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Modal verbs: might, could, may, can

1) might, could can -

, :

Try the shop ob the corner they might have what youre looking for.
Economists warn that house prices could rise even further next year.
She may not have received your letter yet.

well :
Take an umbrella it may/could/might well rain later on.

2) might could :

We could have won the game, but Joe missed a penalty.
Its a good thing I was wearing a crash helmet. I might have been seriously injured.

You could at least say youre sorry!

He might have told me he was going to be late!

3) might may :

He might have failed his degree, but hes earning much more that me.
She may be very famous, but that doesnt give her the right to behave like that in public.

, - ,
I might as well go shopping with my parents Ive got nothing else to do.
Youll find out the truth sooner or later, so I may as well tell you now what happened.

4) can may :

You may/can borrow up to three videos at any one time from the library.
You cant/ may not to go until you have finished.

May I be of assistance?
Can I carry that for you?

5) can could

Can/could you give me a hand, please?

Can/could I open the window?
6) can could

She cant be more than about 20 years old.

It couldnt have been a beer that we saw it was far too small.

7) can

The new concert hall can seat over 3000 people.

I can understand some Italian, but I cant speak it very well.

She can say some very hurtful things sometimes.

8) Could

My late grandmother could play the banjo, but he couldnt sing very well.

- ,
could . was/were able to , managed to
succeeded in.

When I was at school the boys couldnt wear earrings, but girls could.

- , could
. be allowed.
I was allowed to leave work early yesterday to go and meet my husband at the airport.
Talking about the past

1) Past Simple

Past Simple

, ,

I sold my car about three months ago
When we lived in York, ma father ran a small bakery.

Did you bite your nails when you were a child?
When I was a teenager, my mum got really angry if I didnt tidy my bedroom.

Used to+infinitive
. Would+infinitive
, .
Every summer we used to/would to go to Scotland to visit my grandmother.
I used to (would) have a parrot, but he escaped.

2) Past Continuous

Past Continuous

This time last year I was taking CAE exam.

, ,

We were still having breakfast when Mark and Martian called round.

She was working hard to earn some extra money and he was spending it all on drink.

She was always complaining about something
3)Present Perfect

A. Present Perfect .


They cant afford to go on holiday theyve just bought a new car.


Weve had these saucepans since we got married 43 years ago.

. , .
Ive already seen United play three times this season.

this/that/it is the firs/second/third/ect. time

This is the fourth time Ive seen United play this season.

its (two/three ect) year/a long time since Past Simple

Its years since Ive had/I had bacon for breakfast.

Present Perfect .
Weve been burgled twice since Ive lived here.

B. Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous ,

(give, play, take), , (know, like).

Hes been working on his first novel for over ten years.

My kitchens being redecorated so Ive been eating at my mums

Ive been reading that book you lent me I think I know how its going to end.

, Simple.
Someones been phoning you. Shes phoned about six or seven times this morning.

C. Present perfect Present Perfect Continuous

, .

Im exhausted! Ive been working the house all morning.

Sally cant drive for a while; shes broken her leg.
4) Past perfect

A. Past Perfect Simple

, -
As soon as the film started, I realized I had seen it before.

, -

They had known each other for several years before they got married.

that/it was the first/second/third time...

We went to Switzerland last summer; it was only the second time Id been abroad.

it was (two, three, etc) years/a long time since

It was a long time since she had last seen herald schoolfriend.

, after, before, by the time, as

soon as, once, when, until
It was dark by the time I had finished repairing the roof.

Past simple , :
I had a relaxing bath after I got home from work last night.

When the music started, everyone got up to dance.
Participle clauses
Having eaten his sandwich, he put his coat on and left.
(= After he had eaten his sandwich, he put his coat on and left.)


, .
I was going to send you an email, but I had a few problems with my computer.
I was about to call the doctor, but then the pain suddenly disappeared.
She had been/was thinking of going to Iceland, but changed her mind and went to Norway,
The meeting, which was to have taken place last weekend, was unexpectedly cancelled.
6) -

would like/love/prefer to + perfect infinitive would have liked/loved/preferred to +
infinitive perfect infinitive
We would like to have stayed longer but we had to catch the train.
She would have loved to tell/to have told him what she thought of him.
She would have preferred him to say it to her face, rather than put it in a letter.

would rather/sooner + perfect infinitive

We stayed in a hotel but Id sooner have slept in a tent.
, past perfect.
Would you rather I hadn t said anything about it to Matt ?
Hypothetical situations and conditionals



wish/if only + past perfect ,

I wish I hadnt eaten my dinner so quickly. Ive got indigestion now.
If only you had listened to my advice. You wouldnt be in this mess.

should + perfect infinitive ,

We should have brought an umbrella. Were going to get soaking wet now.
You shouldnt have spoken to him like that. Im not surprised hes upset.

