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Table of Contents

1 CPOS Interface Configuration1-1


Overview 1-1
SONET/SDH1-1
CPOS1-2
SDH Frame Structure 1-2
Terms1-2
Multiplexing E1/T1/E3/T3 Channels to Form STM-11-3
Calculating E1/T1/E3/T3 Channel Sequence Numbers 1-4
Overhead Bytes1-5
CPOS Interface Application Scenario 1-6
Configuring a CPOS Interface 1-7
Configuring an E1 Channel1-8
Configuring a T1 Channel 1-9
Configuring an E3 Channel1-10
Configuring a T3 Channel 1-10
Configuring the Working Modes of CPOS Interface Cards1-12
Displaying and Maintaining CPOS Interfaces1-12
CPOS Interface Configuration Example 1-13
CPOS-E1 Configuration Example 1-13
CPOS-E3 Configuration Example 1-14
Troubleshooting CPOS Interfaces 1-15
Interface Physical Status Is UP, Line Protocol Status Is DOWN, and Loopback Is Detected 1-15

i
1 CPOS Interface Configuration

When configuring CPOS interfaces, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z Overview
z Configuring a CPOS Interface
z Configuring an E1 Channel
z Configuring a T1 Channel
z Configuring an E3 Channel
z Configuring a T3 Channel
z Configuring the Working Modes of CPOS Interface Cards
z Displaying and Maintaining CPOS Interfaces
z CPOS Interface Configuration Example
z Troubleshooting CPOS Interfaces

Overview
This section covers these topics:
z SONET/SDH
z CPOS
z SDH Frame Structure
z Terms
z Multiplexing E1/T1/E3/T3 Channels to Form STM-1
z Calculating E1/T1/E3/T3 Channel Sequence Numbers
z Overhead Bytes
z CPOS Interface Application Scenario

SONET/SDH

Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), a synchronous transmission system defined by ANSI, is an


international standard transmission protocol. It adopts optical transmission where transmission rates
form a sequence of STM-1 (155 Mbps), STM-4c (622 Mbps) and STM-16c/STM-16 (2.5 Gbps), each
four times the immediate lower level. Because signals are synchronous, SDH can multiplex multiple
signals conveniently.
Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH), defined by CCITT (todays ITU-T), uses a SONET rate subset.
In SDH, adoption of synchronous multiplexing and flexible mapping allows you to add/drop low-speed
tributary signals from SDH signal without large amount of multiplexing/demultiplexing devices. This
reduces signal attenuation and device investment.

1-1
CPOS

Low-speed tributary signals are called channels when they are multiplexed to form SDH signals. CPOS,
the channelized POS interface, makes full use of SDH to provide precise bandwidth division, reduce the
number of low-speed physical interfaces on devices, enhance their redistribution capacity, and improve
the access capacity of dedicated lines.
CPOS interfaces are working at these rates: STM-1 or STM-16c in most cases.

SDH Frame Structure

To understand the features of CPOS interfaces, you should first know the frame structure of SDH signal
STM-N.
Low-speed tributary signals should distribute in one frame regularly and evenly for the convenience of
adding/dropping them in high-speed signal. ITU-T specifies that STM-N frames adopt the structure of
rectangle blocks in bytes, as illustrated in the following figure:
Figure 1-1 STM-N frame structure

9270N bytes)

1 Regenerator
2
Section
3
Overhead
4
5 AU-PTR Payload
6 Multiplex
7 Section
8 Overhead
9
9N 261N

STM-N is a rectangle-block frame structure of 9 rows x 270 x N columns, where the N in STM-N equals
the N columns. N takes the value 1, 4, 16, and so on, indicating the number of STM-1 signals that form
SDH signal.
The STM-N frame structure consists of three parts: section overhead (SOH), which includes
regenerator section overhead (RSOH) and multiplex section overhead (MSOH); administration unit
pointer (AU-PTR); and payload. AU-PTR is the pointer that indicates the location of the first byte of
payload in an STM-N frame so that the receiving end can correctly extract payload.

Terms

z Multiplex unit: A basic SDH multiplex unit includes multiple containers (C-n), virtual containers
(VC-n), tributary units (TU-n), tributary unit groups (TUG-n), administrative units (AU-n) and
administrative unit groups (AUG-n), where n is the hierarchical sequence number of unit level.
z Container: Information structure unit that carries service signals at different rates. G.709 defines
the criteria for five standard containers: C-11, C-12, C-2, C-3 and C-4.
z Virtual container (VC): Information structure unit supporting channel layer connection of SDH. It
terminates an SDH channel. VC is divided into lower-order and higher-order VCs. VC-4 and VC-3
in AU-3 are higher-order virtual containers.

1-2
z Tributary unit (TU) and tributary unit group (TUG): TU is the information structure that provides
adaptation between higher-order and lower-order channel layers. TUG is a set of one or more TUs
whose location is fixed in higher-order VC payload.
z Administrative unit (AU) and administrative unit group (AUG): AU is the information structure that
provides adaptation between higher-order channel layer and multiplex section layer. AUG is a set
of one or more AUs that have fixed location in the payload of STM-N.

Multiplexing E1/T1/E3/T3 Channels to Form STM-1

In SDH multiplexing recommended by G.709, there is more than one path for a valid payload to be
multiplexed to form STM-N. The following figures illustrate the multiplexing processes from E1, T1, E3,
and T3 to STM-1.
Figure 1-2 Process of multiplexing E1 channels to form STM-1

Figure 1-3 Process of multiplexing T1 channels to form STM-1

1 1 3
STM-1 AUG-1 AU-4 VC-4 TUG-3

7
3

7
AU-3 VC-3 TUG-2 TU-11
4

Multiplexing
C-11 VC-11
Mapping
C-11: 1.544Mpbs
Aligning

Figure 1-4 Process of multiplexing E3 channels to form STM-1

1-3
Figure 1-5 Process of multiplexing T3 channels to form STM-1

In actual applications, different countries and regions may adopt different multiplexing structures. To
ensure interoperability, the multiplex mode command is provided on CPOS interfaces. This allows you
to select the AU-3 or AU-4 multiplexing structure.

Calculating E1/T1/E3/T3 Channel Sequence Numbers

Since CPOS interfaces adopt the byte interleaved multiplexing mode, the lower-order VCs are not
arranged in order in a higher-order VC. To understand how TU numbers are calculated, see the
following example where E1 channels are multiplexed to form STM-1 through the AU-4.
As shown in Figure 1-2, when the AU-4 path is used, the multiplexing structure for 2 Mbps is 3-7-3. The
formula for calculating the TU-12 sequence numbers of different locations in the same VC-4 is as
follows:
Sequence number of TU-12 = TUG-3 number + (TUG-2 number 1) x 3 + (TU-12 Number 1) x 21
The two TU-12s are adjacent to each other, if they have the same TUG-3 number and TUG-2 number
but different TU-12 numbers with a discrepancy of 1.

The numbers in the aforementioned formula refer to the location numbers in a VC-4 frame. TUG-3 can
be numbered in the range 1 to 3; TUG-2 in the range 1 to 7 and TU-12 in the range 1 to 3. TU-12
numbers indicate the order in which the 63 TU-12s in a VC-4 frame are multiplexed, that is, E1 channel
numbers.

Figure 1-6 Order of TUG-3s, TUG-2s, and TU-12s in a VC-4 frame

1-4
You can calculate TU-12 numbers in the same way when the AU-3 path is used.
When 63 E1 channels or 84 T1 channels are configured on a CPOS interface, you can reference E1 or
T1 channels by referencing the numbers in the range 1 to 63 or 1 to 84. When connecting your device to
channelized STM-1 interfaces on devices of other vendors, you should consider the possible
numbering differences due to different channel referencing approaches.
Figure 1-7 Order of TUG-3s, VC-3s, and C-3s in a VC-4 frame

The process of calculating E3/T3 channel sequence numbers is much easier than that of calculating
E1/T1 channel sequence numbers. When the AU-4 multiplexing structure is used, as shown in Figure
1-7, because TUG-3s and VC-3s are not subdivided into lower-order paths, the sequence numbers of
the E3/T3 channels equal those of the TUG-3s. When the AU-3 multiplexing structure is used, the
sequence numbers of E3/T3 channels can also be calculated using the similar method.

Overhead Bytes

SDH provides layered monitoring and management of precise division.

1-5
It provides monitoring at section and channel levels, where sections are subdivided into regenerator
and multiplex sections, and channels are subdivided into higher-order and lower-order paths. These
monitoring functions are implemented using overhead bytes.

SDH provides a variety of overhead bytes, but only those involved in CPOS configuration are discussed
in this section. For more information about overhead bytes, refer to related books.

z SOH
Section overhead (SOH) consists of regenerator section overhead (RSOH) and multiplex section
overhead (MSOH).
The regeneration section trace message J0 is included in RSOH to send the section access point
identifier repeatedly. Based on the identifier, the receiver can make sure that it is in continuous
connection with the sender. This byte can be any character in the network of the same operator. If
networks of two operators are involved, however, the sending and receiving devices at network borders
must use the same J0 byte. With the j0 byte, operators can detect and troubleshoot faults in advance or
use less time to recover networks.
z POH
The payload of STM-N frame includes path overhead (POH), which monitors low-speed tributary
signals.
SOH monitors the section layer, while POH monitors the path layer. POH is divided into higher-order
path overhead and lower-order path overhead.
Higher-order path overhead monitors paths at the VC-4/VC-3 level.
Similar to the J0 byte, the higher-order VC-N path trace byte J1 is included in the higher-order path
overhead to send the higher-order path access point identifier repeatedly. Based on the identifier, the
receiving end of the path can make sure that it is in continuous connection with the specified sending
end. The J1 byte at the receiving and transmission ends should be matched.
The path signal label byte C2 is also included in the higher-order path overhead to indicate the
multiplexing structure of VC frames and the property of payload, for instance, whether the path is
carrying services, what type of services are carried, and how they are mapped. The sender and receiver
must use the same C2 byte.

CPOS Interface Application Scenario

CPOS is used to enhance the capability of a device in low-speed access redistribution. In aggregating
multiple E1/T1 channels, STM-1 CPOS is especially suitable.
At present, some government agencies and enterprises use low-end and mid-range devices to access
transmission networks through E1/T1 leased lines. Users who require bandwidth between E1 and T3
(44 Mbps), data centers for example, lease multiple E1/T1 lines.
The bandwidth of all these users is aggregated to one or more channelized POS interfaces through a
transmission network, and then connected to a high-end device where the low-end devices are uniquely
identified by timeslots.

1-6
In actual applications, the connection between these low-end devices and the channelized POS
interfaces likely involves more than one transmission networks and as such, may require relay. This is
similar to the scenario where low-end devices are connected to a high-end device through one or
multiple E1/T1 leased lines.
Figure 1-8 Network diagram for a CPOS application

N64K
Router A

Transmission Access N64K


network network

N2M
E1

Configuring a CPOS Interface


Follow these steps to configure a CPOS interface:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Enter CPOS interface view controller cpos cpos-number Required
Optional
Set the framing format frame-format { sdh | sonet }
The default is SDH.
Optional
Set the clock mode clock { master | slave }
The default is slave.
Optional
Set the loopback mode loopback { local | remote }
Disabled by default

Optional
Configure the AUG multiplexing
multiplex mode { au-3 | au-4 } Available only in SDH framing.
mode
The default is AU-4.

flag { j0 j0-string | j1
Configuring the SOH and path-number j1-string | c2 Optional
higher-order path overhead path-number c2-value | s1 The s1 keyword is not
bytes s1-value | s1s0 path-number supported currently.
s1s0-value }
Optional
Shut down the CPOS physical
shutdown By default, a CPOS physical
interface
interface is up.
Optional
Set the signal degrade (SD)
threshold and the signal fail threshold { sd | sf } value The SD threshold defaults to
(SF) threshold 10e-6. The SF threshold
defaults to 10e-3.

Configure E1/E3 or T1/T3 See Configuring an E1 Channel Optional

1-7
To do... Use the command... Remarks
channel attributes See Configuring a T1 Channel
See Configuring an E3 Channel
See Configuring a T3 Channel

z When a physical port on the device is idle and no cable is connected to it, use the shutdown
command to disable the port, so as to prevent interface abnormality caused by interference.
z Use the shutdown command with caution, because once a port is shut down, it stops operating.

Configuring an E1 Channel
Follow these steps to configure an E1 channel:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

controller cpos
Enter CPOS interface view Required
cpos-number

e1 e1-number set Optional


Set the E1 framing format frame-format { crc4 | The default is
no-crc4 } no-CRC4.

e1 e1-number set Optional


Set the clock mode for E1 clock { master |
slave } The default is slave.

e1 e1-number set Optional


Set the loopback mode for E1 loopback { local |
payload | remote } Disabled by default

e1 e1-number set flag


Optional
c2 c2-value
Set the overhead bytes for E1 By default, C2 is set to
e1 e1-number set flag
0x02 and J2 is cyclic
j2 { sdh | sonet }
null.
j2-string

1-8
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Required
Configure E1 to
e1 e1-number By default, an E1
operate in unframed
unframed channel is not
mode
channelized.

Configure the E1 Optional


undo e1 e1-number
operating mode (in The default is
unframed
either approach) Configure E1 to channelized mode
operate in channelized
mode and set timeslot e1 e1-number Required
bundling channel-set By default, an E1
set-number channel is not
timeslot-list range channelized.
Optional
e1 e1-number
Shut down an E1 channel By default, an E1
shutdown
channel is up.

Configuring a T1 Channel
Follow these steps to configure a T1 channel:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
controller cpos
Enter CPOS interface view Required
cpos-number
t1 t1-number set Optional
Set the T1 framing format frame-format { esf |
sf } The default is ESF.

t1 t1-number set clock Optional


Set the clock mode for T1
{ master | slave } The default is slave.
t1 t1-number set Optional
Set the loopback mode for T1 loopback { local |
payload | remote } Disabled by default

t1 t1-number set flag


Optional
c2 c2-value
Set the overhead bytes for T1 By default, C2 is set to
t1 t1-number set flag
0x02 and J2 is cyclic
j2 { sdh | sonet }
null.
j2-string
Required
Configure T1 to
t1 t1-number By default, a T1
operate in unframed
unframed channel is not
mode
channelized.
Optional
Configure the T1 undo t1 t1-number
operating mode (in unframed The default is
either approach) channelized mode
Configure T1 to
operate in channelized t1 t1-number Required
channel-set
set-number By default, a T1
timeslot-list range channel is not
[ speed { 56k | 64k } ] channelized.

1-9
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Optional
t1 t1-number
Shut down a T1 channel By default, a T1
shutdown
channel is up.

Configuring an E3 Channel
Follow these steps to configure an E3 channel:

To do Use the command Remarks

Enter system view system-view

Enter CPOS interface view controller cpos cpos-number Required

Create a serial interface Optional


corresponding to the unframed using e3 e3-number By default, no serial interface is
E3 channel created.

flag vc-3 path-number { c2 Optional


Configure the overhead bytes c2-value | j1 { sdh sdh-string | Support for the keywords c2,
for VC-3 frames sonet sonet-string } | s1s0 j1, and s1s0 in this command
s1s0-value } depends on your device model.

flag vc-4 path-number { c2 Optional


Configure overhead bytes for c2-value | j1 { sdh sdh-string | Support for the keywords c2,
VC-4 frames sonet sonet-string } | s1s0 j1, and s1s0 in this command
s1s0-value } depends on your device model.
Optional
Configure the specified E3
channel to work in FE3 mode fe3 e3-number { dsu-mode { 0 For an FE3 channel, the default
and configure a DSU mode or | 1 } | subrate sub-number } DSU mode is 1 (that is,
subrate for the FE3 channel Kentrox) and the default
subrate is 34010 kbps.

Configure the clock mode of the e3 e3-number set clock Optional


E3 channel { master | slave } The default is slave.
Optional
Perform loopback on the E3 e3 e3-number set loopback
channel { local | payload | remote } By default, loopback is
disabled.

Set the national bit of the E3 e3 e3-number set national-bit Optional


channel {0|1} 1 by default
Optional
Shut down the E3 channel e3 e3-number shutdown
By default, an E3 channel is up.

Configuring a T3 Channel
Follow these steps to configure a T3 channel:

To do Use the command Remarks

Enter system view system-view

Enter CPOS interface view controller cpos cpos-number Required

1-10
To do Use the command Remarks

Create a serial interface Optional


corresponding to the unframed using t3 t3-number By default, no serial interface is
T3 channel created.

Optional
Enable alarm signal detection t3 t3-number set alarm
and generation on the T3 { detect | generate { ais | febe By default, alarm signal
channel | idle | rai } } detection and generation are
disabled on T3 channels.

t3 t3-number set bert pattern Optional


Perform bit error rate test
{ 2^7 | 2^11 | 2^15 | qrss } By default, BERT test is
(BERT) on the T3 channel
time number disabled.

Configure the clock mode of the t3 t3-number set clock Optional


T3 channel { master | slave } The default is slave.
t3 t3-number set feac { detect | Optional
Enable FEAC signal detection generate { ds3-los | ds3-ais |
and generation on the T3 ds3-oof | ds3-idle | By default, FEAC signal
channel ds3-eqptfail | loopback detection and generation are
{ ds3-line | ds3-payload } } } disabled on T3 channels.

Optional
Set the framing format of the T3 t3 t3-number set frame-format
interface { c-bit | m23 } The default is C-bit parity
framing.
Optional
Perform loopback on the T3 t3 t3-number set loopback
channel { local | payload | remote } By default, loopback is
disabled.
t3 t3-number set mdl { data
{ eic string | fic string | | gen-no Optional
Enable maintenance data link
string | lic string | pfi string |
(MDL) message detection and Support for this command
port-no string | unit string } |
sending on the T3 channel depends on your device model.
detect | generate { idle-signal
| path | test-signal } }

flag vc-3 path-number { c2 Optional


Configure overhead bytes for c2-value | j1 { sdh sdh-string | Support for the keywords c2,
VC-3 frames sonet sonet-string } | s1s0 j1, and s1s0 in this command
s1s0-value } depends on your device model.

flag vc-4 path-number { c2 Optional


Configure overhead bytes for c2-value | j1 { sdh sdh-string | Support for the keywords c2,
VC-4 frames sonet sonet-string } | s1s0 j1, and s1s0 in this command
s1s0-value } depends on your device model.
Optional
Configure the specified T3
ft3 t3-number { dsu-mode { 0 | For an FT3 channel, the default
channel to work in FT3 mode
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 } | subrate DSU mode is 0 (that is, Digital
and configure a DSU mode or
sub-number } Link) and the default subrate is
subrate for the FT3 channel
44210 kbps.

Fractional E3 (FE3) and fractional T3 (FT3) are nonstandard applications. With FE3 and FT3, you can
subdivide the rate of E3/T3 into subrates depending on the bandwidth requirements.

1-11
Configuring the Working Modes of CPOS Interface Cards
Some CPOS interface cards can be used for multiple purposes. By configuring the working modes of
the cards, you can switch over their working modes. CPOS interface cards that support the switchover
of working modes include: HIM-CL1P, HIM-CL2P, HIM-CLS1P, and HIM-CLS2P.

Displaying and Maintaining CPOS Interfaces


To do... Use the command... Remarks
Display information about
display controller cpos
channels on a specified or all Available in any view
[ cpos-number ]
CPOS interfaces
Display information about a
display controller cpos
specified E1 channel on a Available in any view
cpos-number e1 e1-number
CPOS interface
Display information about a
display controller cpos
specified T1 channel on a Available in any view
cpos-number t1 t1-number
CPOS interface
Display information about a
display controller cpos
specified E3 channel on a Available in any view
cpos-number e3 e3-number
CPOS interface
Display information about a
display controller cpos
specified T3 channel on a Available in any view
cpos-number t3 t3-number
CPOS interface
Display information about a display interface serial
serial interface formed by interface-number/channel-num Available in any view
E1/T1 channels ber:set-number
Shut down the CPOS physical Available in CPOS interface
shutdown
interface view
Bring the CPOS physical Available in CPOS interface
undo shutdown
interface up. view
Available in CPOS interface
Shut down an E1 channel e1 e1-number shutdown
view
Available in CPOS interface
Bring an E1 channel up undo e1 e1-number shutdown
view
Available in CPOS interface
Shut down a T1 channel t1 t1-number shutdown
view
Available in CPOS interface
Bring a T1 channel up undo t1 t1-number shutdown
view
Clear the counter of a CPOS reset counters controller
Available in user view
interface cpos interface-number

1-12
CPOS Interface Configuration Example
CPOS-E1 Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-9, Branch nodes Router B through Router H are attached to the central node
Router A. Each branch node is uplinked to Router A through an E1 link aggregated through a CPOS
interface. After expanding Router B, you should add one more E1 link because an E1 link cannot satisfy
the requirements. Bind the two E1 links through an MP-group interface.
Figure 1-9 Network diagram for CPOS-E1 interface configuration

Configuration procedure

1) Configuration on Router A
The following part only provides the procedure for CPOS interface and E1 interface configuration.
Configuration procedure for the other services is not provided.
# Configure the clock mode of CPOS 2/0 and its channelized E1 interfaces E1 1 and E1 2 as master.
<Sysname> system-view
[Sysname] controller cpos 2/0
[Sysname-Cpos2/0] clock master
[Sysname-Cpos2/0] e1 1 unframed
[Sysname-Cpos2/0] e1 1 set clock master
[Sysname-Cpos2/0] e1 2 unframed
[Sysname-Cpos2/0] e1 2 set clock master

# Create MP-group 1 and assign an IP address for it.


[Sysname] interface mp-group 1
[Sysname-Mp-group1] ip address 10.1.1.1 30
[Sysname-Mp-group1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/0/1:0.


[Sysname] interface serial 2/0/1:0
[Sysname-Serial2/0/1:0] ppp mp mp-group 1
[Sysname-Serial2/0/1:0] quit
[Sysname] interface serial 2/0/0/2:0
[Sysname-Serial2/0/2:0] ppp mp mp-group 1
[Sysname-Serial2/0/2:0] quit

2) Configuration on Router B

1-13
The configuration on Router B is similar to that of other branch nodes.
<Sysname> system-view
[Sysname] controller e1 2/1
[Sysname-E2/1] using e1
[Sysname-E2/1] quit
[Sysname] controller e1 2/2
[Sysname-E2/2] using e1
[Sysname-E2/2] quit

# Create an MP-group interface.


[Sysname] interface mp-group 1
[Sysname-Mp-group1] ip address 10.1.1.2 30
[Sysname-Mp-group1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/0/1:0 and Serial2/0/2:0.


[Sysname] interface serial 2/0/1:0
[Sysname-Serial2/0/1:0] ppp mp mp-group 1
[Sysname-Serial2/0/1:0] quit
[Sysname] interface serial 2/0/2:0
[Sysname-Serial2/0/2:0] ppp mp mp-group 1
[Sysname-Serial2/0/2:0] quit

You can use the display interface serial 2/0/1 command, the display interface mp-group 1
command, and the display ppp mp command to display the connection status, and use the ping
command to check whether the network is reachable.

CPOS-E3 Configuration Example

Network requirements

Expand the link bandwidth of Router H and Router B in Figure 1-9 from 2 Mbps to 32 Mbps. To meet the
requirement, you need at least 16 E1 links. To avoid the complexity of configuring so many E1 links, you
can use an E3 link instead as shown in Figure 1-10.
Figure 1-10 Network diagram for CPOS-E3 configuration

Configuration procedure

1) Configuration on Router A

1-14
This part only provides the key steps in configuring a CPOS interface and E3 interface. The deployment
of other services will not be described here.
# Set the clock mode of CPOS 2/0 to master, and set the clock mode of E3 channel 1 and E3 channel 2
of CPOS 2/0 to master.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] controller cpos 2/0
[RouterA-Cpos2/0] clock master
[RouterA-Cpos2/0] using e3 1
[RouterA-Cpos2/0] using e3 2
[RouterA-Cpos2/0] e3 1 set clock master
[RouterA-Cpos2/0] e3 2 set clock master

# Configure IP addresses for Serial 2/0/1:0 and Serial 2/0/2:0.


[RouterA] interface serial2/0/1:0
[RouterA-Serial2/0/1:0] ip address 11.1.1.2 24
[RouterA-Serial2/0/1:0] quit
[RouterA] interface serial2/0/2:0
[RouterA-Serial2/0/2:0] ip address 12.1.1.2 24
[RouterA-Serial2/0/2:0] quit

2) Configuration on Router B
# Create the serial interface corresponding to the E3 interface.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] controller e3 2/1
[RouterB-E2/1] using e3
[RouterB-E2/1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/0/1:0.


