Pro. Ars'oighe Asaibii, com. pron. [as sibh.] Out of you, from you, in you.
nan aodann gradhach, said the maids of the lovely visages. Tha mi 'cur earbsa asaibh, / trust in you. Ir. aseabh.
Old Poem. Asaibhse, emph.form of asaibh.
Arsachb, s. f. (for arsaidheachd.) Antiquity; antiquari- t Asaidh, v. ri. Rebel, revolt
anism ; the pursuits of an antiquary. Asal, gen. sing, of asal.
Arsadh, aidh, *. m. Antiquity; age. Asainn, comp. pron. [as sinn.] Out of us, from us, from
Arsaidh, a. Old, superannuated; old-fashioned, ancient, amongst us.
antique. A Bhla-bheinn arsaidh, thou ancient Bla-bheinn. Asainne, emph.form of asainn.
Old Song. Bla-bheinn is a mountain in Skye. Asair, s. m. The herb called asarabacca.Macd.
Arsaidheachd, s.f. Antiquity; antiquarianism. Asair, s. m. A shoemaker. N. pi. asairean.
Arsaidh'ear, h", 3. m. An antiquary. N. pi. arsaidh*earan. f Asaitich, v. Abandon, quit, evacuate ; put out of place;
Arsaidh'earachd, s,f. Antiquity ; antiquarianism. eject. Pret, a. dh' asaitich, evacuated.
Arsa i r, s. m. (for arsaidh'ear.) An antiquary. Asal, ail, *. f. An ass. Marcachd air asail, riding on an
Arsaireachd, s.f. (from arsair.) Antiquarianism; the ass. Stew. Zech. Mac na h-asail, a colt.Id.
pursuits of an antiquary. Dan. aesel. Croat, ossal. Dal. oszal. Pol. osiel. Boh.
Arsantach, a. Old, antique, ancient, old-fashioned ; fond wosel and ossel. Lus. wosel. Germ. esel. Belgic, esal.
of the study of antiquity. Anglo-Sax. asal. Manx, assyl. hat. asinus. It. asino.
Arsneal, eil, s. m. Sadness. More commonly written Fr. fasne. Corn, and Arm. asen. Jr. asal. Span. asno.
airsneal ; which see. This is one of the few vocables which may be considered
Arsnealach, a. Sad. See Airsnealach. antediluvian.
Asam, comp, pron. [as mi.] Out of me, from me; on me,
Arson, prep. For. See Air-son. in me. Ir. aseim.
t Art, Airt, s. m. God. Hence sagart, a priest, f Asantadh, aidh, s. m. Mutiny, sedition, rebellion,
t Art, airt, s. m. A bear. Gr. apxTo?. W. aerth. Corn, arth f Asard, aird, s. m. A debate, dispute ; assertion,
and orth. Jr. art.
t Asardach, a. Litigious; quarrelsome; contentious,
+ Art, airt, s. m. (La/, art-us.) A limb, a joint; flesh.
t Asardair, (from asard.) A litigious person ; a wrangler;
Art, airt, s. m. (Ir. art ) A stone; also a house. (Dan. aerts, a disputant, hat. assertor.
a mineral. Hence also P.ng. hard, and Germ, hart, hard.)
Tarruing . art, a loadstone ; gach reile-art, every shining Asarlaigheachd, s.f. Conjuration, magic; intoxication.
pebble.Old Poem. N. pi. artan. Asbhdain, s.f. (as and buain.) Stubble. Asbhuain an aite
Artach, a. (from art.) Stony; also a quarry; stony ground. conlaich, stubble instead of straw. Stew. Gen.
Artan, ain, s. m. (dim. of art.) A little stone, a pebble. t Asc, s. A snake, an adder,
Artarach, aich, . m. A ship-boat. t Ascach, aich, s. m. An escape,
Art-theine, s. m. A flint; literally a fire stone, t Ascaich, v. Escape.
t Arthrach, aich, s. m. A wherry, a boat; a ship, Ascain, v. n. Ascend, mount, climb. Pret. a. dh' ascain,
f Arth raich, v. Navigate ; also enlarge. Shaw. ascended; fut. aff. a. ascainidh, shall climb.
Ascaill, gen. sing, of ascall.
Aruinn, s. A kidney. See Arainn.
Ascaird, gen. sing, of ascard.
t Aruso, uisg, s. m. The neck.Ir.
Asgairt, s.f. A budding, sprouting.
t As, ais, s. m. Milk, beer, ale.
Ascall, aill, s. m. An onset; a conference; a flowing of
As> prep. (Arm. eus.) Out of, from out. As a mhuir, out of the tide ; a mangling, a mangled carcass, carrion ; a term
the sea ; as an Eadail, from Italy ; as an taobh eile, from of much personal contempt ; a miscreant. An t-ascall a
the other side. Arm. eus an tu all. rinn tair oirnn, the miscreant who has reviled us.Old Song.
t As, v. a. Kindle, as a fire ; also do, make. Pret. a. dh' as, Ir. ascall.
kindled; fut. aff. a. asaidh, shall kindle. Ascaoin, a. Harsh; inclement; unkind.
As, comp. pron. Out of him, out of it; from him, from it. Ascaoin, s.f. A curse; excommunication; hardness; in
A 's, [a, is.] Who is, who are, who art; who has, who hast, clemency; also adjectively, harsh, inclement. Tionndadh
who have. Oigh a 's gile lamh, a maid [who is] of the ascaoin na sine gu tlaths, turn to mildness the inclemency of
fairest hands.Oss. Comala. Fear is liathe colg, a man of the blast. Macfar.
[who has] the greyest hair.Id. Ascaoin, v. a. Curse, excommunicate. Pret. a. dh' ascaoin,
As, conj. (for agus.) And. cursed; fut. aff. a. ascaoinidh, shall or will curse.
t Asach, aich, s. m. A shoemaker. Ascaoineach, a. (from ascaoin.) Of, or belonging to, a
t Asach, a. (Jrom as.] Milky, watery ; like milk, beer, or ale. curse ; harsh, inclement.