(if + past perfect, would/ might/could + perfect

infinitive) () -
If you had been paying attention, you might have understood what I was saying.
(= You werent paying attention, so you didnt understand.)
If it hadnt been for that traffic jam on the motorway, we would have got here on time.
(= Because of the traffic jam we arrived late)
if Had:
Had she known about his criminal past, she would never have employed him.

, , -
If you hadnt stayed up to watch the film last night, you wouldnt he so tired now.
If I werent so broke at the moment, I could have bought you something decent for your birthday.
Past simple ,
. Past simple

If I arrived late at the office, my boss used to get really angry. (If = Whenever)
2) conditionals

A. : if + present simple, present simple

, .
If I eat too much spicy food, l start to feel ill.

B. : if + present simple, will/going to/may/might/could +


We use the first conditional to talk about possible future situations and their probable results
If you dont water that plant soon, it 'll die.

if + should/happen to/should happen ,

If I happen to see Mr Dee there, Ill ask him for you.
If you should happen to miss the train, I could drive you there myself.

Should you wish to change your holiday arrangements, we will do all we can to help.

C. : if + past simple, would/might/could + infinitive

If I had an extra pair of hands, then l could help you!
I might work harder if they paid me more.
If it werent for my savings, I wouldnt be able to survive. (- Thanks to my savings I can survive.)

if + were to + infinitive , .
If you were to walk in that direction for another thousand miles, you'd eventually arrive in

Were they to break the contract, we would of course take, legal action.

Suppose/Supposing/Imagine if,
Supposing you ran out of money, what would you do? Imagine you lost your job. Do you think
you'd be able to find another?

D. if will, would or going to,

- .
If you would take a seat fora moment, Ill tell Mr Graydon you 're here.
If it is going to be more profitable for the company, then I think we should do it.


, .
If I have any problems, Ill let you know.
, ,
Well phone you as soon as we get there.

Meanwhile, darkness began to fall.
For this reason, I have decided to resign.
, .
The workers, however, have refused to accept the offer.

She got up, had a shower, got dressed and went out.


My father, who is a lawyer, advised me on the legal matters.
The man who bought our house is a lawyer.

Empty your bag,' he said. She replied, Its already empty.'

She replied that it was already empty.


Dont think its fair.

the bosss office my parents house
the childrens books

Yours is here. Its tail is white.

Some storks fly south in winter; others stay put, using local rubbish dumps as their food source.

There were several reasons why Jeremy chose not to go abroad on holiday: he had an acute fear
of flying (even though he had never flown before); long periods of exposure to the sun brought
him out in a rash; he was suspicious of any food which was not 'good home cooking;


We moved to a different area: the noise from the traffic was becoming unbearable.

The park boasts several different species of trees: oak, ash, elm, beech, alder and a wide variety
of conifers.


We've bought a new car - the old one kept breaking down.

I took my driving test yesterday -and I passed!

Gerund and infinitives

A. + to

I went out to get some fresh air.

Its not easy to find work these days.

3) to be,
Youre to stay here until I get back.
The president is to visit Poland next month.

4) hate, like, love, prefer

Would you like me to do it now?


agree - hesitate -
appear - hope -
arrange - learn -
ask - manage -
attempt - offer -
choose - prepare -
decide - pretend -
demand - refuse -
deserve - seem -
expect - threaten -
help -

If you need any help, dont hesitate to contact me.

6) +

advise - intend -
allow - invite -
ask order -
challenge persuade -
enable - recommend -
encourage - remind -
expect - teach -
force - tell -
get - urge -
help - warn -

My family encouraged me to go to university

I recommended her to apply to Kings College.
I recommended applying to Kings College.

ability - need -
attempt - opportunity -
capacity - permission -
chance - plan -
decision - proposal -
desire - refusal -
determination - right -
effort - tendency -
failure - way -
intention - willingness -

B. to (bare infinitive)

I shouldnt eat this really, but I cant resist it.

help - make -
had better - would rather -
let - would sooner -

Wed better go home now its very late

make to
We were made to do all the dirty jobs


1) .
Playing golf helps me relax but I find watching it on television rather boring.