[RouterB] interface serial2/0/1:0
[RouterB-Serial2/0/1:0] ip address 11.1.1.8 24
[RouterB-Serial2/0/1:0] quit

Use the display interface serial 2/0/1:0 command to check connectivity and use the ping command to
check network reachability.

Troubleshooting CPOS Interfaces


Interface Physical Status Is UP, Line Protocol Status Is DOWN, and Loopback Is
Detected

Symptom:

Connect the CPOS interface of a device to that of another vendor through SDH, bundle E1 channels on
the interface to form a serial interface and encapsulate it with PPP.
Perform the display interface serial command to check information on interface status. It shows that
the physical state of the interface is UP, but the link protocol is DOWN; and loopback, though not
configured, is detected on some interfaces.

1-15
Solution:

The fault is likely caused if the multiplex unit configurations on the SDH transmission device mismatch
the E1 channel numbers on the CPOS interface on your device. This can result in timeslot
inconsistency at the two ends of transmission and as such, PPP negotiation failure and LCP anomalies.
Besides, if an idle timeslot on a loopback serial interface on the transmission device is used in
transmission, the information that loopback is detected will be displayed. Use the debugging ppp lcp
error command to check loopback information.
Follow these steps to solve the problem:
z Use the display controller cpos e1 command to view the multiplexing paths of the E1 channels or
calculate the multiplexing path as shown in Calculating E1/T1/E3/T3 Channel Sequence Numbers.
z Check the configurations on the transmission devices against the calculation result at the last step
to make sure the same E1 multiplexing path is configured.

1-16
Table of Contents

1 POS Interface Configuration 1-1


Overview 1-1
SONET/SDH1-1
POS 1-1
Configuring a POS Interface 1-1
Configuring the Working Modes of POS Interface Cards 1-3
Displaying and Maintaining POS Interfaces1-3
POS Interface Configuration Examples 1-3
Directly Connecting Routers Through POS Interfaces1-3
Connecting Routers Through POS Interfaces Across Frame Relay1-4
Troubleshooting POS Interfaces1-5

i
1 POS Interface Configuration

When configuring POS interfaces, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z Overview
z Configuring a POS Interface
z Configuring the Working Modes of POS Interface Cards
z Displaying and Maintaining POS Interfaces
z POS Interface Configuration Examples
z Troubleshooting POS Interfaces

Overview
This section covers these topics:
z SONET/SDH
z POS

SONET/SDH

Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), a synchronous transmission system defined by ANSI, is an


international standard transmission protocol. It adopts optical transmission where transmission rates
form a sequence of STM-1, STM-4c and STM-16, each four times the immediate lower level. Because
signals are synchronous, SDH can multiplex multiple signals conveniently.
Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH), defined by CCITT (ITU-T at present), uses a SONET rate subset.

POS

Packet over SONET/SDH (POS) is a technology popular in WAN and MAN. It can support packet data
such as IP packets.
POS maps length-variable packets directly to SONET synchronous payloads and uses the SONET
physical layer transmission standard. It offers high-speed, reliable, and point-to-point data connectivity.
The POS interface on your device supports PPP, Frame Relay, and HDLC at the data link layer and IP at
the network layer. Its transmission rate can vary with devices.

Configuring a POS Interface


Before you configure the link layer and network layer protocols on a POS interface, you must configure
its physical parameters. In addition, to have the interface participate in backup, configure the backup
parameters; to set up firewall on the interface, configure packet filtering rules.
Follow these steps to configure a POS interface:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

1-1
To do... Use the command... Remarks
interface pos
Enter POS interface view Required
interface-number
Optional
Set the clock mode clock { master | slave }
The default is slave.
Optional
Set the CRC length crc { 16 | 32 }
The default is 32 bits.
Optional
Set the loopback mode loopback { local | remote }
Disabled by default

Optional
flag c2 flag-value The default is hexadecimal 16
for C2.

Configure the overhead byte Optional


By default, SDH framing
flag { j0 | j1 } { sdh | sonet }
applies.
flag-value
In SDH framing, the defaults
are null for both J0 and J1.

Optional
Set the framing format frame-format { sdh | sonet }
The default is SDH.

Optional
Configure scrambling scramble
Enabled by default.
link-protocol { ppp | fr Optional
Set the link type [ nonstandard | ietf | mfr
interface-number ] | hdlc } The default is PPP.

Optional
Set the interface MTU mtu size The MTU in bytes ranges from
128 to 1500 and defaults to
1500.
Optional
Set the signal degrade (SD) By default, the SD threshold is
threshold { sd | sf } value
and signal fail (SF) thresholds 10e-6, and the SF threshold is
10e-3.

Enable sub-interface rate Optional


sub-interface rate-statistic
statistics collecting Disabled by default.
Optional
Shut down the POS physical
shutdown By default, a POS physical port
port
is up.

z When a physical port on the device is idle and no cable is connected to it, use the shutdown
command to disable the port, so as to prevent interface anomalies caused by interferences.
z Use the shutdown command with caution, because once a port is shut down, it stops operating.

1-2
Configuring the Working Modes of POS Interface Cards
Some CPOS interface cards can be used for multiple purposes. By configuring the working modes of
the cards, you can switch over their working modes. CPOS interface cards that support the switchover
of working modes include: HIM-MSP2P and HIM-MSP4P.

Displaying and Maintaining POS Interfaces


To do... Use the command... Remarks
Display status and configuration
display interface pos
information about one or all POS Available in any view
[ interface-number ]
interfaces
Display IP-related configurations and display ip interface pos
Available in any view
statistics for one or all POS interfaces [ interface-number ]
Display IPv6-related configurations and display ipv6 interface pos
Available in any view
statistics for one or all POS interfaces [ interface-number ]

POS Interface Configuration Examples


Directly Connecting Routers Through POS Interfaces

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-1,


z Use a pair of single mode optic fibers (respectively for receiving and sending data) to connect the
POS interfaces on Router A and Router B.
z Encapsulate the interfaces with PPP.
Figure 1-1 Network diagram for connecting two POS interfaces through fiber

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A
# Configure interface POS 1/0, setting its physical parameters to defaults.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface pos 1/0
[RouterA-Pos1/0] ip address 10.110.1.10 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Pos1/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Pos1/0] mtu 1500
[RouterA-Pos1/0] shutdown
[RouterA-Pos1/0] undo shutdown

2) Configure Router B
# Configure interface POS 1/0.
<RouterB> system-view

1-3
[RouterB] interface pos 1/0

# Set the clock mode to master and other physical parameters to defaults.
[RouterB-Pos1/0] clock master
[RouterB-Pos1/0] ip address 10.110.1.11 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Pos1/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Pos1/0] mtu 1500
[RouterB-Pos1/0] shutdown
[RouterB-Pos1/0] undo shutdown

You can check the interface connectivity between the POS interfaces with the display interface pos
command and test network connectivity with the ping command.

Connecting Routers Through POS Interfaces Across Frame Relay

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-2, connect routers to a public Frame Relay network through POS interfaces. The
routers are premise equipment that work as DTE side of Frame Relay.
Router A uses Frame Relay sub-interfaces to connect Router B and Router C in different network
segments.
Figure 1-2 Network diagram for POS interface connection across Frame Relay

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A
# Configure POS interface 1/0.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface pos 1/0
[RouterA-Pos1/0] clock slave

# Configure Frame Relay encapsulation on the interface.


[RouterA-Pos1/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA-Pos1/0] fr interface-type dte
[RouterA-Pos1/0] quit

# Create sub-interface 1 on the interface.


[RouterA] interface pos 1/0.1
[RouterA-Pos1/0.1] ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Pos1/0.1] fr dlci 50

1-4
[RouterA-Pos1/0.1] fr map ip 10.10.10.2 50
[RouterA-Pos1/0.1] mtu 1500
[RouterA-Pos1/0.1] quit

# Create sub-interface 2 on the interface.


[RouterA] interface pos 1/0.2
[RouterA-Pos1/0.2] ip address 20.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Pos1/0.2] fr dlci 60
[RouterA-Pos1/0.2] fr map ip 20.10.10.2 60
[RouterA-Pos1/0.2] mtu 1500
[RouterA-Pos1/0.2] quit

2) Configure Router B
# Configure interface POS 1/0.
[RouterB] interface pos 1/0
[RouterB-Pos1/0] clock slave

# Configure Frame Relay encapsulation on the interface.


[RouterB-Pos1/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Pos1/0] fr interface-type dte
[RouterB-Pos1/0] ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Pos1/0] fr dlci 70
[RouterB-Pos1/0] fr map ip 10.10.10.1 70
[RouterB-Pos1/0] mtu 1500

Follow the same way to configure Router C.


You can check interface connectivity with the display interface pos command and test network
connectivity with the ping command.

Troubleshooting POS Interfaces


Symptom 1:
The physical state of POS interface is down.
Solution:
z Check that the transmitting and receiving fibers-optic are correctly connected to the POS interface.
If you connect the two ends of a fiber-optic to the transmitting end and the receiving end of the
same POS interface, you can see the message loopback detected on the screen when executing
the display interface command even if you have not enabled loopback.
z If the two routers are directly connected back to back, check that the internal clock is enabled on
either of the two POS interfaces. POS interfaces use line clock by default; but when two routers are
directly connected, one side must use the internal clock.
Symptom 2:
The physical layer is up but the link is down.
Solution:
Check that:
z The configurations of clock, scrambling and other physical parameters are consistent on the
connected two POS interfaces.
z The same link layer protocol is configured on two sides.

1-5
z Both ends are assigned IP addresses.
Symptom 3:
A great amount of IP packets are dropped.
Solution:
Check that:
z The correct clock mode is configured on the POS interface. If not, enormous amount of CRC errors
can be generated.
z Check that the MTU configuration is appropriate.

1-6
Table of Contents

1 Ethernet Interface Configuration 1-1


Ethernet Interface Overview 1-1
General Ethernet Interface Configuration 1-1
Combo Port Configuration 1-1
Configuring LAN/WAN Mode for a 10 GE Interface 1-2
Basic Ethernet Interface/Subinterface Configuration 1-3
Configuring Flow Control on an Ethernet Interface 1-4
Configuring Loopback Testing on an Ethernet Interface1-4
Configuring a Layer 3 Ethernet Interface/Subinterface1-5
Layer 3 Ethernet Interface/Subinterface Configuration Task List 1-5
Setting the MTU for an Ethernet Interface/Subinterface 1-5
Configuring Link Layer State Change Suppression 1-6
Enabling the Collecting of Rate Statistics of the Subinterfaces 1-7
Displaying and Maintaining an Ethernet Interface/Subinterface1-7

i
1 Ethernet Interface Configuration

When configuring Ethernet interfaces, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z Ethernet Interface Overview
z General Ethernet Interface Configuration
z Configuring a Layer 3 Ethernet Interface/Subinterface
z Displaying and Maintaining an Ethernet Interface/Subinterface

Ethernet Interface Overview


Two types of Ethernet interfaces may be available on your device:
z Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces. They are physical interfaces operating on the network layer for routing
Layer 3 protocol packets. You can assign an IP address to a Layer 3 Ethernet interface.
z Layer 3 Ethernet subinterfaces. They are logical interfaces operating on the network layer. You can
assign an IP address to a Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface. A Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface only
sends and receives packets for a particular VLAN. By creating subinterfaces on a Layer 3 Ethernet
interface, you can enable the interface to carry packets for multiple VLANs.

General Ethernet Interface Configuration


This section describes the attributes and configurations common to Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces. For
specific attributes, refer to related sections hereinafter.

Combo Port Configuration

Introduction to Combo port

A Combo port can operate as either an optical port or an electrical port. Inside the device there is only
one forwarding interface. For a Combo port, the electrical port and the corresponding optical port are
TX-SFP multiplexed. You can specify a Combo port to operate as an electrical port or an optical port.
That is, a Combo port cannot operate as both an electrical port and an optical port simultaneously.
When one is enabled, the other is automatically disabled.
The two Ethernet interfaces on the device panel correspond to only one interface view, in which state
switchover on the two interfaces can be achieved.

Configuring Combo port state

Follow these steps to configure the state of a Combo port:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Enter Ethernet interface interface-type

interface view interface-number

1-1
To do Use the command Remarks
Optional
Specify the state of a combo enable { copper |
Combo port fiber } By default, a Combo port operates as an
electrical port.

Configuring LAN/WAN Mode for a 10 GE Interface

Introduction to LAN/WAN mode

According to its physical characteristics, a 10 GigabitEthernet (10 GE) interface can operate in LAN or
WAN mode.
z LAN mode. 10 GE interfaces operating in LAN mode transfer Ethernet packets and are used to
connect Ethernets.
z WAN mode: 10 GE interfaces operating in WAN mode transfer Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
(SDH) packets and are used to connect SDH networks. They only support point-to-point packet
transfer.

A 10 GE interface operating in WAN mode encapsulates Ethernet packets as SDH frames, while a 10G
packet over SDH (POS) interface encapsulates PPP packets as SDH frames. Because the SDH frame
format of Ethernet packets is different from that of PPP packets, a 10 GE interface operating in WAN
mode cannot communicate with a 10G POS interface.

Introduction to J0/J1 overhead byte

SDH frames have diversified overhead bytes, which accomplish the operation and maintenance
functions such as hierarchical management of the transport network. J0 and J1 are used to provide
internetworking support between different countries, regions, or devices of different manufacturers.
The regenerator section trace byte J0 is usually set to a section access point identifier. The sending end
keeps connected with the receiving end by sending this byte repeatedly.
The path trace byte J1, usually set to a high-order path access point identifier, functions in a similar way
to keep connected with the receiving end of the path.
To ensure smooth communication, the J0 and J1 bytes should be matched respectively at the sending
and receiving ends. For details about SDH and SDH overhead bytes, refer to related documents.

Configuring a 10 GE interface to operate in LAN/WAN mode

Follow these steps to configure a 10 GE interface to operate in LAN/WAN mode:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Enter ten-GigabitEthernet interface ten-gigabitethernet

interface view interface-number

1-2
To do Use the command Remarks
Optional
Configure a 10 GE interface to
port-mode { lan | wan } By default, a 10 GE interface
operate in LAN/WAN mode
operates in LAN mode.

Configure a value for J0/J1 Optional


bytes when the 10 GE interface flag { j0 | j1 } sdh flag-value By default, the value of the
operates in WAN mode J0/J1 bytes is 0.

The flag command is applicable to 10 GE interfaces operating in WAN mode only.

Basic Ethernet Interface/Subinterface Configuration

Configuring an Ethernet interface

Three types of duplex modes are available to Ethernet interfaces:


z Full-duplex mode (full). Interfaces operating in this mode can send and receive packets
simultaneously.
z Half-duplex mode (half). Interfaces operating in this mode can either send or receive packets at a
given time.
z Auto-negotiation mode (auto). Interfaces operating in this mode determine their duplex mode
through auto-negotiation.
Similarly, if you configure the transmission rate for an Ethernet interface by using the speed command
with the auto keyword specified, the transmission rate is determined through auto-negotiation too.
Follow these steps to configure an Ethernet interface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Enter Ethernet interface interface interface-type

view interface-number
Optional
Set the description string description text By default, the description string is
interface index + interface.
Optional
auto by default.
Set the duplex mode duplex { auto | full | half } Combo ports operating as optical ports
cannot be configured to operate in half
duplex mode.
Optional
auto by default.
speed { 10 | 100 | 1000 |
Set the transmission rate Do not set the transmission rate to 10 or
auto }
100 for combo ports operating as optical
ports.

1-3
To do Use the command Remarks
Optional
By default, an Ethernet interface is in up
Shut down the Ethernet
shutdown state.
interface
To bring up an Ethernet interface, use
the undo shutdown command.

Configuring an Ethernet subinterface

Follow these steps to configure an Ethernet subinterface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Required
Create an Ethernet interface interface-type
subinterface interface-number.subnumber This command also leads you to
Ethernet subinterface view.
Optional
Set the description string By default, the description string is
of the current Ethernet description text interface index + interface. For
subinterface example, GigabitEthernet1/0.1
Interface.
Optional
Shut down the Ethernet
shutdown By default, an Ethernet subinterface
subinterface
is in up state.

Configuring Flow Control on an Ethernet Interface

When flow control is enabled on both sides, if traffic congestion occurs at the ingress interface, it will
send a Pause frame notifying the egress interface to temporarily suspend the sending of packets. The
egress interface is expected to stop sending any new packet when it receives the Pause frame. In this
way, flow control helps to avoid dropping of packets. Note that this will be possible only after flow control
is enabled on both the ingress and egress interfaces.
Follow these steps to enable flow control on an Ethernet interface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

interface interface-type
Enter Ethernet interface view
interface-number
Required
Enable flow control flow-control
Disabled by default

Configuring Loopback Testing on an Ethernet Interface

You can enable loopback testing to check whether the Ethernet interface functions properly. Note that
no data packets can be forwarded during the testing. Loopback testing falls into the following two
categories:

1-4
z Internal loopback testing, which is performed within switching chips to test the functions related to
the Ethernet interfaces.
z External loopback testing, which is used to test the hardware functions of an Ethernet interface. To
perform external loopback testing on an Ethernet interface, you need to install a loopback plug on
the Ethernet interface. In this case, packets sent from the interface are received by the same
interface.
Follow these steps to enable Ethernet interface loopback testing:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

interface interface-type
Enter Ethernet interface view
interface-number
Optional
Enable loopback testing loopback { external | internal }
Disabled by default.

z As for the internal loopback test and external loopback test, if an interface is down, only the former
is available on it; if the interface is shut down, both are unavailable.
z The speed, duplex, and shutdown commands are not applicable during loopback testing.
z With the loopback testing enabled, the Ethernet interface operates in full duplex mode. With the
loopback testing disabled, the original configurations will be restored.

Configuring a Layer 3 Ethernet Interface/Subinterface


Layer 3 Ethernet Interface/Subinterface Configuration Task List

Complete these tasks to configure Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces/subinterfaces:

Task Remarks
Optional
Setting the MTU for an Ethernet
Interface/Subinterface Applicable to Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces and
subinterfaces

Configuring Link Layer State Change Optional


Suppression Applicable to Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces

Enabling the Collecting of Rate Statistics of the Optional


Subinterfaces Applicable to Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces

Setting the MTU for an Ethernet Interface/Subinterface

The value of Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) affects the fragmentation and re-assembly of IP
packets.
Follow these steps to set the MTU for an Ethernet interface/subinterface:

1-5
To do Use the command Remarks
Enter system view system-view
Enter Ethernet interface interface interface-type
view/Ethernet subinterface { interface-number |
view interface-number.subnumber }
Optional
Set the MTU mtu size
1500 bytes by default

Limited to the QoS queue length (for example, the default length of an FIFO queue is 75), too small an
MTU will result in too many fragments, which will be discarded from the QoS queue. In this case, you
can increase MTU or QoS queue length properly. In Ethernet interface view, you can use the qos fifo
queue-length command to change the QoS queue length. For detailed configurations, see QoS
Configuration in the QoS Volume.

Configuring Link Layer State Change Suppression

The link layer state of an Ethernet interface operating in layer 3 mode is either up or down. Normally,
immediately after the link layer state changes, the change is reported to the system. This can be
resource consuming when state changing is frequent in a short period of time.
You can address the problem by introducing a reporting delay. You can configure this delay to affect
how soon the system can obtain a state change report from the link layer.
Follow these steps to configure link-layer-state change suppression on an Ethernet interface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter Ethernet interface view
interface-number

Configure the delay for the link layer Optional


timer hold seconds
to report a state change event 10 seconds by default.

You can increase the polling interval to reduce network instability due to time delay or heavy
congestion.

1-6
Enabling the Collecting of Rate Statistics of the Subinterfaces

After you enable the collecting of rate statistics of the subinterfaces of an Ethernet interface, the device
periodically refreshes the rate statistics on the subinterfaces. You can use the display interface
command to view the rate statistics of the subinterfaces.
Follow these steps to enable the collecting of rate statistics of the subinterfaces:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

interface interface-type
Enter Ethernet interface view
interface-number

Enable the collecting of rate Optional


sub-interface rate-statistic
statistics of the subinterfaces Disabled by default

z Because this feature may take a large amount of the system resources, use this command with
caution.
z All interfaces that support subinterfaces support this feature.

Displaying and Maintaining an Ethernet Interface/Subinterface


To do Use the command Remarks
Display the current state of an display interface [ interface-type
Available in any
interface/subinterface and the [ interface-number |
view
related information interface-number.subnumber ] ]
display brief interface [ interface-type
Display the summary of a [ interface-number | Available in any
interface/subinterface interface-number.subnumber ] ] [ | { begin | view
exclude | include } regular-expression ]
reset counters interface [ interface-type
Clear the statistics of a Available in user
[ interface-number |
interface/subinterface view
interface-number.subnumber ] ]

1-7
Table of Contents

1 WAN Interface Configuration 1-1


Synchronous Serial Interface1-1
Overview1-1
Configuring a Synchronous Serial Interface1-1
CE1 Interface 1-3
Overview1-3
Configuring a CE1 Interface (in E1 Mode) 1-3
Configuring a CE1 Interface (in CE1 Mode)1-3
Configuring Other CE1 Interface Parameters 1-4
E1-F Interface 1-5
Overview1-5
Configuring an E1-F Interface (in Framed Mode) 1-5
Configuring an E1-F Interface (in Unframed Mode) 1-6
Configuring Other E1-F Interface Parameters 1-6
Displaying and Maintaining E1-F Interfaces1-7

i
1 WAN Interface Configuration

In terms of line type, wide area networks (WANs) fall into these types: X.25, Frame Relay (FR), ATM,
and ISDN. To interface to these networks, routers are designed with the asynchronous serial interface,
synchronous serial interface, ATM interface, ISDN BRI interface, CE1/PRI interface, and so on.
When configuring WAN interfaces, go to the following sections for information you are interested in:
z Synchronous Serial Interface
z CE1 Interface
z E1-F Interface

Synchronous Serial Interface


Overview

A synchronous serial interface has the following features:


z Work in either DTE or DCE mode. Usually, it serves as DTE to accept the clock provided by DCE.
z Be connected to various types of cables, such as V.24, V.35, X.21, RS449, and RS530. Your
device can automatically detect the type of connected cable and select electrical properties. In
most cases, you do not need to manually configure them.
z Support link layer protocols such as PPP and FR.
z Support network layer protocols IP.
z Provide information about the connected cable type, operating mode (DTE or DCE) and so on with
the display interface serial command.

Configuring a Synchronous Serial Interface

Follow these steps to configure a synchronous serial interface:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Enter synchronous serial interface serial
Required
interface view interface-number

link-protocol { fr | hdlc | Optional


Set the link layer protocol
ppp } The default is PPP.
Optional
Set the digital signal coding
code { nrz | nrzi } The default is non-return-to-zero
format
(NRZ).
Optional
baudrate baudrate The default is 64,000 bps.
Set the baud rate virtualbaudrate These commands are available to
virtualbaudrate synchronous/asynchronous serial
interface operating in
asynchronous mode only.

1-1
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Optional
The default is DCEclk for DCE
side, and DTEclk1 for DTE side.
When the interface is functioning
clock { dteclk1 | dteclk2 | as DCE, you do not need to make
Set the DTE-side operating
dteclk3 | dteclk4 | the configuration.
clock
dteclkauto }
This command does not take
effect when X.21 DTE cables are
used. The DTE-side clock on
synchronous serial interfaces is
DTE clock option 3 (dteclk3).
Optional
Set transmit-clock or receive invert { transmit-clock |
clock inversion receive-clock } Clock inversion is disabled by
default.
Optional
Set the MTU mtu size
The default is 1500 bytes.
Optional
Set the CRC mode crc { 16 | 32 | none }
The default is 16-bit CRC.
Optional
Enable level detection detect dsr-dtr
Enabled by default.

Enable data carrier detection Optional


detect dcd
(DCD) Enabled by default.
Optional
Enable local loopback loopback
Disabled by default.
Optional
Configure the polling interval timer hold seconds
The default is 10 seconds.
Optional
Set line idle-mark to 0xFF idle-mark
The default is 0x7E.
Optional
Enable RTS signal reverse reverse-rts
Disabled by default.
Enable the collecting of rate
statistics of the subinterfaces Optional
sub-interface rate-statistic
on the synchronous serial Disabled by default.
interface

Refer to corresponding volumes for information about other synchronous serial interface configurations,
such as PPP/FR and IP addressing.

