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THE BEST-EVER WHEAT- AND GLUTEN-FREE BAKING BOOK Over 200 Recipes for Muffins, Cookies, Breads, and
THE BEST-EVER
WHEAT- AND GLUTEN-FREE
BAKING BOOK
Over 200 Recipes for Muffins, Cookies, Breads, and More
MARY ANN WENNIGER WITH MACE WENNIGER
FAIR WINDS
PRE
S S
BEVERLY ,
MASSACHUSETTS
Text ©2005 by Mary Ann and Mace Wenniger First published in the USA in 2005
Text ©2005 by Mary Ann and Mace Wenniger
First published in the USA in 2005 by
Fair Winds Press, a member of
Quayside Publishing Group
100 Cummings Center
Suite 406-L
Beverly, MA
01915
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized, in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without prior permission in writing from
the publisher.
12 11 1009
3456
ISBN - 13: 978-1-59233-131-4
ISBN - 10: 1-59233-131-9
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available
Cover design by Mary Ann Guillette
Design by Leslie Haimes
Printed and bound in Canada
The information in this book is for educational purposes only.
It is not intended to replace
the advice of a physician or medical practitioner. Please see your health care provider before
beginning any new diet or health program.
We dedicate this book to our friends who offered so much and made this book
We dedicate this book to our friends who offered so much
and made this book possible, particularly to Eleanor Kin~
-who helped us so much -with each of these recipes
and pa~es, and to you, our ne-w friends -with
-whom -we no-w share our stories, recipes, and fun.
contents 1 CHAPTER CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 7 CHAPTER
contents
1
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
2
CHAPTER
3
CHAPTER
4
CHAPTER
5
CHAPTER
6
7
CHAPTER
contents 1 CHAPTER CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 7 CHAPTER
contents 1 CHAPTER CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 7 CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

9

Muffins for Breakfast and Tea

35

Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes

75

Our Daily Breads

101

Sweet Treats: Exquisite Cookies

141

Special Pleasures: Yummy Cakes

179

Fun and Easy to

Eat: Desserts to Die For

221

Juicy Endings or Hearty Meals: Lush Pies

245

APPENDIX

References and Source Guide for Gluten-Free Baking

267

INDEX

273

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

285

287

Introduction Why We Wrote This Book Why bake? I asked this question to a friend
Introduction
Why We Wrote This Book
Why bake? I asked this question to a friend of mine, a book illustrator who
seems to work day and night, yet always has home-baked cookies in a copper
tin for us after a hike in the woods, when we are ready for a hot cup of tea
and a bit of sweet stuff. "To relax in-between," was her answer. There were
no great considerations, just the fun of making and offering home-baked
treats. That's it. That is what this book is about. Through the years my Ph.D.
daughter has turned to baking chocolate chip cookies for a quick fix, a
touch of warmth, of cheer.
If you add the health benefits of the new protein-rich flours I will
introduce you to in this chapter, you will realize that avoiding the glycemic
and dull-tasting wheat flours and choosing to experiment with alternative
flours is an option now thanks to the wisdom and initiative of several flour
missionaries who have brought these new flours to us during the last fifty
years.
This section is packed with information about alternative flours, their
tastes, textures, wheat- and gluten-free properties, and where to purchase
them. It is the first informative writing of its kind to be included in any
cookbook. It provides a unique in-depth list of gluten- and wheat-free flours,
their country of origin, and their health benefits, as well as our personal
recommendations regarding each of the flours.
We attended the first U.S. International Conference on Celiac Disease,
held in Baltimore, Maryland, in June 2000. While there, we buttonholed
vendors of gluten-free flours and sought out detailed information about the
many flours available for purchase in the United States. Thus officially began
our most intensive research. In this book, we offer for the first time the
researched but never-presented-in-full flours that we call alternative flours,
which are better in many ways than wheat, and are fully safe for gluten- and
9
wheat-free children and adults. How exciting for you and for us! This is an untouched
wheat-free children and adults. How exciting for you and for us! This is an
untouched field of unusual flours, which we refer to as "alternative flours"
because we use them as an alternative to wheat.
Recently, we had the privilege of spending a day with friendly, cheer-
ful Bob Moore, the owner and visionary who started Bob's Red Mill in
Oregon-and the new flour revolution along the way. On a Friday afternoon
in late August, when we were in Oregon for a wedding, we stopped in his
retail store, searching rather naively for Bob.
By chance, he had just stopped by. He dropped his packages and warmly
welcomed us and told us his story in a humble way that belied his position as
the head of a huge company. It is a cause that has persisted in spite of a fire
that demolished his buildings. Inspired by a Biblically-based conviction of the
wholesomeness and holiness of baking breads, he single-handedly reached
out to the world for their grains to offer his customers.
Moore's story is that he was retired when he read a library book about an
old stone grain mill in New Hampshire. Inspired, he and his sons brought old
milling stones from all over the United States to his barn in Oregon, where
his business of stone-grinding grains to preserve every nutritious particle was
begun. Today, you can order all the grains we introduce you to from them
online or from their catalogue. Moore anticipates offering gluten-free oats
soon. Presently, he packages and stores oats in his gluten-free building, but
he cannot yet guarantee that his oats are grown alone, without other grains.
(Bob Moore suggests approaching the Quaker Oats Company for gluten-free
oats, since their suppliers are vast farms of oat growers.) The same friendly,
open spirit can be tapped at the Bob's Red Mill customer hotlines. Many
recipes in this book were adapted from recipes sent to us by Bob's Red Mill.
There are other companies that offer alternative flours and good advice,
including Ener-G Foods in Seattle, Washington, and Arrowhead Mills in
Hereford, Texas.
While we researched and tasted flours, we experimented with baked
goods. Our experiments yielded wonderful baked goods, which we offer in
the chapters that follow.
Read on for basic principles for successful wheat- and gluten-free
baking, including tips regarding utensil selection, stirring, pan preparation,
presentation, and storage of these fragile baked goods. Sources of gluten-free
flavoring are offered. We also give information about the binders that hold
gluten-free baked goods together such as guar and xanthum gums, gelatin,
applesauce, and mayonaise.
In the early days of our gluten-free baking experimentation, we used rice
flour without any binders. Our results were disappointing. Our baked
breads, cookies, cakes, and muffins were bland tasting and fell apart at a
10
Introduction
touch. We researched additives that would make gluten-free baked goods hold together. In this section,
touch. We researched additives that would make gluten-free baked goods
hold together. In this section, we share our findings with our readers. We
started by using gelatin and methyl cellulose as binders. We finally heard
about xanthan gum, a root product that bakers use in cookies. Later, we
learned about another binder, guar gum. Experiments with different types of
gums produced a variety of textures in our baked products. Guar gum pro-
duces a spongy texture and is particularly useful in cakes. Xanthan produces
a stretchy texture, making it best to use in breads. We use xanthan gum in
most of our baking.
For years, we had to mail order both gums from a baker's supply house
in California, because local retailers did not stock them. Shipping was time
consuming and costly. Today, much to our relief, these two gums are available
at most health food stores, as is carrageenan, a seaweed derivative that also
works as a binder.
Baking is an art as well as a science. We invite you to experiment with
the additives, flours, herbs, spices, and toppings, always keeping in mind that
the smells and crusts on baked goods are 80 percent of the offering.
Gluten-Free Ingredients
This is an exciting time to be interested in baking, with the new heightened
awareness of the deleterious health effects of refined white breads. A wide
variety of healthful, tasty grains are now sold in supermarkets, including rice,
soy, quinoa, teff, barley, corn, tapioca, millet, and amaranth, which are stun-
ningly low in carbs. These grains are full of protein, easy to bake with, and
truly delicious.
Bread machines can help take the work and supervisory time out of
homemade breads. But we think there is nothing like being hands-on with
your baking, especially with gluten-free flours. They do not require kneading,
just stirring, and not much of that. Baking breads with gluten-free flours is
faster than wheat-flour baking. Everything happens more quickly since there
is only minimal rising possible with these grains. So it is fun to do the whole
thing from start to finish, as easily as making a meat loaf.
Today, you can be creative in your baking. You will get to know these
flours, their characteristics, and interchange them in recipes or make up your
own as you catch on to the basic principles involved. We hope that we will
open these doors for you and draw you away from the sameness of the white
flours that celiacs have been tied to by commercial gluten-free bakers and
many recipe books. The textures and whole grains of the various new flours
will seem so much more healthy and tasty, with more protein and less carbs
than rice and tapioca and potato flours.
11
Sweet-enhancing spices such as allspice, anise, caraway, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, cumin, ginger, mint, and nutmeg
Sweet-enhancing spices such as allspice, anise, caraway, cardamom,
cinnamon, cloves, cumin, ginger, mint, and nutmeg are found in every
supermarket. Using seeds such as flax, poppy, dill, and sesame changes flavor
and adds texture.
Pure alcohol extracts (such as almond, walnut, hazelnut, and vanilla),
made without gluten-based additives, are available, as are alcohol-free
flavorings.
Liqueurs, wines, and spirits (rum and brandies) add flavor to wheat-
and gluten-free desserts. Whiskey, bourbon, and other distilled alcoholic
beverages without gluten-based additives are gluten-free because distilled
alchohols have their gluten and wheat proteins cooked away.
We love our newfound grains: wheat-free and gluten-free, these low-
carbohydrate grains are healthful and much richer and more satisfying than
the pasty wheat products. These lusty, interesting alternative grains have
come onto the shelves of supermarkets and health food stores during the last
ten years. Some grains contain gluten, like wheat, rye, barley, kamut, and
spelt, and must be avoided by celiacs, people with gluten intolerance. Grains
such as amaranth, quinoa, rice, teff, soy, corn, tapioca, buckwheat, and potato
flours are gluten-free as well wheat-free-these are the grains now being
purchased by bakers who are not only looking for new textures and subtle
flavors, but are also seeking to avoid wheat and gluten.
A New Hampshire bakery that I love to visit, recently advertised gluten-
free spelt bread. "Wrong, wrong, wrong!" we shouted. This is what can befall
unknowing celiacs. I practically stamped my feet. When we confronted the
owner, she said the folks in Brattleboro, Vermont, who grew and marketed
the spelt claimed it was gluten- and wheat-free (which is not true). Spelt, a
variety of wheat, is neither wheat- nor gluten-free. The point of this tale is
that we celiacs must educate ourselves about the properties of each grain on
the market. I will try to do so here in this book, but you must continue your
own investigations, taking note of what you like best.
Remember, these grains are a bit tricky to bake with, since they toughen
easily with too much handling. Without gluten, which aerates and suspends
cells so baked goods become light, I have found it important to hardly stir
my products and to prepare everything ahead (toppings, oven, baking pans,
timer, etc.) so baked goods can be popped immediately into the oven once
mixed.
Gluten also serves as the binder that holds baked goods together and
makes them rise. Today, the special additives that work as binders, which are
used in these recipes to hold together our muffins and breads, are available at
most health food stores. These binders-guar gum and xanthan gum-are
made from plants.
12
Introduction
Celiac Disease versus Wheat Allergy versus Wheat or Gluten "Sensitivity" CELIAC DISEASE Celiac disease is
Celiac Disease versus Wheat Allergy versus
Wheat or Gluten "Sensitivity"
CELIAC DISEASE
Celiac disease is a genetically based au toimmune disorder. People with celiac
disease must avoid gluten, a protein found in all varieties of wheat, including
spelt, kamut, and triticale, and derivatives of wheat, as well as rye and barley.
(It may be noted that actually, gluten is found only in wheat, not rye or
barley. However, since rye and barley also have harmful proteins similar to
wheat's, celiac patients have arbitrarily designated any protein in any grain
that is harmful to celiac patients as "gluten.") If gluten is ingested by a
person with celiac disease, his immune system will attack his villi, the finger-
like projections that line the small intestine. When the villi are damaged, the
intestine cannot adequately absorb nutrients. Anemia, osteoporosis, diarrhea
or constipation, unintentional weight loss, neuropathy, lymphoma in rare
cases, and other serious conditions may result. The remedy is simple: a
gluten-free diet.
Gluten is a protein found in wheat that provides elasticity to wheat-flour
dough when kneaded or mixed. The proteins of rye and barley do not have
this elasticity, which traps gas that is released when yeast ferments or when
leavening agents such as baking powder act. Gluten allows batter to rise and
yet still hold together. Grains such as amaranth, quinoa, rice, millet, buck-
wheat, soy, corn, and tapioca and potato flours are gluten-free as well as
wheat-free.
WHEAT ALLERGY
Though relatively uncommon, some people have a true wheat allergy (an IgE
mediated allergy) and must avoid wheat in all of its forms (cracked wheat,
farina, graham flour, semolina, wheat bran, wheat germ, wheat germ oil,
wheat starch, whole wheat flour, white flour, wheat stabilizers, durum wheat,
matzo meal, etc.) as well as kamut, spelt, and triticale. If you are avoiding
wheat, watch out for other products derived from wheat.
Like other allergies, a wheat allergy may appear as a respiratory response
(wheezing), a skin rash, or gastrointestinal upset. These people can use
gluten-free flours, and if they have no reason to believe they are also allergic
to rye or barley, they can use those grains as well. This type of allergy can be
determined by clinical testing.
13