36
AST A T H
Ascaoineadh, idh, s. m. The act of cursing, or excommu Astaraiche, s. m. (from astar.) A pedestrian, a traveller.
nicating ; a cursing, an excommunicating. N. pi. astraichean.
Ascaoin-eaglais, s. f. Excommunication; a curse; a Astarair, s. m. A porter.Ir.
commination. Astaran, n. pi. of astar.
Ascard, aird, s. m. Tow, hards. Snathainu asgaird, a thread Astaranaiche, s. A traveller, a pedestrian,
of tow. Stew. Jud. t Astas, ais, s. m. A spear, or javelin ; a missile weapon.
+ Ascath, a. m. (from cath.) A soldier ; a combatant, hat. hasta. Acc. pi. hastas.
t As cm', choin, s. m. A water dog ; an eel ; a conger eel. A steach, or 's teach, adv. [san teach.] In, within; in the
Ascnadii, aidh, s. m. An ascending, climbing, mounting. house. Ir. id.
Ascnadii, (ag), pr. part, of ascain ; which see. As-tharruing, s.f. An extract; an abstract. Jr. as-
Ascull, s. m. See Ascall. tarraing.
Asda, camp. pron. [as iad.] Out of them, from them, in As-tharruing, v. a. Extract; abstract.
them, on them, from amongst them. As-tharruingeadh, idh, s. m. The process of abstracting
As dak, air, *. m. See Astar. or of extracting ; an abstracting, an extracting.
Asg acii, aich, a. m. A winnower. N. pi. asgaichean. A stigh, or 'stigh, adv. [i. e. san tigh.] In, within ; in the
Ascaidh, s.f. A boon, a present; also free, gratis. house. Cuir 'stigh e, put it in; bheil t-athair a stigh? is
Asgaill, gen. sing, of asgall. yourfather in the house ?
Asgailt, s. f. A bosom, breast, armpit. Asgailt dhorch Astraciiadii, aidh, *. m. A travelling, a journeying.
na h-iargaill, the dark bosom of the storm. Oss. Gaul. Astrachadii, (ag), pr. part, of astaraich.
Asg a ll, aill, s. m. A bosom, a breast, an armpit ; a sheltered Astraichean, n. pi. of astaraiche. Travellers.
place ; a covert. Thug mi do d' asgaill, I gate to thy bosom. Astranach, aich, s. m. (from astar.) A traveller.
Stew. Gen. ref. At, v. Swell, puff up, become tumid. Pret. a. dh' at, swelled ;
Gr. p.-atrxa*-m. hat. axilla. Heb. azzel. It. ascella. fut. aff. a. ataidh, shall swell. Ataidh an t-eolas, knowledge
Swed. by met. axsel. Goth, ocksel. Germ, achsel. Anglo- puffeth up. Stew. 1 Cor. Tha m' eudann air a h-atadh,
Sax, ehsle, eaxle, and exla. Arm. asell. Corn, ascle. my face is swelled. Stew. Job.
Asg an, ain, *. m. A grig; a merry creature ; any thing be At, s. m. A swelling ; a tumour. At ban, a white swelling.
low the natural size. Ir. id.
Asgxail, s.f The bosom ; armpit ; covering. SeeAsGALL. Ata, sub. verb. Am, art, is, are,
Asgnag, aig, s.f. A fan for hand-winnowing. Atach, aich, s. m. A request ; a fermentation.Ir. .
f Asion, s.f. A crown, or coronet.Ir. Ata'd, (for ata iad.) They are. Ni 's millse na 'nihil ata'd,
Aslachadh, aidh, s. m. A supplicating, entreating; are- sweeter they are than honey.Sm.
questing ; an entreaty or request. Atadh, aidh, s. m. A swelling, a tumour. Atadh ban, a white
Aslachadh, (ag), pr. part, of aslaich. Supplicating, begging, swelling.
requesting. Atadh, (ag), pr. part, of at.
Asladh, aidh, s. m. A supplication; an entreaty. t Atail, a. Deaf.
Aslaich, A bosom; armpit; breast. Sgian aslaich, Ataim, (for ata mi.) I am. Lag ataim gun clieist, weak J
a dirk ; na aslaich, in hi- bosom. Stew. Pro. ref. am, without doubt. Sm.
Aslaich, r. Supplicate, beg, beseech, request. Pret.a. dh' Ataimse, [ata mise], emphaticfonn of ataim. Iam. Ataims'
aslaich, entreated ; Jut. aff. a. aslaichidh, shall entreat. Nan a labhairt, / am speaking.Stew. Mat.
aslaicheadh tu, if thou wnuldst entreat. Stew. Job. Ataireachd, s.f. (from at), contraction for atmhoireachd.
As lonach, a. Prone to tell ; tattling. Swelling, raging, blustering ; a fermentation. Ataireachd
Aslonadii, aidh, s. m. A discovery, a telling. Iordain, the swelling of Jordan.Stew. Jer.
Asluchadii, aidh, *. m. A supplicating, an entreating; a t Atais, s.f. Woe, grief, lameutation,
supplication, an entreaty. Le gach uile asluchaidh, with Atan, ain, s. m. A cap ; a garland.Shaw.
all supplication. Stew. Eph. At-chuisle, s. Aneurism.
Asluchadii, (ag), pr. part, of asluich. Ath, a. Next; again. Air an ath lath, on the next day.
Asldich, v. Supplicate, entreat, beg, request. Written also Stew. John. An ath-bliadhna, next year; an ath-sheach-
aslaich. duin, the next week.