1-2
CE1 Interface
Overview

In 1960s, the time division multiplexing (TDM) technology gained increasingly wide application in the
data communications system along with the introduction of pulse code modulation (PCM) technology.
So far, there exist two TDM systems in the data communications system. One is the ITU-T
recommended E1 system, which is widely adopted in Europe and P.R. China. The other is the ANSI
recommended T1 system, which is widely used in North American and Japan. (The system that Japan
adopts is actually called J1. It is regarded as a T1 system due to high similarity between them.)
A CE1 interface can work in either E1 mode (also called non-channelized mode) and CE1 mode (that is,
channelized mode).
A CE1 interface in E1 mode equals an interface of 2.048 Mbps data bandwidth, on which, no timeslots
are divided. Its logic features are the same like those of a synchronous serial interface. It supports the
link layer protocols such as PPP and FR and the network protocol IP.
A CE1 interface in CE1 mode is physically divided into 32 timeslots numbered 0 to 31. Among them,
timeslot 0 is used for transmitting synchronizing information. All the timeslots except timeslot 0 can be
randomly divided into multiple channel sets and each set can be used as an interface upon timeslot
bundling. Its logic features are the same as those of a synchronous serial interface. It supports link layer
protocols such as PPP, HDLC, and FR, and network protocol IP.

Configuring a CE1 Interface (in E1 Mode)

Follow these steps to configure a CE1 interface in E1 mode:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Enter CE1 interface view controller e1 number Required
Required
Set the interface to operate in
using e1 The default operating mode is
E1 mode
CE1 mode.
See Configuring Other CE1
Set other interface parameters Optional
Interface Parameters.

After you set the CE1 interface to operate in E1 mode, the system automatically creates a serial
interface numbered serial interface-number:0. This interface is logically equivalent to a synchronous
serial interface where you can make other configurations such as:
z Parameters of data link protocol such as PPP and FR
z IP addressing
For their configuration, refer to the concerned parts of this manual.

Configuring a CE1 Interface (in CE1 Mode)

Follow these steps to configure a CE1 interface in CE1 mode:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

1-3
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Enter CE1 interface view controller e1 number Required
Optional
Set the interface to operate in
using ce1 The default operating mode
CE1 mode
is CE1 mode.
Bundle timeslots on the channel-set set-number
Required
interface into a channel set timeslot-list list
See Configuring Other CE1
Set other interface parameters Optional
Interface Parameters.

A CE1 interface in CE1 mode can be used as a CE1 interface where a serial interface is created upon
creation of a channel set. You may bundle timeslots on a CE1 interface into up to 31 channel sets.
For each channel set, the system automatically creates a serial interface numbered serial
interface-number:set-number. This interface is logically equivalent to a synchronous serial interface
where you can make other configurations about:
z Data link protocol such as PPP and FR
z IP addressing
For their configuration, refer to the concerned parts of this manual.

Configuring Other CE1 Interface Parameters

Follow these steps to configure other CE1 interface parameters:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

Enter CE1 interface view controller e1 number Required


Optional
Set the line code format code { ami | hdb3 } The default is high density
bipolar 3 (HDB3).
Optional
Configure to perform AIS
detect-ais By default, AIS test is
(alarm indication signal) test
performed.
Optional
Set the cable type cable { long | short } The default cable setting is long
mode.
Optional
Set the clock mode clock { master | slave } The default is slave, that is, line
clock.

data-coding { normal | Optional


Enable user data inversion
inverted } Disabled by default.

frame-format { crc4 | Optional


Set the framing format
no-crc4 } The default is no-CRC4.
Optional
Set the line idle code type idlecode { 7e | ff }
The default is 0x7E.

1-4
To do... Use the command... Remarks

Set the type of interframe filling Optional


itf type { 7e | ff }
tag The default is 0x7E.

Set the number of interframe Optional


itf number number
filling tags The default is 4.
Optional
loopback { local | payload |
Set the loopback mode Loopback is disabled by
remote }
default.

Quit to system view quit

Enter the view of the


interface serial
synchronous serial interface Required
interface-number:set-number
created on the CE1 interface
Optional
Set the CRC mode crc { 16 | 32 | none } By default, 16-bit CRC is
adopted.

E1-F Interface
Overview

E1-F interfaces, fractional E1 interfaces, are simplified CE1/PRI interfaces. They are a cost-effective
alternative to CE1/PRI interfaces where E1 access does not need multiple channel sets or ISDN PRI.
Compared with a CE1/PRI interface, an E1-F interface delivers these features:
z In framed mode, it can only bind timeslots into one channel set, while a CE1/PRI interface can
group and bundle timeslots randomly into multiple channel sets.
z It does not support PRI mode.
An E1-F interface can work in both framed (the default) and unframed modes.
When the E1-F interface is working in unframed mode, it is a non-timeslot interface with 2048 kbps of
data bandwidth. It is logically equivalent to a synchronous serial interface where you may configure PPP,
HDLC, FR, LAPB or X.25 at the link layer and IP at the network layer.
When the E1-F interface is working in framed mode, it is physically divided into 32 timeslots numbered
0 through 31. Except timeslot 0 used for transmitting synchronization information, all other timeslots can
randomly form one channel set. The rate of the interface is thus n 64 kbps and its logical features are
the same as those of a synchronous serial interface where you can configure PPP, FR, LAPB and X.25
at the data link layer and IP or IPX at the network layer.

Configuring an E1-F Interface (in Framed Mode)

Follow these steps to configure an E1-F interface in framed mode:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface serial
Enter E1-F interface view
interface-number

1-5
To do... Use the command... Remarks

Configure the interface to Optional


undo fe1 unframed
operate in framed mode The default is framed mode.
Optional
Bundle timeslots on the If no timeslot range is specified,
fe1 timeslot-list range
interface all timeslots are bundled by
default.
See Configuring Other E1-F
Set other interface parameters Optional
Interface Parameters.

Configuring an E1-F Interface (in Unframed Mode)

Follow these steps to configure an E1-F interface in unframed mode:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface serial
Enter E1-F interface view
interface-number

Configure the interface to Required


fe1 unframed
operate in unframed mode The default is framed mode.
See Configuring Other E1-F
Set other interface parameters Optional
Interface Parameters.

Configuring Other E1-F Interface Parameters

Follow these steps to configure other E1-F interface parameters:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Enter E1-F interface view interface serial serial-number
Optional
Configure the interface
description text The default description is
description
Interface name interface.
Optional
Set the line code format fe1 code { ami | hdb3 }
The default is HDB3.

Optional
Set the clock mode fe1 clock { master | slave } The default is slave, that is, line
clock.
Optional
Set the cable type fe1 cable { long | short } The long keyword applies by
default.
Optional
Configure the CRC mode fe1 crc { 16 | 32 | none }
16-bit CRC by default.

1-6
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Optional
Configure to perform AIS test fe1 detect-ais By default, AIS test is
performed.

fe1 frame-format { crc4 | Optional


Set the framing format
no-crc4 } The default is no-CRC4.
Optional
Set the line idle code type fe1 idlecode { 7e | ff }
The default is 0x7E.

Set the interframe filling tag Optional


fe1 itf type { 7e | ff }
type The default is 0x7E.

Set the number of interframe Optional


fe1 itf number number
filling tags The default is 4.
Optional
fe1 loopback { local | payload
Set the loopback mode Loopback is disabled by
| remote }
default.
Optional
Shut down the E1-F interface shutdown An E1-F interface is enabled by
default.

Displaying and Maintaining E1-F Interfaces

To do Use the command Remarks


Display the configuration and
state of a specified or all E1-F display fe1 [ serial interface-number ] Available in any view
interfaces
Display the operating state of an display interface serial
Available in any view
E1-F interface interface-number

1-7
Table of Contents

1 Frame Relay Configuration1-1


Frame Relay Terminologies1-1
Frame relay Protocol 1-1
DTE, DCE, UNI, and NNI 1-1
Virtual Circuit 1-1
Frame Relay Protocol Parameters 1-2
Frame Relay Address Mapping1-3
Frame Relay Configuration Task List1-3
Configuring DTE Side Frame Relay1-4
Configuring Basic DTE Side Frame Relay 1-4
Configuring Frame Relay Address Mapping 1-4
Configuring Frame Relay Local Virtual Circuit 1-5
Configuring Frame Relay Switching 1-5
Configuring Frame Relay Subinterface 1-6
Configuring DCE Side Frame Relay 1-7
Configuring Basic DCE Side Frame Relay1-7
Configuring Frame Relay Address Mapping 1-8
Configuring Frame Relay Local Virtual Circuit 1-8
Configuring Frame Relay Switching 1-8
Configuring Frame Relay Subinterface 1-8
Enabling the Trap Function1-8
Displaying and Maintaining Frame Relay 1-9
Frame Relay Configuration Examples 1-9
Interconnecting LANs through Frame Relay Network1-10
Interconnecting LANs through Dedicated Line1-11
Troubleshooting Frame Relay1-12

2 Multilink Frame Relay Configuration 2-1


Overview 2-1
Configuring Multilink Frame Relay 2-2
Displaying and Maintaining Multilink Frame Relay 2-3
Multilink Frame Relay Configuration Example2-3
MFR Direct Connection Configuration Example 2-3
MFR Switched Connection Configuration Example 2-4

i
1 Frame Relay Configuration

When configuring frame relay, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z Frame Relay Terminologies
z Frame Relay Configuration Task List
z Configuring DTE Side Frame Relay
z Configuring DCE Side Frame Relay
z Enabling the Trap Function
z Displaying and Maintaining Frame Relay
z Frame Relay Configuration Examples
z Troubleshooting Frame Relay

Frame Relay Terminologies


This section covers these topics:
z Frame relay Protocol
z DTE, DCE, UNI, and NNI
z Virtual Circuit
z Frame Relay Protocol Parameters
z Frame Relay Address Mapping

Frame relay Protocol

Frame relay protocol is a simplified X.25 WAN protocol. It is a kind of statistical multiplexing protocol
that can establish multiple virtual circuits (VC) over a single physical cable, each of which is identified by
a data link connection identifier (DLCI). A DLCI is not of global significance. It is valid to two directly
connected interfaces only. That is, you can use the same DLCI on different physical interfaces to
identify different VCs.
A frame relay network can be a public network, a private enterprise network, or a network formed by
direct connections between data devices.

DTE, DCE, UNI, and NNI

Data Terminal Equipments (DTE) are end devices in frame relay networks. A frame relay network
provides the capability of data communications between end devices.
Data Circuit-terminating Equipments (DCE) are network devices that provide network access to DTEs.
User Network Interfaces (UNI) are interfaces used to connect DTEs and DCEs.
Network-to-Network interfaces (NNI) are interfaces used to connect frame relay networks.

Virtual Circuit

Virtual circuits fall into two types, permanent virtual circuit (PVC) and switched virtual circuit (SVC),
depending on how they are set up. Virtual circuits configured manually are called PVCs, and those

1-1
created by protocol negotiation are called SVCs, which are automatically created and deleted by frame
relay protocol. At present, the most frequently used in frame relay is the PVC mode, that is., manually
configured virtual circuit.
In the PVC mode, the availability of the virtual circuit should be checked. Local management interface
(LMI) protocol can implement this function. It is used to maintain PVC table of frame relay protocol,
including advertising added PVC entry, detecting deleted PVC entry, monitoring PVC status change,
and verifying PVC link integrity. The system supports three LMI protocols: ITU-T Q.933 Appendix A,
ANSI T1.617 Appendix D and nonstandard compatible protocol. Their basic operating mode is: DTE
sends one Status Enquiry message to query the virtual circuit status at a certain interval. After the DCE
receives the message, it will immediately use the Status message to inform DTE of the status of all the
virtual circuits on current interface.
The PVC status on DTE is completely determined by DCE, and the network determines the PVC status
on DCE. If two network devices are directly connected, the equipment administrator sets the virtual
circuit status of DCE.

Frame Relay Protocol Parameters

Table 1-1 lists the parameters of frame relay.

Table 1-1 Parameter description for frame relay protocol

Operating
Parameter description Value range Default value
mode
Request PVC status counter (N391) 1 to 255 6
Error threshold (N392) 1 to 10 3
DTE Event counter (N393) 1 to 10 4

User side polling timer (T391), the value 0 0 to 32767 10


indicates that LMI protocol is disabled (in seconds) (in seconds)
Error threshold (N392) 1 to 10 3
Event counter (N393) 1 to 10 4
DCE
5 to 30 15
Network side polling timer (T392)
(in seconds) (in seconds)

These parameters are stipulated by Q.933 Appendix A, and their meanings are described as follows:
Meanings of parameters related to DTE operating mode:
z N391: DTE sends a Status-Enquiry message at a certain interval (determined by T391). There are
two types of Status-Enquiry messages: link integrity verification messages and link status enquiry
messages. N391 defines that the ratio of sent link status enquiry messages to sent link integrity
verification messages equals N3911:1.
z N392: it sets the threshold for errors among the observed events.
z N393: it sets the total of observed events.
z T391: it sets the interval for a DTE to send State-Enquiry messages.
A DTE sends a Status-Enquiry message at a certain interval to query the link status. The DCE responds
with a Status response message upon receiving the message. If the DTE does not receive any
response within a specified time, it will record this error. If the number of errors exceeds the threshold,

1-2
DTE will regard the physical channel and all virtual circuits unavailable. N392 and N393 together define
"error threshold". In other words, if the number of errors reaches N392 among the N393 Status Enquiry
messages sent by DTE, DTE will consider that the number of errors has reached the threshold and the
physical channel and all virtual circuits are unavailable.
Meanings of parameters related to DCE operating mode:
z N392 and N393: These two parameters have similar meanings to those related to DTE operating
mode. However, DCE requires that the fixed time interval for DTE sending a status-enquiry
message should be determined by T392, while DTE requires that this interval should be
determined by T391. If DCE does not receive the status-enquiry message from DTE within a period
determined by T392, an error recorder is created.
z T392: Time variable, which defines the maximum time that DCE waits for a status-enquiry
message. The time value shall be greater than the value of T391.

Frame Relay Address Mapping

Frame relay address mapping associates the protocol address of a remote device with its frame relay
address (local DLCI). By consulting the frame relay address map by protocol address, the upper layer
protocol can locate a remote device. Frame relay is used to bear IP protocol. When sending an IP
packet, the frame relay-enabled router can obtain its next hop address after consulting the routing table,
which is inadequate for sending the packet to the correct destination across a frame relay network. To
identify the DLCI corresponding to the next hop address, the router must consult a frame relay address
map retaining the associations between remote IP addresses and next hop DLCIs.
A frame relay address map can be manually configured or maintained by Inverse Address Resolution
Protocol (InARP).
The following figure presents how LANs are interconnected across a frame relay network.
Figure 1-1 Interconnect LANs through a frame relay network

Frame Relay Configuration Task List


Complete the following tasks to configure frame relay:

Task Remarks
Configuring DTE Side Frame Relay Required

Configuring DCE Side Frame Relay Required

Configuring Frame Relay Address Mapping Required

Configuring Frame Relay Local Virtual Circuit Required

1-3
Task Remarks
Configuring Frame Relay Switching Optional

Configuring Frame Relay Subinterface Optional

Enabling the Trap Function Optional

Configuring DTE Side Frame Relay


Configuring Basic DTE Side Frame Relay

Follow these steps to configure DTE side frame relay:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number

Required
Configure the The link layer protocol of an
link-protocol fr [ ietf | interface is PPP by default. When
encapsulation protocol as
nonstandard ] the link layer protocol of an
frame relay
interface is FR, the IETF standard
applies by default.
Optional
Configure frame relay
fr interface-type dte The default frame relay interface
interface type as DTE
type is DTE.
Optional
Configure frame relay LMI fr lmi type { ansi | nonstandard |
protocol type q933a } The default frame relay LMI
protocol type is q933a.
Optional
Configure user side N391 fr lmi n391dte n391-value
The default value is 6.
Optional
Configure user side N392 fr lmi n392dte n392-value
The default value is 3.
Optional
Configure user side N393 fr lmi n393dte n393-value
The default value is 4.
Optional
Configure user side T391 timer hold seconds
The default value is 10 seconds.

Configuring Frame Relay Address Mapping

Overview

Frame relay address mapping can be configured statically or set up dynamically.


z Static configuration means the manual setup of the mapping relation between the peer IP address
and local DLCI, and is usually applied when there are few peer hosts or there is a default route.

1-4
z Dynamic setup means the dynamic setup of mapping relation between peer IP address and local
DLCI by InARP. Dynamic setup is applied when the peer device also supports the InARP and
network is complex.

Configuration procedure

Follow these steps to configure frame relay address mapping:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view Required
interface-number
fr map ip { ip-address [ ip-mask Optional
| dlci-number ] | default
Add a static address map entry The system has no static
[ dlci-number ] } [ broadcast |
[ ietf | nonstandard ] ] * address map entries by default.

Enable InARP to set up Optional


fr inarp [ ip [ dlci-number ] ]
dynamically address mapping InARP is enabled by default.

Configuring Frame Relay Local Virtual Circuit

Overview

When the frame relay interface type is DCE or NNI, the interface (either main interface or subinterface)
need to be manually configured with virtual circuits. When the frame relay interface type is DTE, for the
main interface, the virtual circuit can be determined by the system according to the peer device or
through manual configuration; for subinterface, it is required to manually configure virtual circuits.
A virtual circuit number is unique on a physical interface.

Configuration procedure

Follow these steps to configure frame relay local virtual circuit

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Required
Configure virtual circuit on
fr dlci dlci-number There is no virtual circuit on
interface
interface by default.

Configuring Frame Relay Switching

Overview

A device with frame relay switching function enabled can act as a frame relay switch. In this scenario,
the frame relay interface should be NNI or DCE and it is required to perform corresponding
configuration on the two or more interfaces used for frame relay switching before the frame relay
switching function can work.

1-5
Configuration procedure

Follow these steps to configure frame relay switching:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Enable frame relay
fr switching Required
switching
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Required
Set the type of interface The default frame relay
for frame relay switching fr interface-type { dce | nni } interface type is DTE.
to NNI or DCE Frame relay switching is
unavailable to DTEs.

fr switch name interface


interface-type interface-number dlci
Required
dlci1 interface interface-type
interface-number dlci dlci2

Configure a PVC for frame


Optional
relay switching
fr switch name Enter frame relay switching
PVC view
Optional
undo shutdown Enable the current switching
PVC

Configuring Frame Relay Subinterface

Overview

The frame relay module has two types of interfaces: main interface and subinterface. The subinterface
is of logical structure, which can be configured with protocol address and virtual circuit. One physical
interface can include multiple subinterfaces, which do not exist physically. However, for the network
layer, the subinterface and main interface make no difference and both can be configured with virtual
circuits to connect to remote devices.
The subinterface of frame relay falls into two types: point-to-point (P2P) subinterface and
point-to-multipoint (P2MP) subinterface. P2P subinterface is used to connect a single remote device
and P2MP subinterface is used to connect multiple remote devices. A P2MP subinterface can be
configured with multiple virtual circuits, each of which sets up an address map with its connected remote
network address to distinguish different connections. Address maps can be set up by manual
configuration or dynamically set up by InARP.
The methods to configure virtual circuit and address map for P2P subinterfaces and P2MP
subinterfaces are different, as described below.
z P2P subinterface
Since there is only one peer address for a P2P subinterface, the peer address is determined when a
virtual circuit is configured for the subinterface. You therefore do not need to configure dynamic or static
address map for P2P subinterface.
1-6
z P2MP subinterface
For a P2MP subinterface, a peer address can be mapped to the local DLCI through static address
mapping or InARP which only needs to be configured on the main interface. If static address mapping is
required, it is necessary to set up static address map for each virtual circuit.

Configuration procedure

Follow these steps to configure frame relay subinterface:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Required
interface interface-type
Create a subinterface and enter The type of a frame relay
interface-number.subnumber
subinterface view subinterface is p2mp by
[ p2mp | p2p ]
default.

Configure virtual circuit on See Configuring Frame Relay


Required
frame relay subinterface Local Virtual Circuit.

Optional
See Configuring Frame Relay
Set up address map For P2MP subinterface, it is
Address Mapping.
required to set up address map.

Configuring DCE Side Frame Relay


Configuring Basic DCE Side Frame Relay

Follow these steps to configure DCE side frame relay:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Required
The link layer protocol for
Configure interface interface encapsulation is PPP
link-protocol fr [ ietf |
encapsulation protocol as by default. When frame relay
nonstandard ]
frame relay protocol is used for interface
encapsulation, the default
operating mode is IETF.
Required
Configure frame relay interface
fr interface-type { dce | nni } The default frame relay
type to DCE or NNI
interface type is DTE.
Optional
Configure frame relay LMI fr lmi type { ansi |
protocol type nonstandard | q933a } The default frame relay LMI
protocol type is q933a.
Optional
Configure network side N392 fr lmi n392dce n392-value
The default value is 3.
Optional
Configure network side N393 fr lmi n393dce n393-value
The default value is 4.

1-7
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Optional
Configure network side T392 fr lmi t392dce t392-value The default value is 15
seconds.

Configuring Frame Relay Address Mapping

Refer to Configuring Frame Relay Address Mapping.

Configuring Frame Relay Local Virtual Circuit

Refer to Configuring Frame Relay Local Virtual Circuit.

Configuring Frame Relay Switching

Refer to Configuring Frame Relay Switching.

Configuring Frame Relay Subinterface

Refer to Configuring Frame Relay Subinterface.

Enabling the Trap Function


To learn critical events that occur on the frame relay module, you can enable the trap function for frame
relay. Thus, when events that should be notified occur on the frame relay module, traps will be sent to
the information center. You can configure the information center to output the trap information matches
certain criteria to a desired destination (the console for example) for analysis. For how to configure the
information center, refer to Information Center Configuration in the System Volume.
Follow these steps to enable the trap function for the frame relay module:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

Enable the trap function for the Optional


snmp-agent trap enable fr
frame relay module Enabled by default.

For more information about the snmp-agent trap enable fr command, refer to the snmp-agent trap
enable command in SNMP Commands in the System Volume.

1-8
Displaying and Maintaining Frame Relay
To do... Use the command... Remarks

Available in any view


display fr interface Either all the information or the
[ interface-type information of specified
Display frame relay protocol
{ interface-number | interfaces can be shown. The
status on interface
interface-number.subnumber } specified interface can be
] either main interface or
subinterface.
Available in any view
display fr map-info [ interface Either all the information or the
Display mapping table of interface-type information of specified
protocol address and frame { interface-number | interfaces can be shown. The
relay address interface-number.subnumber } specified interface can be
] either main interface or
subinterface.
Available in any view
Display receiving/sending display fr lmi-info [ interface Either all the information or the
statistics information of frame interface-type information of specified
relay LMI type messages interface-number ] interfaces can be shown. Only
main interface can be specified.
Available in any view
Display frame relay data display fr statistics Either all the information or the
receiving/sending statistics [ interface interface-type information of specified
information interface-number ] interfaces can be shown. Only
main interface can be specified.
Available in any view
display fr pvc-info [ interface Either all the information or the
interface-type information of specified
Display frame relay permanent
{ interface-number | interfaces can be shown. The
virtual circuit table
interface-number.subnumber } specified interface can be
] [ dlci-number ] either main interface or
subinterface.
Available in any view
display fr inarp-info Either all the information or the
Display statistics information of
[ interface interface-type information of specified
frame relay InARP messages
interface-number ] interfaces can be shown. Only
main interface can be specified.
Display the information of display fr dlci-switch
configured frame relay [ interface interface-type Available in any view
switching interface-number ]
Clear all the automatically
established frame relay reset fr inarp Available in user view
address maps

Frame Relay Configuration Examples


This section provides these examples:
z Interconnecting LANs through Frame Relay Network
z Interconnecting LANs through Dedicated Line

1-9
Interconnecting LANs through Frame Relay Network

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-2, interconnect LANs through the public frame relay network. In this
implementation, the routers can only work as user equipment working in the frame relay DTE mode.
Figure 1-2 Network diagram for connecting LANs through a frame relay network

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A:
# Assign an IP address to Serial 2/0 interface.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0

# Configure interface encapsulation protocol as frame relay.


[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte

# If the opposite router supports InARP, configure dynamic address mapping.


[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr inarp

# Otherwise, configure static address mapping.


[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.252 50
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.253 60

2) Configure Router B:
# Assign an IP address.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0

# Configure interface encapsulation protocol as frame relay.


[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte

# If the opposite router supports InARP, configure dynamic address mapping.


[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr inarp

# Otherwise, configure static address mapping.


1-10
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.251 70

3) Configure Router C:
# Assign an IP address.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface serial 2/0
[RouterC-Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.253 255.255.255.0

# Configure interface encapsulation protocol as frame relay.


[RouterC-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterC-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte

# If the opposite router supports InARP, configure dynamic address mapping.


[RouterC-Serial2/0] fr inarp

# Otherwise, configure static address mapping.


[RouterC-Serial2/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.251 80

Interconnecting LANs through Dedicated Line

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-3, two routers are directly connected through a serial interface. Router A works in
the frame relay DCE mode, and Router B works in the frame relay DTE mode.
Figure 1-3 Network diagram for interconnecting LANs through a dedicated line

Configuration procedure

Approach I: On main interfaces


1) Configure Router A:
# Assign an IP address.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0

# Configure the link layer protocol on the interface to frame relay in DCE mode .
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dce

# Configure a local virtual circuit.


[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr dlci 100
2) Configure Router B:
# Assign an IP address.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0

1-11
# Set the link layer protocol on the interface to frame relay.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte

Approach II: On subinterfaces


3) Configure Router A
# Set the link layer protocol on the interface to frame relay and interface type to DCE.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dce
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit

# Configure IP address of the subinterface and local virtual circuit.


[RouterA] interface serial 2/0.1 p2p
[RouterA-Serial2/0.1] ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Serial2/0.1] fr dlci 100

4) Configure Router B
# Set the link layer protocol on the interface to frame relay and interface type to DTE.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit

# Configure IP address of the subinterface and local virtual circuit.


[RouterB] interface serial 2/0.1 p2p
[RouterB-Serial2/0.1] ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Serial2/0.1] fr dlci 100

Troubleshooting Frame Relay


Symptom 1:
The physical layer is in down status.
Solution:
z Check whether the physical line is normal.
z Check whether the remote device runs normally.
Symptom 2:
The physical layer is already up, but the link layer protocol is down.
Solution:
z Ensure that both local device and remote device have been encapsulated with frame relay
protocol.
z If two devices are directly connected, check the local device and remote device to ensure that one
end is configured as frame relay DTE interface and the other end as frame relay DCE interface.
z Ensure that the LMI protocol type configuration at the two ends is the same.
z If the above conditions are satisfied, enable the monitoring function for the frame relay LMI
messages to see whether one Status Request message correspond to one Status Response

1-12
message. If not, it indicates the physical layer data is not received/sent correctly. Check the
physical layer. The debugging fr lmi command is used to enable the monitoring function for frame
relay LMI messages.
Symptom 3:
The link layer protocol is up, but the remote party cannot be pinged.
Solution:
z Ensure that the devices at both ends have configured (or created) correct address mapping for the
peer.
z Ensure that there is a route to the peer if the devices are not in the same subnet segment.

