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Semester 1, 2014-2015

IIT Gandhinagar

HEAT TRANSFER IN FLUIDIZED BEDS

Objective:

The objective of this experiment is to determine the overall heat transfer

coefficient in a fluidized bed and studying its variation with the void

fraction.

Theory:

Fluidized beds are used extensively in the chemical process industries,

particularly for the cracking of high-molecular-weight petroleum fractions.

Such beds inherently possess excellent heat transfer and mixing

characteristics. These are devices in which a large surface area of contact

between a liquid and a gas, or a solid and a gas or liquid is obtained for

achieving rapid mass and heat transfer and for chemical reactions.

The fluidized bed has inherent advantages over packed bed. The

temperature in fluidized bed is almost constant throughout the bed and

also the pressure drop in the fluidized bed is almost constant irrespective

of the flow rate. This is equal to the net force of particles on the bed

(gravitational force on the particles minus the buoyancy force on the

particles). In contrast to this the pressure drop in the packed bed

increases almost exponentially with flow rate of fluid. The heat transfer

coefficient in a fluidized bed is also much higher as compared to a packed

bed.

The fluidized bed shows peculiar behavior with respect to the heat

transfer coefficient. With increase in the velocity leading to expansion of

the bed, the heat transfer coefficient initially increases but after a certain

void fraction (0.6-0.65) stats decreasing. This behavior is due to the fact

that in a fluidized the particles are in random motion and when they hit

the wall of the bed they break the boundary layer near the wall thereby

enhancing the heat transfer coefficient. As the bed expands the mean free

path of the particles increases and they hit the wall with greater force and

damage the boundary layer to a greater extent. However as the bed

expands still further the particle density starts decreasing and hence the

boundary layer destruction starts becoming less prominent.

For heat transfer coefficient (U):

U = Q/A*Tlm

Tlm = ((T1-t1) - (T2-t2)) / ln(((T1-t1)/ (T2-t2))

Procedure:

We were provided with a jacketed stainless steel fluidized bed with the

facility to measure the inlet and outlet temperatures of hot and cold fluids

and a steel tank at the top to control hot fluid discharge and its

temperature.

The power supply was switched on after all the necessary connections

were made. The suction line of the cold fluid circulation was then

connected to the cold water supply line. The cold water flow rate was

fixed to maximum value in order to make the cooling water side

resistance to heat transfer negligible. Now valve on the outlet of the hot

fluid tank was open. Hot fluid circulation speed was slowly increased and

was kept at a low initially.

Now the heater of the hot fluid tank was switched on and its flow rate was

adjusted and the system was then left for 15 to 30 minutes for obtaining

the steady state. Once the Steady state was attained the inlet and outlet

temperatures for both hot and cold fluids were noted down. Also the flow

rate of hot fluid was measured by noting the time required for hot fluid to

attain the prescribed height in the glass section.

The flow rate of hot fluid was now changed and a different set of readings

were taken. Total 10 sets of readings were taken for different hot fluid flow

rates.

Observations:

1. Diameter of fluidized bed (d) = 3.2 cm

2. Height of jacketed portion (Hj) = 18.6

3. Weight of beads (W)= 250.11 g

4. Volume of liquid collected(V) = 1140 cm3

5. Density of beads (b) = 2.56 g/cm3

6. Density of fluid () = 1.07 g/cm3

7. Heat capacity of test fluid (Cp) = 0.692 Kcal/kg-0C

8. Viscosity of test fluid () = 2.94 Cp

Table1.Observed readings of inlet-outlet temperatures:

Time

Hot Fluid Cold Fluid

require

Ob

d for

s.

Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet collecti Bed

No.