WHEAT OR GLUTEN IISENSITIVITY II

Some people who have tested negative for celiac disease or a wheat allergy may have
Some people who have tested negative for celiac disease or a wheat allergy
may have a self-reported sensitivity to wheat- and/or gluten-based products.
They may experience headaches or feel sleepy or bilious when they eat wheat
or gluten. These individuals may be able to tolerate small amounts of wheat
or gluten. (Barley and rye are technically wheat-free but may contain the
offending protein causing the wheat sensitivity.) A trial period of removing
the grains from the diet, along with careful tracking of symptoms, preferably
under medical supervision, is the best way to tell.
Those with wheat sensitivity typically follow a wheat-free diet, using the
gluten-free grains as well as barley and rye. Those individuals with gluten
sensitivity will typically follow the gluten-free diet, avoiding all wheat, rye,
barley, kamut, spelt, triticale, and any other form of wheat or gluten. They
mayor may not choose to eat oats, which are slightly genetically removed
from wheat, rye, and barley.
Whether you have celiac disease or wheat allergy, be aware that cross
contamination with wheat- or gluten-containing grains can occur during
harvesting, processing, food transportation, or food preparation. People
avoiding gluten or wheat must be vigilant. If you are in doubt about the
safety of a product, do not use it.
THE OATS ISSUE
Good old-fashioned oats are inherently gluten-free in themselves; this fact
is-as of lOOS-accepted and celebrated, but with caveats. Noted nutrition-
ists have summarized the current findings as follows: Based on numerous
studies both in Europe and in the United States on adults and children, it
appears that the majority of people with celiac disease can tolerate oats.
However, it has been generally recommended that individuals with celiac
disease avoid oats, due to potential cross contamination with other grains
that can occur if the oats are grown in agricultural fields near wheat, and
during milling or processing alongside gluten-containing grains. Another
concern involves those people with a true oat allergy or the small percentage
of people who may react, as with celiac disease, to the oat protein itself,
although these occurrences tend to be rare.
At the writing of this cookbook, some celiac support groups and some
celiac medical centers have not yet completely accepted the use of oats in the
gluten-free diet, although most have. For example, the Celiac Disease Center
at Columbia University recommends that those with celiac disease who wish
to add oats to their diet do so only when they are stable on their gluten-free
diet and have negative celiac antibodies. Furthermore, the oats must come
from a facility that processes only oats, so there is no danger of cross
14
Introduction
contamination. Close monitoring by a physician is recommended for celiacs who eat oats. If you
contamination. Close monitoring by a physician is recommended for celiacs
who eat oats.
If you are interested in broadening your healthful possibilities, read on.
All about Alternative Grains
THE WONDERFUL STORY OF GRAINS
So old, and yet many are so new to us-a huge bounty of alternative grains is
available from all over the world today thanks to the fortitude of many grain
explorers and the use of the Internet and international trade. It amazes me
what grains are available for restricted diets and how terrific they taste, feel,
and smell. I recommend them not as a wacky fad food, but as newfound
gold, wonderful for everyone. If you want a lot of energy, try these protein-
powered grains.
"What exactly is a grain?" we asked. Grains are plants in the grass family
that bear fruits that we call kernels or grains, which are covered with a hard,
thin, dry skin, unlike culinary fruits, which have soft, thicker, succulent
skins. Where do grains come from? To cite a few places, Europe-barley,
oats, rye; Africa-sorghum, millet, teff; Asia-rice; United States-corn,
Indian grass, sorghum. The cereals, or grains, are milled, or ground, to
produce flour. Historically, grains were milled between two large stones that
moved in opposite directions, powered by animals or even windmills.
Stone-ground flours are considered the best because they are full of nutrients.
There are small and medium-size flour manufacturers that take great pride in
producing stone-ground grains!
To explain it more technically, we will discuss plant taxonomy. We
learned that taxonomy is the systematic arrangement of plants according to
major groups and is referred to in studying grains. The plant species known
as grass contributes most grains to the world and, even without considering
wheat, the majority of flours available to the gluten-free baker are from
grasses. Rice and corn are grasses. Sorghum, millet, amaranth, flax, quinoa,
tapioca, and teff are members of the grass family that are closely related to
rice and corn based on taxonomy. Based on several protein studies, these
grains have been determined safe for a gluten-free diet.
Grains distantly related to wheat, such as buckwheat, which is akin to
rhubarb, as well as quinoa and amaranth are also considered safe for use in
a gluten-free diet for folks with a wheat allergy or sensitivity. Montina, or
Indian grass, is another new gluten-free product that came on the market
recently. Now that the door has opened, I am sure there will be others.
I think you will have a wonderful time discovering each grain, its history,
and its gift to us.
15
Grain Composition An explanation of how grains are made up might help you understand the
Grain Composition
An explanation of how grains are made up might help you understand the
products you find in markets. All grains are composed of several layers. Most
come from grasses and are the grindable, edible seeds of those grasses. The
grain kernel has four parts:
1. Husk-The outer layer, or husk, is generally inedible and usually removed
by various methods, ranging from sophisticated winnowing machines to
the more primitive tossing the grains in the air and letting the wind blow
away the chaff. After the outer layer is taken away, what is left is the whole
grain, which is totally nutritious and delicious when cooked.
2. Bran-The next layer is the bran. It is the prime source of insoluble fiber
and is rich in vitamins and minerals.
3. Germ-The germ, or embryo of the seed, lies beneath the bran. When
seeds germinate, this is the part that grows. The germ is rich in enzymes,
protein, minerals, fat, and vitamins.
4. Endosperm-If we polish off the bran layer and the germ, we are left with
the starchy center, or endosperm. The endosperm layer gives us the flours,
readily assimilated carbs. Gluten-free flours such as quinoa,
amaranth, millet, and teff are exceptionally high in protein and higher in
fiber than some of the refined gluten-containing flours. Hypoglycemics
avoid endosperm carbohydrates in their diets. These carbohydrates too
quickly push blood sugars into the system raising the blood sugar levels.
This quick rise in blood sugar levels is followed by a quick drop in blood
sugar levels. This cycle leaves one feeling drained.
The Reason We Combine Several Different
Flours in Our ReCipes
We combine different cereal grain flours with bean and nut flours for texture
and taste but most importantly for nutrition. When cereal flours like rice,
corn, quinoa, teff, and so forth, are combined with bean flour, soy flour, or
nut flour, they make a full and complete protein with all the essential amino
acids equal to the protein found in meat! These are dynamite foods, not just
baked goods.
The following basic gluten-free flour mixture can be made ahead and
stored for handy access. However, to vary taste and texture, I prefer to use
different gluten-free flours, interchanging them as availability and taste
dictate.
16
Introduction
Gluten-Free Flour Mixture 21/2 cups (400 g) rice flour 1 cup (160 g) potato starch
Gluten-Free Flour Mixture
21/2 cups (400 g) rice flour
1 cup (160 g) potato starch flour
1 cup (120 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
1/2 cup (70 g) bean flour (either soy or garbanzo and/or fava bean flour)
2 tablespoons xanthan gum
HoW" Do You Make Really Good Baked Goods
Using These Alternative Flours?
Use additives! Many of our recipes contain eggs. The eggs help hold baked
goods together. Egg replacement products such as that made by Ener-G
Foods are suggested if you are egg-sensitive. We found that eggs are essential
in gluten-free baked goods. Better'n Eggs (98 percent egg white) is another
gluten-free (and cholesterol-free) alternative to whole eggs that gives cakes an
extra lift. We are just beginning to experiment with this product. If you cook
vegan, you can use xanthan gum or guar gum as a substitute for eggs and
gluten to hold breads, muffins, and cakes together. I also find that apple-
sauce, honey, molasses, mayonnaise, yogurt, and sour cream work well as
binders if you don't have the gums on hand.
Without gluten to hold your gluten-free breads and muffins together, it
will be important to stock up on one of the binders discussed below. Two
additives now available at health food stores are xanthan gum and guar gum.
These can also be ordered by mail from Ener-G Foods (see appendix for
address) .
XANTHAN GUM
This is a powder made from the dried cell coat of the microorganism
Xanthomonas campestris that has been fermented with corn sugar. Bakers use
it, even when baking wheat products, because it ensures that the baked prod-
uct holds together. Xanthan gum does not affect the taste of the baked good.
GUAR GUM
This is a powder made from the seed of the Cyamopsis tetragonobus plant.
As defined in Webster's, it is made from the ground endosperm of guar seeds.
Guar gum is used as a thickening agent and provides sizing. It can be added
to any muffin or bread recipe.
17
Baking Tips • Cream your fats with sugar when you can. This makes lighter products.
Baking Tips
• Cream your fats with sugar when you can. This makes lighter products.
• Cakes that begin with a creamed butter-and-sugar mixture are light and
tender.
• Don't omit salt. Salt has a strengthening effect on proteins. In dough, it
gives support and structure to the product. This is particularly important
in free-form baked goods: scones, muffins, shortbreads, and cookies.
• Be careful how you mix salt with yeast, because it can kill the yeast. Salt
should be added to a yeast batter only after being well stirred into dry
ingredients (flour, etc.).
• Solid fats such as butter and vegetable oil shortening act as leavening in
baked goods (such as cakes) when creamed with sugar. The granular qual-
ity of sugar helps it to trap air as it is "smashed" into soft butter while
creaming. What happens is that fat molecules hold air in the batter and
expand when the heat of the oven reaches them.
Special Characteristics of Alternative Flours
1. Interesting flavors. Alternative grains are varied in taste. Some, like buck-
wheat, teff, and quinoa, taste nutty. Some, like barley and corn, are sweet,
and some, like soy, taste bitter. Rice, tapioca, and potato flours are neutral
and may be used to dilute strongly flavored flours. Hazelnut flour com-
bines well with the coarse textures of alternative flours such as quinoa and
amaranth. Corn bakes well by itself, without added flours, when mixed
with eggs and butter to make rich corn breads.
2. Stickiness. When you use alternative flours, the dough will be sticky and it
becomes heavy fast. It is helpful to mix all wet ingredients together, blend
all dry ingredients, then combine the wet and dry at once, hardly stirring,
just until the dry ingredients are moistened by the wet. When using rice
flour, you have to be careful not to overbeat the dough, because it will
become very moist and heavy. Bread machines, if used, should have the
second kneading function turned off.
3. Fragility. Baked products dry out quickly. Refrigerate them to keep them
fresh longer.
18
Introduction
Alternative Grains and Grain Flours (Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free) AMARANTH FLOUR This ancient Aztec grain, about
Alternative Grains and Grain Flours
(Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)
AMARANTH FLOUR
This ancient Aztec grain, about half the size of millet, is loaded with protein,
iron, calcium, phosphorous, and fiber. Amaranth flour has a strong, wild
flavor and it has a high starch content and acts like a binder because it is
mucilaginous (gluey). It combines well with other flours to make superb,
finely textured baked goods. It is also used in breakfast cereals and milled
into flour for pastas, muffins, and breads.
Amaranth is not a cereal grass. It comes from an annual related to
spinach and Swiss chard. It is maroon in color with shaggy heads containing
millions of tiny seeds. Its protein content is 18 percent. Amaranth has a high
starch content and is higher in iron and calcium than conventional grains.
The amaranth germ and seed coat has a lot of oil, minerals, and protein.
Amaranth is available in Asian markets and is now grown in Nebraska and
Colorado.
BUCKWHEAT FLOUR
This grain is not a member of the wheat family at all. Buckwheat is actually
the fruit of an herbaceous plant related to rhubarb, a little like amaranth. Its
edible seeds are used as a cereal grain. It comes closer to the density of
animal protein than any other plant product. Buckwheat has huge amounts
of thiamine, riboflavin, calcium, and phosphorus. It is amazingly high in
protein, contains a small amount of fat, and is high in B-complex vitamins,
especially vitamins Bl and B2. It is known as a blood-building food because
eating it neutralizes toxic acidic wastes.
Buckwheat flour is milled from whole toasted buckwheat. It is heavily
textured and strongly flavored, slightly bitter. Its delicious nutty taste is good
in buckwheat pancakes when combined with other gluten-free flours.
Commercially processed buckwheat pancake flour mix is not safe for
celiacs because it is combined with wheat flour. We discovered this fact when
I made pancakes with it and my husband had an adverse reaction to it. You
can make safe buckwheat pancakes by mixing rice flour and buckwheat flour
with eggs for your own gluten-free mix (see recipe in chapter 2).
BUCKWHEAT GROATS
Buckwheat groats are dehulled, unroasted buckwheat. Groats are used to
make kasha and cereals. There are also oatmeal groats, so don't get confused.
Buckwheat groats are okay for celiacs. Generally, buckwheat groats are
19
soaked overnight. I recommend toasting groats before using them. They can be cooked in ten
soaked overnight. I recommend toasting groats before using them. They can
be cooked in ten minutes for use in salads or muffins. I put groats in my
gluten-free granola, where they add to the flavor and aroma.
INDIAN RICEGRASS
Dr. David Sands, a faculty member at Montana State University, began
searching for crop alternatives in the 1990s. During his studies, he identified