We thought about going to France this year.


have difficulty its no good

have problems its no use
theres no point its (not) worth
theres little point

Its no use asking him he wont know the answer.


admit - cant stand

adore - consider -
advise - delay -
appreciate - deny -
anticipate - detest -
avoid - dislike
cant help dread -
enjoy - put off -
feel like - practice -
give up - prevent -
imagine - propose -
involve - recommend -
keep - resent
(dont) mind - resist -
miss - risk -
postpone - suggest -

5) c

adapt to - get round to

adjust to - get used to
admit to look forward to
confess to object to -

I couldnt imagine him eating something like this.

We appreciate your coming to tell us so quickly.

D. + to

begin - hate -
cant bear like -
continue - love -
intend - prefer
start -

She suddenly started singing/to sing.

I hate to say this, but your breath smells.

I hate getting up early every morning.
E. ,
forget, mean, remember, regret, stop, try

1) remember, forget, regret stop,

( ).

I must remember to post this letter later.

I distinctly remember posting the letter yesterday
Her car broke down and now one stopped to help her.
Ive stopped eating chocolate.

regret +to say, tell, inform.


We regret to inform you that your application has been unsuccessful.

2) try +to+ . try+


Please be quiet Im trying to sleep.

If you cant sleep, try using earplugs.

3) mean+to+ , mean+ .
Ive been meaning to write to you for ages.
Changing jobs meant also changing house.

1. This, that, these those

, . This these , that those.

This that

... and he left school at 16. This (decision) did not please his parents.
He hated school. Thats why he left at 16.

These those
... the mobile phone and the computer. These two inventions have revolutionized
... during the 1930s. In those days, of course, people didn't have computers.
Youve got so many toys. Lets get rid of those that you dont play with any more.


Paul didn 't want to go, but I did. ( = I wanted to go.)

do +
He told her to lock the door, but she had already done so.

so/nortneither + +
She likes dogs and so do I. ( = I like dogs, too.)
I've never been to Paris and nor/neither has he. ( = he hasnt been to Paris either.)

so/not expect, hope, seem, suppose,

Is he coming? 7 think so. ( = I think that hes coming.)
Do you think it'll rain? I hope not. ( = I hope that it wont rain.)
, dont think so , think not.

if not/so
Are you free on Friday? If so, do you fancy going to the cinema? If not, how about next week?

What sort of ice cream would you like? A plain one or one with chocolate sauce on?
Those red apples are much tastier than these green ones.

Ellipsis , ,

1) and but.

I live and (I) work in Madrid.

John was impressed, but I wasnt (impressed).
We play tennis on Saturdays and (we) sometimes (play) on Sundays, too.

I'd do it myself if I could. (= if I could do it myself)
She said she would phone, but she hasnt.
He said he saw her there, but he can t have.

Can you turn the heating on?' I already have.'
be .
Is the shop open yet? It might be.
been perfect passive,
Has she been promoted? Yes, she has.'
He wasnt sent to prison but he should have been.

3) use to
I dont eat much cheese now, but I used to.
Relative clauses

1) Defining relative clauses

Defining relative clauses ,

. Who which that.

The woman who/that used to babysit for us has just got married.
Its not the kind of'novel which/that appeals to me.
I know a boy whose father is a professional diver.
Just a quick note to thank you for the flowers (which/that) you sent me.
When and why can also be omitted in defining relative clauses.
I'll never forget the day (when) Geoff resigned.
The reason (why) he left is still unclear.

Where .
Thats the shop where we bought our bed.
Thats the shop (which/that) we bought our bed in.

whom which ( that).
They returned to the shop in which the bed had been purchased.

2) Non-defining relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses ,

. , ,

that. .
Our former babysitter, who got married last year, has just had her first child.
His first novel, which was largely autobiographical, became an overnight success.
Alan Smith, whose father is a professional diver, is the only boy in our class who can't swim.

Which non-defining relative clauses ..

He works twelve hours a day, which must be very tiring.
What . What the thing that'
(, ).
Let me know what you decide to do.
What I need right now is a cup of tea.