Ath, in composition, denotes repetition, and may be compounded
Asxag, aig, s.f. A hand-winnow. N. pi. asnagan. with every active verb. It is equivalent to the Latin re, a^ain.
Assagach, a. (from asnag.) Of, or belonging to, a hand- Ath, *. m. A ford ; any shallow part of a river reaching from
winnow ; like a hand-winnow. side to side. Ath na sul, the corner of the eye. Macd.
Astar, air, s. m. (Gr. acrrnq. hat. astrum, a wandering star. Ath, s. m. A kiln. Nur bha sinn san ath le cheile, when we
Ir. aisdear.) A journey ; a space ; distance ; a way, a path. were in the kiln together. Old Song. Ath-chruachaidh,
N. pi. astara and astaran. Air astar gu dian, journtying a drying kiln, a corn kiln; ath-bhrachaidh, a malt kiln;
-m'tk speed.Oss. Fing. Astar nam faobh, the path ofspoils ath-chriadh-chlach, a brick kiln; ath-a6il, a lime kiln ; ath
or conquest. Id. Fad air astar, far away ; an earb air chlacha creadha, a brick kiln. Tre ath nan clacha creadha,
astar, the roe afar off. Oss. Conn. A gearradh a h-astar through the brick kiln. Stew. Sam.
feadh thonn, cutting her way among the waves. Oss. hodin. t Athach, aich, s. m. A space; also waves; a blast. Athach
Astar sheachd laithean, seven days' journey. Stew. Gen. ga6ithe, a blast of wind. Ir. id.
Chluinnte an saltraich astar cian, their tread was heard at a Athach, aich, s. m. (from athadh, fear.) A giant, a cham
great distance. Old Poem. Ag astar o 'n ear, travelling pion, a monster. N. pi. athaich, giants. Cath ris an athach
from the east. Fingalian Poem. mh6r,fight with the mighty chiimpton.Oss. Cathula. Chun,-
Astaraich, r. (from astar.) Travel, journey. Pret. a. dh' naic sinn athaich, we suw giants.Stew. Numb. ref.
astaraich, travelled; fut. aff. a. astraichidh, shall or will Athach, a. (from athadh ) Timid, modest, bashful; also
travel. monstrous, huge, fearful. Oganach athach, a bashful youth.
37
A T H A T H
Oss. Taura. B' athach an tore a mhlll e, monstrous was t Atharais, s.f Mimicry, mocking; ludicrous gesticulation.
the boar that destroyed him.Oss. Derm. Athar-amharc, *. m. Aeroscopy.
Athadh, aidh, *. m. Fear, cowardice, timidity.Old Song. Athar-eolas, ais, s. m. Aeromancy.
Also a gust or blast of wind. t Athargadh, aidh, s. m. A sharp engagement.
Athaich, gen. sing, and n. pi. of athach. Athar-iOl, s. Aerology.
Athaile, Inattention, neglect. Atharla, s. A quey, a heifer. N. pi. atharlan.
Athailt, s.f. A mark, scar, impression; vestige; trace. Athar-mheidHjS.ot. A barometer. N. pi. athar-mheidhean.
Athailteach, a. (from athailt.) Full of scars or marks; f Atharrach, a. Strange, curious, droll.
causing a scar or mark ; of, or pertaining to, a scar ; like Atharrach, aich, s. m. A change, an alteration, a removal.
a scar. Atharrachadh, aidh, s. m. A changing, a flitting, alter
Athain, gen. sing, of athan ; which see. ing, removing ; a change, alteration, removal ; a version.
Athainne, s.f. A firebrand. Atharrachadh guilain, a changing of conduct. Stew. Pro.
Athair, gen. sing, of athar. Atharrachadh inntinn, a change of mind, repentance. Stew.
Athair, gen. athar, s. m. A father; an ancestor. Cor. ref. Cha robh thu riamh air atharrachadh, you were
Gr. waTJij. iMt. pater. It. padre. Slued, and Dan. never otherwise.
fadder. Eng. father. Pers. phader. Fr. f pfetre ; now Atharrachadh, (ag), pres. part, of atharraich.
written pe~re. Goth. atta. Germ. tad. Atharrachail, a. Changeable; changing; alterative.
Athair ceile, a fatherin-law ; literally a spouse's father. Atharraich, Atharruich, v. a. Change, alter; remove ;
Athair baistidh, athair faosaid, a'father confessor. N. pi. turn; budge; translate; flit. Pret. a. dh' atharraich,
aithriche and aithrichean,fathers. Aithriche Ardair stiuiribh changed ; fut. aff. a. atharraichidh, shall change. Dh' ath
ur mac, ye fathers of Ardar, guide your son.Ardar. arraich e lad, he removed them.Stew. Gen. Dh' atharruich
Athair is derived from the old Celtic at, father; whence e cuibhrionn mo shlualgh, he hath changed the portion of my
are derived the Tartar and Turkish ata, father. Tobolsk, people.Stew. Mic. A shaor agus a dh' atharraich sinn,
atai. Calm. Tart. atey. Phrygian and Thessalian, atta. who delivered and translated us. Stew. Col.
Hung. atya. Att was a Greek term of respect to an Athbhach, aich, s. m. Strength.
aged man ; at signifies parent in atavus, great-grandfather. Ath-bharr, *. m. A second crop; an after crop.
Carinth. atei. Mogul Tartars, atzia. Bisc. aha.,father.
AthbhAs, ais, s. m. A second death.
f Athaireag, eig, s.f. (athair.) An aunt by the father's
side. N. pi. athaireagan. Athbheachd, (ath, again, and beachd.) A retrospect;
a second thought, an after thought, consideration, recon
AthAireiLjO. (athair-amhuil.) Fatherly, fatherlike, paternal. sideration.