1-13
2 Multilink Frame Relay Configuration

When performing multilink frame relay configuration, go to these sections for information you are
interested in:
z Overview
z Configuring Multilink Frame Relay
z Displaying and Maintaining Multilink Frame Relay
z Multilink Frame Relay Configuration Example

Overview
Multilink frame relay (MFR) is a cost effective bandwidth solution for frame relay users. Based on the
FRF.16 protocol of the frame relay forum, it implements MFR function on DTE/DCE interfaces.
MFR function provides a kind of logic interface, namely MFR interface. The MFR interface is composed
of multiple frame relay physical links bound together, so as to provide high-speed and broadband links
on frame relay networks.
To maximize the bandwidth of bundled interface, it is recommended to bundle physical interfaces of the
same rate for the same MFR interface when configuring the MFR interface so as to reduce
management cost.

Bundle and bundle link

Bundle and bundle link are two basic concepts related to MFR.
One MFR interface corresponds to one bundle, which may contain multiple bundle links. One bundle
link corresponds to one physical interface. A bundle manages its bundle links. The interrelationship
between bundle and bundle link is illustrated as follows:
Figure 2-1 Illustration of bundle and bundle links

For the actual physical layer, bundle link is visible; while for the actual data link layer, bundle is visible.

MFR interface and physical interface

An MFR interface is a kind of logic interface. Multiple physical interfaces can be bundled into one MFR
interface. One MFR interface corresponds to one bundle and one physical interface corresponds to one
bundle link. The configuration on a bundle and bundle links is actually configuration on an MFR
interface and physical interfaces.

2-1
The function and configuration of the MFR interface is the same with that on the FR interface in
common sense. Like the FR interface, the MFR interface supports DTE and DCE interface types as well
as QoS queue mechanism. After physical interfaces are bundled into an MFR interface, their original
network layer and frame relay link layer parameters become ineffective and they use the parameter
settings of the MFR interface instead.

Configuring Multilink Frame Relay


Follow these steps to configure multilink frame relay:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Optional
Enable the newly added By default, a physical interface
operations for the protocol state bound to an MFR bundle acts as
mfr those defined in FRF.16.1
machine defined in FRF.16.1
stateup-respond-addlink standard, that is, it does not
standard concerning multilink
Frame Relay link integrity respond to received requests for
establishing links when it is in
protocol up state.

interface mfr Required


Create MFR interface and enter { interface-number |
the MFR interface view interface-number.subnumb MFR interface or subinterface is
er } not created by default.

Optional
By default, the bundle identifier is
mfr + frame relay bundle number.
Configure the MFR bundle It is of local significance only.
mfr bundle-name [ name ]
identifier In spite of the default bundle
identifier, you cannot configure a
bundle identifier as a string in the
form of mfr + number.
Optional
Configure MFR fragmentation mfr fragment Fragmentation is disabled on MFR
bundles by default.
Optional
Configure size of MFR sliding The size of MFR sliding window is
mfr window-size number equal to the number of physical
window
interfaces bundled by MFR by
default.
Optional
Configure maximum fragment
mfr fragment-size bytes The maximum fragment is of 300
size for bundle link
bytes by default.
Configure other parameters of See Frame Relay
Optional
MFR interface Configuration Task List.
Return to system view quit
interface interface-type
Enter specified interface view
interface-number
Required
Bundle the current interface to link-protocol fr mfr
specified MFR interface interface-number An interface is not bundled with
any MFR interface by default.

2-2
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Optional
Configure MFR bundle link The bundle link identifier is the
mfr link-name [ name ]
identifier name of the current interface by
default.
Optional
Configure hello packet sending The hello packet sending period of
mfr timer hello seconds
period of MFR bundle link bundle link is 10 seconds by
default.
Optional
Configure waiting time before
MFR bundle link resends hello mfr timer ack seconds The waiting time before resending
packets hello message is 4 seconds by
default.
Optional
The maximum fragment size is of
Configure maximum fragment 300 bytes. The priority of fragment
mfr fragment-size bytes
size for bundle link size configured in frame relay
interface view is higher than that in
MFR interface view.

Configure the maximum times Optional


that MFR bundle link can mfr retry number The hello packet can be resent 2
resend hello packet times at the maximum by default.

Enable the sub-interface rate Optional


sub-interface rate-statistic
statistics collecting function Disabled by default

Displaying and Maintaining Multilink Frame Relay


To do... Use the command... Remarks

Display configuration and display interface mfr


Available in any view
status of MFR interface [ interface-number ]
Display configuration and display mfr [ interface
statistics information of MFR interface-type interface-number | Available in any view
bundle and bundle links verbose ]

Multilink Frame Relay Configuration Example


MFR Direct Connection Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 2-2, Router A and Router B are directly connected through Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1.
The frame relay protocol is used to bundle the two serial ports to provide broader bandwidth.

2-3
Figure 2-2 Network diagram of MFR direct connection

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A
# Create and configure MFR interface 4 (MFR4)
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface mfr 4
[Router`A-MFR4] ip address 10.140.10.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-MFR4] fr interface-type dte
[RouterA-MFR4] fr map ip 10.140.10.2 100
[RouterA-MFR4] quit

# Bundle Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 to MFR4


[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr mfr 4
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr mfr 4

2) Configure Router B
# Create and configure MFR interface 4 (MFR4)
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface mfr 4
[RouterB-MFR4] ip address 10.140.10.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-MFR4] fr interface-type dce
[RouterB-MFR4] fr dlci 100
[RouterB-fr-dlci-MFR4-100] quit
[RouterB-MFR4] fr map ip 10.140.10.1 100
[RouterB-MFR4] quit

# Bundle Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 to MFR4


[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr mfr 4
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterB] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr mfr 4

MFR Switched Connection Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 2-3, Router A and Router C are connected through MFR to Router B where MFR
switching is enabled.

2-4
Figure 2-3 Network diagram for MFR switching

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A
# Configure interface MFR1
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface mfr 1
[RouterA-MFR1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterA-MFR1] quit

# Add Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 to interface MFR1


[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr mfr 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr mfr 1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] quit

2) Configure Router B
# Enable frame relay switching
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] fr switching

# Configure interface MFR1


[RouterB] interface mfr 1
[RouterB-MFR1] fr interface-type dce
[RouterB-MFR1] fr dlci 100
[RouterB-fr-dlci-MFR1-100] quit
[RouterB-MFR1] quit

# Configure interface MFR2


[RouterB] interface mfr 2
[RouterB-MFR2] fr interface-type dce
[RouterB-MFR2] fr dlci 200
[RouterB-fr-dlci-MFR2-200] quit
[RouterB-MFR2] quit

# Add Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 to interface MFR1


[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr mfr 1
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterB] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr mfr 1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] quit

2-5
# Add Serial 2/2 and Serial 2/3 to interface MFR2
[RouterB] interface serial 2/2
[RouterB-Serial2/2] link-protocol fr mfr 2
[RouterB-Serial 2/2] quit
[RouterB] interface serial 2/3
[RouterB-Serial2/3] link-protocol fr mfr 2
[RouterB-Serial2/3] quit

# Configure static route for frame relay switching


[RouterB] fr switch pvc1 interface mfr 1 dlci 100 interface mfr 2 dlci 200

3) Configure Router C
# Configure interface MFR2
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface mfr 2
[RouterC-MFR2] ip address 1.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
[RouterC-MFR2] quit

# Add Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 to interface MFR2


[RouterC] interface serial 2/0
[RouterC-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr mfr 2
[RouterC-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterC] interface serial 2/1
[RouterC-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr mfr 2

2-6
Table of Contents

1 HDLC Configuration 1-1


Introduction to HDLC1-1
HDLC Overview1-1
HDLC Frame Format and Frame Type 1-1
Configuring HDLC 1-1
HDLC Configuration Example1-2

i
1 HDLC Configuration

When configuring HDLC, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z Introduction to HDLC
z Configuring HDLC
z HDLC Configuration Example

Introduction to HDLC
HDLC Overview

High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented link layer protocol. Its most prominent feature is
that it can transmit any types of bit stream transparently.
z HDLC supports point-to-point link only and does not support point-to-multipoint link.
z HDLC supports neither IP address negotiation nor authentication. It uses keepalive messages to
check link status.
z HDLC can only be encapsulated on synchronous link. Currently, this protocol is applied on the
Serial interface and POS interface.

HDLC Frame Format and Frame Type

There are three types of HDLC frames: information frame (I frame), supervision frame (S frame) and
unnumbered frame (U frame).
z Information frame is responsible for transmitting useful data or information.
z Supervision frame is responsible for error control and flow control.
z Unnumbered frame is responsible for the link establishment, teardown, and so on.
An HDLC frame is composed of flag field, address field, control field, information field and checksum
field.
z The flag field, 0111111, marks the beginning and end of an HDLC frame. Each frame begins and
ends with an F. The F between two neighboring frames functions both as the end of the last frame
and as the beginning of the current frame.
z The address field is eight bits; it identifies the source or destination where the frame is sent or
received.
z The control field is eight bits; it identifies the control type and defines the frame type (control or
data).
z The information field can be an arbitrary binary bit set. The minimum length can be zero and the
maximum length is decided by the FCS field or the buffer size of the communicating node.
Generally, the maximum length is between 1000 and 2000 bits.
z The checksum field can use a 16-bit CRC to check the content of a frame.

Configuring HDLC
Follow these steps to configure HDLC protocol:

1-1
To do Use the command Remarks
Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Required
Enable HDLC on the interface link-protocol hdlc PPP is encapsulated by
default.
Optional
Set the polling interval timer hold seconds The polling interval is 10
seconds by default.

HDLC Configuration Example


Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-1:


z Router A and Router B are connected through their POS ports with HDLC enabled.
z POS 0/0 of Router A borrows the IP address of the local loopback interface. The IP address of the
loopback interface is with 32-bit mask.
z Router A is configured with static routes to Router B and can reach 12.1.2.0/24.
Figure 1-1 Network diagram for HDLC IP address borrowing configuration

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface loopback 1
[RouterA-LoopBack1] ip address 12.1.1.2 32
[RouterA-LoopBack1] quit
[RouterA] interface pos 0/0
[RouterA-Pos0/0] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterA-Pos0/0] ip address unnumbered interface loopback 1
[RouterA-Pos0/0] quit

2) Configure Router B
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface pos 0/0
[RouterB-Pos0/0] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterB-Pos0/0] ip address 12.1.1.2 24

3) Configure static routes on Router A


[RouterA] ip route-static 12.1.1.0 24 pos 0/0
[RouterA] ip route-static 12.1.2.0 24 12.1.1.1

1-2
# Execute the display ip routing-table command on Router A to view the routing table.
[RouterA] display ip routing-table
Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 5 Routes : 5

Destination/Mask Proto Pre Cost NextHop Interface

12.1.1.0/24 Static 60 0 12.1.1.2 POS0/0


12.1.1.2/32 Direct 0 0 127.0.0.1 InLoop0
12.1.2.0/24 Static 60 0 12.1.1.1 POS0/0
127.0.0.0/8 Direct 0 0 127.0.0.1 InLoop0
127.0.0.1/32 Direct 0 0 127.0.0.1 InLoop0

1-3
Table of Contents

1 PPP and MP Configuration 1-1


Introduction to PPP and MP1-1
PPP1-1
MP 1-4
Configuring PPP1-5
Configuring PPP 1-5
Configuring the Local Device to Authenticate the Peer Using PAP 1-6
Configuring the Local Device to Authenticate the Peer Using CHAP 1-7
Configuring the Local Device to be Authenticated by the Peer Using PAP 1-8
Configuring the Local Device to be Authenticated by the Peer Using CHAP 1-8
Configuring PPP Negotiation1-8
Enabling the Generating of PPP Accounting Statistics 1-12
Configuring MP 1-12
Configuring MP Using a VT Interface1-12
Configuring an MP through an MP-Group1-14
Configuring Short Sequence Number Header Format Negotiation1-15
Configuring MP Endpoint Options 1-15
Configuring PPP Link Efficiency Mechanisms 1-16
Configuring PPP Link Efficiency Mechanisms 1-17
Displaying and Maintaining PPP/MP/PPP Link Efficiency Mechanism 1-17
PPP and MP Configuration Examples 1-17
PAP Authentication Configuration Example 1-17
CHAP Authentication Configuration Example 1-18
MP Configuration Example1-19
MP Binding Mode Configuration Examples1-22
Troubleshooting PPP Configuration1-30

2 PPPoE Configuration 2-1


Introduction to PPPoE2-1
Configuring a PPPoE Server 2-1
Displaying and Maintaining PPPoE 2-3
PPPoE Configuration Examples 2-3
PPPoE Server Configuration Example2-3

i
1 PPP and MP Configuration

When configuring PPP and MP, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z Introduction to PPP and MP
z Configuring PPP
z Configuring MP
z Configuring PPP Link Efficiency Mechanisms
z Displaying and Maintaining PPP/MP/PPP Link Efficiency Mechanism
z PPP and MP Configuration Examples
z Troubleshooting PPP Configuration

Introduction to PPP and MP


PPP

The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a link layer protocol that carries network layer packets over
point-to-point links. It gains popularity because it provides user authentication, supports
synchronous/asynchronous communication, and allows for easy extension.
PPP contains a set of protocols, including a link control protocol (LCP), a network control protocol
(NCP), and authentication protocols such as Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP). Among these protocols,
z The LCP is responsible for establishing, tearing down, and monitoring data links.
z The NCP is used for negotiating the packet format and type of data links.
z PAP and CHAP are for network security.

PAP authentication

PAP is a two-way handshake authentication protocol using plain text passwords. It operates as follows.
1) The requester sends its username and password to the authenticator.
2) The authenticator then checks the local user list to see if the username and password are correct
and returns an acknowledgement or negative acknowledge.

1-1
Figure 1-1 PAP Authentication

During PAP authentication, the password is transmitted on the link in plain text. In addition, the
authenticatee sends the username and the password repeatedly through the established PPP link until
the authentication is over. Therefore, PAP is not a secure authentication protocol. It cannot prevent
attacks.

CHAP authentication

CHAP is a three-way handshake authentication protocol using cipher text password.


Currently, two types of CHAP authentication exist: one-way CHAP authentication and two-way CHAP
authentication. By one-way CHAP authentication, one side of the link acts as the authenticator and the
other acts as the authenticatee. By two-way authentication, each side serves as both the authenticator
and the authenticatee. Normally, one-way CHAP authentication is adopted.
CHAP authentication is performed as follows.
1) The authenticator initiates an authentication by sending a randomly generated packet (Challenge).
The packet carries the local username with it.
2) After the authenticatee receives the authentication request, it checks to see if the default CHAP
password is configured on the local port. If yes, the authenticatee encrypts the packet using the
MD5 algorithm, with the packet ID and the default password as the parameters; and then sends the
encrypted packet and the local username to the authenticator (Response).
3) If the default CHAP password is not configured on the port, the authenticatee searches the local
user list for the password of username carried in the received packet, encrypts the packet using the
MD5 algorithm, with the packet ID and the password as the parameters, and then sends the
encrypted packet and the local username to the authenticator (Response).

1-2
4) The authenticator encrypts the original randomly generated packet using the MD5 algorithm, with
the password of the authenticatee it maintains as the parameter, compares the encrypted packet
with the one received from the authenticatee, and returns an Acknowledge or Not Acknowledge
packet depending on the comparison result.
Figure 1-2 CHAP Authentication

Authenticator Authenticatee

Challenge

Rsponse

Ack or Not Ack

Operating mechanism of PPP

Figure 1-3 illustrates the PPP operating mechanism.


1) A PPP link is in the Establish phase when it is about to be established. In this phase, LCP
negotiation is performed, where LCP-related settings are determined, including operating mode
(SP or MP), the authentication mode, and the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU). If the
negotiation is successful, the link enters the Opened state, indicating that the underlying layer link
has been established.
2) If the authentication (the remote verifies the local or the local verifies the remote) is configured, the
PPP link goes to the Authenticate phase, where CHAP or PAP authentication is performed.
3) If the authenticate fails to pass the authentication, the link goes to the Terminate phase, where the
link is torn down and LCP goes down. If the authenticatee passes the authentication, the link goes
to the Network phase. In this phase, NCP negotiation is performed, the LCP state remains Opened,
and the state of IP Control Protocol (IPCP) is changed from Initial to Request.
4) NCP negotiation supports the negotiation of IPCP, through which the IP addresses of both sides
can be determined. NCP negotiation also determines and configures the network layer protocol to
be used. Note that a PPP link can carry a network layer protocol only after the NCP negotiation is
successful.
5) After the NCP negotiation is performed, the PPP link remains active until an LCP or NCP frame
close it explicitly or some external events take place (for example, the intervention of a user).

1-3
Figure 1-3 PPP operation flow chart

For more information about PPP, refer to RFC 1661.

MP

Multilink PPP (MP) provides an approach to increasing bandwidth. It allows multiple PPP links to form
an MP bundle. After receiving a packet that is larger than the allowed fragment size, MP segments the
packet into fragments and distributes them over multiple PPP links to the remote end. After the remote
end receives these fragments, it assembles them into a packet and passes the packet to the network
layer.

Implementation

You can configure MPs through virtual templates (VT) or MP-group interfaces. VTs are used to
configure virtual access interfaces. After binding multiple PPP links to an MP, you need to create a VA
interface for the MP to enable it to exchange data with the peers. VT and MP-group differ in the
following.
z Configuring MP through VT interfaces can involve an authentication process. The device locates
the interfaces associated to a specified VT according to the username provided by the peers, and
creates a bundle (called VT channel in the system) corresponding to an MP link based on the
configurations of the template.
z Multiple bundles can be created on the same virtual template interface, each of which is an MP link.
From the perspective of the network layer, these links form a point to multipoint network topology.
In this sense, virtual template interfaces are more flexible than MP-group interfaces.
z Bundling mode can be used to distinguish multiple bundles created on a VT interface. You can use
the ppp mp binding-mode command in VT interface view to specify the bundling mode. Three
bundling modes are available: authentication, both (the default), and descriptor. The
authentication mode specifies to bundle links according to username, the descriptor mode
specifies to bundle links according to the peer descriptor (which is determined during LCP
negotiation), and the both mode specifies to bundle links according to both username and
descriptor.
z MP-group interfaces are intended only for MP. On an MP-group interface, only one bundle is
allowed. Compared with VT interfaces, the configuration of MP-group interfaces is simpler and
easier, and accordingly is fast and effective, easy to configure and understand.

Negotiation

MP negotiation involves two processes: first LCP negotiation, and then NCP negotiation.

1-4
z LCP negotiation, during which both sides negotiate the common LCP parameters and check
whether their peer interface is working in the MP mode. If not, the LCP negotiation fails. After the
LCP negotiation succeeds, NCP negotiation starts.
z NCP negotiation, which are performed based on the NCP parameters of the MP-group interface or
the specified VT interface. NCP parameters on physical interfaces are not effective.
MP link is established after the NCP negotiation succeeds.

Functions

MP functions to:
z Increase bandwidth, or dynamically increase/reduce bandwidth in combination with Dial Control
Center (DCC).
z Load sharing.
z Backup.
z Decrease transmission delay through fragmentation.
MP is available to any physical or virtual interfaces encapsulated with PPP, such as serial, and PPPoX
(PPPoE, PPPoA, or PPPoFR). However, a multilink bundle is preferred to include only one type of
interfaces.

Configuring PPP
Configuring PPP

Follow these steps to configure PPP:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Optional
Configure PPP as the data link
link-protocol ppp By default, PPP is
layer protocol
used.
Optional
Set the polling interval timer hold seconds
10 seconds by default
Refer to Configuring the Local
Configure the way Employ
Device to Authenticate the Peer
for the local device to PAP Optional
Using PAP.
authenticate the PPP authentication is
peer (either PAP or Refer to Configuring the Local disabled by default
Employ
CHAP) Device to Authenticate the Peer
CHAP
Using CHAP.
Refer to Configuring the Local
Configure the way Employ
Device to be Authenticated by the
for the peer to PAP Optional
Peer Using PAP.
authenticate the PPP authentication is
local device (either Refer to Configuring the Local disabled by default
Employ
PAP or CHAP) Device to be Authenticated by the
CHAP
Peer Using CHAP.
Refer to Configuring PPP
Configure PPP negotiation Optional
Negotiation.

1-5
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Enable the generating of PPP Refer to Enabling the Generating of
Optional
accounting statistics PPP Accounting Statistics

This chapter only discusses local authentication. For information about the remote AAA authentication,
refer to AAA Configuration in the Security Volume.

Configuring the Local Device to Authenticate the Peer Using PAP

Follow these steps to configure the local device to authenticate the peer using PAP:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Required
If you execute this command
with the domain keyword not
Configure the local device to ppp authentication-mode specified, the system-default
authenticate the peer using pap [ [ call-in ] domain domain (named system) will be
PAP isp-name ] used, local authentication is
performed, and the address pool
for address allocation must be
the one configured for this
domain.
Quit to system view quit
Required
Create a local user account local-user username This command also leads you to
local user view.
Configure a password for the password { cipher | simple }
Required
local user password
Configure service type of the
local user as well as other service-type ppp Required
attributes
Quit to system view quit

Create an ISP domain or enter domain { isp-name | default


Optional
an existing ISP domain view enable isp-name }
Configure to authenticate
authentication ppp local Optional
domain users locally

1-6
For information about local user configuration and domain configuration, refer to AAA Configuration in
the Security Volume.

Configuring the Local Device to Authenticate the Peer Using CHAP

Follow these steps to configure the local device to authenticate the peer using CHAP:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Required
If you execute this command
with the domain keyword not
Configure the local device to ppp authentication-mode specified, the system-default
authenticate the peer using chap [ [ call-in ] domain domain (named system) will be
CHAP isp-name ] used, local authentication is
performed, and the address
pool for address allocation
must be the one configured for
this domain.
Create a local user account ppp chap user username Required
Quit to system view quit
Required
Set the local username local-user username This command also leads you
to local user view.
password { cipher | simple }
Configure the local password Required
password
Configure service type of the
local user as well as other service-type ppp Required
attributes
Quit to system view quit
Create an ISP domain, or enter domain { isp-name | default
Optional
an existing ISP domain view enable isp-name }
Configure to authenticate
authentication ppp local Optional
domain user locally

For information about local user configuration and domain configuration, refer to AAA Configuration in
the Security Volume.