a perennial native grass called Indian ricegrass. Testing the seed produced
from this rugged plant revealed a high level of protein and fiber, and most
significantly, it was found to be gluten-free.
MILLET
Millet, one of the oldest grains known to man, originated in East Asia, where
it was a dietary staple until the Tang Dynasty (618-907cE). Millet was grown
in northern China, and rice was the predominant grain of southern China.
Millet also flourished in the Roman Empire. It is now grown extensively in
Colorado.
Millet is a grass plant that has numerous small seeds on each grain.
The smallest of cereal grains, this tiny yellow seed has the most complete
protein (6 percent to 11 percent) and significantly more iron than any other
cereal grain.
It is gluten-free; high in carbohydrates; and very rich in amino acids,
phosphorous, and B vitamins. It has a high alkaline content, so it is easy to
digest. If cooked with a tiny bit of water, it fluffs like a light pilaf. Use more
water, and it cooks up to be like mashed potatoes. The edible seeds are eaten
most commonly in cereals or as a side dish, similar to rice. The seeds are
milled into flour, which you can use for breads and muffins. Sweet tasting
when fresh, millet quickly gets rancid.
Our favorite way to eat millet is in a waffle made with buckwheat flour
too. It is also delicious in cookies, pancakes, and muffins.
OATS
Oats are high in carbohydrates, with 13 percent protein and 7.5 percent fat,
and they are a good source of calcium, iron, vitamin Bl, and nicotinic acid.
Oat flour is commonly used in breads, cereals, granola, and other baked
products. Rolled oats are made from flattened kernels with the hulls removed
and are used in oatmeal. Oat groats, used in breakfast cereals, are kernels
with the husks removed.
As previously stated on page 14, oats are inherently gluten-free. However,
it has been generally recommended that individuals with celiac
disease or wheat allergy avoid oats, due to potential cross contamination with
gluten-containing grains. Only uncontaminated oats (Le., oats processed and
20
Introduction
packaged in totally wheat- and gluten-free environments) can be considered to be gluten-free. OAT FLOUR
packaged in totally wheat- and gluten-free environments) can be considered
to be gluten-free.
OAT FLOUR
Please read oats disclaimer on page 14. Celiac groups claim only uncontami-
nated oats can be considered to be gluten-free. However, our celiac, Mace,
has been eating oatmeal daily from Quaker Oats and McCann's with no bad
effects at all.
Oat flour is high in protein and rich in vitamins as well as calcium,
iron, and phosphorous. Oat bran is the edible outer covering of the whole
oat groat.
Oat flour is now deemed by many celiac research centers as gluten-free if
it is grown and processed in a gluten-free environment (see page 14). The
natural antioxidant in oats makes baked goods made with oat flour stay fresh
longer. Oat flour is sweet, so it is wonderful in breads and pancakes.
QUINOA FLOUR
This is our favorite flour, with its subtly sweet yet nutty flavor. It comes from
a leafy plant relative to lamb's quarters, with goosefoot-shaped leaves. Quinoa
is grown in the mountains of Peru and Bolivia. This grain dates back several
thousand years. It was crucial to the Inca diet. The name quinoa, pronounced
"keen-wa," is Incan for "mother grain. "
Quinoa is classified as a leafy grain, similar to amaranth and buckwheat.
It has almost double the protein content of hard spring wheat (durum),
which has the most protein of all wheat germs. Quinoa is widely used in
breakfast cereals and pastas, as a side dish, and ground into flour for baking.
Quinoa is called the super grain. The World Health Organization says
quinoa has closest to the ideal protein balance of any grain, being equal to
milk in protein quality. Quinoa is also high in B vitamins, iron, zinc, potassi-
um, calcium, and vitamin E.
SORGHUM FLOUR (A GLUTEN-FREE MEMBER OF THE GRASS FAMILy)
Grown in hot climates such as Africa and India, sorghum is a grain of many
names: milo, durra, shallu, kafir corn, Egyptian corn, great millet, and Indian
millet; and in India, it is known as jowar, cholam, and jonna. Sorghum ranks
fifth in the world's cereal crop production. It thrives in hot, arid climates. In
Africa, it is eaten as a fresh vegetable, much as we eat corn on the cob in the
United States.
Best known for its original use as animal feed in the United States,
sorghum is quickly becoming a popular flour for baked products such as
breads, pizza crust, and cereal. Sorghum contains large amounts of carbohy-
drates; 10 percent protein; 3.4 percent fat; calcium; and smaller percentages of
21
iron, vitamin Bl, and nicotinic acid. It is often used in combination with other, lighter
iron, vitamin Bl, and nicotinic acid. It is often used in combination with
other, lighter gluten-free flours because of its dense quality and somewhat
sweet and nutty flavor. The grain itself can also be ground into meal for
porridge, cakes, and flat breads. We make wonderful currant scones with pure
sorghum. (See "Sorghum Scones" on page 66.)
TEFF
Teff is the smallest grain in the world. It is a leafy cereal grain similar to
millet. Teff was grown in isolation in the windswept Simien Mountains at the
source of the Nile in Ethiopia until King Haile Selassie was overthrown in
1974. The Ethiopian government discourages teff's cultivation, but due to
the initiative Wayne and Elizabeth Carlson, who worked for the Red Cross
in Ethiopia, teff is now grown at their ranch in Caldwell, Idaho, and sold as
flour or grains. Teff flour is used for the baking of enjera, traditional
Abyssinian flat bread. Enjera is a porous, soft, thin crepe with a slightly sour
flavor. Enjera is decorative flat bread that becomes plate, fork, knife, and
spoon to Ethiopians in that they enjoy eating with it, using pieces of the
enjera to scoop up portions of the spicy stew called wot, the companion to
the enjera.
Teff is delicious. It tastes like hazelnuts. Teff is gluten-free and wheat-free.
Nutritionally, it is a powerhouse. Teff is rich in phosphorous, magnesium,
copper, zinc, calcium, and manganese. Teff's iron content is three times
greater than wheat's. According to experts, a daily intake of one teff enjera
supplies enough essential amino acids to sustain life without another protein
source. Most common teff is brown, but red and ivory varieties are available.
Bean and Legume Flours
(Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)
The following bean derivative high-protein flours are unique tasting and are
best used in combination with other gluten-free flours for baking and
cooking. They add great texture and nutrition to baked goods; however, they
should be used in conjunction with other flours (not more than one-third
bean flour). In recipes in this book calling for bean flour, you may use
garbanzo, fava, or a blend of both flours unless a particular bean flour is
specifically designated.
FAVA BEAN FLOUR
Fava bean flour is made from the fa va bean. It is bitter before baking. It is
often combined with garbanzo bean flour and yields an excellent texture and
taste.
22
Introduction
GARBANZO BEAN FLOUR (CHICKPEA FLOUR) This flour is made from chickpeas that are toasted and
GARBANZO BEAN FLOUR (CHICKPEA FLOUR)
This flour is made from chickpeas that are toasted and then milled. Garbanzo
bean flour is wheat-free and gluten-free. Garbanzo bean flour is often com-
bined with rice flour to make baked goods more protein-rich. Garbanzo flour
is mucilaginous; hence, it makes a good thickener in soups and sauces.
SOYA GRANULES
Soya granules are nutty nuggets of toasted soybeans that taste great when
added to muffins. Soya granules add a hearty, rough texture reminiscent of
old-fashioned whole wheat.
SOY FLOUR
Soy flour is generally light tan in color with a "beany," slightly bitter flavor,
which we like a lot. Soy flour is a fine-powdered flour very high in protein
and phytoestrogen. It can be used for a variety of products, such as breads,
rolls, doughnuts, cakes, and pancake and waffle mixes. Due to its strong fla-
vor, soy flour is best used in combination with other gluten-free flours.
Soy is produced from the same soybean plant as tofu. According to one
source, Arrowhead Mills, soy flour is higher in fat than other flours, lower in
carbs than other flours, and it is an excellent source of protein.
Soy has what might be called an assertive flavor. Generally, in baking, it is
used conservatively with only half of the total flour being soy. If more is used,
the baked product might get tough. We combine it with tapioca, rice, and
amaranth flour.
Corn Flours (Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)
CORN FLOUR
Corn, also known as Indian corn or maize, exists in many varieties and is a
staple carbohydrate of the gluten-free diet. Corn flour is used to make cere-
als, pastas, breads, and tortillas. Hominy (hulled kernels), masa (a type of
dough used in Latin American tortillas), grits, polenta, and griddlecakes are
made with corn.
CORN GRITS
Corn grits are coarsely ground from white or yellow corn and are often used
in corn breads and casseroles.
23
CORNMEAL Cornmeal comes as both yellow and white meal and can be used alone or
CORNMEAL
Cornmeal comes as both yellow and white meal and can be used alone or
combined with other flours to prepare Mexican dishes. Due to its lack of
elasticity, corn is generally not used to make leavened yeast breads. It is great,
however, in baking-powder breads. We recommend using yellow cornmeal
for preparing the recipes in this cookbook. Yellow cornmeal is milled from
yellow corn and is used for making breads and polenta.
CORNSTARCH
Cornstarch is a refined product made from white corn. It is used in
combination with other flours such as tapioca for baking. It is also great
as a thickener. I use it to thicken pies and gravies.
POPCORN FLOUR
Popcorn flour is full of flavor and is similar to cornmeal. Popcorn flour is
best combined with other flours in baking breads and muffins. It can also
be used as a coating when frying meats.
Nut and Seed Flours
(Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)
ALMON D MEAL FLOU R
Almonds are milled into a sweet-tasting flour or used as coarse bits in white
and brown breads, cakes, and cookies that are quite delicious and safe for
celiacs. I often use almonds and almond meal in cakes and cookies. You can
buy almond meal flour now from Bob's Red Mill. (See appendix.)
FLAX
Flax is usually referred to as flaxseed or flaxseed meal. Flaxseeds are used to
increase the fiber and omega-3 fatty acid content of foods. Flaxseeds added
directly to baking ingredients increase nutritional value, provide a nutty
flavor and a seedlike texture, and impart color to muffins.
Flaxseed meal, once prized by the ancient Egyptians, has a robust,
nutty flavor. A quarter cup or more adds amazing nutrition to your pancakes,
muffins, and breads. Flaxseed meal can be used as a substitute for oil or
butter. It is a natural cholesterol controller. It contains tons of omega-3 fats.
(One gram serving equals 2400 milligrams of omega-3.)
24
Introduction
HAZELNUT MEAL Hazelnut meal, made from pure ground hazelnuts, is full of sweet, nutty flavor.
HAZELNUT MEAL
Hazelnut meal, made from pure ground hazelnuts, is full of sweet, nutty
flavor. Hazelnuts are milled into a flour low in carbohydrates and containing
a significant amount of protein, comparable to bean flour. It's perfect for
adding a rich flavor to all baked goods.
NUTQUIK
NutQuik is a boxed product made from ground almonds and guar gum. It is
terrific for jazzing up banana bread, muffins, piecrusts, and cookies.
SESAME SEED FLOUR
Sesame seed flour is ground from whole white, brown, or black seeds and is
used in small quantities in cookie and bread recipes. I like to use sesame
seeds as toppings on baked goods.
Potato Flours (Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)
POTATO FLOUR
Potato flour is dense flour made from the whole potato, skin and all. It
should not be confused with potato starch flour. It is used with potato flakes
in pancakes, breads, and cookies.
POTATO STARCH OR POTATO STARCH FLOUR
To make potato starch flour, the potatoes are washed and peeled. The pota-
toes are then sliced, drum-dried, then ground or milled into a fine, dustlike
powder. Potato starch flour is notably high in the minerals leucine and
valine. It acts as an emulsifier similar to cornstarch. It is commonly used as a
stabilizing agent in baking cakes. When used as a thickener in soups, potato
starch flour should be mixed with water first. It has a bland taste, and works
well when combined with rice flours and other gluten-free flours in baking,
producing a consistency that resembles wheat bread's.
Potato starch flour is good for light cakes, but be sure to use only three
quarters of the amount of potato starch flour as you would of wheat flour.
Rice Flours (Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)
Rice is the second largest cereal crop in the world. It is grown from grasses,
different from wheat. It is a staple food in Asia, as well as for the celiac
population. This edible starchy grain is found in many varieties, including
white, brown, texmati, basmati, and jasmati; each has its own distinctive
25
flavor. White rice is milled to remove the husks and bran. It contains far fewer
flavor. White rice is milled to remove the husks and bran. It contains far
fewer nu trients.
BROWN RICE FLOUR
Brown rice, processed to remove only the husks, contains 8 percent protein
and is a good source of thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, and calcium.
SWEET RICE FLOUR
Sweet rice flour, often called sticky rice, is a good thickening agent for
sauces, or it is used in bread recipes.
Sweet rice flour is widely used in
gluten-free cereals, pastas, and bread, often in combination with other gluten-
free flours or ground nuts.
WHITE RICE FLOUR
White rice flour, which comes in two textures, regular and fine, has a bland
flavor and is best used to avoid the grainy texture of all-rice breads. Parboiled
white rice is enriched with iron and B vitamins. Rice bran added to baked
goods provides an additional fiber source.
Rice flour is widely used in
gluten-free cereals, pastas, and bread, often in combination with other gluten-
free flours or ground nuts.
Root Flours (Wheat-Free and Gluten-Free)
ARROWROOT
Arrowroot is a tasteless white powder that, when heated with water, forms a
thick paste that gels when cooled. It can be used as a thickening agent in
place of cornstarch or as an additive in baking. I prefer arrowroot over corn-
starch when thickening gravies.
TAPIOCA FLOUR
Tapioca flour, milled from the root of the tropical cassava plant, is a bright
white, finely powdered flour used to thicken soups, fruit pies, puddings, and
gravies. The starch provides a chewy texture to gluten-free baked goods.
XANTHUM GUM
This powder, made from the root of a plant, can be used as a gravy or sauce