Athaireileachd, s.f. (athair.) Fatherliness. ATii-BiiEOTHACHADn, aidh, s. m. A reviving, a rekindling,
Athairich, v. Adopt; father. Pret. a. dh' athairicb, a refreshing, reanimating. Rinn do bhriathran m' ath-
adopted; fut. aff. a. athairichidh, shall adopt. bheothachadh, thy words have revived me.Sm.
Athair-lus, s. m. Ground ivy. Jr. id. Atii-bheothachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath bheothaich.
Athair-mhaoin, s. m. Patrimony. Sgap thu d' athair- Reviving, rekindling, refreshing, reanimating.
mhaoin, you have squandered your patrimony. Ath-bheothachail, a. (W. advywiawl.) Causing to revive,
Athair-mhort, Athair miiortadh, aidh, m. Parricide. refresh, or rekindle.
Dan. f-adder mort. Ath-bheothaicii, v. (ath, and beothaich.) W. advywiaw,
Athair-mhortair, s. m. A parricide. advywiocaw. Revive, refresh, rekindle, reanimate, quicken.
Athair-thalmhainn, s. m. Yarrow, milfoil. Pret. a. dh' ath-bheothaich,' mired; fut. aff. a. ath-bheoth-
Athais, s.f. (Jr. athais.) Leisure; ease: also reproach, aichidh, shall revive. Ath -bheothaich t-obair, revive thy
rebuke. Gr. rtavyitt. Fr. aise. English, ease. Corn, aise, work. Stew. Heb. Dh' ath-bheothaicheadh e, he revived,
gentle. Bheil thu air d' athais ? are you at leisure ? Thig became reanimated. Stew. K. Ath-bheothaichidh e, he
air d' athais, come at leisure. Athais namhaid, the reproach will refresh. Stew. Pro. Ath-bheothaich mi, quicken me.
of an enemy. Old Poem. Gun dad athais, without any Smith. Ath-bheothaich an teine, rekindle thejrre.
leisure, without delay. Old Song. Ath-bheothaichidh, fut. aff. a. of ath-bheothaich.
t Athais, v. Rebuke, revile, reproach. Pret. a. dh' athais, Atii-bheothaiciite, p. part, of ath-bheothaich. Revived,
rebuked ; fut. aff. a. athaisidh, shall rebuke. refreshed, reanimated, rekindled, quickened. '
Athaiseacii, a. Slow, tardy, lazy, leisurely; rebuking, Atii-biiliadhna, s.f. Next year; a second year. Anns an
reviling. Com. and sup. athaisiche, more or most slow. ath-bhliadhna, in the next year.Stew. Gen. Mu 'n trath
Ir. aghaiseach and athaiseach. so 'n ath-bhliadhna, about tins time next year.
Athaiseachd, *. f. (from athais.) Slowness, laziness, Ath-bhreith, s. An after birth, a second birth; regene
tardiness. ration.
Athal, ail, s. m. A flesh hook. Atii-hhri athar, air, s. m. Tautology; repetition; asecond-
Athan, ain, s. m. A ford, a shallow ; a shallow part of a hand saying.
river, reaching from bank to bank. N. pi. athanna. Aig Ath-bhriathrach, a. Tautological.
beul an athain bhathadh an gaisgeach, at the mouth of the Ath-bhriatarachas, ais, s. m. Tautology, repetition.
ford the Aero was drowned. Old Song. Athanna Iordain, Atii-bhriathraiche, s.m. A tautologist; also one who
thefords of Jordan.Stew. Judg. uses second-hand expressions,
Athanna, n. pi. of athan. Fords. f Ath-bhrod, v. Resuscitate, reawaken. Pret. a. dh' ath-
Athar, air, s. m. Sky, firmament ; air, atmosphere. Gr. bhrod.
<t9i)g. Eat. sether. Ath-biiiiosnachadh, aidh, s.m. A rallying, a resuming
The Gael do not pronounce th in athar. The Latins made a of courage ; a reinspiring with courage.
similar omission, and wrote aer. Ath-bhrosnachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-bhrosnaich.
Athar, gen. sing, of athair. Rallying; resuming courage; reinspiring with courage.
Atharail, a. Ethereal, atmospheric. Ag ar n-ath-bhrosnachadh, rallying us.
38
A T H A T H
Ath-biirosvaich, Ath-bhrosnuich, r. a. Rally; re- f Ath-chomhairc, v. Shout again.
encourage ; resume courage. Pret. a. dh' ath-bhrosnaich, Ath-chomhairleachadh, aidh, s. m. A readvising, a
rallied; dh ath-bhrosnaich iad, they rallied; fut. aff. a. readmonishing.
ath-bhrosnaichidh, shall or will rally. Ath-chomhairleachadh (ag), pr.part. of ath-chomhair-
Ath-bhrosxaichte, p. part, of ath-bhrosnaich. Rallied; lich. Readvising, readmonishing.
re-encouraged. Athchomhairlich, v. a. Readvise, readmonish. Pret. a.
Ath-bhuail, v. Strike again; beat again. Pret. a. dh' dh' ath-chomhairlich, readvised ; fut. aff. a. ath-chomhair-
ath-bhuail, struck again ; fut. off. a. ath-bhuailidh, shall lichidh, shall readvise.
strike again. Com' nach d' ath-bhuail thu do shleagh? Ath-chomhairlichte, p. part, of ath-chomhairlich. Re-
why didst thou not again strike thy shield? Oss. Gaul. advised ; readmonished.
Ath-biiuailidh, fut. aff. a. of ath-bhuail. Ath-chostas, ais, s. m. An after-cost.
Atii-bhuailte, p. part, of ath-bhuail. Struck again, beaten Ath-chre, Ath-chriadii, s. m. A brick-kiln. Stew. Nah.
again, reconquered, or a second time conquered. Gu brath Ath-chruixxeachadh, aidh, *. m. A regathering ; a
na pillibh ath-bhuailte, Merer come back reconquered. Oss. reuniting ; a rallying.