1-7
Configuring the Local Device to be Authenticated by the Peer Using PAP

Follow these steps to configure the local device to be authenticated by the peer using PAP:

To do... Use the command... Remarks

Enter system view system-view

interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Set the PAP username and Required
ppp pap local-user username
password for the local device to
password { cipher | simple } By default, the username and
be authenticated by the peer
password password are null.
using PAP

Configuring the Local Device to be Authenticated by the Peer Using CHAP

Follow these steps to configure the local device to be authenticated by the peer using CHAP:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Set the local username ppp chap user username Required

Set the default CHAP authentication ppp chap password { cipher |


Optional
password simple } password
Quit to system
quit
view

Create a local Optional


user account Create a local This command also
local-user username
and set the user account leads you to local
password user view
password { cipher | simple }
Set the password Optional
password

Configuring PPP Negotiation

Introduction to PPP negotiation parameters

PPP negotiation parameters that can be configured include: negotiation timeout time, IP address
negotiation mode, and DNS server address negotiation mode.
Negotiation timeout time determines the interval to send request packets. During PPP negotiation, if no
response is received from the peer during a specific period after the local device sends a packet, the
device sends another one. The period is known as negotiation timeout time, which ranges from 1 to 10
seconds.
IP address negotiation can be implemented in the following two modes.
z The device operating as the client. You can configure the local interface to operate in this mode if it
uses PPP at the data link layer but it does not have an IP address, whereas the peer is configured

1-8
with an IP address, after which the interface can receive an IP address allocated by its peer. This
configuration applies to the situations where you access the Internet through ISP.
z The device operating as the server. In this case, you need to configure a local IP address pool in
domain view or system view to specify the range of the IP addresses to be allocated, and then bind
the address pool to the interface.
PPP address negotiation can also determine the DNS server address. You can configure a device to
allocate the DNS server address to the peer or receive the DNS server address from the peer. Normally,
for a PPP link between a PC and a device, the DNS server address is usually allocated by the device,
through which the PC can access the Internet directly using domain names. For a PPP link established
between a device and the access server of a carrier, the DNS server address is usually allocated by the
access server, through which the device can resolve domain names through the DNS server address
allocated by the access server.

Configuring PPP negotiation parameters

Follow these steps to configure PPP negotiation parameters:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number

Configure the negotiation Optional


ppp timer negotiate seconds
timeout time 3 seconds by default
Configure the IP address Refer to section Configuring IP
Optional
negotiation address negotiation
Configure DNS server address Refer to section Configuring DNS
Optional
negotiation mode server address negotiation

Configuring IP address negotiation

Follow these steps to configure IP address negotiation:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Configure the local end
Configure IP Refer to the section below
as the client Either of the two is
address
Configure the local end required.
negotiation Refer to the section below
as the server

1) Configuring the local end as the client


Follow these steps to configure the local end as the client:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

1-9
To do Use the command Remarks
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Enable IP address negotiation ip address ppp-negotiate Required

2) Configuring the local end as the server


Follow these steps to configure the local end as the server (for cases where PPP authentication is not
enabled):

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

ip pool pool-number
low-ip-address Required
Define a global [ high-ip-address ] As for the remote address
Assign an IP address pool
address of a interface interface-type pool command, if the
and bind it to pool-number argument is not
global address interface-number
the interface provided, the global address
pool for the
peer or specify remote address pool pool numbered 0 is used.
the IP address [ pool-number ]
to be allocated
to the peer (use Specify the IP interface interface-type
either method) address to be interface-number Required
allocated to the
peer remote address ip-address

If multiple global address pools exist, you can only use a specified address pool, instead of obtaining IP
addresses through polling multiple address pools.

Follow these steps to configure the local end as the server (for cases where PPP authentication is
enabled):

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

Enter domain view domain domain-name Required


ip pool pool-number
Define domain address pool low-ip-address Required
[ high-ip-address ]
Quit to system view quit
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number

1-10
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Required
If you execute the remote
address pool command
Specify the address pool for IP remote address pool without providing the
address allocation [ pool-number ] pool-number argument, all the
address pools in the domain
are used in turn for IP address
allocation.
Optional
By default, the peer end is
Disable the peer end from allowed to use the locally
ppp ipcp remote-address configured IP address. In this
using the locally configured IP
forced case, the local end does not
address
allocate an IP address to the
peer end if the latter already
has an IP address.

Note that the domain used in defining the pool address is the domain specified when performing PPP
authentication.

Configuring DNS server address negotiation

1) Configure the local end as the client


Follow these steps to configure the local end as the client:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Required
Enable the local end to
request the peer for a DNS ppp ipcp dns request By default, a device does not
server address request its peer for a DNS server
address.
Optional
Enable the local end to
accept the DNS server ppp ipcp dns admit-any By default, a device does not
address issued by the peer accept the DNS server address
issued by the peer.

2) Configure the local end as the server


Follow these steps to configure the local end as the server:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Required
ppp ipcp dns
Enable the local end to assign a By default, a device does not
primary-dns-address
DNS server address to the peer assign a DNS server address to
[ secondary-dns-address ]
the peer.

1-11
Enabling the Generating of PPP Accounting Statistics

Introduction to PPP accounting statistics

PPP can generate traffic-based accounting statistics on each PPP link. The statistics include the
amount of the inbound and outbound information (in terms of bytes and the number of the packets) on a
link. The information can be used by AAA application modules for accounting and control purpose.

Enabling the generating of PPP accounting statistics

Following these steps to enable the generating of PPP accounting statistics:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number

Enable the generating of PPP Required


ppp account-statistics enable
accounting statistics Disabled by default.

Configuring MP
Configuring MP Using a VT Interface

Introduction

When configuring MP using a VT interface, you can do one of the following:


z Associating physical interfaces to the virtual template using the ppp mp virtual-template
command. In this case, the configuration of authentication is optional. If the authentication is not
performed, the system binds links according to the descriptor of the peer end. If the authentication
is performed, the system binds links according to both the username and the descriptor of the peer.
z Associating a username to the virtual template. After a user passes the authentication, the system
searches for the virtual template interface associated to the username and bundles links according
to the username and the descriptor of the peer. To ensure a successful link negotiation, you need
to configure the ppp mp command and two-way authentication (CHAP or PAP) on the bundled
interfaces.

1-12
z The ppp mp command and the ppp mp virtual-template command are mutually exclusive on an
interface.
z You must configure the interfaces to be bundled in the same way.
z In actual use, you may configure one-way authentication, where one end associates physical
interfaces to a virtual template interface and the other end searches for the virtual template
interface by username.
z A virtual template interface is intended to provide only one service, such as MP, L2TP, or PPPoE.

When configuring MP on a virtual template interface, you can specify to bundle links by username, peer
descriptor, or both. The username discussed here refers to the username of the peer end received
during PAP or CHAP authentication. The descriptor is sent during LCP negotiation. It uniquely identifies
a device. The system distinguishes among the MP bundles created on a virtual template interface by
username and descriptor.

Configuration procedure

Follow these steps to configure MP using a virtual template interface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

Required
interface virtual-template
Create a VT interface This command also leads
number
you to VT interface view.
Quit to system view quit

interface interface-type

interface-number

Associate a Required
physical ppp mp virtual-template Specify the number of the
interface to the number VT interface the interface to
virtual template be bound to.
interface
Configuration PPP Optional
authentication. Refer to PPP authentication has no
Associate a section Configuring PPP effect on the setup of MP
physical interface
or a username to Required
ppp mp user username bind
the VT interface virtual-template number Associate VT interface to
(use either MP users.
method)
interface interface-type

Associate a interface-number
username to Required
the VT
interface ppp mp Configure the interface
encapsulated with PPP to
operate in MP mode.

Configure two-way PPP


authentication. Refer to Required
section Configuring PPP

1-13
To do Use the command Remarks
Refer to section Configuring
Configure other MP parameters Optional
other optional parameters

Configuring other optional parameters

Follow these steps to configure other optional parameters:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

Required
Create an MP VT interface and interface virtual-template The interface virtual-template
enter MP VT interface view number command also leads you to VT
interface view.
Optional
ppp mp binding-mode
Set the binding mode { authentication | both | By default, MP binding is based
descriptor } on both the PPP authentication
username and the descriptor.
Optional
Set the maximum number of ppp mp max-bind 16 by default
links for MP bundles max-bind-num This command is available in
VT interface view.

Set the minimum size of Optional


ppp mp min-fragment size
outgoing MP fragment 128 bytes by default

z The maximum/minimum number of links configured with the ppp mp max-bind/ppp mp min-bind
command takes effect in an MP bundle only after you re-enable all the physical interfaces
contained in the MP bundle.
z When MP binding is based on descriptor only, users cannot be differentiated. So, to bind users to
different MP bundles, set the binding mode as both.
z When MP binding is based on authentication username only, peer devices cannot be differentiated.
So, if a MP bundle involves multiple devices, set the binding mode as both.
z For a VT interface, if a static route is used, you are recommended to specify the next hop rather
than the outgoing interface. If the outgoing interface must be specified, make sure that the physical
interfaces bound to the VT are active to ensure normal transport of packets.
z For information about configuring MP parameters in Dialer interface view, refer to DCC
configuration in the Access Volume.

Configuring an MP through an MP-Group

Follow these steps to configure an MP through an MP-group:

1-14
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Enter system view system-view
Create an MP-group interface mp-group mp-number Required
Quit to system view quit

Enter interface view interface interface-type interface-number


Add the interface to the
ppp mp mp-group mp-number Required
MP-group

Configuring Short Sequence Number Header Format Negotiation

By default, an MP bundle receives and transmits fragments with long sequence numbers.
z If the local end wants to receive fragments with short sequence numbers, it should request the peer
to transmit short sequence numbers during LCP negotiation. After the negotiation succeeds, the
peer transmits fragments with short sequence numbers.
z If the local end wants to transmit fragments with short sequence numbers, it should ask the peer to
send a request for receiving short sequence numbers during LCP negotiation. After the negotiation
succeeds, the local end transmits fragments with short sequence numbers.
Follow these steps to configure short sequence number header format negotiation for MP:

To do Use the command Remarks

Enter system view system-view

interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Configure MP short sequence
ppp mp short-sequence Optional
number header negotiation

z The sequence number format (long or short) of an MP bundle depends on the configuration of the
first channel joining the MP bundle.
z To negotiate the use of short sequence numbers on a dialer MP bundle, configure the command on
the dialer interfaces and the ISDN D channels; to do that on a common MP bundle, use the
command on all its channels. Note that the command will cause PPP re-negotiation.

Configuring MP Endpoint Options

During the LCP negotiation for MP, endpoint options are negotiated for bundling.
By default, the endpoint option in the packets sent out an interface is the device name. After you use the
mp-group command to add the interface to the specified MP-group interface, the endpoint option in the
packets sent out the interface is the MP-group interface name. As the endpoint option is of up to 20
bytes, if the default is of more than 20 bytes, the first 20 bytes are taken as the endpoint option.

1-15
You can use the following commands to configure the endpoint option in the packets sent out an
interface.
Follow these steps to configure the MP endpoint option:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface interface-type
Enter interface view
interface-number
Configure the MP endpoint ppp mp endpoint string
Required
option char-string

Configuring PPP Link Efficiency Mechanisms


Link Fragmentation and Interleaving (LFI) is available for improving transmission efficiency on PPP
links.
On low speed serial link, packets of real-time interactive communications (such as Telnet and VoIP)
may be blocked or delayed if packets of other applications are also transmitted across the link. For
example, if a voice packet arrives when large packets are being scheduled and waiting for being
transmitted, it has to wait until all the large packets have been transmitted. For the real-time applications
such as VoIP, delays longer than 100 or 150 ms cause voice quality to drop dramatically and thus
cannot be tolerated.
On a 56 Kbps link, it costs approximately 215 ms to transmit a 1500-byte packet (the size of the MTU of
common links). To confine the delay of transmitting time-sensitive packets on low-speed links (such as
56 Kbps frame relay channels) to an acceptable level, a method is required to fragment larger packets
and adding both the smaller packets and fragments of the large packet to a output queue.
LFI reduces delays and jitters on low-speed links by fragmenting large packets into small fragments and
transmitting them along with small packets. The fragmented datagrams are reassembled at the
destination.
The following figure illustrates the process of LFI. When large packets and small voice packets arrive at
a WFQ-enabled interface at the same time, the large packets are fragmented into small fragments,
which are then added to the queues along with the voice packets.
Figure 1-4 Link fragmentation and interleaving

1-16
Configuring PPP Link Efficiency Mechanisms

Follow these steps to configure PPP Link efficiency mechanisms:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

Create an MP-group interface mp-group mp-number Required


Quit to system view quit

Enter VT interface interface virtual-template


view or MP-group number Required
interface view interface mp-group mp-number
Configure Required
LFI Enable LFI ppp mp lfi
Disable by default
Configure the Required
maximum delay of LFI ppp mp lfi delay-per-frag time
fragments 10 ms by default

Displaying and Maintaining PPP/MP/PPP Link Efficiency Mechanism


To do Use the command Remarks
Display the information about display interface mp-group
Available in any view
an existing MP-group interface [ mp-number ]

display virtual-access [ va-number


Display the information about a | dialer dialer-number | peer
Available in any view
VA interface peer-address | slot slot-number |
user user-name | vt vt-number ] *
Display the information about display interface virtual-template
Available in any view
an existing VT [ number ]
Display the information about display ppp mp [ interface
Available in any view
an MP interface interface-type interface-number ]

PPP and MP Configuration Examples


PAP Authentication Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-5, Router A and Router B are interconnected through their Serial 2/0 interfaces. It
is required to authenticate Router B on Router A using PAP.

Network diagram

Figure 1-5 Network diagram for PAP and CHAP authentication

1-17
Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user user2
[RouterA-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-user2] password simple pass2
[RouterA-luser-user2] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
2) Configure Router B.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user user2 password simple pass2
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16

CHAP Authentication Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-5, it is required to authenticate Router B on Router A using CHAP.

Configuration procedure

Approach I: use the local username and password to perform authentication


1) Configure Router A.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user user2
[RouterA-luser-user2] password simple hello
[RouterA-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-user2] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp chap user user1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterA]domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
2) Configure router B.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user user1
[RouterB-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-user1] password simple hello

1-18
[RouterB-luser-user1] quit
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp chap user user2
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16

Approach II: use the default CHAP password to perform authentication


3) Configure Router A.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user user2
[RouterA-luser-user2] password simple hello
[RouterA-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-user2] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
4) Configure Router B.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp chap user user2
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp chap password simple hello
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16

If you configure the ppp authentication-mode chap command without specifying the domain keyword,
the default domain named system is adopted at the time of authentication and local authentication is
performed.

MP Configuration Example

Network requirements

In the network shown in Figure 1-6,


z On an E1 interface of Router A, four channels are created with the interface names being Serial
2/0:1, Serial 2/0:2, Serial 2/0:3, and Serial 2/0:4.
z On Router B, two channels are created with the interface names being Serial 2/0:1 and Serial 2/0:2.
It is the same case with Router C.
Do the following:
z Bind two channels on Router A with the two channels on Router B and another two channels with
the two channels on Router C.
z Adopt binding authentication.

1-19
Figure 1-6 Network diagram for MP configuration

Router B Host

S2/0
Host Host

S2/0
DDN
Router A
Host
S2/0

Host
Router C Host

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A:
# Create user accounts for Router B and Router C and set the passwords.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user router-b
[RouterA-luser-router-b] password simple router-b
[RouterA-luser-router-b] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-router-b] quit
[RouterA] local-user router-c
[RouterA-luser-router-c] password simple router-c
[RouterA-luser-router-c] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-router-c] quit

# Create two virtual-templates for the two user accounts.


[RouterA] ppp mp user router-b bind virtual-template 1
[RouterA] ppp mp user router-c bind virtual-template 2

# Configure the virtual-templates


[RouterA] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ip address 202.38.166.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] quit
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 2
[RouterA-Virtual-Template2] ip address 202.38.168.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Virtual-Template2] quit

# Add interfaces Serial 2/0:1, Serial 2/0:2, Serial 2/0:3, and Serial 2/0:4 to MP channels, taking Serial
2/0:1 as an example.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0:1
[RouterA-Serial2/0:1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0:1] ppp mp
[RouterA-Serial2/0:1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0:1] ppp pap local-user router-a password simple router-a
[RouterA-Serial2/0:1] quit

# Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
[RouterA] domain system

1-20
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
2) Configure Router B:
# Create a user account for Router A.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user router-a
[RouterB-luser-router-a] password simple router-a
[RouterB-luser-router-a] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-router-a] quit

# Create a virtual-template for the user and specify to use the NCP information of this template for PPP
negotiation.
[RouterB] ppp mp user router-a bind virtual-template 1

# Configure the virtual-template.


[RouterB] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ip address 202.38.166.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] quit

# Add interfaces Serial 2/0:1 and Serial 2/0/:2 to the MP channel, taking Serial 2/0:1 as an example.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0:1
[RouterB-Serial2/0:1] ppp mp
[RouterB-Serial2/0:1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/0:1] ppp pap local-user router-b password simple router-b
3) Configure Router C:
# Create a user account for Router A.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] local-user router-a
[RouterC-luser-router-a] password simple router-a
[RouterC-luser-router-a] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-router-a] quit

# Create a virtual-template for the user and specify to use the NCP information of the template for PPP
negotiation.
[RouterC] ppp mp user router-a bind virtual-template 1

# Configure the virtual-template.


[RouterC] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterC-Virtual-Template1] ip address 202.38.168.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Template1] quit

# Add interfaces Serial 2/0:1 and Serial 2/0:2 to the MP channel, taking Serial 2/0:1 as an example.
[RouterC] interface serial 2/0:1
[RouterC-Serial2/0:1] ppp mp
[RouterC-Serial2/0:1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterC-Serial2/0:1] ppp pap local-user router-c password simple router-c
[RouterC-Serial2/0:1] quit

# Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
[RouterC] domain system
[RouterC-isp-system] authentication ppp local

1-21
MP Binding Mode Configuration Examples

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-7, Router A and Router B are connected together through Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1
interfaces. It is desired to bind the links in the three MP binding modes.
Figure 1-7 Network diagram for MP binding mode configuration

Configuration procedure

1) Directly bind the physical interfaces to a virtual template interface


Configure Router A:
# Configure the username and password of Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] password simple rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-rtb] quit

# Create a virtual template interface and assign an IP address to it.


[RouterA] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.1 24
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ppp mp binding-mode authentication

# Configure Serial 2/1.


[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp mp virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/0.


[RouterA] interface serial2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local

1-22
[RouterA-isp-system] quit

Configure Router B:
# Configure the username and password of Router A
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] password simple rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-rta] quit

# Create a virtual-template interface and assign an IP address to it.


[RouterB] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.2 24
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ppp mp binding-mode authentication
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/1.


[RouterB] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp mp virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/0.


[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit

# Configure the users in the domain to use local authentication scheme.


[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterB-isp-system] quit

# Verify the configuration on Router A:


[RouterA] display ppp mp
Template is Virtual-Template1
Bundle rtb, 2 member, Master link is Virtual-Template1:0
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
The bundled member channels are:
Serial2/1
Serial2/0

1-23
# Check the information about virtual access interfaces:
[RouterA] display virtual-access
Virtual-Template1:0 current state: UP
Line protocol current state: UP
Description: Virtual-Template0:0 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, MP opened, IPCP opened, OSICP opened
Physical is MP, baudrate: 64000 bps
Output queue : (Urgent queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/100/0
Output queue : (Protocol queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
Last 300 seconds input: 0 bytes/sec 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output: 0 bytes/sec 0 packets/sec
520 packets input, 44132 bytes, 0 drops
527 packets output, 44566 bytes, 4 drops

The output display on Router B is similar.


# Ping the IP address 8.1.1.1 on Router B.
[RouterB] ping 8.1.1.1
PING 8.1.1.1: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=30 ms

--- 8.1.1.1 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 29/30/31 ms

Because PPP authentication is configured on the physical interface, the bundle field in the output of the
display ppp mp command is the peer username. If authentication is disabled, the bundle field should
be the peer descriptor.
In addition, you can check the state of MP virtual channels by checking the state of virtual access
interfaces by using the display virtual-access command.
2) Associate remote username with virtual template interface
Configure Router A:
# Configure the username and password of Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] password simple rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-rtb] quit

# Assign a virtual-template to user RTB.

1-24
[RouterA] ppp mp user rtb bind virtual-template 1

# Create a virtual-template and configure the IP address.


[RouterA] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.1 24
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ppp mp binding authentication
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/1.


[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp mp
[RouterA-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/0.


[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp mp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit

# Configure the user in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterA-isp-system] quit

Configure Router B
# Configure the username and password of Router A.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] password simple rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-rta] quit

# Assign a virtual-template to user RTA.


[RouterB] ppp mp user rta bind virtual-template 1

# Create a virtual-template and configure the IP address.


[RouterB] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.2 24
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ppp mp binding-mode authentication
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/1.


[RouterB] interface serial 2/1

1-25
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp mp
[RouterB-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/0.


[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp mp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit

# Configure the user in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterB-isp-system] quit

# Verify the configuration on Router A.


<RouterA> display ppp mp
Template is Virtual-Template1
Bundle rtb, 2 member, Master link is Virtual-Template1:0
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
The bundled member channels are:
Serial2/1
Serial2/0

# Verify the results on Router B.


[RouterB] display ppp mp
Template is Virtual-Template1
Bundle rta, 2 member, Master link is Virtual-Template1:0
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
The bundled member channels are:
Serial2/1
Serial2/0

# Check the information about the virtual access interface.


[RouterB] display virtual-access
Virtual-Template1:0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description : Virtual-Template1:0 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Link layer protocol is PPP

1-26
LCP opened, MP opened, IPCP opened, OSICP opened, MPLSCP opened
Physical is MP
Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
5 minutes input rate 0 bytes/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minutes output rate 0 bytes/sec, 0 packets/sec
21 packets input, 1386 bytes, 0 drops
21 packets output, 1386 bytes, 0 drops

# Ping the IP address 8.1.1.1 on Router B.


[RouterB] ping 8.1.1.1
PING 8.1.1.1: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=30 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=30 ms

--- 8.1.1.1 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 29/30/31 ms

To bind two interfaces, Serial 2/1 and Serial 2/0 for example, into the same MP bundle, you should keep
their MP bundling configuration consistent and avoid configuring one interface with the ppp mp
command and the other with the ppp mp virtual-template 1 command. Otherwise, they will be
assigned to different MP bundles.
3) Configure MP bundle on an MP-group interface
In addition to virtual template interfaces, the system provides MP-group interfaces to implement MP
bundle. This implementation is similar to directly adding physical interfaces to a virtual template.
Configure Router A:
# Configure the username and password of Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] password simple rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-rtb] quit

# Create an MP-group interface, and assign an IP address to it.


[RouterA] interface mp-group 1
[RouterA-Mp-group1] ip address 111.1.1.1 24

# Configure Serial 2/1.


[RouterA-Mp-group1] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp mp mp-group 1

1-27
[RouterA-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/0.


[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp mp mp-group 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit

# Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterA-isp-system] quit

Configure Router B
# Configure username and password for Router A
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] password simple rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-rta] quit

# Create an Mp-group interface and assign an IP address to it.


[RouterB] interface mp-group 1
[RouterB-Mp-group1] ip address 111.1.1.2 24
[RouterB-Mp-group1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/1.


[RouterB] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp mp mp-group 1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] quit

# Configure Serial 2/0.


[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp mp mp-group 1
[RouterB-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] undo shutdown

1-28
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit

# Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterB-isp-system] quit

# Verify the configuration on Router A.


[RouterA] display ppp mp
Mp-group is Mp-group1
Bundle Multilink, 2 member, Master link is Mp-group1
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
The bundled member channels are:
Serial2/0
Serial2/0

# Check the state of Mp-group1.


[RouterA] display interface Mp-group 1
Mp-group1 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description : Mp-group1 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500, Hold timer is 10(sec)
Internet Address is 111.1.1.1/24
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, MP opened, IPCP opened, MPLSCP opened
Physical is MP
Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
5 minutes input rate 0 bytes/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minutes output rate 0 bytes/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 packets input, 58 bytes, 0 drops
5 packets output, 54 bytes, 0 drops

# Ping the IP address 111.1.1.2 on Router A.


[RouterA] ping 111.1.1.2
PING 111.1.1.2: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=30 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=30 ms
--- 111.1.1.2 ping statistics ---
5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 29/29/31 ms

Note that in this approach, all the users are bound together to the MP group interface and the concept of
virtual access is not involved.