thickener as well as a binder sibstitute for gluten in our recipes.
26
Introduction
Wheat-Free Grains and Flours These grains are not gluten-free, but they are wonderful for those
Wheat-Free Grains and Flours
These grains are not gluten-free, but they are wonderful for those who can
tolerate gluten and who want healthful, wheat-free grains. We do not provide
recipes with barley or rye in this book.
BARLEY
Barley is a cereal from the top of a grass, which may be ground into flour
with a nutlike flavor. It is high in carbohydrates and contains three times as
much protein, calcium, and phosphorous as rice. Barley is also used to make
malt in beer brewing and in the distillation of alcoholic beverages, which is
why celiacs avoid all beers except rice beer. Barley is used in soups and stews
as an emulsifier. Pearl barley, a very popular form of barley in most parts of
the world, is frequently added to soup.
Sometimes called the oldest cultivated grain, barley has tough outer
layers, the husks, which are pearled, or scoured with abrasives, to get to the
whole barley grain.
BARLEY FLOUR
Barley flour, made from pearled barley grain, is not gluten-free but it is
wheat-free.
Barley flour is sweet. It is wonderful in cakes, cookies, muffins, and quick
breads because it has a binding effect. Because it contains relatively low
amounts of gluten, barley flour is generally used to make unleavened bread.
As a carrying agent and smoother, barley cannot be beat. Combined with
other flours, it gives a deliciously light, moist texture and sweet flavor.
RYE
Rye is an edible cereal grass. Rye is high in carbohydrates and provides small
amounts of protein, potassium, and B vitamins. In Europe, rye flour is second
only to wheat in popularity and in nutrition. Rye is not gluten-free, but it has
so little gluten that rye is usually combined with wheat flour or wheat gluten
in bread making.
27
Hidden Wheat and Gluten to Be Careful About Gluten can be found as an ingredient
Hidden Wheat and Gluten
to Be Careful About
Gluten can be found as an ingredient or as a component of emulsifiers,
stabilizers, and anticoagulants in a wide variety of foods.
• Modified food starch, found in certain cream cheeses, yogurts, and sour
creams, may contain gluten, depending on the source. It can be made from
tapioca, corn, wheat, potato, rice, and other starches, although corn is the
most common. If a label manufactured in the United States reads "starch,"
the source is corn and therefore okay for gluten-free and wheat-free diets.
• Dextrin can be made from corn, wheat, potato, arrowroot, rice, or other
starch, and must be researched. In the United States, maltodextrin is made
from potato, corn, or rice starch and is gluten-free. If a manufacturer choos-
es to use wheat as the source, it will be listed as "wheat maltodextrin."
• Pure liqueurs and extracts made from distilled alcohol are gluten-free and
wheat-free as no toxic protein is carried over in the final product. Gluten
does not carryover in the final distillation of alcohol; thus, the final prod-
uct (the extract) does not contain gluten. However, gluten could be intro-
duced after distillation, which is why it is recommended to avoid extracts
with gluten-based additives. Alcohols, liqueurs and extracts to which nat-
ural or artificial flavorings have been added in after distillation should be
investigated. Find out what the flavoring is. A phone call will do it.
• Baking soda and cream of tartar are gluten-free. Commercial baking
powder is almost always made with cornstarch but could be made with
wheat starch, so you need to check to be sure it is gluten-free.
• Pure spices and herbs are wheat- and gluten-free. Commercial spice blends
or seasonings, however, may contain wheat, gluten, or a combination of
both as an anticaking agent. Seasoning preparations and sauces (e.g., taco
sauce, horseradish, and most soy sauces) may contain wheat starch or
hydrolyzed wheat protein as a thickener.
• Oil blends that contain wheat germ oil or blends from unknown sources
should be avoided.
• Dry-roasted, coated, flavored, or seasoned nuts and seeds may be coated
with wheat during processing to hold seasonings and prevent clumping.
• Nondairy beverages (milks such as soy, hazelnut, etc.) must be researched
for gluten as they may contain barley flavoring, which may be listed as nat-
ural or artificial flavoring.
• Most confectioners' sugar contains corn starch as an anticaking agent, but
some brands use wheat starch.
28
Introduction
• Commercially prepared chocolate (or butterscotch) can contain barley malt (which contains gluten) as a
• Commercially prepared chocolate (or butterscotch) can contain barley
malt (which contains gluten) as a flavoring. Be sure that the chocolate you
are using is gluten-free. A chocolate candy bar may be gluten-free, but the
conveyor belt over which it passed in the factory may have been dusted
with flour to keep the candy from sticking to the belt
• Chicken and beef bouillon may contain hydrolyzed wheat protein.
• Malt flavoring (gluten) is found in many commercial puddings and in
cereals.
Discovering hidden gluten and wheat requires perseverance and careful
research. Hidden gluten and wheat may not be listed as ingredients when they
are used as processing agents. In addition, manufacturers may change their
ingredients labels at any time. Use listings of gluten-free products compiled by
reliable celiac support groups and organizations as guides to locating gluten-
free items. Wheat-free listings and resources are also readily available. Call
manufacturers to check on the gluten-free or wheat-free status of any product
in question, and make an informed decision.
Enhancing Baked Goods with Flavorings
In your sweet kitchen where you will be playing with our recipes, you might
want to stock as many of the following flavorings as you can find. I am sure
that you will find that a little fussiness about high-quality and varied flavor-
ings will enhance your baked goods and increase your excitement about the
magic of baking. Please note that many ingredients in the recipes found in
this book bear the designation "GF" (gluten-free) . You should verify that the
brand or variety of that ingredient you choose is gluten-free.
Great-tasting cookies and muffins do not have to rely on sugar for taste.
That is the hazard that doctors at celiac conferences obsess about. So, this
section casts light on this potential pitfall and will hopefully deter you and
yours from excess sugar.
A story here to illustrate my point,
Recently, I traveled thirty miles to check out a new shop in the mall that
advertised itself as low-carb and gluten- and wheat-free. It was a great shop
and the owner was helpful and enthusiastic. He is listed in our appendix and
will help you shop by phone. I found some delicious English muffins all the
way from Canada (see appendix). However, I was appalled by the price and
horribly sweet taste of the four concave "spice" muffins I found-$6.00 for
four muffins that were almost inedible.
What the celiac has to put up with! The solution: you become your own
best baker. Those horrid muffins defy description. They made me feel queasy
29
with their naked sweetness. Yet, there was no fat in them; what a shame to
with their naked sweetness. Yet, there was no fat in them; what a shame to
substitute mega amounts of sweetener for every other possible flavor-butter,
cardamom, cinnamon, vanilla, almond. After that experience, I decided to
focus here on highlighting the many wonderful possibilities for flavoring our
baked goods that we have available today in supermarkets and specialty
markets, and also on the Internet.
BUTTER
Butter is one of our favorite flavors. I recommend that you use unsalted
butter to bake with. Salted butter does not have the glorious flavor of unsalt-
ed butter. As a neighbor of mine says, "with unsalted butter, you taste the
butter, not the salt." All the popular brands of butter offer both types. Try
them both. If you are impulse baking, use whatever you have on hand, but
slightly reduce the salt in your recipe if you use salted butter.
CHOCOLATE
Chocolate has chemical properties that lift the spirits. It is also a stimulant,
having a certain amount of caffeine, and a source of vitamin B. But most
importantly, it is, of course, a source of great pleasure.
Commercially prepared chocolate (or butterscotch) can contain barley
malt (which contains gluten) as a flavoring. Be sure that the chocolate you
are using is gluten-free.
Chocolate Liquor
The story of chocolate is that the beans from the cocoa tree (an evergreen
from West Africa or Brazil) are dried, then roasted and cracked. It is the
inside, the nib, that is ground up to form a paste called chocolate liquor-
protein and carbs suspended in oil, the cocoa paste.
Pure Cocoa Powder
We always thought that cocoa powder was a poor man's substitute for choco-
late in bar form and hence avoided recipes with cocoa powder in them.
Wrong again! Cocoa powder is the purest form of chocolate. According to
one book we read, cocoa is pure chocolate liquor with three quarters of the
cocoa butter removed. The remaining cocoa cakes are pulverized, ground
into fine powder. Another process is sometimes done first: a Dutchman in the
East Indies named Van Houten (a name still found on cocoa boxes) treated
the nibs with an alkaline solution that made the flavor milder and the color
darker. Cocoa produced this way is called Dutch-processed.
Searching for good cocoa? Like butter, smell it. Smelling the cocoa will
30
Introduction
tell you its flavor potential. Making chocolate cakes and desserts is definitely worth the time.
tell you its flavor potential. Making chocolate cakes and desserts is definitely
worth the time.
Unsweetened or Pure Chocolate
This bitter chocolate contains chocolate liquor, cocoa solids, and cocoa butter.
Many other flavors often are added, such as vanilla, coffee, or ground nuts.
Bittersweet or Semisweet Chocolate
This is pure chocolate liquor with sugar, vanilla, extra cocoa butter, and
lecithin (made from soybeans). Note that the higher the cocoa mass on the
label, the lower the amount of sugar and the more bitter the flavor.
Milk Chocolate
Milk chocolate is a blend of pure chocolate liquor, milk solids, butter, vanilla,
and extra cocoa butter, with lecithin added as a smoother. It does not have a
long shelf life because the milk solids can become rancid.
Carob
Carob is a healthy substitute for chocolate. It is full of protein and vitamins B
and A.
VANILLA
For your baking, there is nothing so basic, next to butter and salt, as vanilla.
Vanilla comes from a pod fruit of a climbing orchidlike plant. Sweating them
in the sun for months enables the pod's enzymes to free the flavor, color, and
smell.
Vanilla Bean
Dried whole vanilla bean can be placed in a storage container of sugar or
gently poached in liquid such as milk, imparting vanilla flavor to those items,
which can then be used to flavor your baked goods.
Vanilla Extract
Pure alcohol extracts (without gluten-based additives) are available. In the dis-
tillation of alcohol, the toxic protein fraction (gliaden or gluten) does not
carryover in the final distillate; thus, the final product (the extract) does not
contain gluten. Gluten could, however, be introduced after distillation, which
is why it is recommended to avoid extracts with gluten-based additives. This
same theory applies to alcohol (such as rum, whiskey, bourbon, etc.).
Today at health food stores, you can also find alcohol-free vanilla flavor-
ing, which is another safe alternative.
31
Vanilla Powder Vanilla powder is made by grinding the whole dried bean to a powder,
Vanilla Powder
Vanilla powder is made by grinding the whole dried bean to a powder, which
can be used well by celiacs and is useful for foods where you don't want to
add too much liquid, such as icings. It is good in custard and puddings since
long cooking can affect the potency of regular vanilla.
Imitation Vanilla
This is made from 100 percent artificial ingredients. It is harsh and should be
avoided.
BOLD ALCOHOL-FREE BOTTLED FLAVORINGS
There are many natural flavorings offered in alcohol-free suspensions made
by Frontier Natural Flavor Company in Norway, Iowa. My favorites are the
alcohol-free (and gluten-free) almond and walnut flavorings.
FLOWERS
Some fresh flowers and leaves make beautiful and flavorful additions to pies,
tarts, icings, and cookies. Our favorite edible flowers are apple blossoms, bor-
age flowers, day lilies, hibiscus, nasturtiums, lilacs, hollyhocks, pansies,
roses, tulips, and violets. Sugared rose geranium leaves and mint leaves make
lovely garnishes.
SPICES
Allspice
Allspice berries are small fruits of a tree in the myrtle family. Jamaican all-
spice is the most aromatic and flavorful. It is used, ground, in combination
with cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and ginger.
Anise
Anise has a licorice flavor. It is often used in desserts featuring nuts. It lends
a special flavor to cakes, breads, and pies.
Cumin
Cumin is a spice that my friend Anita from New Delhi, India, uses constantly.
She stirs it into hot oil and then sears meat or fish in the flavored oil. I use
cumin to create late-day muffins.
Caraway Seed
This savory spice, a small sliver of a seed, is used crushed or whole-
frequently used in breads and rolls and terrific in lemon pound cake as a
teatime treat.
32
Introduction
Cardamom Native to India, cardamom has a sweet, lemony flavor and an amazing aroma. The
Cardamom
Native to India, cardamom has a sweet, lemony flavor and an amazing aroma.
The first time I crushed a cardamom pod, I found about twenty little seeds,
which were easy to pulverize. The resulting powder was so fragrant and invit-
ing, I almost fainted with pleasure.
Cinnamon
Cinnamon might be the most popular of all spices. It is similar to cardamom
in its aroma, but it is musty rather than sharp and clear. It is made from the
inner bark of a tree native to Sri Lanka.
Cloves
Richly spicy, dark, and heavy, cloves smell like a winter's supper to me.
Cloves are wonderful in fruit pies and quick breads.
Ginger
The blond root of a flowering plant, it is smooth and gently aromatic. Ginger
adds heat and spice to baked goods.
Mace
Mace is a subtle spice for which men traveled thousand of miles . It is found
in allspice, pumpkin pie spice, and apple pie spice.
Nutmeg
This is the fruit of a large tree. It has a warm, woody taste, great in puddings.
Star Anise
The dried fruit of a Chinese evergreen tree, it tastes sweet and a little bit like
licorice.
33
CHAPTER ONE Muffins for Breakfast and Tea The fragrance of cooking muffins will make your
CHAPTER
ONE
Muffins for
Breakfast and Tea
The fragrance of cooking muffins will make your house a happy home.
Morning can be a cozy time for making something yummy that smells
homey. Making muffins takes only a few minutes. Sometimes, I practice yoga
while my sleepily assembled muffins are baking.
It is hard to beat homemade muffins if you want something delicious and