Passive to be past participle

We should have been told earlier.
A full investigation is currently being carried out.

Passive .
The rabbit was disappeared by the magician.

B. Use

Passive ,
, , , .
Smith was jailed for three years.

, by.
The President was criticized by members of his own party.

. ,
letter, . (
letter - , compose

In 1939 Albert Einstein wrote to President Franklin Roosevelt, urging the United Slates to
develop an atomic bomb. The letter was composed by the Hungarian-born physicist and
biophysicist Leo Szilard, a former colleague of Einstein, who felt it would have more influence if
it were signed by his eminent friend.

. , ,
, (the Hungarian-
born physicist etc), ,

The meeting was attended by representatives of the five permanent members of the UN Security


Lunch will be served from one oclock in the canteen.
The musician was arrested at his home on Friday.

The passive is not used with intransitive verbs.
Unsold tickets must be returned by 16th August.


Infinitive perfect infinitive + to can

, - .
( : allege, believe, consider, estimate, expect, know, report, say, think,
understand, as well as be rumoured be reputed)
She is expected to make a statement later today.
He is rumoured to have sold it fora six-figure sum.
A million people were estimated to have taken part in the demonstration.

have + object + past participle , ,

I'm going to develop the photos myself.
I'm going to have/get the photos developed at the shop on the corner.

I had my passport stolen on holiday.
Get .
We got knocked out of the Cup in the first round.

: burned,
caught, dressed, hurt, involved, left, lost, stuck
She got caught shoplifting.
Do as I say and no one will get hurt.
Reported speech

, ,

Present tenses past; present perfect past tenses past perfect.
I'm having a great time,' said Paul.
Paul said he was having a great time.
Ive never ridden a horse,' said Clare.
Clare said she had never ridden a horse.
We were trying to phone you,' she said.
She said they had been trying to phone us.

will, must, may can would, had to, might

could. Would, might, could, should ought to , must,
, .
It must be done by tomorrow,' she said.
She told me it had to be done by the following clay.
It must be raining,'she said.
She said it must be raining.

I saw you here yesterday,' said Alan.
Alan said he had seen me there the day before.

C. :

I intend to retire next year,' he said.
He told me he intends to retire next year.

present simple or present perfect

We are going to get married.
They have announced that they are going to get married.
I never tell lies.
She says she never tells lies.

D. , :
do, does did
yes/n if whether

Where's Paul?
He asked where Paul is/was.
Did you enjoy it?
She asked if I (had) enjoyed it.
2) Verb patterns

He asked to leave.
He asked them to leave.
He asked that they should leave. (Formal)

A. verb + that clause

add mention ,
admit - point out -
announce - predict -
assure - remark -
claim , reassure -
complain - remind -
concede - repeat -
conclude - say -
confirm - state -
emphasize - stress -
estimate - tell -
explain - warn -

, assure, reassure, remind tell .

Critics predicted that the film would he a success.
My daughter reminded me that I had promised to take her to the zoo on her birthday.

B. + (that) sbdy (should) do sthg/sthg (should) happen

advise - propose -
agree - recommend -
ask - request -
demand - suggest -
insist -

They demanded that he should resign.

We suggested he apply for the job.

C. verb + infinitive to
agree - offer -
ask - promise -
claim - refuse -
demand - threaten -

He claimed to be an expert on ghosts.

D. verb + object + infinitive to
advise - order -
ask - persuade -
beg - recommend -
convince - remind -
encourage - tell -
forbid - urge -
instruct - warn -
invite -

She urged him not to get involved.

E. verb + gerund
admit - recommend -
advise regret -
deny - suggest

He denied takinglhaving taken the money.

F. verb + preposition + gerund discourage from

advise against dissuade from
argue against accuse of
protest against speak of
warn against
congratulate on
apologize for , insist on
blame for ,
forgive for - , admit to
praise for , confess to
tell off for consent to
thank for object to

She admitted to feeling rather nervous.

He told me off for singing!
I insisted on hislhim wearing a suit.

G. .

announce - estimate -
believe - rumour -
claim - suggest -
confirm - think

It is thought that she may have left the country.

It has been suggested that the minister took bribes.
Determiners and pronouns


1) :
, .

all - less -
another more -
any - most -
both - much -
each - neither
either () no -
enough - one -
every - other -
few - several -
a few some -
fewer - this -
many - that -
a lot of - these -
little - those -
a little -

2) Determiners :

another, any, each, either, every, neither, no, one, some, this, that
Can I have another sandwich, please?