Otmara. Sgrios ath-bhuailte, double destruction. Stew.Jer. Ath-chruixxeach adii (ag), pr. part, of ath-chruinnicb.
At ii -dm r a iv, v. Cut down, or shear again. Regathering; rallying; reuniting.
Ath-bhualadh, aidh, s. m. A second striking; a recon Ath-chruinxich, r. Regather; reunite; rally. Pret. a.
quering ; repercussion. dh' ath-chruinnich, regathered ; fut. aff. a. ath-chruinnichidh,
Ath-bhuanaich, v. a. Regain, recover, gain a second shall regather.
time. Pret. a, dh' ath-bhuanaich, regained ; fut. aff. a. ath- Ath-chruixxichear, fut. pass, of ath-chruinnich. Shall
bhuanaichidh, shall or will regain. be gathered again.
Ath-ehu anaichte, pret. a. of ath-bhuanaich. Regained, Ath-chruixxichte, p. part, of ath-chruinnich. Gathered
recovered. again; reunited; rallied.
Ath-bhuidhixx, v. Regain, recover, repossess. Ath-chruthachadh, aidh, s. m. A recreating; a regene
Ath-bhuidhixxeadh, idh, s. m. A regaining, a recover rating, regeneration, a reformation. Anns an ath-chrutha
ing, a repossessing. chadh, in the regeneration.Stew. Mat. ref.
Ath-chagaix, v. a. Chew again ; ruminate; chew the cud. Ath-chruthachadh (ag), pr. part, of ath-chruthaich. Re
Ath-chagnach, a. That chews the cud; ruminating. creating, regenerating.
Ainmhidh ath-chagnach, an animal that chews the cud. Ath-ciiruthaich, v. a. Create again; regenerate, reform ;
Ath-chagxadh, aidh, s.m. A chewing of the cud; ru reconstruct. Pret. a. dh' ath-chruthaich, regenerated ; fut.
minating. aff. a. ath-chruthaichidh, shall regenerate.
Ath-chairicii, v. a. Repair, mend again. Ath-ciiruthaichear, fut. pass, of ath-chruthaich. Shall
Ath-ch airt, s.f. A granting a charter; renewal of a lease. be regenerated.
hat. adcartatio. Ath-chruthaichte, p. pass, of ath-chruthaich. Regene
Ath-ch aramh, s. A repairing, a mending a second time. rated, reformed; reconstructed.
Ath-chas, r. a. Retwist. Ath-chuimhxe, s.f. Recollection, remembrance.
Atii-chasaid, s.f. Second charge ; a second complaint. Ath-chuimhneachadh, aidh, s.m. A recollecting, a re
Ath-chasta, a. Retwisted ; strongly twisted. membering.
Ath-cheanxachadh, aidh, m. The act of redeeming, a Ath-ciiuimhxeachadh (ag), pr. part, of ath-chuimhnich.
redeeming ; repurchasing. Recollecting, remembering.
Ath-cheanxachadh (ag), pr. part, of ath-cheannaich. Ath-chuimhnich, v. Recollect, remember, bring to mind
Redeeming; repurchasing. Ag ath-cheannachadh na again, put in mind a second time.
h-aimsir, redeeming the time.Stew. Col. f Ath-chuimirc, s.f. A* rehearsal of a cause. Shaw.
Ath-ciieaxxaich, v. Redeem; repurchase. Pret. a. dh' Ath-chuixge, *. f. {Ir. id.) A prayer, petition, request,
ath-cheannaich, repurchased ; fut. aff. a. ath-cheannaichidh, supplication. Ag iarruidh athchuinge bige, asking a small
*kall repurchase ; fut. pass, ath-cheannaichear, shall be re petition.Stew. 1 K. Written also achuinge. The proper
purchased. othography is perhaps ath-chuimhne ; i. e. a second putting
Ath-cheaxxaiciite, p. part, of ath-cheannaich. Redeemed; in mind ; so the corresponding term in English, request,
repurchased. from the hat. requiro, strictly, means a second asking.
Ath-ciif.asxaciiadii, aidh, s. m. A re-examination. Ath-chuixgeach, a. Supplicatory, petitionary, entreating;
Ath-ciieasxaich, v. a. Re examine. supplicant; like a prayer or petition ; of, or belonging to,
Ath-cheumxachadii, aidh, s. m. A repacing ; a reca a petition.
pitulating. Ath-chuixgeax, n. pi. of ath-chuinge.
Ath-ch eumnaicii, r. Repace, pace over again; remeasure Ath-ciiuingiche, *. m. A petitioner, a supplicant.
by pacing ; recapitulate. t Ath-chuir, v. a. Banish ; surrender.Ir.
Ath-ch lea mux as, ais, s.m. A connexion by a second + Ath-chumaix, v. Deform, transform.
marriage. Is fuar comain an h-ath-chleamhnais, bold is the
connexion with a first alliance after a second isformed.G. P. f Ath-ch ur, s. Banishment, exile.Ir.
Atb-cbkeadh, *. m. A second wound. Is leigh fear ath- Ath-dhax, dhain, . m. A byeword, byename, nickname.
chneadh, a man is a surgeon for his second wound.G. P. Bithidh tu a d' ath-dhan, thou shall be a bi/eword. Stew.
Deut. ref.
Ath-choisich, t. Repass; travel again. Pret. a. dh' ath- Ath-dhiol, v. Repay, requite, recompense, refund. Pret. a.
cboisich ; fut aff. a. ath-cboisichidh, shall or will repass. dh' ath-dhiol, repaid ; fut. aff. a. ath-dhiolaidh, shall repay.