comforting at breakfast or teatime. Growing up, on rainy mornings my moth-
er made bran muffins. I can still smell the buttery bran aroma of them bak-
ing, which filled our small house. Licking the leftover batter in the brown
striped crockery bowl was something to sneak in for. No dishwashers in
those days, so the bowl sat half submerged in water in the sink as Mom got
diverted. Those few tip-of-the-finger swipes were slightly crisp, with the bran
not yet softened, and a little bit sweet. One of my first inventions for my celi-
ac husband was a muffin using rice bran.
Mom's muffins had many different tastes because they were made from
whatever ingredients she had on hand. In fact, she used to say that you could
make muffins from almost anything, even old shoes, if you added enough
butter, eggs, and baking powder. That is the philosophy of this baking book.
Be flexible. You are now a creative baker, forging ahead in a new territory. My
children comment that no recipe stays the same. So be it. I use what's on
hand and push the mixture to be the best ever each time.
A
Unique American Tradition
Muffins are little cakes baked in muffin tins or cups of any sort. Muffins do
not look as fancy as croissants, and they do not have the popular appeal of
bagels, but they are a cherished and unique American tradition. They can be
made quite easily in an infinite variety of healthy and tasty combinations, and
they whip up so easily that the littlest kids can lend a hand.
Even the word muffin suggests homey charm. The origin of the word
35
might be the Old French word mouffle, meaning "soft bread," or it might be derived
might be the Old French word mouffle, meaning "soft bread," or it might be
derived from muffen, the plural form of a German word for cake. Both terms
fit English muffins.
English muffins first appeared in the eighteenth century, when buttered
muffins were made with slow-rising yeast. The muffins were toasted on the
fire and kept warm in a special covered serving dish accompanied by meats,
cheeses, and little cakes. They were necessary for late-afternoon tea, that
delightful custom that precedes English supper. Today's baker can prepare
two different types of muffins: yeast and soda.
In Europe, yeast breads and rolls are still made fresh every day. We pre-
pare yummy gluten-free English muffins that are made with yeast. After a
short rising period, they are cooked on top of the stove. The muffins must be
flipped over during cooking so each side is slightly browned. A recipe for
gluten-free English muffins is included in this chapter.
The second muffin type, the soda muffin, is strictly an American inven-
tion. Soda muffins were first produced in nineteenth-century America when
chemical leavening agents, baking soda and later baking powder, were invent-
ed to make dough rise quickly. Baking powder is a combination of baking
soda and cream of tartar, which chemically interacts with flour cells to quick-
ly aerate them.
Leavening Basics
BAKING SODA
I think it is important to understand how the leavening works, so you will
catch on to the quick stirring tips we give you. Baking soda is bicarbonate of
soda. By itself, it has no leavening power, but when it interacts with an acid
such as buttermilk; yogurt; sour cream; molasses; dark brown sugar; maple
syrup; or lemon, lime, or orange juice, the lifting action occurs.
Bu t since baking soda begins to release carbon dioxide as soon as it is
moistened by the liquid acids in a recipe, it is important to thoroughly
blend all the dry ingredients together and make sure the soda is evenly
mixed throughout before combining the liquid ingredients and adding them
at the last moment-when the muffin tins are ready and the oven is hot.
If too much time elapses, the gases will dissipate and your baked goods
will not rise.
Too much baking soda added to a batter will produce an unpleasant taste.
Be sure to measure correctly.
If there isn't enough acid in your recipe, you must add baking powder.
36 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Often, it takes a combination of baking powder and baking soda to ensure a nicely
Often, it takes a combination of baking powder and baking soda to ensure a
nicely risen muffin or quick bread. Using baking powder and soda together
and independently quickly became popular, because batters containing these
items do not require a rising period, making them extremely efficient for the
baker. The soda muffin is baked in a muffin tin or in number of 2- to 3-inch
(5- to 7.5-cm) cups that hold the batter.
BAKING POWDER
American ingenuity came up with a product that combined baking soda
with tartaric acid and a neutral, moisture-absorbing starch such as cornstarch
or potato starch, to produce baking powder. This old-style baking powder
acted too fast, however. Now there is a double-acting baking powder made
with two acidic salts, monocalcium phosphate and sodium aluminum sulfate.
The first of these acids reacts to the liquids, creating a network of bubbles in
the batter, and the second acid in the double-acting baking powder reacts
after the batter goes into the hot oven, lifting the bubbles and expanding
them as the mixture solidifies. This type of baking powder is less time sensi-
tive than the single acting variety, but it is still best to act quickly and pop
muffins into the oven once the dry ingredients have been moistened.
Some people detect a metallic taste in products using relatively large
amounts of commercial baking powder, such as biscuits and scones, because
of the aluminum sulfate. One solution is to make your own baking powder.
For every teaspoon of baking powder called for in a recipe, combine 1;2
teaspoon baking soda, 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar, and 1/2 teaspoon
cornstarch. Blend well and use immediately, as this mixture quickly looses
potency. To test the potency of your baking powder, stir 1/2 teaspoon into a
cup of warm water. If it bubbles and fizzes, it is still potent.
Another solution is to use a commercial baking powder made from other
ingredients, such as the sodium-free Featherweight Baking Powder, which,
significantly for us, is advertised as gluten-free.
Although commercial baking powder is almost always made with corn-
starch, it could be made with wheat starch, so you need to check to be sure it
is gluten-free.
Who would have thought that there could be so much to making
muffins? I go into detail here because the thrust of this baking book is to
empower you as a baker, to give you enough information that you can invent
muffins successfully. Just be sure there is an acidic ingredient that combines
with your leavening, the baking soda and/or baking powder.
37
Let Your Batter Be Your Canvas One great advantage to making muffins is that you
Let Your Batter Be Your Canvas
One great advantage to making muffins is that you can add almost anything
to the basic batter. I enjoy adding different textures and tastes to the batter. I
toss in this and that-a few bananas, nuts, vegetables, spices and herbs,
juices, liquors, chocolate, ginger, et cetera-until it tastes terrific.
Make muffins from almost every carbohydrate-vegetables such as zuc-
chini; parsnips and carrots; popular American fruits such as cranberries,
apples, and blueberries; and grains such as corn and rice bran are traditional
choices and good ones for gluten-free baking.
I have enhanced muffins using squash, pumpkin, celery, and breakfast
cereals. I have jazzed muffins up with shots of brandy or sherry, peanut and
soy butters, applesauce, yogurt, spices, and eggs. Savory muffins, flavored
with herbs, sausage, or bacon, are delicious possibilities.
Chocolate can be hidden inside muffins as easily as you can hide it in a
croissant. You can stir raisins into muffin batter or infuse it with shredded
cheese. Beware of the aroma when you toast these: it is truly mouthwatering.
If your muffins turn out a bit heavy, it might be from stirring the batter
too much. Remember, baking powder products need hardly any stirring. The
rising action happens instantly. You must not beat muffin batter, as it will
toughen.
Using the flours and the bran from alternative grains produces delicious
muffins that are nutritious and out of the ordinary. They are superior to the
oversweetened or bland products made from mixes in neighborhood bakeries
and then sold as homemade.
Many of my muffin recipes take no more than ten minutes to assemble!
Put them in the oven as you make your tea or coffee. They will bake in twen-
ty minutes while you take a shower. You can leave for work nurtured.
Muffins are an art form. Exaggerate! Take the masterpiece to its edge.
Drama is inherent in this art as any other. Grains, baking powder, a bit of
baking soda, eggs, and oil provide structure. Xanthan gum holds it up. The
rest is up to your cupboard and intuition.
Scones are muffins that are baked without tins! These are our favorite
muffin. Sorghum scones are a staple at our house. These taste delightfully
sweet not because stevia or honey is added, but because sorghum, grown in
the South to feed livestock, is sweet. Using baking powder and eggs, scones
can be thrown together in a minute. No muffin tins to grease. Try our recipe;
then let us know if you invent other scones.
38 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Secrets of Muffin Making Experienced cooks often, through trial and error, discover "secrets" during their
Secrets of Muffin Making
Experienced cooks often, through trial and error, discover "secrets" during
their baking to make the product better or the process easier. One secret of
easy muffin making is to use paper cup-liners in your muffin tins. This elimi-
nates muffin tin clean up and makes muffins portable-you can take them
with you to munch on in the car, on the train, or on a school bus.
Another secret: spray a little oil or rub it onto the bottom of each muffin
cup or the muffin-tin cups to make it easy to remove the muffin. It took me
ten years to discover the great secret of using oil in the paper cups. Muffins
can be baked in a vast variety of muffin pans or in Pyrex cups.
I just discovered silicone muffin tins, which eliminate the need for oiling
and the paper cups. The muffins just slide right out!
Other secrets learned in baking muffins: it is best to use a combination of
baking powder and soda to make muffins; adding applesauce or yogurt or
cottage cheese softens muffins; and, since baking powder products harden
quickly on the counter, storing home-baked muffins wrapped in a cloth or
plastic in the refrigerator keeps them soft.
I use little sugar in my muffins. I hate deadly sweet muffins that are sold
packaged or over fast-food counters. Sweetening is your choice and should be
based on your personal taste; however, these grains are so tasty, you won't
demand extreme sweetness.
TIPS FOR MAKING GREAT MUFFINS
• Preheat the oven to the temperature specified in the recipe.
• Prepare your muffin tins before you mix the batter: oil the bottoms of the
cups generously, spray the bottoms with a nonstick coating, or line the
muffin tins with store-bought paper cup-liners, oiling the bottoms of these
also.
• Premix wet and dry ingredients separately-beat liquid mixtures well; sift
and stir dry ingredients thoroughly-so time is not lost when they are com-
bined.
Add the already mixed dry ingredients to the well-combined liquid
ingredients.
• Beat the batter just enough to combine all of the ingredients. Overbeating
makes muffins, breads, and cakes heavy or tough.
• Transfer batter to the pans or tins pronto, as soon as the batter is mixed.
Baking powder loses effectiveness if it stands too long.
• Immediately place batter-filled pans in the preheated oven.
• Keep the oven door closed until the cooking time has elapsed.
39
• Let quick breads and muffins sit for 5 minutes before releasing from pan. To
• Let quick breads and muffins sit for 5 minutes before releasing from pan.
To help remove, run a blunt knife around the edges.
• Let baked goods cool before wrapping and storing.
• Store baked goods, wrapped in a cloth or plastic wrap, in the refrigerator
after the first day.
• Gluten-free baked goods harden quickly. To revive, put them in a damp
napkin or a wet paper bag and heat in a microwave for 10 to 15 seconds.
Muffins are excellent toasted.
• If you double a recipe, don't double the amount of gum
• Add more liquid if the batter seems too dry, especially if you substitute
flours.
Basic Rice Muffins
Recipe modified from www.bobsredmill.com.
Simple, quick, a nice recipe to start the day with!
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter
or (28 ml) canola oil
11/2 cups (200 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1/2 cup (120 ml) milk (GF rice or GF soy)
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
PREHEAT oven to 350 0 F (180°(, or gas mark 4). GREASE muffin tin lightly.
(REAM together sugar and butter. BEAT eggs. MIX together flour, salt, baking
powder, and cream of tartar. ADD flour mixture to egg mixture alternately with
milk. Do not overmix. ADD vanilla. POUR into muffin tins. BAKE in 350 0 F
(180°(, or gas mark 4) oven for 20 minutes, or until done.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 51 calories, 2.9 g fat, 1.3 g protein,
4.8 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.
40 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Banana-Nut Muffins Here is a quick recipe that uses as a base one of the
Banana-Nut Muffins
Here is a quick recipe that uses as a base one of the many gluten-free baking
mixes now found in many supermarkets.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (60 g) brown sugar or (85 g)
honey
1/2 cup (60 ml) olive oil
1 cup (200 g) rice flour baking mix
(Arrowhead product, see appendix
for source)
2-4 well-ripened bananas, mashed
1 cup (120 g) quinoa flour
2
eggs
1/2 teaspoon salt
2
tablespoons (28 ml) lemon or orange
1
teaspoon baking powder
.
.
JUice
1/2 cup (80 g) soya granules
1/2 CUp (60 ml) GF hazelnut milk
1/2 cup (60 g) chopped plain walnuts
or (75 g) GF currants
Ground dried orange peel
PREHEAT oven to 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners, or a 7-inch (17.5-cm) square baking pan.
CREAM sugar and olive oil. BEAT the mashed bananas with the eggs until they
are fluffy.
ADD to creamed sugar mixture. STIR in lemon or orange juice and
hazelnut milk. FINALLY add dry ingredients. MIX just until blended. Do not
overbeat; these are delicate. SPOON into prepared muffin tins or into baking
pan. BAKE at 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4), about 20 minutes, or until light
brown. SPRINKLE ground dried orange peel on top.
Yield: 10-12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 muffins, each has 254 calories, 9.8 g
fat, 7.3 g protein, 34.4 g carbohydrate, 3.5 g dietary fiber.
Note: Nondairy beverages must be researched for gluten as they may contain
barley flavoring, which may be listed as natural or artificial flavoring.
Dry-roasted, coated, flavored, or seasoned nuts and seeds may contain wheat