Either neither - .
Each .
All .
I've got two suits and neither fits me very well.
Each/Every song sounds the same.

all, any, both, enough, (a) few, fewer, a lot of many, more, most, no, other, several, some, these,
We haven't got enough eggs to make an omelette.

Few ' , . Very

few .
There are very few apples left. We need to buy some.

A few , , .
Weve still got a few eggs - enough to make an omelette.

Quite a few .
Weve got quite a few kiwis - we need to eat them before they go rotten.

all, any, enough, less, (a) little, a lot of, more, most, much, no, some, this, that
He's nearly bald - hes got very little hair left.

Some :
I was waiting for some two hours - thats quite some time.

3) .
every few/five days
every other week
another few drinks
no other town/books
many more/other ways
these few examples


1) .
Every, no other . :
each every
none no
others other.
A lot a lot of
Bad reviews are better than no reviews. (Determiner)
Bad reviews are better than none. (Pronoun)

2) :

Would you like sugar on it?' Just a little.'
Do you prefer tea or coffee?' 7 dont like either.

One another each other .

Bob and Alice loved one another/each other.
(Bob loved Alice and Alice loved Bob.)

of + pronoun
Theyve got two boys - both of them are blond.

c of + the, this, that, these, those, my, your etc + noun

Tiy some of my wine.
Neither of these books is mine.
Of all both
All (of) my clothes!
Both (of) my socks are wet.

There are no others.
Ive got a few more.
Look at this one.
Try each one.
Would you like any more?
Modal verbs: will, shall and would

1) Will would :
. ,
(eg be, know, like).
She will often fall asleep in front of the television.
He would always read us a story at bedtime.

, . will would
He will keep interrupting when Im talking.
I would get a cold now, just as the holiday is starting!

-, .
If you'll/would follow me, Ms Ray will see you now.
Will/Would you open the door a little, please?
I wish he would try a bit harder.

- .
Mummy! Eva wont let me play with her dolls!
I asked him, but he wouldnt tell me.

2) Will .
Theres someone at the door.
Thatll be Lydia.

3) Shall :

I'm veiy worried about Peter. What shall we do?
What time shall we meet?

Shall I help you carry that?
Shall we go?
Talking about the future

1) will going , .
I dont think Ill be/Im going to be well enough to go to work tomorrow.

2) going to .
Im going to work really hard this year.

3) Present continuous .
Im having lunch with Brian tomorrow.

Dave should be here soon. (Probability)
We might have a party next week. (Possibility)

may/might/could well + infinitive to .

We might well be moving in the next few weeks.

5) , , : believe, doubt, expect

will, .
Hope , present tense.
I expect Ill lose again - I always do.
I hope they (will) keep in touch with us.

6) be (un)likely to + infinitive .
The situation is likely to get worse.

6) be bound to + infinitive .
Its a ridiculous plan and it's bound to fail.

7) be (just) about to + infinitive/be on the point of + gerund

Ill call you back - I'm just about to go into a meeting.

8) be due to + infinitive .
The new supermarket is due to open in April.

9) The present simple .

Huny up! The bus leaves in ten minutes.

10) be + to + infinitive .
Next years tournament is to be held in Frankfurt.
11) Future continuous :
Don't call after eight - I'll he watching the match then.

, ,
, .
- .
Ill be seeing Joe later - Ill give this to him then.
Will you he coming out with us tomorrow night?

12) Future perfect ,

- , - .
I think well have finished the job by Friday.
Next month I'll have been working here for 10 years.
Creating emphasis

, ,
: It is/was ... that... or What...is/was ...
It was Norman's incredible sense of humour that first attracted me to him.
What 1 find strange is (the fact) that he never talks about his father.

, :

1) It is/was ... that... :

c (only) when, while not until
It was while he was in Spain that Lennon wrote Strawberry Fields Forever'.
It wasnt until he took off his hat that I recognized him.

Perhaps its because I'm a chef that people never invite me to their dinner parties.

It was on the radio that I first heard the news.

, who
that, .
It was Gary who broke the chair.
Its his left arm thats broken, not his right one.

3) is was.
It cant be my mobile phone thats ringing - its switched off. It might have been the fish that
made me feel ill.