1-29
Troubleshooting PPP Configuration
Symptom 1:
PPP authentication always fails and the link can never go up.
Solution:
This problem may arise if the parameters for authentication are incorrect.
Enable the debugging of PPP, and you can see the information describing that LCP went up upon a
successful LCP negotiation but went down after PAP or CHAP negotiation.
Check the PPP authentication parameter configurations at the local and peer ends to make sure that
they are consistent.
Symptom 2:
Physical link is always down.
Solution:
The physical link is down when:
z The interface is not brought up.
z The interface is shut down by the administrator.
z LCP negotiation fails.
Execute the display interface serial command to check the state of the interface. The output
information can be:
z serial number is administratively down, line protocol is down, which indicates that the
interface is shut down by the administrator.
z serial number is down, line protocol is down, which indicates that the interface is not activated
or the physical layer has not gone up yet.
z Virtual-template number is down, line protocol is spoofing up, which indicates that the
interface is a dialer interface and calls cannot get through.
z serial number is up, line protocol is up, which indicates that LCP negotiation succeeded.
z serial number is up, line protocol is down, which indicates that the interface is active, but LCP
negotiation failed.
Symptom 3:
Configure an IPv6 address on a PPP-encapsulated interface when IPv6 is disabled. The PPP link fails
IPv6CP negotiation and cannot go up. After enabling IPv6, the interface still cannot go up.
Analysis:
IPv6CP negotiation cannot succeed when IPv6 is disabled. As IPv6CP does not support re-negotiation,
IPv6CP negotiation cannot succeed even if you enable IPv6 subsequently.
Solution:
To resolve the problem, do the following:
z Enable IPv6 before configuring an IPv6 address on a PPP link.
z If IPv6CP negotiation fails, re-enable the interface with the shutdown command and the undo
shutdown command to re-enable IPv6CP negotiation.

1-30
2 PPPoE Configuration

When configuring PPPoE, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z Introduction to PPPoE
z Configuring a PPPoE Server
z Displaying and Maintaining PPPoE
z PPPoE Configuration Examples

Introduction to PPPoE
PPPoE

Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) can provide the access to the Internet for hosts in an
Ethernet through remote access devices. It also implements access control and accounting on a
per-host basis. As it is cost-effective, and delivers excellent expandability and ease of management,
PPPoE gains popularity in various applications, such as residential networks.
PPPoE adopts the client/server model. It can establish point-to-point links in Ethernet. With PPPoE
employed, PPP packets are encapsulated in Ethernet frames.
PPPoE undergoes two phases: discovery and PPP session, as described below.
z Discovery phase, where a PPPoE session is initiated. In this phase, the host obtains the MAC
address of the access end and generates the PPPoE session ID.
z PPP session phase, where PPP packets are encapsulated in Ethernet frames before being sent to
the peer. In the frame, the SESSION ID must be the one determined in the discovery phase, the
MAC address must be that of the peer, and the PPP packet section begins from the Protocol ID
field. In Session phase, either side of the link can terminate the session by sending PPPoE Active
Discovery Terminate (PADT) packets.
For more information about PPPoE, refer to RFC 2516.

PPPoE server

A device can operate as a PPPoE server to provide the following functions:


z Dynamic IP address allocation.
z Multiple authentication methods, such as local authentication and RADIUS/TACACS+. When
accompanied by packet-filtering firewall or state firewall, a PPPoE server can provide security for
networks connecting the Internet through Ethernet, such as campus networks and residential
networks. This however, requires installation of PPPoE client dial-up software on hosts.

PPPoE client

PPPoE is widely used in ADSL broadband access applications. Normally, to enable a host to access the
Internet through ADSL, PPPoE client dial-up software is required on the host.

Configuring a PPPoE Server


You can configure PPPoE servers on Ethernet ports.

2-1
Follow these steps to configure a PPPoE server:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

interface virtual-template This operation also leads you to


Create a VT
number virtual interface template view.
Configure PPP parameters
(including authentication type, Refer to Configuring PPP Optional
IP address negotiation, etc)
interface interface-type
Enter Ethernet port view Required
interface-number

Enable PPPoE on the Ethernet pppoe-server bind Required


port virtual-template number Disabled by default
Quit to system view quit
Set the maximum number of Optional
pppoe-server max-sessions
PPPoE sessions allowed with
remote-mac number 100 by default
regard to a peer MAC address
Set the maximum number of
PPPoE sessions allowed with pppoe-server max-sessions Optional
regard to the local MAC local-mac number 100 by default
address
Set the maximum number of Optional
pppoe-server max-sessions
PPPoE sessions allowed (for
total number 18000 by default
centralized devices)

Set the maximum number of Optional


pppoe-server max-sessions
PPPoE sessions allowed (for The default varies with the I/O
slot slot-number total number
distributed device) cards.
Configure authentication and Refer to AAA Configuration in
Optional
accounting on PPP users the Security Volume.
Quit to system view quit

pppoe-server Optional
Disable PPP log displaying
log-information off Enabled by default

z When configuring a static route on a virtual template interface, specify the next hop instead of the
outgoing interface. If the outgoing interface is required, make sure that the physical interface bound
to the virtual template is effective to ensure normal transport of packets.
z When you disable the authentication of the PPPoE server, the system will assign IP addresses
from a global address pool. If multiple global address pools exist, you can only use a specified
address pool, instead of obtaining IP addresses through polling multiple address pools.

2-2
Displaying and Maintaining PPPoE
To do Use the command Remarks
Display the statistics and state
information about all PPPoE display pppoe-server session all Available in any view
servers
reset pppoe-server { all | interface
Terminate sessions at the
interface-type interface-number | Available in user view
PPPoE server end
virtual-template number }

PPPoE Configuration Examples


PPPoE Server Configuration Example

Network requirements

In Figure 2-1, Host A and Host B, acting as PPPoE client, access the Internet through the Router. The
Router acts as the PPPoE server, performing local authentication and assigning IP addresses for the
users.
The Router provides Internet access for Host A and Host B through GigabitEthernet 1/0. It connects to
the Internet through Serial 2/0.
Figure 2-1 Network diagram for PPPoE server configuration

Configuration procedure

# Add a PPPoE user.


<Sysname> system-view
[Sysname] local-user user1
[Sysname-luser-user1] password simple pass1
[Sysname-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[Sysname-luser-user1] quit

# Configure virtual-template 1 on the Router.


[Sysname] interface virtual-template 1
[Sysname-Virtual-Template1] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
[Sysname-Virtual-Template1] ppp chap user user1
[Sysname-Virtual-Template1] remote address pool 1
[Sysname-Virtual-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0

2-3
[Sysname-Virtual-Template1] quit

# Configure PPPoE parameters on the Router.


[Sysname] interface gigabitethernet 1/1
[Sysname-GigabitEthernet1/1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 1
[Sysname-GigabitEthernet1/1] quit

# Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
[Sysname] domain system
[Sysname-isp-system] authentication ppp local

# Add a local IP address pool.


[Sysname-isp-system] ip pool 1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.10

After the above configuration, Host A and Host B can access the Internet using the username user1
and password pass1 through Router if they have PPPoE client software installed.
If you specify the authentication scheme as radius-scheme or hwtacacs-scheme with the
authentication ppp command, you need to configure the RADIUS/HWTACACS parameters for AAA.
For detailed configuration procedures, refer to AAA Configuration in the Security Volume.

2-4
Table of Contents

1 Logical Interface Configuration 1-1


Logical Interface Overview1-1
Loopback Interface1-1
Introduction to Loopback Interface 1-1
Configuring a Loopback Interface 1-2
Null Interface 1-2
Introduction to Null Interface 1-2
Configuring a Null Interface 1-2
Subinterface 1-3
Introduction to Subinterface 1-3
Configuring an Ethernet Subinterface 1-3
Configuring a WAN Subinterface 1-4
Ethernet Subinterface Configuration Example 1-5
WAN Subinterface Configuration Example 1-7
MP-Group Interface1-8
MFR Interface 1-8
VT and VA Interface1-9
Introduction to VT and VA interface 1-9
Configuring a VT1-9
Displaying and Maintaining VTs and VA Interfaces 1-10
Troubleshooting VT/VA Interface 1-11
VE Interface 1-11
Introduction to VE Interface 1-11
Configuring a VE Interface 1-11

i
1 Logical Interface Configuration

When configuring logical interfaces, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z Logical Interface Overview
z Loopback Interface
z Null Interface
z Subinterface
z MP-Group Interface
z MFR Interface
z VT and VA Interface

This chapter only describes the basic configurations of logical interfaces. For the configuration of the
data link layer, network layer, and special features, refer to the relevant features in the Access Volume
and the IP Services Volume.

Logical Interface Overview


Logical interfaces are virtual interfaces that can exchange data but do not exist physically. Examples of
logical interfaces include the loopback interface, null interface, subinterface, multilink point-to-point
protocol group (MP-group) interface, multilink frame relay (MFR) interface, and virtual template (VT).

Loopback Interface
Introduction to Loopback Interface

A loopback interface is a software-only virtual interface. The physical layer state and link layer protocols
of a loopback interface are always up unless the loopback interface is manually shut down. A loopback
interface can be configured with an IP address. For saving IP address resources, the IP address is
automatically configured with a 32-bit mask. Routing protocols can be enabled on a loopback interface,
and a loopback interface is capable of sending and receiving routing protocol packets.
Loopback interfaces are widely applied, for example, a loopback interface address can be configured
as the source address of all the IP packets that the device generates. The loopback interface address is
a stable unicast address, so the loopback interface address is usually regarded as the identification of a
device. If you configure an authentication or security server to permit or deny packets with a specific
loopback interface address, all the packets a specific device generates are permitted or denied. In this
way, the packet filtering rules are simplified. Note that, when a loopback interface is used for source
address binding, make sure that the route from the loopback interface to the peer is reachable; all data

1-1
packets sent to the loopback interface are considered as packets sent to the device itself, so the device
does not forward these packets.
Because a loopback interface is always up, it can be used for some special purposes. For example, if a
router ID is not configured for a dynamic routing protocol, the highest loopback interface address is
selected as the router ID.

Configuring a Loopback Interface

Follow these steps to configure a loopback interface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Create a Loopback interface
interface loopback
and enter Loopback interface
interface-number
view
Optional
Shut down the loopback
shutdown A loopback interface is up on
interface
being created.

z The subnet mask of the IP address assigned to a Loopback interface can only be 32 bits in length.
z Parameters such as IP addresses and IP routes can be configured on Loopback interfaces. Refer
to the IP Services Volume for detailed configurations.

Null Interface
Introduction to Null Interface

Null interfaces are completely software-like logical interfaces. Null interfaces are always up. However,
they can neither forward data packets nor have IP addresses and link layer protocols configured on
them. With a null interface specified as the next hop of a static route to a specific network segment, any
packets routed to the network segment are dropped. Null interface provides you a way to filter packets.
That is, you can simply transmit unwanted traffic to a null interface rather than applying ACLs.
For example, by executing the ip route-static 92.101.0.0 255.255.0.0 null 0 command (which
configures a static route leading to a null interface), you can have all the packets destined to the network
segment 92.101.0.0/16 discarded.

Configuring a Null Interface

Follow these steps to configure a null interface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

1-2
To do Use the command Remarks
Required
Enter null interface view interface null 0 Null0 interface is the default null
interface on a device. It can neither be
created nor removed.

Subinterface
Introduction to Subinterface

Subinterfaces are logical virtual interfaces configured on a main interface. The main interface can be
either a physical interface (such as a Layer 3 Ethernet interface) or a logical interface (such as an MFR
interface). The subinterfaces on a main interface share the physical layer parameters of the main
interface but can have link layer and network layer parameters of their own. Disabling or enabling a
subinterface does not affect the main interface, but the main interface status change affects the
subinterfaces. The subinterfaces cannot operate normally unless the main interface is connected.
A single physical interface containing multiple subinterfaces enables you to network in a more flexible
way.
You can create subinterfaces for the following physical interfaces:
z Ethernet interface. An Ethernet subinterface associated with no VLAN does not support any
network layer protocol, while an Ethernet subinterface associated with a VLAN supports IP.
z WAN interfaces with their data link layer protocols being frame relay, whose subinterfaces support
IP.

Configuring an Ethernet Subinterface

Configuring operation parameters for an Ethernet subinterface

Ethernet subinterface enables Ethernet interfaces to identify packets by VLANs. By configuring multiple
subinterfaces on an Ethernet interface, you can have packets of different VLANs forwarded through the
corresponding subinterfaces, thus improving the flexibility of networking implementations.
Follow these steps to configure an Ethernet subinterface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Required
Create an Ethernet interface gigabitethernet
subinterface and enter interface-number.subnumbe If the specified Ethernet subinterface
Ethernet subinterface view r already exists, you enter Ethernet
subinterface view directly.
Required
By default, upon creation of an
Set the encapsulation type Ethernet subinterface, this Ethernet
and associated VLAN for vlan-type dot1q vid vlan-id subinterface is not associated with
the Ethernet subinterface any VLAN, and no encapsulation
protocol is available on the
subinterface.

1-3
z To enable an Ethernet subinterface to send and receive VLAN packets, you need to first specify the
VLANs that are permitted by the subinterface.
z To activate an Ethernet subinterface, you must associate the subinterface with a VLAN. For details,
refer to VLAN Termination in the Access Volume.
z You can configure IP parameters on an Ethernet subinterface. Refer to the IP Services Volume for
detailed configurations.
z For the local and remote Ethernet subinterfaces to transmit traffic correctly, configure them with the
same subinterface number and VLAN ID.
z You cannot create a subinterface on a management Ethernet interface.

Display and maintain Ethernet subinterfaces

After the above configuration, you can use the display command in any view to view the configuration
information of the Ethernet subinterface, so as to verify the configuration.
Follow these steps to display and maintain Ethernet subinterfaces:

To do Use the command


display interface interface-type
Display the information about a subinterface
interface-number.subnumber
Display the information about the VLAN of a display vlan interface interface-type
subinterface interface-number.subnumber

Configuring a WAN Subinterface

Configure a subinterface on a WAN interface with its link-layer protocol being frame relay

1) Create a subinterface
Follow these steps to create a subinterface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface serial
Enter serial interface view Required
interface-number
Required
Set the data link layer protocol link-protocol fr [ nonstandard
of the interface to frame relay | ietf | mfr interface-number] By default, the data link layer
protocol of an interface is PPP.
Return to system view quit Required

Create a subinterface for the interface serial Required


serial interface and enter the interface-number.subnumber By default, point-to-multipoint
corresponding view [ p2mp | p2p ] subinterfaces are created.

2) Configure relevant operation parameters

1-4
On a subinterface of a WAN interface with its data link layer protocol being frame relay, you can perform
the following configuration.
z Creating a frame relay address mapping that is different from the that of the WAN interface (also
known as the main interface)
z Assigning an IP address for the subinterface. The IP address can be in a network segment different
from that where the WAN interface resides.
z Creating virtual circuits corresponding to the subinterface
For related information, refer to Frame Relay Configuration in the Access Volume and related sections
in the IP Services Volume.

Ethernet Subinterface Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-1, Host A and Host B are connected to Switch A; Host C and Host D are
connected to Switch B. Host A and Host C belong to VLAN 10; Host B and Host D belong to VLAN 20.
It is required that:
z The IP addresses of router subinterfaces GigabitEthernet 3/0.10, GigabitEthernet 3/0.20,
GigabitEthernet 4/0.10, and GigabitEthernet 4/0.20 are 1.0.0.1/8, 2.0.0.1/8, 3.0.0.1/8, and
4.0.0.1/8.
z Host A can communicate with Host B; Host C can communicate with Host D. That is, devices
connected to the same switch but belonging to different VLANs can communicate with each other.
z Host A can communicate with Host C; Host B can communicate with Host D. That is, devices
connected to different switches but belonging to the same VLAN can communicate with each other.
z Host A can communicate with Host D; Host B can communicate with Host C. That is, devices
connected to different switches and belonging to different VLANs can communicate with each
other.

1-5
Figure 1-1 Network diagram for Ethernet subinterface configuration

Internet

GE2/0.20
Router 4.0.0.1/8
VLAN 20 Switch B

GE2/0.10
3.0.0.1/8
VLAN 10
GE1/0.10 GE1/0.20
1.0.0.1/8 2.0.0.1/8
VLAN 10 VLAN 20

Host C Host D
Switch A 3.3.3.3/8 4.4.4.4/8
VLAN 10 VLAN 20

Host A Host B
1.1.1.1/8 2.2.2.2/8
VLAN 10 VLAN 20

Configuration procedure

The vlan-type dot1q vid command is required in this configuration example because a subinterface
can work for data transmission only after it is associated with a VLAN.

z Configure Router
# Create Ethernet subinterfaces (that is, GigabitEthernet 1/0.10, GigabitEthernet 1/0.20,
GigabitEthernet 2/0.10, and GigabitEthernet 2/0.20), specify an IP address for each subinterface, and
associate each subinterface with a VLAN.
<Router> system-view
[Router] interface gigabitethernet 1/0.10
[Router-GigabitEthernet1/0.10] ip address 1.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[Router-GigabitEthernet1/0.10] vlan-type dot1q vid 10
[Router-GigabitEthernet1/0.10] quit
[Router] interface gigabitethernet 1/0.20
[Router-GigabitEthernet1/0.20] ip address 2.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[Router-GigabitEthernet1/0.20] vlan-type dot1q vid 20
[Router-GigabitEthernet1/0.20] quit
[Router] interface gigabitethernet 2/0.10
[Router-GigabitEthernet2/0.10] ip address 3.0.0.1 255.0.0.0

1-6
[Router-GigabitEthernet2/0.10] vlan-type dot1q vid 10
[Router-GigabitEthernet2/0.10] quit
[Router] interface gigabitethernet 2/0.20
[Router-GigabitEthernet2/0.20] ip address 4.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[Router-GigabitEthernet2/0.20] vlan-type dot1q vid 20
[Router-GigabitEthernet2/0.20] quit

WAN Subinterface Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-2,


z Router A is connected to Router B and Router C through its Serial 1/0 interface and a frame relay
network.
z Configure subinterfaces on Serial 1/0 of Router A to enable users in LAN 1 (which is connected to
Router A) to access both LAN 2 (which is connected to Router B) and LAN 3 (which is connected to
Router C).
Figure 1-2 Network diagram for WAN subinterface configuration

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A
# Enter Serial 1/0 interface view.
<Sysname> system-view
[Sysname] interface serial 1/0

# Set the data link layer protocol to frame relay.


[Sysname-Serial1/0] link-protocol fr

# Specify the frame relay terminal type as DTE.


[Sysname-Serial1/0] fr interface-type dte
[Sysname-Serial1/0] quit

# Create a point-to-point subinterface Serial 1/0.1.


[Sysname] interface serial 1/0.1 p2p

1-7
# Set the IP address of Serial 1/0.1 to 1.1.1.1/24.
[Sysname-Serial1/0.1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0

# Assign a virtual circuit to Serial 1/0.1, with the DLCI being 50.
[Sysname-Serial1/0.1] fr dlci 50
[Sysname-fr-dlci-Serial1/0.1-50] quit
[Sysname-Serial1/0.1] quit

# Create a point-to-point subinterface Serial 1/0.2.


[Sysname] interface serial 1/0.2 p2p

# Set the IP address of Serial 1/0.2 to 1.1.2.1/24.


[Sysname-Serial1/0.2] ip address 1.1.2.1 255.255.255.0

# Assign a virtual circuit to Serial 1/0.2, with the DLCI being 60.
[Sysname-Serial1/0.2] fr dlci 60
[Sysname- fr-dlci-Serial1/0.2-60] quit
[Sysname-Serial1/0.2] quit

# Configure static routes from Router A to LAN 2 and LAN 3.


[Sysname] ip route-static 2.2.0.0 255.255.0.0 1.1.1.2
[Sysname] ip route-static 2.3.0.0 255.255.0.0 1.1.2.2

2) The configurations of Router B and Router C are similar to that of Router A and thus omitted.

MP-Group Interface
MP-group interfaces are used in multilink PPP (MP) links. MP-group interfaces are dedicated to MP and
cannot be used for any other purposes. Refer to PPP Configuration in the Access Volume for
information about MP groups.
Follow these steps to create an MP-group interface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Required
Create an MP-group interface If the specified MP-group
interface mp-group interface does not exist, this
and enter MP-group interface
mp-number command firstly creates the
view
interface and then leads you to
MP-group interface view.
Display information about display interface mp-group
Available in any view
MP-group interfaces [ mp-number ]

MFR Interface
An MFR interface is a logical interface for a bundle of physical frame relay links. You can configure
subinterfaces on MFR interfaces, thus providing high-rate and broad-bandwidth links for a frame relay
network. Refer to Frame Relay Configuration in the Access Volume for related information.
Follow these steps to create an MFR interface:

1-8
To do Use the command Remarks
Enter system view system-view
Required
If the specified MFR main
Create an MFR main interface interface does not exist, this
interface mfr interface-number
and enter MFR interface view command firstly creates the
interface and then leads you to
MFR interface view.
Return to system view quit Required

Required
Create an MFR subinterface If the specified MFR
interface mfr subinterface does not exist, this
and enter MFR subinterface
interface-number.subnumber command firstly creates the
view
subinterface and then leads
you to MFR subinterface view.

display interface mfr


View the information about the
[ interface-number | Available in any view
MFR interface
interface-number.subnumber ]
View the information about the display mfr [ interface
MFR bundling and bundled interface-type Available in any view
links interface-number | verbose ]

Refer to Frame Relay Configuration in the Access Volume for information about MFR interface
parameters.

VT and VA Interface
Introduction to VT and VA interface

A virtual template (VT) is a template used for configuring a virtual access (VA) interface. VTs are mainly
used in VPN and MP implementations.
After a VPN session is established, a VA interface is necessary for exchanging data with the peer end.
You can specify a VT for the VA interface to be created dynamically. Refer to the VPN Volume for
information about VPN.
As for an MP, which comprises of multiple PPP channels, a VA interface is also necessary for
exchanging data with the peer end. You can specify a VT too for the VA interface to be created
dynamically. Refer to PPP Configuration in the Access Volume for information about MP.

Configuring a VT

In VPN and MP implementations, the creation and removal of VA interfaces are done by the system and
are transparent to users. You just need to configure VPNs or MPs on corresponding physical interfaces,
create and configure VTs and then associate the VTs with the corresponding physical interfaces.

1-9
Create a VT

Follow these steps to create a VT:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Required
interface virtual-template If the specified VT does not
Create a VT and enter VT view exist, this command firstly
interface-number
creates the VT and then leads
you to VT view.
Set the maximum number of Optional
broadcast-limit link
links that can send multicast or
interface-number Defaults to 30.
broadcast packets for the VT

Before removing a VT, make sure that all the virtual interfaces created using it are removed and the VT
is not in use.

Configure VT operation parameters

Compared with normal physical interfaces, a VT supports only PPP on data link layer and IP on the
network layer. You can configure the following operation parameters for a VT:
z PPP operation parameters
z IP address of the virtual interface
z IP address (or IP address pool) to be assigned to the PPP peer
Refer to PPP Configuration in the Access Volume and related sections in the IP Services Volume for
related information.

Associate a VT with a physical interfaces

VA interfaces are not manually created. They are created dynamically by the system and adopt the
parameters defined in a specific VT. A VA interface can be removed due to failures of lower layer
connections or user intervention.
In VPN implementations, you need to associate Layer 2 tunneling protocol (L2TP) groups with VTs.
Refer to the VPN Volume for related information. In MP implementations, you need to associate MP
users with VTs. Refer to PPP Configuration in the Access Volume for related information.

Displaying and Maintaining VTs and VA Interfaces

After the above configuration, you can use the display command in any view to view the configuration
information about the VTs and VA interfaces, so as to verify the configuration.
Follow these steps to display VTs and VA interfaces:

To do Use the command


Display the information about a VT display interface virtual-template interface-number

1-10
To do Use the command
Display the information about a VA display virtual-access [ va-number | peer
interface peer-address | user user-name | vt vt-number ] *

Troubleshooting VT/VA Interface

Before troubleshooting, you need to make clear whether the VT is used for creating VPN virtual
interfaces or MP virtual interfaces so as to locate the VT failures accordingly.

Symptom

Virtual interfaces cannot be created.

Solution

The causes may be:


z No IP address is configured for the VT. As a result, PPP negotiation fails and the VA interface
cannot be brought up.
z PPP authentication parameters are incorrect. PPP negotiation fails if the user name the peer
device uses is not defined on the local device. As a result, the VA interface cannot be brought up.
z The IP address (or IP address pool) to be assigned to the peer is not configured. As a result, the VA
interface cannot provide the IP addresses the peer device requests. In this case, the VA interface
cannot be brought up.

VE Interface
Introduction to VE Interface

Virtual Ethernet (VE) interfaces are logical interfaces implemented on interface cards. They fall into two
categories: Layer 3 VE interfaces and Layer 2 VE (VE-bridge) interfaces. The VE interfaces are mainly
used for PPPoEoA, IPoEoA, and EoA. Currently, the device supports Layer 3 VE interfaces only.
z The Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet over ATM (PPPoEoA) contains three layers: PPP at the
top, PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) in the middle, and PPPoE over ATM at the bottom, where the
parameters for PPPoE are configured on Layer 3 VE interfaces on interface modules of the access
device. Refer to ATM Configuration in the Access Volume for more information.
z IPoEoA and EoA carry Ethernet packets over ATM by binding VE interfaces to PVCs. IPoEoA is for
binding Layer 3 VE interfaces while EoA is for binding Layer 2 VE interfaces. Refer to ATM
Configuration in the Access Volume for more information.