starch or other gluten-based ingredients. See page 28 for more information.
41
Buckwheat-Corn Muffins Another simple muffin to assemble! WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS: 2 eggs, beaten 1
Buckwheat-Corn Muffins
Another simple muffin to assemble!
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 eggs, beaten
1 cup (120 g) buckwheat flour
11/2 cups (295 ml) milk
1/2 cup (70 g) yellow or white cornmeal
4 tablespoons (55 g) butte~ melted
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
PREHEAT oven to 375°F (190°C, or gas mark 5). PREPARE muffin tins, lining
with paper cups (oiled) or oiling nonstick muffin tin. COMBINE dry ingredients.
COMBINE wet ingredients. ADD wet ingredients to dry ingredients, stirring gen-
tly. SPOON batter into muffin tins. BAKE at 375°F (190°C, or gas mark 5) for
15 to 20 minutes or until toothpick comes out clean. REMOVE muffins from tin;
coolon rack.
Yield: 8-12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 muffins, each has 136 calories,
5.9 g fat, 3.5 g protein, 16.7 g carbohydrate, 1.4 g dietary fiber.
42 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Blueberry Millet Muffins These are fabulous served warm with a little sweet butter. WET INGREDIENTS:
Blueberry Millet Muffins
These are fabulous served warm with a little sweet butter.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 large eggs
1 cup (140 g) millet flour
1 teaspoon orange zest, finely grated
1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour
1 1/2 cups (355 ml) orange juice
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (112 g) unsalted butte~ melted
and cooled
1 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 teaspoon baking soda
1
cup (145 g) blueberries, fresh or
frozen
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (100 g) granulated sugar
2 teaspoons xanthan gum
1 cup (140 g) stone-ground yellow
cornmeal
PREHEAT oven to 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 6 large or 12 regular-
sized muffin tins or line with paper liners. SIFT together in large bowl: flours,
baking powder, cream of tartar, baking soda, and salt. ADD sugar, xanthan gum,
and cornmeal; stir with fork or whisk to blend. WHISK eggs in separate bowl.
BLEND in orange zest, juice, and melted butter. ADD egg mixture all at once to
the dry ingredients, mixing with a rubber spatula or a wooden spoon just until
the dry ingredients are moistened. GENTLY FOLD in blueberries. SPOON batter
into prepared tins, filling each cup to the rim. PLACE tins on a baking sheet to
catch any drips. BAKE 20 to 25 minutes for regular-sized muffins, 30 to 35 min-
utes for large ones, or until tops are golden brown and spring back when lightly
touched, and a skewer inserted in the center comes out clean. PLACE tin(s) on
rack, cool 5 minutes, and then turn muffins out onto rack.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 305 calories, 12.2 g fat,
5.5 g protein, 43.3 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g dietary fiber.
43
Chocolate Muffins Dessert muffins, hurrah! I enjoyed creating these as a real change from the
Chocolate Muffins
Dessert muffins, hurrah! I enjoyed creating these as a real change from the
other varieties of muffins.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
cup (140 g) brown rice flour
1 cup (235 ml) hot buttermilk
1/2 cup (60 g) almond meal/flour
4
GF bittersweet chocolate squares,
melted
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (120 ml) hot water
1/2 cup (150 g) sugar
2
teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract
1
teaspoon baking soda
2
sticks (225 g) sweet butter (unsalted)
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
3
eggs, slightly beaten
2
teaspoons baking powder
2
teaspoons xanthan gum
PREHEAT oven to 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4). GREASE muffin tins. MELT
GF bittersweet chocolate squares in top of double boiler; do not bring to a boil.
MIX
1/2 cup (120 ml) hot water into melted chocolate; add vanilla, blend well.
CREAM butter and sugar with electric beater until white. ADD slightly beaten
eggs
to creamed butter mixture. HAND MIX, bit by bit, the melted chocolate
mixture into the butter mixture. ADD heated buttermilk to mixture; stir just until
mixed. BLEND all remaining dry ingredients in separate bowl. ADD dry ingredi-
ents to the chocolate/buttermilk mixture; blend well. SPOON batter into muffin
tins. BAKE for 10 to 15 minutes, taking care not to overbake.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 343 calories, 21 g fat,
4 .7 g protein, 33.9 g carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber.
44
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Teff Spicy Pumpkin Muffins Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com. WET INGREDIENTS: 2 teaspoons baking soda 1 scant
Teff Spicy Pumpkin Muffins
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com.
WET INGREDIENTS:
2
teaspoons baking soda
1 scant cup (220 g) canned pumpkin
puree
1
teaspoon cream of tartar
1
teaspoon gelatin powder
2
tablespoons (30 ml) lemon juice
1
teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (60 ml) canola oil
1 1/2 teaspoons cinnamon
1/2 cup (85 g) honey
2 teaspoons gingerroot (powdered)
1/2 cup (120 ml) buttermilk
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (75 g) raisins, golden (optional)
11/2 cups (210 g) sifted teff flour
1/2 cup (30 g) arrowroot starch
1/2 cup (30 g) plain pecans, chopped
(optional)
PREHEAT oven to 375°F (190°(, or gas mark 5). GREASE a 12-muffin tin or
line with paper liners. SI FT teff flour, arrowroot, baking soda, cream of tartar,
gelatin powder, xanthan gum, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves into large
bowl. STIR in raisins and chopped nuts (if using). WHISK together pumpkin,
lemon juice, oil, honey, and buttermilk. MIX pumpkin mixture with flour mixture
with a few swift strokes. Do not overmix. DIVIDE batter among muffin tins.
BAKE at 375°F (190°(, or gas mark 5) for 18-20 minutes or until center of
muffins feels firm.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 118 calories, 4.9 g fat, 1.5 g protein,
17.1 g carbohydrate, 2.1 g dietary fiber.
45
Quinoa Morning Muffins I brought bags of quinoa and rice flour along with me on
Quinoa Morning Muffins
I brought bags of quinoa and rice flour along with me on a trip to Tortola,
years ago. The enthusiastic young cook at the hotel used the quinoa to make
these great breakfast muffins. They are so simple and taste so good, I believe
that you'll want to make them over and over again. Now quinoa is one of our
favorite flours. It is nutty and a little fruity.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
cup (120 g) quinoa flour (or select two
types using 1/2 cup (60 g) of each:
3 eggs beaten
1/2 cup (175 ml) milk, hot
quinoa, millet, or amaranth)
1
cup (160 g) rice flour
1 cup (235 ml) olive oil or 1 cup (225 g)
butter (2 sticks), melted
2
teaspoons xanthan gum
3
teaspoons baking powder
OPTIONAL INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (50 g) plain walnuts, chopped
1
teaspoon baking soda
1/2 cup (40 g) yellow raisins
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 cup (65 g) gluten-free granola
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (70 g) sugar
2 teaspoons cinnamon
1 teaspoon nutmeg
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners. Spray paper muffin cups with olive oil spray
instead of greasing with oil, to prevent oil from pooling in bottom of muffin
holders. MIX dry ingredients together. ADD nuts, raisins, or gluten-free granola
if you chose to. MIX liquids. MAKE a well in the dry ingredients and stir in liq-
uids. SPOON batter into oiled muffins cups in muffin tins, half full. BAKE at
400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6) for 25 minutes.
Yield: 20 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 246 calories, 16 g fat, 4.5 g protein,
20.7 g carbohydrate, 1.5 g dietary fiber. Without optional ingredients, each
muffin has 202 calories, 13.4 g fat, 3.5 g protein, 16.9 g carbohydrate,
1
g dietary fiber.
46
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Quinoa Flakes Muffins Discovering healthful, full-of-protein quinoa flakes and flour was an early pleasure of
Quinoa Flakes Muffins
Discovering healthful, full-of-protein quinoa flakes and flour was an early
pleasure of baking gluten-free.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (40 g) quinoa flakes
1/2 cup (120 ml) orange juice
1/2 cup (60 g) quinoa flour
4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
1/2 cup (50 g) flaxseed meal
2 ripe bananas
2 teaspoons baking powder
4 egg yolks
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners. In order to prevent oil from pooling in bottom
of muffin holders, spray paper muffin cups using olive oil spray to prevent
sticking. MIX dry ingredients together. MIX
wet ingredients together. MAKE
a well in dry ingredients and stir in wet ingredients. SPOON batter into oiled
muffins cups in muffin tins, half full. BAKE at 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6)
for 25 minutes.
Yield: 20 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 93 calories, 4.7 g fat, 2.3 g protein,
10.2 g carbohydrate, 1.6 g dietary fiber.
Note: Save egg whites for meringues or almond cookies (chapter 4).
47
Christmas Muffins with Jam Centers Great for a teatime treat. These take time to make
Christmas Muffins with Jam Centers
Great for a teatime treat. These take time to make but they look Christmasy.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
8 ounces (225 g) plain pine nuts or
plain slivered almonds
2 eggs
4
tablespoons (55 g) butte~ melted
1 cup (160 g) rice flour
1 cup (245 g) plain GF yogurt
1/2 cup (70 g) bean flour
1/2 cup (60 ml) milk or juice
1/2 cup (70 g) millet flour
2
tablespoons (40 g) honey
1
teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 teaspoon salt
2
teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (40 g) apricot or strawberry pre-
serves
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
1
teaspoon xanthan gum
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200 0 (, or gas mark 6). GREASE the bottoms of muf-
fin tins or paper cup-liners. TOAST pine nuts or slivered almonds in the heated
oven for 5 minutes. MIX remaining dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredi-
ents together. ADD the dry ingredients to the wet ingredients. MIX TOGETH-
ER-the batter might be lumpy, but that's okay. SPOON a tablespoon of batter
into muffin cups. ADD jelly or jam and then fill cup with batter. SPRINKLE the
toasted nuts you have set aside on top. BAKE at 400°F (200 0 (, or gas mark 6)
for 20 minutes.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 310 calories, 15.8 9 fat, 9.6 9 pro-
tein, 32.4 g carbohydrate, 2.1 g dietary fiber.
48
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Rice Bran Crunchy Muffins Rice bran provides the texture we've come to expect from muffins.
Rice Bran Crunchy Muffins
Rice bran provides the texture we've come to expect from muffins.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2
teaspoons baking soda
2 teaspoons baking soda
2
tablespoons honey
1/2 cup (115 g) brown sugar (packed)
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter
1
cup (100 g) rice bran or GF oat bran
2
cups (320 g) white rice flour
2 eggs
1 1/2 cups (295 ml) buttermilk
2
teaspoons xanthan gum
1 teaspoon almond flavoring or extract
2
teaspoons baking powder
1
teaspoon ground cardamom
1/2 cup (50 g) plain sliced almonds,
(60 g) ground pine nuts, or (50 g)
flaxseed mea I
PREHEAT oven to 375°F (190°C, or gas mark 5).
GREASE bottoms of muffin-
tin cups or spray paper muffin-cup liners; set aside. STI R soda into honey until
foamy and light in color; set aside. CREAM brown sugar and butter. BEAT in
eggs, then rice bran. POUR buttermilk and almond flavoring into honey and
soda mixture; add to egg mixture. BLEND rice flour, xanthan gum, and car-
damom; add to egg mixture. BLEND slivered almonds into batter. SPOON into
paper muffin-cup liners or tins. FI LL cups one-half to three-quarters full. BAKE
for 20 minutes at 375°F (190°C, or gas mark 5). Serve warm.
Yield: 24 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 141 calories, 5.2 g fat, 3 g protein,
20.5 g carbohydrate, 1.8 g dietary fiber.
Variations: Add fresh fruit in season. I love sliced strawberries in these muffins;
substitute 1/2 teaspoon vanilla for almond flavoring or extract.
49
Rice Flour English Muffins What a great discovery these have been. They are really fun
Rice Flour English Muffins
What a great discovery these have been. They are really fun to make when
you are on vacation. They take more time than most of our recipes, but they
really are worth it. Making them becomes a party.
There are secrets to making these genuine English muffins:
1. The ingredients must be warmed.
2. Cornmeal is used as a coating-fine white cornmeal packaged by the Goya
Company works well.
3. The dough must rise to double its size.
4. Cook on a hot griddle lightly oiled with your favorite oil. We use olive oil
for everything, now that we have learned about healthy oils-besides, I
love the taste of extra-virgin olive oil. These muffins are good dipped in
pesto sauce.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1
tablespoon xanthan gum
1 cup (160 g) white rice flour
3
tablespoons (25 g) cornmeal
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
1/2 cup (120 g) tapioca flour
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (235 ml) milk
1/2 cup (120 g) potato starch
2 tablespoons (30 ml) olive oil
1 package dry yeast
1 teaspoon salt
PART ONE:
PREHEAT the oven on warm setting. BLEND all flours (3 cups [360 gJ) in heat-
proof mixing bowl; then place bowl in the oven to warm. COMBINE milk and
oil; then heat until warm in a small pan in the oven, or microwave in a bowl for
a few seconds-just until warm to the touch. POUR 1/2 cup of this warm wet
mixture into a small bowl. STIR the yeast into it, then leave it alone for 6 to 8
minutes, until it is frothy.
MEANWHILE:
REMOVE the flour from the oven (it should be lukewarm). MIX the salt and
xanthan gum into the flour, then make a well in the center of the flour. ADD all
the liquids to the flour-and-salt mixture. STI R to combine. You want soft, elastic,
not heavy dough. If you think the dough is too wet, add a little more rice flour.
COVER dough with a dishtowel or plastic wrap and leave in a warm place until
double in size. (I use a coat closet that has a heat duct running through it.)
50 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
PART TWO: SPRINKLE cornmeal into a shallow bowl. SCOOP up a large portion of the
PART TWO:
SPRINKLE cornmeal into a shallow bowl. SCOOP up a large portion of the
dough with a large spoon and drop it into the cornmeal to coat both sides.
Push it down to flatten on a cornmeal-covered countertop. Use a moistened
glass rim to cut out circles of dough. DUST a cookie sheet with cornmeal.