Temp. Temp. Temp. Temp. on (), height

(T1) 0C (T2) 0C (t1) 0C (t2) 0C s (h),cm

1 78.9 62.5 32.5 32.75 92.16 4.9

2 81 67.9 33.2 32.8 55.22 6.1

3 81.4 68.1 33.1 33.6 46.9 7.2

4 81.2 67.7 33.6 34.15 42.6 8.8

5 81.6 68.1 33.8 34.4 39.9 9.7

6 80.2 67.4 34.1 34.7 30.81 13.2

7 80.3 69.1 34.3 35.1 25.19 17.5

8 80.3 70.3 34.6 35.5 21.5 22.2

9 80.4 71.9 34.7 35.6 19 26.7

10 80.2 72.1 35 36 17 32

Table 1. Observations

= *0.032*0.185 = 0.0186 m

2. Cross sectional area of fluidized bed (S) = /4*d2

= 3.14/4*3.22

= 8.042 cm2

3. Volume of fluidized bed (Vf) = /4*d2*H

= 3.14/4*3.22*21.5

= 172.91 cm3

4. Volume of beads (Vb) = W/b

= 250.11/2.56

= 97.7 cm3

Volumetri flow Amount of transfer

c flow rate heat coefficient Void

rate (m.) Transferred, LMTD (U), kCal/hr M2 fractio

(cm3/s) (kg/h) Q (kCal/h) , 0C 0

C n,

37.4

4.51 17.39 197.33 6 283.21 0.54

41.1

7.53 29.02 263.06 2 343.92 0.56

41.0

8.87 34.17 314.46 1 412.21 0.58

40.1

9.77 37.62 351.41 7 470.37 0.60

40.3

10.43 40.16 375.19 4 500.03 0.61

39.0

13.50 52.01 460.68 2 634.80 0.65

39.7

16.51 63.61 493.03 0 667.72 0.69

40.0

19.35 74.53 515.76 0 693.18 0.72

40.8

21.89 84.34 496.08 2 653.38 0.75

40.4

24.47 94.26 528.35 8 701.73 0.77

Table 2. Calculated Results

Results:

The Plot of U versus E:

(U)

800.00

700.00

600.00

500.00

400.00

300.00

200.00

100.00

0.00

0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80

Fi

gure 1. Overall heat transfer coefficient vs porosity

Conclusions:

It was observed in the experiment that as we increased the flow rate of

the hot fluid the overall heat transfer coefficient was also increased. It can

be easily concluded that as we increased the flow rate the porosity was

increased as the bed started to expand and that increased the heat

transfer coefficient.

But it was also seen that while we were further increasing the porosity the

heat was not transferring effectively. The reason behind this was that

since the particles were then getting a much more area than required for

a considerable collision and the heat transfer was reducing and hence the

overall heat transfer coefficient.

This trend was seen in the graph between overall heat transfer coefficient

and porosity as well. The graph is increasing continuously but after a

certain value of porosity it started decreasing. The graph is fairly accurate

with very few errors in the experiment. With this experiment we can easily

understand why fluidized bed possess excellent heat transfer

characteristics and used extensively in various chemical Industries.

Discussion:

We can say that the graph between overall heat transfer coefficient and

porosity must be increasing and then decreasing after a particular porosity

and that too with a constant change from the definition but we came to

know from the experimental data that the graph was not effectively

changing. There were some errors that made this small difference like the

instrumental and human errors as we know the temperature of the fluids

is indicated by using temperature indicators and the flow was assumed to

be at steady state. So the apparatus is needed to be calibrated and we

should take each readings only after the steady state is achieved.

Appendix:

V/ = 416/92.16 = 4.51 cm3/s

2. Mass flow rate (m) = v*3600*/1000

= 4.51*3.6*1.07

=17.39 kg/hr

3. Amount of heat transferred (Q) = mCp(T1-T2)

= 17.39*(78.9-62.5)*0.692

= 197.33 kCal/hr

4. LMTD, Tlm= ((T1-t1)- (T2-t2))/Ln(((T1-t1)/ (T2-t2))

= ((78.9-32.5)-(62.5-32.75))/Ln((78.9-32.5)/(62.5-32.75))

= 37.46 0C

5. Overall heat transfer coefficient (U) = Q/A* Tlm

= 197.33/0.0186*37.46

= 283.21 kCal/hr-m2-0C

6. Void fraction = ( Vf + ( S*h ) - Vb ) / ( Vf + ( S*h ) )

= ((172.82 + (8.038*4.9) - 97.7) / (172.82 +

(8.038*4.9)))

= 0.54

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