ATH-cnoisiciiTE, p. part, of ath-choisichte. Repassed, ath-dhiolaidh mise, J will repay. Stew. 0. T.
retravelled. Ath-dhiol, Atii-dhioladh, aidh, f. m. A restitution,
Ath-cmoimiiearax, ain, s. m. A register. a requital, a repayment, a requiting, a recompensing, re
Atitciioimure, s.f. An abridgment. funding; retaliation. Mar ath-dhiol air caoimhneas, as a
Ath-chomaix, s.f. A requital, recompense; retaliation. requital of kindpess. Mac Lach.
39
ATH ATH
Ath-dhioladh (ag), pr. part, of athdhiol. Requiting, re Ath-ghlan, v. a. Recleanse, repolish, refine, furbish, scour.
paying, refunding, recompensing. Pret. a. dh' ath-ghlan, rccleansed ; fut . aff. a. ath-ghlanaidh,
Ath-dhiolta, a. Requited, repaid, recompensed, refunded. shall or will recleanse.
Ath-dhruid, v. Shut again, close again. Pret. a. dh' ath- Ath-ghlanadh, aidh, *. m. A recleansing ; the act or the
dhruid.shut again ;fut. aff. a. ath-dhruididh, shall shut again. process of recleansing.
Atii-dhruidte, jj. part, of ath-dhruid. Shut or closed again. Ath-ghlanadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-ghlan. Repolishing,
Atii-dht;blachadh, aidh, s. m. A redoubling, a redupli recleansing, or furbishing.
cation. Ath-ghlanta, p. part, of ath-ghlan. Recleansed, re-
Ath-dhublachadii, (ag), pr. part, of ath-dhublaich. Re polished, furbished, scoured, burnished.Ir. id.
doubling. Ath-ghoirrid, s. A short time, a moment.
Ath-dhubhlaich, v. (ath, again, and dublaich.) Redouble. Ath-iarr, r. a. Seek again ; request. Pret. a. dh' ath-iarr,
Pret. a. dh' ath-dhublaich, redoubled; fut. aff. a. ath- sought again.
dhublaichidh, shall or will redouble; fut. pass, ath-dhu- Ath-iarrtas, ais, *. m. A request; a second asking or
blaichear, shall be redoubled. seeking ; a second order ; repetitions as in prayer. N. pi.
Ath-dhublaiciite, p. part, of ath-dhublaich. ath-iarrtais, repetitions. Ah-iarrtais dhiomhain, rain repe
Ath fhas, s. m. After-growth, second growth, second crop. titions. Stew. Mat.
Ath-iarraidh, (ag), pr. part. Requesting; seeking again.
Ath-fhear, fhir, s. m. A second man, a second thing.
An t-ath-f hear, the next man, or second man ; the next or Ath-lamh, a. Ready, expert, ready-handed.
second object or thing.Stew. 1 Chron. ref. Ath-lan, s. m. A refilling.
Ath-fiiuarachadh, aidh, s. m. A recooling, the act of Ath-lanh mara, s. Next tide, reflux of the sea.
cooling again, or a second time. Ath-lath, s. m. Next day.
Atiifhuaraciiadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-fhuaraich. Re- Ath-lathachadh, aidh, s. m. A procrastinating, procras
cooling. tination.
Ath-fhuaraich, v. Recool; cool again. Pret. a. dh' ath- Ath lathaich, v. Procrastinate, delay. Pret. a. dh' ath-
fhuaraich, recooled; fut. aff. a. ath-fhuaraichidh, shall or lathaich, procrastinated ; fut. aff. a. ath-lathaichidh, shall
will recool. or will procrastinate.
Ath-fhuaraichte, p. part, of ath-fhuaraich. Recooled. Ath-leasachadh, aidh, s. m. A reforming, amending, re
Ath-ghabh, v. Retake, recover, regain, resume. Pret. a. formation, amendment, correction, an amelioration, im
dh' ath-ghabh, regained ; fut. aff. a. ath-ghabhaidh, shall provement. Ath-leasachaidh obair, amendmtnts [additions']
or Kill retake ; fut. pass, ath-ghabhar, shall be retaken. of work.Stew. 1 K.
Ath-ghabiite, p. part, of ath-ghabh. Retaken, recovered, Ath-leasachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-leasaich. Reform
regained, resumed. ing, amending, ameliorating, correcting.
Ath-ghearr, a. Short, brief, quick. Qu h-aith-ghearr, Ath-leasachair, s. m. A reformer, a corrector. N. pi.
shortly, briefly, quickly. ath-leasachairean.
Ath-ghearr, v. Abridge, shorten, cut again. Pret. a. dh' Ath-leasaich, v. a. Reform, amend, ameliorate, correct,
ath-ghearr, abridged ; fut. aff. a. dh' ath-ghearr. improve. Pret. a. dh' ath-leasaich, reformed ; fut. aff. a.
ath-leasaichidh. Ath-leasaich do chomhradh agus do
Ath-ghearrach adh, aidh, s. m. The act of abridging, bheusan, amend thy conversation and manners. Old Poem.
an abbreviating, an abbreviation, an abridgment.
Ath-leasaichte, p. part, of ath-leasaich. Reformed,
ATH-GHEARRACHADH,(ag), pr.part. Abridging, abbreviating. amended, ameliorated, corrected, improved.
Atii-ohearuad, aid, s. m. Shortness, briefness. Ath-leum, v. n. Rebound ; spring or jump again. Dh*
Ath-ghearraou, aidh, s.m. An abbreviation, a shortening; ath-leum, rebounded.
a second cutting. Ath-leumartaich, s.f. A rebounding; a continued jump
Ath-ghearradii, (ag), pr. part, of ath-ghearr. ing or bounding-.