PLACE the dough rounds on the cookie sheet. LET them rise on the cookie
sheet (not in the oven) for 45 minutes or until they again double, more or less,
In size.
.
.
PART THREE:
HEAT and OIL a skillet.
PLACE MUFFIN on skillet. Cook first on high heat to brown the muffins. Then
turn down the heat to low and cook gently for 6 minutes or more on both sides.
STORE in refrigerator or freezer, wrapped in plastic. SPLIT a cooled muffin with
a knife. Toast before eating. Serve with butter and jam! Enjoy!
Yield: 2 dozen medium-sized English muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 94 calories, 1.7 g fat, 1.4 g protein,
18. 1 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.
Variation: Omit cornmeal step and these become batter biscuits, great with
stews.
51
Carrot Muffins A classic favorite: healthy family muffins. We make these when our grand- children
Carrot Muffins
A classic favorite: healthy family muffins. We make these when our grand-
children arrive, and they love them.
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (40 g) raisins
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted
1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
1/2 cup (120 ml) orange juice
1/2 cup (90 g) amaranth flour
1 cup (235 ml) warm apple juice
(or orange juice)
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 egg
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup (120 g) grated carrots
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
3 tablespoons (60 g) honey
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (25 g) plain walnuts, chopped
PREHEAT oven to 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners. MIX the wet ingredients in a bowl. We consider
the grated carrots wet ingredients, so let them soak in the orange juice mixture.
MIX the dry ingredients in a separate bowl. ADD wet mixture to dry ingredients
and stir lightly just to blend them. SPOON batter into prepared tins or cups.
BAKE at 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4) for 35 minutes.
Yield: 15 muffins, more or less
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 144 calories, 6.1 g fat, 3.9 g protein,
18.1 g carbohydrate, 2.4 g dietary fiber.
Note: Combining a bean flour with a grain flour produces a perfect balance of
amino acids; hence, a perfect protein. Therefore, these Carrot Muffins are rec-
ommended for vegetarians.
52 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
RaspberryAmaranth Muffins with Streusel Topping These are tea-party muffins. They are fun with a cup
RaspberryAmaranth Muffins
with Streusel Topping
These are tea-party muffins. They are fun with a cup of tea in the afternoon.
STREUSEL TOPPING
1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
2
tablespoons (28 g) butter, room tem-
perature
1
cup (160 g) rice flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
2
teaspoons brown sugar
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2
tablespoons rice flour
2
teaspoons baking powder
2
tablespoons quinoa flakes
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/4 cup (30 g) chopped plain walnuts
or pecans
2 egg whites, well beaten
1 cup (235 ml) buttermilk
1/2 cup (55 g) fresh raspberries in season
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (80
ml) oil
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (85 g) raspberries
1/2 cup (90 g) amaranth flour
1/2 cup (170 g) honey
MAKE Streusel Topping: COMBINE all the Streusel Topping ingredients in a
bowl-use a pastry blender or your fingers to crumble the butter, sugar, flour,
flakes, and cinnamon together. Gently stir in nuts and raspberries. Try to keep
the berries whole so you will really taste them. Set aside.
MAKE Muffins: PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°C, gas mark 6). GREASE bot-
toms of muffin tins or paper muffin-tin liners. WHISK dry ingredients together.
MIX wet ingredients together in another bowl. MAKE a well in center of dry
mixture. POUR the wet-ingredient mixture into the well. STI R lightly till dry
ingredients are just moistened. GENTLY FOLD in raspberries. SPOON batter
into prepared muffin tin. Top muffins with Streusel Topping mix. BAKE twenty
minutes.
Yield: 12 medium muffins or 5 to 6 giant ones
CREME FRAicHE
1 cup (235 ml) whipping cream
2
tablespoons (30 ml) buttermilk
Combine cream and buttermilk, cover, and let stand at room temperature until
thickened, 8-plus hours. Then stir, re-cover, and refrigerate. Keeps up to 10 days.
53
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 275 calories, 11.6 g fat, 5.3 g pro- tein, 37.5
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 275 calories, 11.6 g fat, 5.3 g pro- tein, 37.5
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 275 calories, 11.6 g fat, 5.3 g pro-
tein, 37.5 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.
With creme frakhe, each muffin has 341 calories, 18.2 g fat, 6.1 g protein,
38.3 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.
Variation: Try other berries, such as blueberries, as delicious alternatives. Top
with whipped cream without sugar, or creme frakhe (see easy recipe above).
Flax Muffins with Vegetables and Fruit
Muffins filled with high-energy ingredients-good eating for health. These
muffins are unique because they are sweetened with vegetables and fruits
instead of sugar. I use a blender for some shredding but a food processor
would do a great job. Applesauce is an emulsifier and moistener in these
muffins.
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (70 g) brown rice flour
2
apples, peeled and chopped (or 1 cup
[245 g] applesauce)
1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
1/2 cup (90 g) quinoa flour
1/2 cup (90 g) shredded carrots
1 cup (100 g) flaxseed meal
1/2 cup (90 g) shredded zucchini
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (180 ml) fruit juice
1/2 cup (75 g) rice bran cereal
2
beaten eggs
1 teaspoon baking soda
4
tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/4 cup (60 g) applesauce
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons cinnamon
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1
tablespoon ground cardamom
1 cup (100 g) plain nuts, chopped;
divided (pecans are our favorite)
PREHEAT oven to 375°F (190°(, gas mark 5). LINE muffin tins with paper lin-
ers, oiled on the bottoms and on the sides (this batter is sticky). MIX wet ingre-
dients together. MIX dry ingredients together. STI R wet ingredients into dry
ingredients until they are mixed. Do
not overbeat. FI LL muffin cups half full.
BAKE for 35 minutes.
54
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Yield: 30 muffins Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 118 calories, 6.9 g fat, 2.9 g
Yield: 30 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 118 calories, 6.9 g fat, 2.9 g protein,
10.8 g carbohydrate, 3.1 g dietary fiber. With streusel topping, each has 142
calories, 8.4 g fat, 3 g protein, 13.4 g carbohydrate, 3.4 g dietary fiber.
Variation: Add a streusel topping to muffins before baking. Combine 2
tablespoons cinnamon, 1/2 cup (60 g) brown sugar, 2 teaspoons rice flour,
1/2 stick (30 g) butter, 1 teaspoon pure cocoa, 1/2 cup (25 g) plain chopped wal-
nuts or pecans; mix together in a bowl using your fingers until crumbly. Sprinkle
over the top of each muffin before baking.
Banana Muffins
Good wake-up treats or take-to-school snacks. This is my favorite; easy to
make, with delicious results.
TOPPING (OPTIONAL):
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2
tablespoons (20 g) flaxseed, ground
1/2 teaspoon salt
2
tablespoons (30 g) brown sugar
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2
tablespoons (15 g) plain slivered
almonds
2 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
2
tablespoons (30 g) unsalted
butter, soft
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
1/2 cup (40 g) potato starch
1/2 cup (65 g) corn starch
WET INGREDIENTS:
3-4 bananas, mashed
1 cup (100 g) soy flour
4
tablespoons (55 g) butter or (60 ml)
olive oil
1/2 cup (55 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (30 g) plain nuts, chopped
2
eggs
1/2 cup (85 g) flaxseed, ground
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (160 ml) GF rice milk
(heat until tepid)
PREHEAT oven to 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners. MIX 2 tablespoons ground flaxseed, brown
sugar, slivered almonds, and softened butter; set aside for topping. MIX well (in
a medium bowl) mashed banana, butter, sugar, and eggs. ADD remaining
ingredients and mix lightly, being mindful that baking powder recipes toughen
55
with overmixing. POUR batter into prepared cups; fill to about two-thirds full. SPRINKLE topping mixture
with overmixing. POUR batter into prepared cups; fill to about two-thirds full.
SPRINKLE topping mixture on each muffin. BAKE 20 to 30 minutes, until
brown.
Yield: 12 to 16 muffins
Nutritional An alysis: Assuming 16 muffins, each has 193 calories, 7.8 g
fat, 4.2 g protein, 26.6 g carbohydrate, 3.6 g dietary fiber. With optional top-
ping, each has 224 calories, 109 fat, 4 g protein, 28.9 g carbohydrate, 4 g
dietary fiber.
Hazelnut Muffins
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour
1
egg
2
1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
11/2 cups (355 ml) milk
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
3
medium bananas, mashed
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1 teaspoon walnut or hazelnut flavoring
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (100 g) sugar
1/2 cup (50 g) plain walnut pieces,
chopped
11/2 cups (180 g) hazelnut meal/flour
1
cup (160 g) rice flour
PREHEAT oven to 350° F (180°C, or gas mark 4). GREASE muffin tin. BLEND
egg, salt, sugar, milk, bananas, and walnut flavoring. Mix by hand. COMBINE
flours, baking powder, baking soda, cream of tartar, and xanthan gum; whisk
together. STIR dry ingredients into wet ingredients, just until blended. FOLD in
chopped walnuts. FI LL prepared muffin tins. BAKE at 350°F (180°C, or gas
mark 4) for 25 to 30 minutes.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 258 calories, 13.4 g fat, 5.7 g
protein, 28.5 g carbohydrate, 2.7 g dietary fiber.
56
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Buttermilk Muffins These muffins are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if processed in an uncontaminated setting (see
Buttermilk Muffins
These muffins are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if processed in an uncontaminated
setting (see page 14).
These muffins are nice served at teatime or with supper.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 eggs
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1 1/2 cups (355 ml) buttermilk
1/2 cup (50 g) sorghum flour
1
stick (112 g)
butter
1/2 cup (70 g) millet flour
2
teaspoons lemon juice
2
teaspoons baking powder
2 drops yellow food coloring
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
2 teaspoons brown sugar
1/2 cup (75 g) GF dates, chopped
PREHEAT oven to 350°F (180°(, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottoms of muffin-tin
cups or paper muffin-cup liners. BEAT the eggs in a bowl. ADD remaining wet
ingredients to the beaten eggs. BLEND dry ingredients. ADD wet mixture to dry
mixture. SPOON batter into prepared tins or cups, filling them half full. BAKE at
350°F (180°(, or gas mark 4) until brown.
Yield: 12 to 20 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 muffins, each has 106 calories,
5.4 g fat, 2.1 g protein, 12.5 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber. With suggested
variation, each has 119 calories, 5.5 g fat, 2.1 g protein, 15.6 g carbohydrate,
1.1 g dietary fiber.
57
Zucchini Muffins This is our daughter Susanna's invention. She made these when she came from
Zucchini Muffins
This is our daughter Susanna's invention. She made these when she came
from Brooklyn and found zucchini in our garden. They are really a variation
of a carrot muffin. Share these light, bright, tasty zucchini muffins with a
neighbor or friend-it's a good way to use fresh zucchini from the garden.
WET INGREDIENTS:
2 teaspoons baking powder
1
egg
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
3
tablespoons (45 ml) canola oil
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
2
tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
2
teaspoons xanthan gum
1
teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
2
teaspoons chopped cilantro
1/2 teaspoon salt
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
1/2 cup (60 ml) GF rice milk or GF soy
milk
1/2 cup (60 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (105 g) sorghum
1 cup (120 g) seeded and grated or
chopped zucchini
PREHEAT oven to 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4). GREASE bottoms and sides of
paper muffin cups. Arrange in muffin tins. COMBINE, in a large bowl, egg, oil,
butter, sugar, and vanilla flavoring. MIX well. ADD all remaining ingredients
except zucchini. MIX well to remove all lumps. Batter will be thick. ADD zucchi-
ni and mix well. SPOON batter into prepared muffin cups, filling them half full.
BAKE 45 minutes or until toothpick inserted in muffin tests clean. COOL in pan
for at least 10 minutes before removing.
Yield: 1 dozen muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 82 calories, 3.1 g fat, 1.3 g protein,
12.2 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.
Variations: Use GF almond or hazelnut milk. Use almond or hazelnut flavoring
if you switch to almond or hazelnut milk.
Note: Freeze muffins next day because vegetables get moldy quickly.
58 Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Squash Muffins This recipe makes a large batch; if you are not about to eat
Squash Muffins
This recipe makes a large batch; if you are not about to eat all of them, freeze
half for later use, because the fruits and vegetables added to baked goods get
moldy fast.
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 1/2 sticks (1/2 cup, or 170 g) butter,
softened
1 teaspoon ginger
1/2 teaspoon fresh nutmeg, grated
3 large eggs
1/2 cup (115 g) golden raisins
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
1 1/2 cups (360 g) winter squash (yellow),
fresh (cooked until soft) or canned
1/2 cup (95 g) GF hulled sunflower or
pumpkin seeds (oven dried),
ground in a coffee grinder
TOPPING:
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
2
tablespoons pure cocoa
1 cup (160 g) white rice flour
2
tablespoons (28 g) butter
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
2
tablespoons cinnamon
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
2
tablespoons (30 g) brown sugar
3 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). GREASE muffin tin cups or
paper liners. BEAT butter and sugar in bowl until light and fluffy. ADD eggs one
at a time, beating well after each addition. ADD squash pulp and mix well. MIX
remaining dry ingredients together. ADD dry ingredients, raisins, and sunflower
seeds to squash mixture. MIX well. SPOON batter into 18 prepared muffin
cups. SPRINKLE with topping mixture. BAKE in lower third of oven at 400°F