3) What ...is/was ... , :

What I most wanted to see in the Louvre was the Mona Lisa.

What you do then is (to) add the flour and stir it in thoroughly.
What happened was (that) I left my wallet in the cafe and had to go back.

All What the only thing that'.

All he (ever) did during the school holiday was (to) play on his computer.
All I really want is a little house in the countryside.
Participle clauses

Participle clauses , present past participle.

, .

1) Participle clauses

A) relative clauses
I recognize that man standing over there. (- who is standing)
Three of the people injured in the crash are still in hospital. (= who were injured)


Not wishing to offend my host, I ate everything on my plate, as/while
Looking out of the window last night, I saw a shooting star, when/once/after
Having worked out how much you can afford to pay for your computer, you need to decide on the

He fell off the ladder, breaking a leg and three ribs.

Cooked in their skins, potatoes retain most of their nutrients.

C) : see, hear, watch, notice, feel and find

Police found him lying unconscious on the kitchen floor.
I could hear something moving in the bushes.

2) :

, (eg be, want, know),

continuous tenses, participle clauses +ing.
I am being a very shy person, so I never enjoy going to parties.
Being a very shy person, I never enjoy going to parties.

participle clause , .
Working as a waitress, I have all my meals in the restaurant.
, ,
Having been damaged by vandals, Helen had to walk rather than go on her bicycle.
Her bicycle having been damaged by vandals, Helen had to walk.

with .
With both my parents working all day, I have to cook my own lunch.

. ,


1) ,
I will never lend money to Richard again. (Normal word order)
Never again will I lend money to Richard. (Inversion)

, do does, did
Steve hardly ever turned up on time for his lectures.
Hardly ever did Steve turn up on time for his lectures.

2) :
Not since I was little have I enjoyed myself so much.
Not until we got to my parents' house did we realize wed left all the Christmas presents at home.
Not only did he leave dirty footprints all over our carpet, but he also sat on my glasses.

Only when l tell yon can yon put your books away.
Only then was I made aware of the potential dangers.
: only recently, only later, only in the last few weeks, only at the end of the

On no account must you speak to other candidates.
Under no circumstances should the door be left open.
In no way will we give in to their demands.
At no time were you in any danger.

Never have I seen such an ugly building.
Rarely/Seldom does one find antique furniture of this kind in such perfect condition.
Hardly ever is he in his office when l phone.

No sooner... than... Hardly/Barely/Scarcely... when ...

No sooner had I got into the shower than the phone rang. (= As soon as I got into the shower ...)
Hardly had we finished breakfast when we were told it would soon be time for lunch.

Little did they realize that their conversation was being recorded. (= They had no idea ...)

Conjunctions () .

Reason, result and purpose

because so -
in case so as (not) to
in order (not) to so that

in case so that present simple .

Take an umbrella in case it rains later on.
I'll lend you some gloves so that you dont get your hands dirty.

although though -
but - whereas
however while/whilst -
even though

however .
You can decorate your room however you want.

In spite of the fact that despite the fact that

She continued to support him, despite the fact that he had treated her so badly.

after - once
as since
as soon as then -
before until
by the time when -
hardly - whenever
no sooner while

, present tense present perfect

Once it stops/has stopped raining, well go out.
Linking adverbials

Linking adverbials () .

As a result For this reason

Because of this - On account of this -
Consequently Therefore -

There was a power cut this morning.

Consequently, I couldn't do any work on the computer.

All the same In spite of -

At the same time Despite this
By comparison Likewise -
In comparison Nevertheless
By contrast On the contrary -
In contrast On the other hand
Even so Similarly

On the contrary ,

On the other hand , .
The lotteiy win did not bring happiness. On the contrary, it caused the breakup of his marriage.
Its a rather ugly city to live in. On the other hand, house prices here are very low.


After that From that time on

Before that Initially -
Beforehand - In the end
By that time In the meantime
Eventually Meanwhile
Ever since then Until then

The beds being delivered next week. In the meantime, I'm sleeping on the sofa.

Additionally - Secondly -
Besides (this) Finally
Apart from this Furthermore
As well as this - Moreover
In addition to this What is more
First of all -

... and the campsite shop rarely opened on time. Furthermore, the staff there were rude to me on
a number of occasions.
Modal verbs: must, need, should, ought to

A. Must

1) must have to
must + infinitive ,
, . .
All questions must he answered.
You really must see Russell Crowes new film.
I must remember to get some bread.

have to , have to + infinitive

. - ,
. Have to , -
We have to wear a swimming cap in the indoor pool.