Ath-ghearraich, v. Abridge, abbreviate. Pret. a. dh' Ath-lion, v. a. Refill, recruit, replenish, reflow. Pret. a.
ath-ghearraich, abridged; fut. aff. a. ath-ghearraichidh, dh' ath- lion, refilled ; fut. aff. a. ath-lionaidh, shall or wilt
shall abridge. rtfiU-
Ath-ghearraichte, p. part, of ath-ghearraichte. Abridged, Ath-lionadh, aidh, s. m. A refilling, a replenishing, re
abbreviated. cruiting, reflowing. Ath-lionadh feachd, a recruiting of
Ath-ghin, v. Regenerate, renew, produce a second lime ; the army; ath-lionadh na mara, a reflowing of the sea.
recreate, renovate. Pret. a. dh' ath-ghin, regenerated;
fut. aff. a. nth-ghiridh, shall regenerate. Ath-lionadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-lion. Refilling, re
plenishing, recruiting.
Ath-ghineamhuinn, s. f. Regeneration; reproduction.
Anns an ath-ghineamhuinn, in the regeneration.Stew. Mat. Ath-mhalairt, s.f. Are-exchange; a second bargain.
Written also ath-ghinmhuinn and ath-ghiontuinn. Atii-mhalairtjch, v. a. Re-exchange; make a second
bargain.
Ath-ghinmhuinn, s.f. A regeneration ; reproduction.
Ath-miialairtichte, p. part, of ath-mhalairtichte.
Ath-ghinte, p. part, of ath-ghin. Regenerated; reproduced.
Ath-mheal, v. a. Re-enjoy. Pret. a. dh' ath-mheal, re-
Ath-ghiontuinn, s.f. A regeneration ; a reproduction. enjoyed ; fut. aff. a. ath-mhealaidh.
Ath-ghlac, v. a. Retake, resume, catch again, apprehend Ath-mhealtuinn, s.f. A re-enjoying, re-enjoyment.
a second time. Pret. a. dh' ath-ghlac, retook ; fut. aff. a.
ath-ghlacaidh, shall or will retake ; fut. pass, ath-ghlacar, Ath-mhealtuinn, (ag), pr.part.bf ath-mheal. Re-enjoying.
shall be retaken.Ir. id. Ath-neartachadh, aidh, s. m. A restrengthening, a re
Ath-ghlacte, p. part, of athlac. Retaken, recaught, re- cruiting, a reinforcing, a reinforcement.
apprehended. Ath-neartachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-neartaich. Re-
Ath-ghlan, v. a. Repolish, refine, recleanse. Pret. a. dh' strengthening, reinforcing.
ath-ghlan, repolished ; fut. aff. a. ath-ghlanaidh, shall re- Ath-neartaciiail, a. Strengthening. Leigheas ath-
polish ; fut. aff. a. ath-ghlanar. neartachail, a strengthening medicine.
40
ATH ATH
Ath-jteartaich, v. a. (ath, again, and neart.) Reinforce, Ath-shaoradh, aidh, s. m. A re-delivering, re-deliverance.
recruit, restrengthen, refresh, renew. Pret. a. dh' ath-near- Ath-siiaoradii, (ag), pr. part, of ath-shaor. Re-delivering.
taicb, recruited ; fut. aff. a. ath-neartaichidh, shall recruit. Ath-shaorta, p. part, of ath-shaor. Re-delivered.
Ath-nuadhachadh, aidh, s. m. A renewing, a renovating, Ath-shaothrach ail, a. Painstaking, assiduous.
renewal, renovation, redintegration. Ath- nuadhachadh
bhur n-inntinn, the renewal ofyour minds. Stew. N. T. Ath-shealbhachadh, aidh, s. m. A repossessing, re-
inheriting; reversion; re-investment.
Ath-nuadhachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-nuadhaich.
Ath-shealbhachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-shealbhaich.
Ath-nuadhaich, v. Renew, renovate, redintegrate. Pret. Re-possessing, re-inheriting.
a. dh' ath-nuadhaich, renewed; fut. aff. a. ath-nuadhaichidh,
shall or will renew ; fut. pass, ath-nuadhaichear, shall be Ath-shealbhaich, v. a. Re-possess, re-inherit. Pret. a. dh'
renewed; ath-nuadhaichear a bhliadhna, the year shall be ath-shealbhaich, re-possessed;fut. aff. a. ath-shealbhaichidh,
renewed.Maefar. shall repossess.
Ath-nuadhaichte, p. part, of ath-nuadhaich. Renewed, Ath-shealbhaichte, p. part, of ath-shealbhaich. Re-pos
renovated. Tha gach ni ath-nuadhaichte, every thing is sessed, re-inherited.
renewed.Sm. Ath-sheall, v. n. Look again. Pret. a. dh' ath-sheall,
looked again; fut. aff. a. ath-sheallaidh, shall look again.
Ath-piiill, v. a. Return, turn again. Pret. a. dh' ath-
phill, returned ; fut. aff. a. ath-phillidh, shall or will return ; Ath-shealladii, aidh, s. m. A second look ; retrospect;
ath-phillidh a ghaoth, the wind shall return. Stew. Pro. a second sight, a second view.
Ath-philleadh, idh, .$. m. A returning, a return, a coming Ath-shealltuinn,*./. A second looking, a second viewing.
back. Bhiodh ath-philleadh mar ghrian, his return would Ath-shealltuinn, (ag), pr. part, of ath-sheall. Looking
be like the sun. Ardor. or viewing again.
Ath-philleadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-phill. Returning. Tha Ath-smuaine, s.f. A second thought, an after-thought.
sibh ag ath-philleadh, you are returning again.Stew. Gal. N. pi. ath-smuaintean, after-thoughts.
Ath-philltink, s.f. A returning. Ath-smuainteachadh, aidh, s. m. A re-considering,
pondering, reflecting.
Ath-reiteachail, a. Reconciliatory, pacificatory. Ath-smuainteachadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-smuaintich.
Ath-keiteachadh, aidh, s. m. A reconciliation, a recon Reconsidering, pondering, reflecting.
ciling, reconcilement ; atonement, expiation ; a second dis Ath-smuainteachail, a. Apt to reflect, considerate.
entangling ; a second clearing or arranging.