Configuring a VE Interface

When implementing PPPoEoA, IPoEoA, and EoA through a permanent virtual channel (PVC), you need
to associate the PVC with a VE interface. Otherwise, you cannot configure the PVC.

Configuring a Layer 3 VE interface

Follow these steps to configure a Layer 3 VE Interface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

1-11
To do Use the command Remarks
Required
If the specified Layer 3 VE interface
Create a Layer 3 VE interface interface
already exists, you enter Layer 3 VE
and enter Layer 3 VE interface virtual-ethernet
interface view directly.
view interface-number
You can create up to 1024 Layer 3 VE
interfaces.
Configure the MAC address of mac-address
Optional
the Layer 3 VE interface mac-address

z The configuration of a VE interface is similar to that of an Ethernet interface. Refer to Ethernet


Interface Configuration in the Access Volume for related information.
z The displaying and maintenance of a VE interface is similar to those of an Ethernet interface. Refer
to Ethernet Interface Configuration in the Access Volume for related information.
z Refer to ATM Configuration in the Access Volume for information about PPPoEoA configuration.

1-12
Table of Contents

1 Modem Management Configuration 1-1


Overview 1-1
Modem Management Configuration1-1
Setting the Modem Answer Mode 1-2
Issuing an AT Command to a Modem1-2

i
1 Modem Management Configuration

When configuring a modem, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z Overview
z Modem Management Configuration

Overview
Modem is a network device that is widely used. It is important for a device to properly manage and
control the use of modem in a network. However, there are many modem manufacturers and various
modem models. Even though all of them support the AT command set and are compliant with the
industry standard, each type of modem differs somewhat on the implementations and command details.
The device provides the following functions for managing a modem.
1) Intercommunicate with the equipment from other vendors. The asynchronous serial interfaces of
the participating parties are working in flow mode interconnected via modems.
2) Provide rich debugging information for modem maintenance and monitoring.

Modem Management Configuration


Follow these steps to manage your modem:

To do Use the command Remarks

Enter system view system-view

Enter user interface view user-interface aux 0

Required
modem { both | call-in | Modem call-in and call-out are
Enable modem call-in/call-out
call-out } denied by default.

Set the maximum interval


allowed between picking up Optional
the handset and dialing when modem timer answer time
a user tries to establish a 60 seconds by default.
connection
Refer to Setting the Modem Optional
Set modem answer mode
Answer Mode. Not recommended.

Quit to system view quit

Configure modem through AT Refer to Issuing an AT


Optional
commands Command to a Modem.

Optional
Enable modem callback service modem-callback
Disabled by default.

1-1
Setting the Modem Answer Mode

Set the modem answer mode according to the actual answer mode of the modem. When the modem is
in auto-answer mode (A modem is in auto-answer mode if its AA LED lights), you can use the modem
auto-answer command to prevent the device from issuing answer instructions. If the modem is in
non-auto answer mode, you can use the undo modem auto-answer command to enable the device to
issue answer instructions upon the reaching of incoming calls.

If the modem answer mode configured is not consistent with the actual answer mode of the modem, the
modem may operate improperly. So, do not perform the operation unless absolutely needed.

Follow these steps to set modem answer mode:

To do Use the command Remarks

Enter system view system-view

Enter user interface view user-interface aux 0

Required
Configure the modem to work
modem auto-answer Non-auto answer mode by
in auto-answer mode
default.

Issuing an AT Command to a Modem

Follow these steps to issue an AT command to a modem:

To do Use the command Remarks

Enter system view system-view

Enter interface interface-type



interface view interface-number

Required
This command is applicable to
Configure the modem by asynchronous serial interfaces
sendat at-string (including
issuing an AT command to it
synchronous/asynchronous
operating in the asynchronous
mode).

1-2
Table of Contents

1 ATM Interface Configuration 1-1


ATM Interface1-1
ATM OC-3c/STM-1 Interface Configuration1-2
Overview1-2
Configuring an ATM OC-3c/STM-1 Interface 1-2
Displaying and Maintaining ATM Interfaces1-2
Troubleshooting 1-3
Troubleshooting ATM Interfaces 1-3

i
1 ATM Interface Configuration

When configuring an ATM interface, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z ATM Interface
z ATM OC-3c/STM-1 Interface Configuration
z Displaying and Maintaining ATM Interfaces
z Troubleshooting

ATM Interface
This section covers these topics:
z ATM
z ATM interfaces available for the mid-range and high-end routers
z ATM interface features

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a backbone network technology for transmission of audio, video,
and data. By virtue of its flexibility and support to multimedia services, ATM is regarded as a core
technology for implementing broadband communications.
The ATM physical layer lies at the bottom of the ATM reference model. Though it is concerned with
transmission media, its functionality does not rely on the transmission mechanism and speed of a
specific medium. Rather, it primarily delivers valid cells and the associated timing signals between the
upper layer and transmission medium. The speeds of physical access media are defined in
international standards such as ATM OC-3c/STM-1, ATM E3/T3, and IMA-E1/T1.

ATM interfaces available for the mid-range and high-end routers

So far, the mid-range and high-end routers can provide this type of ATM interfaces: ATM OC-3c/STM-1
based on SONET/SDH.
These interfaces support IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA, and PPPoEoA. For more information ATM interfaces,
refer to ATM Configuration in the Access Volume.

ATM interface features

The ATM interfaces support:


z Nonreal-time variable bit rate (nrt_VBR)
z Real-time variable bit rate (rt_VBR)
z Constant bit rate (CBR)
z Unspecified bit rate (UBR)
z Permanent virtual circuit (PVC)
z Per-VC traffic shaping
z User-to-network Interface (UNI)
z RFC1483 Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5
z RFC1577 Classical IP and ARP over ATM

1-1
z F5 end to end loopback OAM
z ATM adaptation layer 5 (AAL5)

ATM OC-3c/STM-1 Interface Configuration


This section covers these topics:
z Overview
z Configuring an ATM OC-3c/STM-1 Interface

Overview

This section covers only the physical configurations of the interface. For more information about how to
configure ATM (including PVCs), refer to ATM Configuration in the Access Volume.

Configuring an ATM OC-3c/STM-1 Interface

Follow these steps to configure an ATM OC-3c/STM-1 interface:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view

Enter ATM OC-3c/STM-1 interface atm


Required
interface view interface-number
Optional
Set the clock mode clock { master | slave }
The default is slave.

Optional
Set the framing format frame-format { sdh | sonet } The default is the SDH STM-1
format.

Optional
Enable scrambling scramble
Enabled by default

loopback { cell | local | Optional


Set the loopback mode
remote } Disabled by default

Enable the collecting of rate Optional


sub-interface rate-statistic
statistics on the subinterfaces Disabled by default

Displaying and Maintaining ATM Interfaces


To do Use the command Remarks
Display the configuration and
display interface atm
state of a specified or all ATM Available in any view
[ interface-number ]
interfaces
Clear the statistics about all
reset atm interface [ atm
PVCs on the specified ATM Available in user view
interface-number ]
interface

1-2
For those physical interfaces that are not connected to cables, shut down them using the shutdown
command to avoid anomalies resulted from interference.

Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting ATM Interfaces

When diagnosing ATM interface problems, first test the interface with the ping command or the
extended ping command.
The ping command can test network connectivity. Extended ping command can be used to specify
some options in the IP header in addition to that function. For more information about the ping
command, see System Maintaining and Debugging Configuration in the System Volume.
If the interface cannot be pinged, check whether:
z The interface is down, which causes missing of its route in the routing table.
z The AAL5 encapsulation of PVC is incorrect (for 155 Mbps ATM interfaces only).

1-3
Table of Contents

1 ATM Configuration 1-1


Introduction to ATM Technology 1-1
ATM Overview 1-1
ATM Architecture1-1
Overview of IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA and PPPoEoA Applications1-2
IPoA 1-3
IPoEoA 1-3
PPPoA 1-3
PPPoEoA1-3
ATM OAM 1-3
ATM Configuration Task list1-4
Configuring an ATM Interface 1-4
Configuring an ATM Subinterface1-5
Configuring an ATM Subinterface 1-5
Checking Existence of PVCs When Determining the Protocol State of an ATM P2P Subinterface1-5
Configuring a PVC and the Maximum Number of PVCs Allowed on an Interface1-6
Configuring PVC Parameters 1-6
Assigning a Transmission Priority to an ATM PVC 1-7
Configuring PVC Service Mapping1-7
Configuring the Maximum Number of PVCs Allowed on an ATM Interface1-8
Configuring an ATM Class 1-8
Configuring VP Policing 1-11
Configuring Applications Carried by ATM 1-11
Configuring IPoA 1-11
Configuring IPoEoA 1-12
Configuring PPPoA1-13
Configuring PPPoEoA 1-14
Displaying and Maintaining ATM 1-15
ATM Configuration Examples 1-15
IPoA Configuration Example 1-16
IPoEoA Configuration Example1-17
PPPoA Configuration Example 1-18
PPPoEoA Server Configuration Example 1-20
PPPoEoA Client Configuration Example1-22
ATM PVC Transmit Priority Configuration Example1-24
Troubleshooting ATM1-25
Link State Error in IPoA Application 1-25
Link Report Error in PPPoA Application 1-25
Ping Failure 1-25
ATM Interface State Error 1-26
PVC State is Down while ATM Interface State is Up 1-26
Ping Failure after PPPoA Configuration 1-26
Packet Loss and CRC Errors and Changes of Interface State 1-27

i
1 ATM Configuration

When configuring ATM, go to these sections for information you are interested in:
z Introduction to ATM Technology
z Overview of IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA and PPPoEoA Applications
z ATM OAM
z ATM Configuration Task list
z Configuring an ATM Interface
z Configuring an ATM Subinterface
z Configuring a PVC and the Maximum Number of PVCs Allowed on an Interface
z Configuring an ATM Class
z Configuring VP Policing
z Configuring Applications Carried by ATM
z Displaying and Maintaining ATM
z ATM Configuration Examples
z Troubleshooting ATM

Introduction to ATM Technology


ATM Overview

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a technology based on packet transmission mode while
incorporating the high speed of circuit transmission mode. It can satisfy the need of various
communication services. ATM was specified as a broadband ISDN transmission and switching mode by
ITU-T in June 1992. Due to its flexibility and support for multimedia services, it is regarded as the core
technology to implement broadband communications.
As defined by ITU-T, data is encapsulated in cells in ATM. Each ATM cell is 53 bytes in length, among
which 5 bytes is the cell header and the remaining 48 bytes are payloads. The major function of the cell
header is to identify virtual connection, with limited functions on flow control, congestion control and
error control.
ATM is connection-oriented and ATM connections are logical connections, or virtual connections (VCs).
Each VC is identified by a pair of virtual path identifier (VPI) and virtual channel identifier (VCI). A
VPI/VCI pair only identifies the connection established between two ATM nodes. When a connection is
released, all the VPI/VCI pairs involved are released for other connections.
ATM interfaces support permanent virtual circuits (PVCs).

ATM Architecture

ATM has a three-dimensional architecture. It consists of three planes: user plane, control plane, and
management plane. Both the user plane and the control plane are divided into four layers, namely,
physical layer, ATM layer, ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL), and upper layer, each of which are further
divided into sub-layers.

1-1
z The control plane takes the charge of establishing and tearing down connections using signaling
protocols.
z The management plane consists of layer management and plane management. The former takes
charge of managing the layers in each plane and has a layered structure corresponding to other
planes. The latter is responsible for system management and communications between different
planes.
The following figure illustrates the relationships between layers and planes in ATM.
Figure 1-1 ATM architecture

The functions of the four ATM layers are as follows:


z The physical layer mainly provides transmission channels for ATM cells. At this layer, cells passed
from the ATM layer become continuous bit stream after transmission overheads are added to them.
In addition, continuous bit streams received from the physical media are restored to cells on this,
which are then passed to the ATM layer.
z The ATM layer, residing over the physical layer, implements cell-based communication with peer
layers by invoking the services provided by the physical layer. It is independent of physical media
and the implementation of the physical layer, as well as the types of the services being carried.
Data passed to this layer takes the form of 48-byte payloads, known as segmentation and
reassembly protocol data units (SAR-PDUs); and data passed from this layer to the physical layer
is 53-byte cells, with the 48-byte payload being encapsulated in a 5-byte header. Other functions of
the ATM layer include VPI/VCI transmission, cell multiplexing/demultiplexing, and generic flow
control.
z ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) provides interfaces between high-level protocols and the ATM Layer.
It is responsible for forwarding the information between ATM layer and upper layer protocols. At
present, four types of AAL are available: AAL1, AAL2, AAL3/4, and AAL5, each of which supports
specific services provided in an ATM network. Most ATM equipment vendors adopt AAL5 for data
communication services.
z ATM upper layer protocols take charge of WAN interconnection, voice interconnection, Layer 3
interconnection, encapsulation, LAN emulation, multi-protocol over ATM, and traditional IP.

Overview of IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA and PPPoEoA Applications


ATM interfaces support the IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA and PPPoEoA applications.

1-2
IPoA

IP over ATM (IPoA) enables ATM to carry IP packets. In an IPoA implementation, ATM serves as the
data link layer protocol for the IP hosts on the same network. To enable these hosts to communicate
across an ATM network, IP packets must be adapted somewhat.
IPoA makes full use of the advantages of ATM, including high-speed point-to-point connections, which
improve bandwidth performance of IP networks significantly, excellent network performance, and
ubiquitous mature QoS assurance.

IPoEoA

IPoE over AAL5 (IPoEoA) adopts a three-layer architecture, with IP encapsulation at the uppermost
layer, IP over Ethernet (IPoE) in the middle, and IPoEoA at the bottom.
IPoEoA is suitable where Ethernet packets are to be forwarded through ATM interfaces. A typical
application of IPoEoA is using ATM PVCs to connect your network device to a remote access server
over a long distance for high-speed access to the Internet. In this application, you must configure
IPoEoA on the connecting ATM interfaces.
As for IPoEoA, you can associate multiple PVCs with one virtual Ethernet (VE) interface and PVCs
associated with the same VE interface are interconnected at Layer 2.

PPPoA

PPP over ATM (PPPoA) enables ATM to carry PPP protocol packets. With PPPoA, PPP packets, in
which IP packets or other protocols packets can be encapsulated, are encapsulated in ATM cells. In this
way, ATM may be simply viewed as the carrier of PPP packets. As the communication process of
PPPoA is managed by PPP, PPPoA also features the flexibility and comprehensive applications of PPP.
To transmit PPP packets through ATM, a virtual template (VT) interface is required.

PPPoEoA

PPPoE over ATM (PPPoEoA) enables ATM to carry PPPoE (PPP over Ethernet) protocol packets. With
PPPoEoA, Ethernet packets are encapsulated in ATM cells, through which you can use a PVC to
simulate all the functions of Ethernet. To allow ATM to carry Ethernet frames, the interface management
module provides a new type of virtual Ethernet (VE) interface. This type of VE interface has Ethernet
characteristics and can be dynamically created through configuration commands. The following is the
protocol stack adopted by the VE interface:
z ATM PVC (the bottom layer)
z Ethernet (the link layer)
z Network layer and other upper layers (the same as those for common Ethernet interfaces)

ATM OAM
OAM stands for Operation And Maintenance in the ITU-T I.610 recommendation (02/99) and Operation
Administration and Maintenance in LUCENT APC User Manual (03/99).
Whichever expansion is adopted, OAM provides a way of detecting faults, isolating faults, and
monitoring network performance without interrupting ongoing services. By inserting OAM cells, which
are constructed in the standard ATM cell format, in cell streams, you can obtain specific information
about the network.

1-3
OAM is implemented on an ATM connection as follows:
Each side of the connection sends OAM cells to its peer periodically. On receiving an OAM cell, the
receiver returns the OAM cell to the sender. Each side checks the OAM cells received to see if the OAM
cells are those previously sent by itself. An ATM connection is considered normal if the round trip time of
an ATM OAM cell is within a specific period. If a specific number of successive ATM OAM cells do not
return within the period, the ATM connection is considered abnormal.

ATM Configuration Task list


Complete these tasks to configure ATM:

Task Remarks

Configuring an ATM Interface Required

Configuring an ATM Subinterface


Configuring an ATM Checking Existence of PVCs When Required
Subinterface Determining the Protocol State of an ATM
P2P Subinterface

Configuring PVC Parameters Optional

Configuring a PVC and the Assigning a Transmission Priority to an ATM


Optional
Maximum Number of PVC
PVCs Allowed on an Configuring PVC Service Map Optional
Interface
Configuring the Maximum Number of PVCs
Optional
Allowed on an ATM Interface
Configuring an ATM Class Optional
Configuring VP Policing Optional
Configuring IPoA Optional

Configuring Applications Configuring IPoEoA Optional


Carried by ATM Configuring PPPoA Optional
Configuring PPPoEoA Optional

Configuring an ATM Interface


Depending on the actual networking environment and system requirements, you may be required to
modify certain parameters of an ATM interface.
Note that except the mtu command, which can be configured on a subinterface, the ATM settings in this
section must be modified in ATM main interface view, although they apply to the ATM main interface and
subinterfaces at the same time.
For more information about ATM interface configuration, refer to ATM and DSL Interface Configuration
in the Access Volume.

1-4
Configuring an ATM Subinterface

Configuring an ATM Subinterface

Follow these steps to configure an ATM subinterface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Required
interface atm
Create an ATM subinterface By default, the type of a
interface-number.subnumber
and enter its view subinterface is
[ p2mp | p2p ]
point-to-multipoint (p2mp).

Set the MTU for the ATM Optional


mtu mtu-number
subinterface 1500 bytes by default
Optional
Set the maximum number of The range of the value
tx-bd-limit value
BDs allowed argument varies with device
models.
Optional
Shut down the ATM interface shutdown By default, an ATM interface is
up.

The keywords p2mp and p2p are available with the interface atm interface-number.subnumber only
when you are creating an ATM subinterface. If you are entering an existing ATM subinterface, the two
keywords are not available.

Checking Existence of PVCs When Determining the Protocol State of an ATM P2P
Subinterface

Follow these steps to check existence of PVCs when determining the protocol state of an ATM P2P
subinterface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Required
interface atm
Create an ATM subinterface By default, the subinterface is
interface-number.subnumber
and enter its view configured as
p2p
point-to-multipoint (p2mp).
Required
Check existence of PVCs when By default, the protocol state of
determining the protocol state atm-link check the ATM P2P subinterface is
of the ATM P2P subinterface consistent with the state of the
physical interface.

1-5
Configuring a PVC and the Maximum Number of PVCs Allowed on
an Interface
Configuring PVC Parameters

Follow these steps to configure PVC parameters:

To do... Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

interface atm
Enter ATM interface view or ATM
{ interface-number |
subinterface view
interface-number.subnumber }
Required
pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
Create a PVC and enter PVC view By default, no PVC is
vpi/vci }
created.
Optional
Set the AAL5 encapsulation protocol
encapsulation aal5-encap By default, aal5snap
type for the specified PVC
encapsulation is adopted.

Optional
By default, OAM F5
Loopback cell
Start transmission and transmission is disabled.
oam frequency frequency [ up
retransmission detection of However, if an OAM F5
up-count down down-count
operations, administration, and Loopback cell is received,
retry-frequency
maintenance (OAM) F5 Loopback it should be responded.
retry-frequency ]
cells By default, up-count is 3,
down-count is 5 and
retry-frequency is 1
second.
Optional
By default, AIS/RDI alarm
cell detection is enabled,
which means the PVC
Set the parameters for alarm goes down when the
oam ais-rdi up up-count number of AIS/RDI alarm
indication signal (AIS)/ remote defect
down down-count cells received reaches
indication (RDI) alarm cell detection
down-count and goes up if
no AIS/RDI alarm cell is
received in a period
specified by the up-count
argument (in seconds).
Set the PVC Set the PVCs Optional
service type and service type to service cbr output-pcr [ cdvt By default, the service
the rate-related constant bit rate cdvt-value ] type of a PVC is UBR.
parameters (CBR)
The CDVT is 500s by
Set the PVCs default.
service type to You can use these four
unspecified bit commands to set the
rate (UBR), and service ubr output-pcr service type and the
set the parameters concerning
rate-related transmission rate. Note
parameters that a newly configured

1-6
To do... Use the command Remarks
Set the PVCs service type overwrites
service type to the existing one.
variable bit
rate-non real time service vbr-nrt output-pcr
(VBR-NRT), and output-scr output-mbs
set the
rate-related
parameters
Set the PVCs
service type to
variable bit
rate-real time service vbr-rt output-pcr
(VBR-RT), and output-scr output-mbs
set the
rate-related
parameters

Assigning a Transmission Priority to an ATM PVC

You can assign transmission priorities to ATM PVCs associated with the UBR, VBR-T, or VBR-NRT
service. At the time of bandwidth allocation, the PVC with higher priority has priority over other PVCs.
Follow these steps to assign a transmission priority to an ATM PVC:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface atm
Enter ATM subinterface view { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
Create a PVC and enter PVC pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |

view vpi/vci }
Optional
Assign a transmission priority By default, the priority value is 0
to the ATM PVC
transmit-priority value for the UBR service, 5 for the
VBR-NRT service and 8 for the
VBR-RT.

Configuring PVC Service Mapping

PVC service mapping allows different PVCs from the same PVC-Group to carry IP packets of different
priorities.
Follow these steps to configure PVC service mapping:

To do... Use the command... Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface atm
Enter ATM subinterface view { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
Create PVC, and enter its view
vpi/vci }

1-7
To do... Use the command... Remarks
Quit to ATM interface view quit
Required
Create a PVC group and enter pvc-group { pvc-name Make sure that the PVC
PVC group view [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } specified by the pvc-name or
vpi/vci argument already exists.
pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
Add a PVC to the PVC-Group Optional
vpi/vci }
ip-precedence { pvc-name
Set the priority of the IP packets
[ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } { min [ max ] Optional
carried on PVC
| default }

z A primary PVC refers to the one based on which a PVC-group is created on an ATM interface.
z A secondary PVC refers to a PVC created in a PVC-group.

Configuring the Maximum Number of PVCs Allowed on an ATM Interface

Follow these steps to configure the maximum number of PVCs allowed on an ATM interface:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Enter ATM interface view interface atm interface-number

Optional
Configure the maximum
number of PVCs allowed pvc max-number max-number The maximum number of PVCs
on the ATM interface allowed on an ATM interface
depends on the interface type.

This command applies to both a main ATM interface and its subinterfaces. However, you cannot
configure this command in ATM subinterface view.

Configuring an ATM Class


An ATM class facilitates ATM configuration. Configurations of PVC MAP, encapsulation type, OAM
loopback, and service category can be implemented via an ATM-Class. First create an ATM class and
set the parameters needed, and then call the ATM class in PVC view or ATM interface view.
Follow these steps to configure an ATM class:

1-8
To do Use the command Remarks
Enter system view system-view
Create an ATM class and enter
atm class atm-class-name Required
ATM class view

Optional
Specify ATM AAL5
encapsulation aal5-encap By default, aal5snap
encapsulation type for the PVC
encapsulation is adopted.
Optional
By default, OAM F5 Loopback
cell transmission is disabled.
Start transmission of OAM F5 oam frequency frequency [ up
However, if an OAM F5
Loopback cells or up-count down down-count
Loopback cell is received, it
retransmission check of OAM retry-frequency
should be responded.
F5 Loopback retry-frequency ]
By default, up-count is 3,
down-count is 5 and
retry-frequency is 1 second.
Set the PVCs
service type to
service cbr output-pcr
constant bit rate
(CBR)
Set the PVCs
service type to
unspecified bit
rate (UBR), and service ubr output-pcr
set the
Optional
rate-related
Set the parameters By default, the service type of a
PVCs PVC is UBR.
service Set the PVCs
You can use these four
type and service type to
commands to set the service
rate-relate variable bit
type and the parameters
d rate-non real service vbr-nrt output-pcr
concerning transmission rate.
parameter time (VBR-NRT), output-scr output-mbs
Note that a newly configured
s and set the
service type overwrites the
rate-related
existing one.
parameters

Set the PVCs


service type to
variable bit
rate-real time service vbr-rt output-pcr
(VBR-RT), and output-scr output-mbs
set the
rate-related
parameters

1-9
To do Use the command Remarks
Required
By default, mapping is not
configured. When a mapping is
configured, pseudo-broadcast
Configure IPoA is not supported by default.
and enable Before configuring InARP,
inverse address map ip inarp [ minutes ] make sure the aal5snap
Configure resolution [ broadcast ] encapsulation is used. Though
the service (InARP) for the InARP is also supported when
type (use PVC using aal5mux or aal5nlpid
different encapsulation, the system will
commands prompt a message indicating a
according failure when this ATM is
to service configured and used on PVC.
types)
Establish PPPoA
map ppp virtual-template
mapping for the Required
vt-number
PVC

Establish IPoEoA
or PPPoEoA map bridge virtual-ethernet
Required
mapping for the interface-number
PVC
Quit to system view quit
interface atm
Enter ATM Enter ATM
{ interface-number | Required
interface interface view
interface-number.subnumber }
view or
PVC view pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
Enter PVC view Required
vpi/vci }
Enable the ATM class on the
atm-class atm-class-name Required
interface or PVC

When configuring a PVC, note that:


z The priorities of the same configurations performed to a PVC descend in this order: the
configuration directly performed to the PVC, the configuration performed to the ATM class applied
to the PVC, and the configuration performed to the ATM class applied to the ATM interface.
z For different configurations that conflict with each other, their priorities descend in this order: the
configuration directly performed to the PVC, the configuration performed to the ATM class applied
to the PVC, and the configuration performed to the ATM class applied to the ATM interface.
z All the configurations that are directly performed to the PVC, performed to the ATM class applied to
the PVC, and performed to the ATM class applied to the ATM interface take effect if they do not
conflict.
z For different configurations performed to a PVC, the ATM class applied to the PVC, and the ATM
class applied to the ATM interface, if the configurations conflict with each other, those applied first
take effect, and the conflict prompt appears when the rest are performed.
z When an ATM class is applied to a PVC, no message is prompted no matter whether or not the
ATM class is successfully applied.
z Error messages appear when configurations performed to a PVC are invalid.