2) mustnt and dont have to

mustnt ;
dont have - .
You mustnt touch this, darling - its very hot.
You dont have to come if you dont want to.

3) must have done had to do

must have + past participle
, ;
had to + infinitive .
Seans late - he must have got stuck in a traffic jam.
The bus broke down so I had to walk.

. Shouldl/Ought to

1) should ought to + infinitive , ,

- ,
should have ought to have + past participle
, , ,
You shouldnt play with matches - its dangerous.
You really shouldnt have shouted at him like that.
We ought to have asked Jill if she wanted to come.
Wheres Bob? He should have been here ages ago.

2) should ought .
If you leave now, you should be/ought to be there by midday.
C. Need

1) need need to
need + infinitive ,
need to + infinitive .
I need to get some new shoes, (not: I need get ...X)
What do we need to take with us?
My brother-in-la w and his family stayed with us at Christmas. Need I say more?

2) neednt dont need to

, neednt + infinitive don't need to + infinitive:
, neednt , -
, , -;
You neednt come tomorrow if you dont want to.

dont need ,
, dont have to .
You dont need to/dont have to spend a fortune to keep fit.

3) neednt have done didnt need to do

neednt have + past participle ,
, .
You neednt have bought those batteries - weve got plenty in the drawer.

didnt need to + infinitive ,

. , .
I didnt need to spend very long on my homework last night - it was quite easy.


Where once he was at the top of his profession, he now struggles to find work.
We now depend on technology more than ever before.

2) The + comparative, the + comparative ,

The more he laughed, the angrier she became.
The easier I find a subject, the less I enjoy it.

3) as + auxiliary + subject
He lived to a ripe old age, as did his wife and children.

4) Like , ,
She ran like the wind back to her flat.
Getting him to talk is like getting blood out of a stone.
As , - ,
She used her scarf as a bandage.
He's just started work as a postman.

As , . Like
, .
She believes, as I do, that the President is wrong.

5) as + adjective/adverb + as , . So
as .
Youre as stubborn as your father.
Hes not so silly as he looks.

So .
He is known not so much for his singing as/but for his charity work.
If you can park close to the station, then so much the better.

, so such,
Nothing gives so bad an impression as arriving late for your interview.
It isnt quite such a cold winter as last year.
. ,


a bit - far -
a little - significantly -
slightly - considerably -
much - three times
quite a lot a great deal -
a lot -

I'm feeling considerably better than I did yesterday.


by far -
easily -
by a long way

China is the companys largest market, by a long way.

She is by far the most gifted musician in the band.

3) as ... as...

not quite - half -

not nearly twice -
nearly three times -
almost - nothing like
just - nowhere near

She earns twice as much as me and works half as many hours.

4) the same... as ...

not quite - just -

not nearly very much
nearly much -
almost -

I have much the same opinion as my colleague.

Noun phrases

F. Noun + noun :

a silver spoon
a metal door
a stone wall

a lamb chop
a leopard skin
a chicken sandwich

the evening shift
a Saturday job
daytime television

. , (
), .
a five-hour delay
a twenty-minute speech
a two-week holiday

a beer bottle
a tea cup
a biscuit tin

Noun + noun .
- .
a shop window
a door handle
a fire engine
G. Noun + 'sis + noun :

Sallys bicycle
the dogs bone
my childrens toys

my childrens new toys

childrens shoes
womens clothes
an ants nest

a monthly womens magazine

, - , -

Mr Smiths resignation
her husbands murder
the Labour Partys defeat

noun of noun ,
the resignation of several members of the committee

goats milk
a hens egg
sheeps wool

, -
this evenings newspaper
yesterdays storm
last Saturdays programme

the boys foot
a sheeps head
the dogs tail

, the noun + noun

two years absence
a days work
an hours delay
H. Noun + preposition + noun :

a bottle of beer
a cup of tea
a tin of biscuits

: top, bottom, side, edge, back, front, beginning, middle end,

the top of the picture
the back of the book
the middle of the week

a mountain top
the days end
the waters edge

a man of average build
a place of great beauty
a ring of little value

a book about parks
the roof of the house
a woman on the radio

a source of inspiration an invasion of privacy