Ath-smuaintean, n. pi. of ath-smuaine. Second thoughts,
Ath-reiteachadii, (ag), pr. part, of ath-reitich. Recon after-thoughts.
ciling, pacifying; re-expiating, re-atoning; disentangling Ath-smuaintich, v. a. Re-consider, ponder, meditate,
again ; clearing anew. reflect. Pr. a. dh' ath-smuaintich, re-considered.
Ath-reitich, v. a. Reconcile; re-expiate, re-atone ; disen Ath-siinamh, v. a. Re-swim, swim over again. Pret. a. dh'ath-
tangle again ; clear again ; re-arrange. Pret. a. dh' ath- shnamh, re-swam ; fut. aff. a. ath-shnamhaidh,*/(W re-swim.
reitich, reconciled; fut. aff. a. ath-reitichidh.
Ath-shnamhadh, aidh, s. m. A re-swimming, a swimming
Ath-reitichte, p. part, of ath-reitich. Disentangled again; a second time, a swimming back again.
cleared again.
Ath-shnamhadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-shnamh. Re-swim
Ath-roinn, s.f. A subdivision ; a second division. ming, swimming back again.
Ath-roinn, v. a. Subdivide; divide again. Pret. a. dh' Ath-shnamhta, p. part, of ath-shnamh. Swum over a
ath-roinn, subdivided ; fut. aff. a. ath-roinnidh, shall divide. second time.
Ath-roinnte, p. part, of ath-roinn. Subdivided. Ath-thagh, v. a. Reflect; re-choose, make another choice.
Ath-ruadhar, v. Dig or delve again. Pret. a. dh' ath- Pret. a. dh' ath-thagh, re-elected ; fut. aff. a. ath-thaghaidh,
ruadhar, dug again. shall or will re-elect.
Ath-ru adhradh, aidh, s. m. A second digging or delving. Ath-thaghadh, aidh, s. m. A re-election, a re-choosing.
Ath-ruadhradh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-ruadhar. Digging ATH-THA0HTA,p./>arf. of ath-thagh. Re-electing, re-clioosing.
or delving again. Ath-theachd, *. A second coming, next arrival.
Am-- mi' in, v. a. Steer again; reconduct. Pret. a. dh' Ath-theogh, v. a. Warm again. Pret. a. dh' ath-theogh,
ath-sdiuir. warmed again ; fut. aff. a. ath-lheoghaidh, shall or will
Ath-sgal, *. m. A second squall; an echo ; the echo of a warm again.
bag-pipe, or of any loud and shrill sound. Ath-theoghadh, aidh, i. m. Warming a second time.
Ath-scath, v. a. Reprune, lop again, cut down again. Atii-the6giiadh, (ag), pr. part, of ath-the6gh, re-warming.
Pret. a. dh' ath-sgath, repruned ; fut. aff. a. ath-sgathaidh, Ath-thighinn, A second coming; next arrival. Ath-
shall reprune. thighinn an teachdair, the next arrival ofthe messenger.
ATH-sGEUL,gen. ath sgeoil, or ath-sgeil. A tale at second-hand. Ath-thionndadh, i'. Return a second time. Pret. a. dh'
Atu-sgriobh, v. a. Write again; transcribe. Pret. a. dh' ath-thionndadh ; fut. aff'. a. ath-thionndaidh.
ath-sgriobh, transcribed ; fut. aff. a. ath-sgriobhaidh, shall Ath-thionndadh, aidh, s. m. A second return; a causing
transcribe. to turn a second time ; an eddy. Gaoth air luing, gaoth
ATH-SGRioBHADH,(ag),/>r./>arf. of ath-sgriobh. Transcribing. tre tholl, is gaoth ath-thionndadh : bad winds, wind in a
Ath-sgriobiiadii, aidh, s. m. A transcribing, a transcript. ship, wind through a hole, and an eddy-wind. G. P.
Atii-sgriobhair, *. m. A transcriber. N. pi. ath- Ath-thionnsgain, v. Re-commence, resume, re-devise.
sgriobhairean. Pret. a. dh' ath-thionnsgain, re-commenced.
Ath-sgriobhar, fut. pass, of ath-sgriobh. Shall be tran Ath-thionnsgnadii, aidh.^./n. A re-commencing, a re-com
scribed. mencement, a resuming, a re-devising. N. pi. ath-thionn-
Ath-sg hiobhte, p. part, of ath-sgriobh. Re-written, tran sgnaidh.
scribed. Ath-thog, t\ a. Rebuild, rear again, lift or rise again.
Ath-shaor, v. a. Re-deliver. Pret. a. dh' ath-shaor, re Pret. a. dh' ath-thog, rebuilt; fut. aff. a. ath-thogaidh,
delivered; fut. aff. a. ath shaoraidh, shall re-deliver. shall or will rebuild; Jut. pass, ath-thogar.
41 G

BAB BAC
Ath-thogail, thogalach, *. /. A rebuilding, a second Ath-uahharr-a, Ath-uamharrach, a. Abominable,
rearing, raising, or lifting. odious, execrable, detestable, horrid, terrible.Ir. id.
Atii-tiiogta, pr. part, of ath-thog. Rebuilt. Ath-uamharrachd, s.f. Abomination, detestation ; hate-
Ath-th&iseachadh, aidh, s. m. A re-commencing, a re fulness, atrociousness, abominableness.
suming, a re-commencemeut. Ath-^rachadh, aidh, m. A renewing, reviving, refresh
Ath-th6isich, v. Re-commence, resume. Pret. a. dh' ath- ing, a reanimating ; a regenerating ; a renewal, renovation,
thoisich, re-commenced ; fut. aff. a. ath-thoisichidh, shall or a revival, reanimation ; regeneration. Anns an ath-urachadh,
will re-commence