1-10
Configuring VP Policing
VP policing is used to set the sustainable rate of a virtual path identifier (VPI). When applying VP
policing, the parameters of PVC are still valid. Only when the parameters of PVC and VP policing are
satisfied, will the packets be transmitted or received. In calculating the traffic, the LLC/SNAP, MUX and
NLPID headers are included, but the ATM cell header is not included.
Follow these steps to set the parameters of VP policing:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
interface atm
Enter ATM interface view
interface-number
Set the parameters of VP
pvp limit vpi output-scr Required
policing

Configuring Applications Carried by ATM


Although ATM can carry multiple protocols, a specific encapsulation type may not support ATM
applications (such as IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA, and PPPoEoA), as listed in the following table.

Table 1-1 Support for ATM applications

ATM application aal5snap aal5mux aal5nlpid


IPoA Supported Supported Supported
IPoEoA Supported Supported Not supported

PPPoA Supported Supported Not supported


PPPoEoA Supported Supported Not supported

z Due to the hardware limitation, the service vbr-rt command and the service vbr-nrt command
may not be executed successfully if the value of the mbs argument is set too large. You need to
select a smaller value for the mbs argument.
z With aal5snap adopted, two or more protocols are supported. But for aal5nlpid, you cannot enable
InARP on a PVC for an IPoA application.

Configuring IPoA

Follow these steps to configure IPoA:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view

1-11
To do Use the command Remarks
interface atm
Enter ATM interface view { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
Create a PVC, and enter PVC pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |

view vpi/vci }
Required
By default, no mapping is
configured. If a mapping is
configured, pseudo-broadcast
Configure an IPoA mapping for map ip { ip-address [ ip-mask ] | is not supported by default.
the PVC, and enable the PVC default | inarp [ minutes ] } Before configuring InARP,
to carry IP packets [ broadcast ] make sure that aal5snap
encapsulation is used. InARP is
not supported when aal5mux or
aal5nlpid encapsulations is
adopted.

If you execute the map ip command with the broadcast keyword, which specifies pseudo broadcast,
any broadcast packets received by the port on which the PVC is created will be duplicated to the PVC.
Therefore, to propagate broadcast/multicast packets on an ATM PVC, you must specify the broadcast
keyword.

Configuring IPoEoA

Follow these steps to configure IPoEoA on a PVC:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Required
Create a virtual Ethernet (VE) interface virtual-ethernet The IP address has to be
interface interface-number configured on a VE interface (It
is invalid to configure the IP
address on the ATM interface).
Quit to system view quit
interface atm
Enter ATM interface view { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
Create PVC and enter its view Required
vpi/vci }
Configure IPoEoA mapping on map bridge virtual-ethernet
Required
the PVC interface-number

1-12
When multiple Layer-3 virtual Ethernet interfaces are connected through PVCs to a DHCP server that
assigns IP addresses to the interfaces through static address binding, you must configure different
MAC addresses for the interfaces with the mac-address command. For more information, refer to
Logical Interface Configuration in the Access Volume.

Configuring PPPoA

When two routers are connected using DSL interfaces through a dial-up connection, configure them as
PPPoA server and client respectively. The two are different in that, with the PPPoA server, you should
configure an address pool to allocate an IP address for the remote node; with the PPPoA client, you
should configure address negotiation to accept the IP address allocated by the server end. For relevant
information, refer to PPP Configuration in the Access Volume.
The following configurations enable the PVC to carry PPP and configure a PPP mapping for the PVC.
Follow these steps to configure PPPoA:

To do Use the command Remarks


Enter system view system-view
Required
You must configure PPP
interface virtual-template authentication and IP address
Create a VT interface
vt-number on the VT interface (the IP
address is invalid if configured
on the ATM interface).
Set the PPP authentication
mode and IP address; with the
PPPoE server, an address pool
should be configured to
allocate an IP address for the Refer to PPP Configuration in
Required
remote end; with the PPPoE the Access Volume.
client, address negotiation
should be configured to accept
the IP address allocated by the
server end
Quit to system view quit
interface atm
Enter ATM interface view { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
Create PVC, and enter PVC pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
Required
view vpi/vci }
Configure PPPoA mapping for map ppp virtual-template
Required
the PVC vt-number

1-13
When you configure a static route for a virtual template interface, you are recommended to specify the
next hop rather than the outgoing interface. If you want to specify the outgoing interface, make sure the
physical interface bound to the virtual template is valid to ensure correct transmission.

Configuring PPPoEoA

PPPoE adopts the Client/Server model. It encapsulates PPP packets into Ethernet frames and provides
point-to-point connection on Ethernet. The following configurations enable the PVC to carry PPPoE and
configure a PPPoE mapping for the PVC.
Follow these steps to configure PPPoEoA:

To do... Use the command... Remarks

Enter system view system-view


Required
You must configure PPP
interface virtual-template authentication and an IP
Create a VT interface address on the VT interface
vt-number
(the IP address is invalid if
configured on the ATM
interface).
Set the PPP authentication
mode and IP address; with the
PPPoE server, an address pool
should be configured to
allocate IP address for the peer Refer to PPP Configuration in
Required
end; with the PPPoE client, the Access Volume.
address negotiation should be
configured to accept the IP
address allocated by the server
end.
Quit to system view quit

interface virtual-ethernet
Create a VE interface Required
interface-number
Configure PPPoE parameters
on VE interface (the
Refer to PPP Configuration in
configuration differs when with Required
the Access Volume.
a PPPoE server and when with
a PPPoE client)
Quit to system view quit
interface atm
Enter ATM interface view { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
Create PVC, and enter PVC pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
Required
view vpi/vci }

1-14
To do... Use the command... Remarks

Required
Create PPPoEoA mapping for map bridge virtual-ethernet The interface-number
PVC interface-number argument refers to the VE
interface created in the above
steps.

z When you configure a static route for a virtual template interface, you are recommended to specify
the next hop rather than the outgoing interface. If you want to specify the outgoing interface, make
sure the physical interface bound to the virtual template is valid to ensure correct transmission.
z When multiple Layer-3 virtual Ethernet interfaces are connected through PVCs to a DHCP server
that assigns IP addresses to the interfaces through static address binding, you must configure
different MAC addresses for the interfaces with the mac-address command. For more information,
refer to Logical Interface Configuration in the Access Volume.

Displaying and Maintaining ATM


To do Use the command Remarks
Display the relevant information of display atm interface [ atm
Available in any view
ATM interface interface-number ]
display atm pvc-info [ interface
Display the relevant information of
interface-type interface-number [ pvc Available in any view
the PVC
{ pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } ] ]
display atm map-info [ interface
Display the information of the
interface-type interface-number [ pvc Available in any view
PVC mapping
{ pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } ] ]
display atm pvc-group [ interface
Display PVC-Group information interface-type interface-number [ pvc Available in any view
{ pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } ] ]
Display the relevant information of
display atm class [ atm-class-name ] Available in any view
the ATM-Class
Send OAM cells on the specified
PVC on the interface to test oamping interface atm
Available in ATM
connectivity of the link depending interface-number pvc { pvc-name | vpi
interface view
on whether response is returned /vci } [ number timeout ]
before the specified timeout time
Available in ATM
Shut down an ATM interface shut down
interface view

ATM Configuration Examples

1-15
In the following examples, the network device, the digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM)
and its configuration command sequence are MA 5100 multi-business access device and the
corresponding command sequence under its configuration environment. The ADSL router is configured
according to the actual selected devices in the actual networking environment. For complete details
about configuration commands, please refer to the corresponding command manuals. With regard to
practical networking, the network devices might be different from the assumed devices in terms of
networking capacity and configuration command format. This situation is subject to exist without notice.

IPoA Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-2, Router A, B and C are connected to the ATM network for intercommunication.
The requirements are:
The IP addresses of their ATM interfaces of the three routers are 202.38.160.1/24, 202.38.160.2/24,
and 202.38.160.3/24 respectively;
In the ATM network, the VPI/VCI of router A is 0/40 and 0/41, connecting to router B and router C
respectively. The VPI/VCI of router B is 0/50 and 0/51, connecting to router A and C respectively. The
VPI/VCI of router C is 0/60 and 0/61, connected with router A and B respectively;
All the PVCs on ATM interfaces of the three routers work in IPoA application mode.
Figure 1-2 Network diagram for IPoA configuration

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A
# Enter the ATM interface, and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface atm 1/0
[RouterA-Atm1/0] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0

# Establish a PVC, running IP.


1-16
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc to_b 0/40
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/40-to_b] map ip 202.38.160.2
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/40-to_b] quit
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc to_c 0/41
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/41-to_c] map ip 202.38.160.3

2) Configure Router B
# Enter the ATM interface, and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface atm 1/0
[RouterB-Atm1/0] ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0

# Establish a PVC, running IP.


[RouterB-Atm1/0] pvc to_a 0/50
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/50-to_a] map ip 202.38.160.1
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/50-to_a] quit
[RouterB-Atm1/0] pvc to_c 0/51
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/51-to_c] map ip 202.38.160.3

3) Configure Router C
# Enter the ATM interface, and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface atm 1/0
[RouterC-Atm1/0] ip address 202.38.160.3 255.255.255.0

# Establish a PVC and specify it to carry IP.


[RouterC-Atm1/0] pvc to_a 0/60
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/60-to_a] map ip 202.38.160.1
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/60-to_a] quit
[RouterC-Atm1/0] pvc to_b 0/61
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/61-to_b] map ip 202.38.160.2

IPoEoA Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-3, each of the hosts in the two Ethernets is respectively connected to the ATM
network through an ADSL Router, and they communicate with router C via DSLAM. The requirements
are:
The IP address of the VE interface of Router C is 202.38.160.1;
The VPI/VCI value of two PVCs connecting route C and DSLAM are 0/60 and 0/61, pointing to Router A
and Router B respectively.
Both the WAN port of Router C and the DSL interfaces of the ADSL Routers adopt IPoEoA.

1-17
Figure 1-3 Network diagram for IPoEoA configuration

ADSL Router A

Ethernet
Host A

Router A VE1
DSLAM 202.38.160.1/24
Host B

Router C
ATM1/0.1
VPI/VCI:
To Router A:0/60
Router B To Router B:0/61
Ethernet

Host C

ADSL Router B
Host D

Configuration procedure

Configure Router C:
# Create a VE interface and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface virtual-ethernet 1
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet1] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit

# Create a PVC and specify it to support IPoE.


[RouterC] interface atm 1/0.1
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] quit
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_b 0/61
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/61-to_adsl_b] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1

PPPoA Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-4, two hosts dial into the ATM network each through an ADSL Router, and
communicate with Router C through DSLAM. The requirements are:
z To create VT for multi-user on Router C, and configure PPP mapping on VT.
The VPI/VCI value of two PVCs connecting Route C and DSLAM are 0/60 and 0/61, pointing to ADSL
Router A and ADSL Router B respectively.
z Both the WAN port of Router C and the DSL interfaces of the two ADSL routers adopt PPPoA. The
authentication mode of ADSL Router is PAP. The IP addresses of the two ADSL Routers are
assigned by Router C.

1-18
Figure 1-4 Network diagram for PPPoA configuration
ADSL Router A

ATM1/0.1
Host A Router A VPI/VCI:
To Router A:0/60
To Router B:0/61
Router C
VT10
DSLAM 202.38.160.1/24
Router B VT11
202.38.161.1/24

Host B ADSL Router B

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router C (PPPoA Server)


# Create users for PPP authentication, and establish a local IP address pool.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] local-user user1
[RouterC-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-user1] password simple pwd1
[RouterC-luser-user1] quit
[RouterC] local-user user2
[RouterC-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-user2] password simple pwd2
[RouterC-luser-user2] quit
[RouterC] domain system
[RouterC-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterC-isp-system] ip pool 1 202.38.162.1 202.38.162.100
[RouterC-isp-system] quit

# Create a VT interface, configure PAP authentication and an IP address, and allocate an IP address for
the remote end from the IP address pool.
[RouterC] interface virtual-template 10
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] remote address pool 1
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] quit
[RouterC] interface virtual-template 11
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] ip address 202.38.161.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] remote address pool 1
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] quit

# Create a PVC, and specify it to carry PPP.


[RouterC] interface atm 1/0.1
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map ppp virtual-template 10

1-19
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] quit
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_b 0/61
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/61-to_adsl_b] map ppp virtual-template 11

2) Configure ADSL Router A (PPPoA Client)


# Create a VT interface, and configure PAP authentication and IP address negotiation.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 0
[RouterA-Virtual-Template0] ppp pap local-user user1 password simple pwd1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template0] ip address ppp-negotiate
[RouterA-Virtual-Template0] quit

# Create a PVC, and specify it to run PPP.


[RouterA] interface atm 1/0
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc pppoa 0/37
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/37-pppoa] map ppp virtual-template 0

The configuration of ADSL Router B is similar to that of Router A.

If the client cancels the IP address it has received through address negotiation, or the client is
configured with a fixed IP address, the communication between the server and the client will fail. In this
case, you need to shut down the ATM interface first, and delete the IP address pool on the server.

PPPoEoA Server Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-5, each host inside Ethernet dials into ATM network through an ADSL router, and
communicates with the router through DSLAM. The requirements are:
The IP addresses of the VT interface of router C are 202.38.160.1 and 202.38.161.1.
The VPI/VCI addresses of two PVCs connecting router C with DSLAM are 0/60 and 0/61, pointing to
ADSL Router A and ADSL Router B respectively.
Both the WAN port of router C and the DSL interface of ADSL Router adopt PPPoEoA. Each host within
the two Ethernets uses pre-installed PPPoE Client program to make interactive PAP authentication with
routers, and obtains an IP address from the router.

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Figure 1-5 Network diagram for PPPoEoA server configuration

ADSL Router

Ethernet
Host A

ATM1/0.1
Router A VPI/VCI:
To Router A:0/60
Host B To Router B:0/61
Router C
VT10
DSLAM
Router B 202.38.160.1/24
VT11
Ethernet

Host C 202.38.161.1/24

ADSL Router
Host D

Configuration procedure

Configure Router C:
# Configure the users in the domain to use the PPP authentication scheme, and create a local IP
address pool.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] local-user user1
[RouterC-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-user1] password simple pwd1
[RouterC-luser-user1] quit
[RouterC] local-user user2
[RouterC-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-user2] password simple pwd2
[RouterC-luser-user2] quit
[RouterC]domain system
[RouterC-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterC-isp-system] ip pool 1 202.38.162.1 202.38.162.100
[RouterC-isp-system] quit

# Create the VT interface to encapsulate the PPP protocol and configure PAP authentication
parameters.
[RouterC] interface virtual-template 10
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] quit
[RouterC] interface virtual-template 11
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] ip address 202.38.161.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] quit

# Create the VE interface to encapsulate the PPP protocol.


[RouterC] interface virtual-ethernet 1
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 10

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[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit
[RouterC] interface virtual-ethernet 2
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet2] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 11
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet2] quit

# Establish a PVC and specify it to carry PPPoE.


[RouterC] interface atm 1/0.1
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] quit
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_b 0/61
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/61-to_adsl_b] map bridge virtual-ethernet 2

For details about configuring a RADIUS scheme, refer to AAA RADIUS HWTACACS Configuration in
the Security Volume.

PPPoEoA Client Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-6, the Ethernet interface IP address of Router A serves as the gateway of all PCs
in LAN. Router A is directly connected to the ADSL accessing end of public network via the ADSL card
to serve as the client of PPPoEoA (ATM1/0 is the port number of the ADSL card). The Server, PPPoEoA
authentication server of public network, is used to authenticate user information via CHAP.
Figure 1-6 Network diagram for ADSL PPPoEoA Client

Configuration procedure

1) Configure Router A:
# Configure user name and password:
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user Sysname
[RouterA-luser-Sysname] password simple hello
[RouterA-luser-Sysname] service-type ppp

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[RouterA-luser-Sysname] quit

# Configure dialing access control list:


[RouterA] dialer-rule 10 ip permit

# Create dialer port and configure the dial-up and PPP authentication:
[RouterA] interface dialer0
[RouterA-Dialer0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp chap password hello
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp chap user user1
[RouterA-Dialer0] ip address ppp-negotiate
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer user ABC
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer-group 10
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer bundle 12
[RouterA-Dialer0] quit

# Create a VE interface:
[RouterA] interface virtual-ethernet 2
[RouterA-Virtual-Ethernet2] quit

# Configure the ATM interface of ADSL card:


[RouterA] interface atm1/0
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc 0/32
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32] map bridge virtual-ethernet 2
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32] quit

# Configure a VE port:
[RouterA] interface virtual-ethernet 2
[RouterA-Virtual-Ethernet2] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 12

# Configure the default route:


[RouterA] ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 Dialer 0
2) If the PPPoEoA Server is of the same type of router, its PPPoEoA can be configured as follow:
# Configure user features.
<Sysname> system-view
[Sysname] local-user user1
[Sysname-luser-user1] password simple hello
[Sysname-luser-user1] service-type ppp

# Create a virtual-template, set the authentication mode to CHAP, and configure the IP address.
[Sysname] interface virtual-template 0
[Sysname-Virtual-Template0] ppp authentication-mode chap
[Sysname-Virtual-Template0] ppp chap user Sysname
[Sysname-Virtual-Template0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
[Sysname-Virtual-Template0] remote address pool 80
[Sysname-Virtual-Template0] quit

# Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme, and create a local IP
address pool.
[Sysname] domain system
[Sysname-isp-system] scheme local

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[Sysname-isp-system] ip pool 80 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.100

# Configure a VE interface.
[Sysname] interface virtual-ethernet 1

# Enable PPPoE Server on the VT specified on the virtual Ethernet interface.


[Sysname-Virtual-Ethernet1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 0
[Sysname-Virtual-Ethernet1] mac-address 0022-0022-00C1
[Sysname-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit

# Configure ATM interface 1/0.


[Sysname] interface atm1/0
[Sysname-Atm1/0] pvc 0/32
[Sysname-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1

After the above-mentioned configuration, the link layer is able to work normally, and the PCs can
communicate with the server via the ATM upper layer protocols.

ATM PVC Transmit Priority Configuration Example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1-7, you need to create PVC 1 and PVC 2 on the same ATM 155 Mbps interface,
each assigned 100 Mbps of bandwidth and associated with the UBR service. Set the transmission
priority of PVC 1 to 1 and that of PVC 2 to 3.
Let Router A distribute equal amount of traffic to Router B on two PVCs and observe the statistics about
received/sent/dropped packets.
Figure 1-7 Network diagram for ATM PVC priority configuration

Configuration procedure

Configure Router A:
# Configure the ATM interface.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface atm 1/0
[RouterA-Atm1/0] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0

# Create two PVCs and assign them different transmission priority values.
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc 1 0/33
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/33-1] map ip 202.38.160.2
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/33-1] service ubr 100000
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/33-1] transmit-priority 1
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/33-1] quit
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc 2 0/32
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32-2] map ip 202.38.160.3
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32-2] service ubr 100000

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[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/33-1] transmit-priority 3

After two equal traffics that exceed the ATM bandwidth are sent to Router B, you can use the display
atm pvc-info interface atm 1/0/0 pvc command on Router B to view statistical results for each PVC
(you can make several tests and observe the average statistical value). You can see that the PVC with
higher priority receives more packets than that with lower priority. In other words, the PVC with the
higher priority takes preference in getting bandwidth and other PVCs (if there are many and with
different priority values), regardless of their priority values, are treated equally in terms of bandwidth
allocation.

Troubleshooting ATM
Link State Error in IPoA Application

Symptom:

When IPoA is used, the link state is down.

Solution:

Make sure that the optical fiber is plugged in correctly.


Make sure that the local IP address has been configured.
Make sure that the PVC is successful created and communication between cards is normal.

Link Report Error in PPPoA Application

Symptom:

When PPPoA is used, the link does not report UP.

Solution:

Refer to Link State Error in IPoA Application.

Ping Failure

Symptom:

The physical layer of the interfaces and the line protocol are both UP, but when tested with the ping
command, the two ends are mutually unreachable.

Solution:

z If IPOA is used, make sure that the IP protocol address mapping is configured correctly. If the
interfaces of two routers are connected back-to-back, the local PVC mapped to the remote IP must
have the same VPI/VCI value as the remote PVC mapped to the local IP. In addition, the IP
addresses of the two ends must also be in the same network segment.
z If two routers are connected back-to-back, make sure that at least one of interfaces uses internal
transmission clock (master). Or, if the routers are connected to the ATM network, the transmission
clock should be set to line clock.
z Check the ATM interfaces of the two sides to make sure that they are of the same type, for example,
both are multimode fiber interfaces or both are single mode fiber interfaces, or both are multimode
fiber interfaces but connected using single mode. If a multimode fiber interface and a single mode

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fiber interface are directly connected, they can communicate in most cases, but sometimes with
frequent packet dropping and CRC errors.
z If the two ends are PPPoA, make sure that their IP addresses (should be in the same network
segment) and authentication parameters are correctly configured.
z If, according to the ping command, small packets can pass but big packets cannot, make sure that
the mtu configurations of the two router interfaces are the same.

ATM Interface State Error

Symptom:

The interface state of ATM is DOWN.

Solution:

Make sure that the optical fibers are correctly plugged to ATM interface. There should be two optical
fibers, one for receiving information and one for sending information. The two are not exchangeable. If
they are wrongly plugged, the interface state of ATM cannot be UP.
If two routers are connected back-to-back, check if neither of the two ATM interfaces enables internal
transmission clock. By default, routers use line clock. If two routers are connected back-to-back, one of
them should be configured as internal transmission lock with the clock master command.

PVC State is Down while ATM Interface State is Up

Symptom:

The interface state of ATM is UP, but the PVC state is DOWN.

Solution:

Check if this fault results from enabling OAM F5 Loopback cell transmission and retransmission
detection. When two ATM devices are connected, the VPI/VCI value of the PVCs on the two devices
must be the same. Provided that OAM F5 cell transmission and retransmission detection is enabled,
and the VPI/VCI value of the remote node (connected directly with the local node) is not the same as the
local node, the local PVC state cannot change into UP.

Ping Failure after PPPoA Configuration

Symptom:

The PVC state is UP, but after applications like IPoA are configured, the remote node cannot be
successfully pinged.

Solution:

Make sure that the remote node supports the same application as configured on the local node. For
example, if the local node uses PPPoA, the remote node should also use PPPoA.
If the remote node supports the same application configured on the local node, make sure that the two
sides use the same type of AAL5 encapsulation protocol. For example, if one side uses SNAP whereas
the other uses MUX, they cannot communicate. You can enable the packet debugging function of ATM
to get some clues.

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Packet Loss and CRC Errors and Changes of Interface State

Symptom:

Two routers are connected back-to-back, and a ping between them is successful, but sometimes there
are large amount of packets lost and frequent CRC errors, or the interface state alternates between UP
and DOWN.

Solution:

Check the ATM interfaces of the two nodes to see if their types are the same, namely, both are
multimode fiber interface or both are single mode fiber interface. If their types are different, you should
change one of them. In most cases, when a multimode fiber interface and a single mode fiber interface
are directly connected, they can communicate, but sometimes with the above-mentioned faults.

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