(200°(, or gas mark 6) for 20 minutes or until well done.
Yield: 18 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 268 calories, 11.9 g fat, 4 g protein,
36.2 g carbohydrate, 3.1 g dietary fiber.
59
Parsnip Muffins Wake up your family to the aroma of these sweet, healthy muffins. A
Parsnip Muffins
Wake up your family to the aroma of these sweet, healthy muffins. A moist,
subtle-flavored favorite of ours!
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
2
eggs
1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour
1/2 cup (40 g) cream of rice cereal
2 medium sweet potatoes, baked and
mashed
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (60 ml) buttermilk or whole milk
1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
2
tablespoons (30 ml) olive oil
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 cup (75 g) raisins
1
teaspoon dried orange peel
1/2 cup (75 g) GF dates, chopped
1/2 cup (115 g) brown sugar
1
teaspoon cinnamon
1 cup (120 g) shredded parsnips (grated
or ground in food processor)
1/2 cup (50 g) plain nuts, chopped
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). Grease bottoms only of muf-
fin tins or paper muffin cups. BLEND together, in a large bowl, the flour, cream
of rice, xanthan gum, baking powder, baking soda, orange peel, sugar, and cin-
namon. BEAT the eggs slightly, in a small bowl.
ADD the sweet potatoes, but-
termilk, and oil to the beaten eggs.
POUR egg mixture into the dry ingredients. STIR until just blended-it's OK if
the batter is lumpy. ADD the raisins, dates, shredded parsnips, and nuts. STIR
until blended. POUR the batter into muffin cups and bake for 15 to 18 minutes
or until a toothpick comes out clean. REMOVE from oven and let muffins sit for
a few minutes in the tins to finish cooking before removing.
Yield: 12 muffins, or more
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 213 calories, 6.8 g fat, 3.3 g protein,
34.5 g carbohydrate, 3.3 g dietary fiber.
Variation: Vary the flavor by substituting soy flour for the cream of rice or ama-
ranth for sorghum flour. Vary texture by using buckwheat or quinoa instead of
sorghum flour.
60
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Soy Muffins These muffins have a slightly nutty, sour taste. We like them with meat
Soy Muffins
These muffins have a slightly nutty, sour taste. We like them with meat dish-
es. Soy products were unheard of during World War II. How fortunate we are
now with all these healthy new flours on hand. Bean and grain flours com-
bine to produce a perfect protein.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup (235 ml) GF soy milk
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
3 tablespoons (60 g) honey
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (180 g) unsweetened applesauce
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
2 teaspoons vanilla flavoring or extract
1 cup (100 g) soy flour
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (80 g) soya granules
1teaspoon xanthan gum
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). Grease bottoms and sides of
muffin tins or paper muffin cups, or grease an 8- or 9-inch (20- or 22.5-cm)
square pan. MIX dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients together. ADD
dry mixture to wet mixture. BLEN D together. BAKE in an 8- or 9-inch (20- or
22.5-cm) square pan or muffin cups for 20 minutes or until firm but not hard.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 138 calories, 2.1 g fat, 7.1 g protein,
22.4 g carbohydrate, 2.8 g dietary fiber.
61
Pineapple Bran Tea Muffins These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed
Pineapple Bran Tea Muffins
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed in an
uncontaminated setting (see page 14).
These are very moist because of the fruit used. They must be refrigerated if
they are to be kept for a few days.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
cup (100 g) GF oat bran
1/2 cup (60 ml) pineapple juice from
drained pineapple
1/2 cup (50 g) GF oat flour
1
tablespoon orange peel
1/2 cup (70 g) millet flour
1/2 cup (95 g) orange sections, chopped
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (125 g) plain GF yogurt
3 teaspoons brown sugar
1/2 cup (60 ml) olive oil
1 1 /2 teaspoons baking powder
1
teaspoon vanilla extract
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2 egg whites, slightly beaten
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon lemon juice
1 teaspoon grated lemon rind
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1 can (8.25 ounces, or 230 g) crushed
pineapple, drained, juice reserved
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). GREASE bottoms and sides
of muffin-tin cups or paper muffin-cup liners. BLEND dry ingredients. GENTLY
mix
wet ingredients together, except for the crushed pineapple. ADD the dry
ingredients to the wet ingredients. STIR the crushed pineapple into the batter,
combining with a few strokes; do not overmix. SPOON batter into prepared
muffin cups, filling three-quarters full. BAKE for 20 minutes. Serve warm.
Yield: 12 to 14 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 14 muffins, each has 127 calories, 4.8 g
fat
3.4 g protein, 17.5 g carbohydrate, 2.4 g dietary fiber.
62
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Oatmeal Muffins These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed in an
Oatmeal Muffins
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed in an
uncontaminated setting (page 14).
From www.bobsredmill.com.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (75 g) GF oats, quick cooking
2
large eggs
1/2 cup (75 g) GF oat flour, light
1/2 cup (175 ml) milk
1/2 cup (105 g) garbanzo bean flour
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted
2 teaspoons GF baking powder
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1/2 cup (175 g) brown sugar, packed
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). GREASE muffin cups lightly or
use baking cup liners. BLEND first five ingredients in large mixing bowl. Whisk
eggs and brown sugar in another bowl until smooth. ADD milk, melted butter,
and vanilla to egg mixture. POUR wet ingredients over dry ingredients and fold
in just until dry ingredients
are moistened. SPOON batter into muffin cups. BAKE at 400°F (200°(, or gas
mark 6) for 15 to 25 minutes. TURN OUT onto a rack to cool.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 212 calories, 6.9 g fat 6.1 g protein,
21.3 g carbohydrate, 3.3 g dietary fiber.
Oat Flour Muffins
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed in an
uncontaminated setting (see page 14).
Moist, sweet breakfast muffins, especially satisfying. Oat flour gives moistness
and sweetness to dough, which makes it the ideal ingredient to satiate the
lucky eater. It also contains a natural antioxidant that is very useful in
muffins, making them stay fresher longer.
63
DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS: 2 cups (200 g) GF oat flour 1/2 cup (1 15
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
2
cups (200 g) GF oat flour
1/2 cup (1 15 g) honey or (75 g)
brown sugar
2
teaspoons baking powder
2
eggs (or egg substitute), beaten
1
teaspoon baking soda
2
tablespoons (30 ml) vegetable oil
1
teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (160 g) buttermilk or sour milk
1
teaspoon salt (optional)
1
tablespoon (15 g) mayonnaise
1
cup (145 g) raisins, GF dates,
or plain nuts, chopped
(or a combination)
PREHEAT oven to 425°F (220°(, or gas mark 7). Grease bottoms only of muf-
fin tins or paper muffin cups. STI R together dry ingredients, pressing out any
lumps. MIX fruits, nuts, and liquids together. ADD wet mixture to dry mix. Stir
lightly. POUR batter into muffin tins or paper cake cups. BAKE in 425°F (220°(,
or gas mark 7) oven for 15 to 20 minutes.
Yield: 12 to 14 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 14 muffins, each has 148 calories, 4.1 g
fat 3.8 g protein, 24.3 g carbohydrate, 2.2 g dietary fiber.
Gingerbread Muffins
Pungent and savory treats for lunchbox, after school, and teatime.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (90 g) teff flour or buckwheat
flour
2 egg yolks
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
3 tablespoons (60 g) dark unsulfured
molasses
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (120 ml) orange juice
3
teaspoons cinnamon
1
teaspoon orange peel
3
teaspoons ground ginger
2
tablespoons freshly grated ginger (for
spectacular taste)
1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
4
egg whites
2
tablespoons (30 g) brown sugar
2
tablespoons (30 g) granulated sugar
PREPARE: Preheat oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). Grease bottoms of
muffin tins or paper muffin-cup liners. WH ISK together dry ingredients, except
sugars. (REAM together egg yolks and brown sugar until it looks like a yellow
64
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
ribbon. Add molasses, orange juice, orange peel, and ginger. ADD wet ingredi- ents (except egg
ribbon. Add molasses, orange juice, orange peel, and ginger. ADD wet ingredi-
ents (except egg whites) to dry ingredients. BEAT egg whites until soft peaks
form. BEAT granulated sugar into the egg whites, 1 tablespoon at a time. Fold
egg-white mixture into batter. FILL muffin tins three-quarters full. BAKE at
400°F (200°C, or gas mark 6) for 15 to 18 minutes.
Yield: 10 to 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 muffins, each has 84 calories, 1.1 g fat,
2.8 g protein, 15.5 g carbohydrate, 1.3 g dietary fiber.
Hazelnut-Pine Nut Muffins
These nutty little muffins are exquisite.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup + 1 tablespoon (110 g) plain
pine nuts, divided (see page 28)
1 egg, lightly beaten
4
tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
1
cup (120 g) amaranth flour
1/2 cup (120 ml) milk
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
2
tablespoons (40 g) honey
1 cup (120 g) hazelnut flour, ground
2
teaspoons hazelnut flavoring or extract
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 cup (80 g) apricot preserves
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt or to taste
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
1
package gelatin
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°C, or gas mark 6). Oil muffin cups or use paper
liners. TOAST the nuts in the oven in a pan. MIX together dry ingredients,
reserving 1 tablespoon pine nuts. COMBINE wet ingredients. MIX wet ingredi-
ents into the dry ingredients, using a fork.The batter will be lumpy. SPOON 1
tablespoon of the batter into each prepared muffin tin. SPOON 1 tablespoon
(20 g) apricot preserves over the batter in each muffin cup. TOP the apricot
preserves layer with the remaining batter. SCATTER 1 tablespoon nuts over
muffin tops. BAKE 15 to 20 minutes or until golden.
Yield: 12 to 14 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 14 muffins, each has 260 calories, 13.8 g
fat, 6.2 g protein, 27.9 g carbohydrate, 3.6 g dietary fiber.
65
Sorghum Scones These are Mace's morning magic. He loves to make them. They smell good,
Sorghum Scones
These are Mace's morning magic. He loves to make them. They smell good,
they taste good, and they are healthy. What a combo!
Scones are a variation of muffins-they are made by spooning or dropping
the dough in round mounds on the cookie sheet, which allows them to get
brown almost all over. They look tremendously inviting.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
1/2 cups (175 g) sorghum flour
4
tablespoons (55 g) butter
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
2
eggs, lightly beaten
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
1
1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar
1/2 cup (160 g) plain GF yogurt or 1/2
cup (120 ml) milk
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
milk (to brush on scones before baking)
1 teaspoon xanthan or guar gum
3
heaping tablespoons (18 g) cumin
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons (30 g) sugar
1/2 cup (75 g) currants or raisins
PREHEAT oven to 450°F (230°C, or gas mark 8). GREASE baking sheet with oil
or cover sheet with oiled tin foil. MIX all dry ingredients. ADD butter to sugar
and cream by pressing mix against the side of the mixing bowl. ADD beaten
eggs and yogurt to butter and sugar. ADD the flour mixture to the egg mixture
and stir lightly, just until all dry and wet ingredients are mixed together. ADD
either currants or raisins and stir to blend in. Either SPOON out into big mounds
on baking sheet or PAT and roll the dough (covered with waxed paper). BRUSH
with milk (this will enhance browning). BAKE for 12 to 15 minutes. Cut circle
into wedges.
Yield: 12 or more muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each scone has 192 calories, 2.9 g fat, 4 g protein,
30.7 g carbohydrate, 2.1 g dietary fiber.
66
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Corn Muffins DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (120 g) rice flour 2 eggs, beaten
Corn Muffins
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (120 g) rice flour
2 eggs, beaten
1 cup (120 g) corn flour
1/2 cup (60 ml) vegetable oil
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar or (85 g) honey
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (60 ml) GF rice milk
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 can (15.25 ounces, or 427 g)
drained corn, ground
1/2 teaspoon salt
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). GREASE bottoms only of
muffin tin cups or paper muffin-cup liners. MIX together dry ingredients.
ADD remaining liquids to egg mixture. ADD wet mixture to dry mix. STIR lightly.
POUR into muffin tins or paper cake cups. BAKE in oven for 15 minutes, until
golden brown.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 170 calories, 6 g fat, 3 g protein,
26. 1 g carbohydrate, 2.5 g dietary fiber.
Cornbread Muffins
These traditional muffins go well with fall meals, stews, and soups. I double
this recipe for Thanksgiving and bake these old-fashion muffins in a quaint
iron corn pone muffin tin.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (235 ml) buttermilk
1 1/2 cups (210 g) yellow cornmeal
2 eggs, beaten
1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (60 ml) maple syrup
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 cup (50 g) plain nuts, chopped
PREHEAT oven to 425°F (220°(, gas mark 7). Grease bottoms only of muffin
tin cups or paper muffin cups or 8- or 9-inch (20- or 22.5-cm) square pan.
67
COMBINE wet ingredients. COMBINE dry ingredients. MIX wet and dry ingredi- ents together. BAKE at
COMBINE wet ingredients. COMBINE dry ingredients. MIX wet and dry ingredi-
ents together. BAKE at 425°F (220°C, gas mark 7) for 15 minutes.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 191 calories, 8.5 g fat 3.6 g protein,
24.9 g carbohydrate, 1.7 g dietary fiber.
Hot Herb and Spice Muffins
A totally different concept, hot-spicy muffins!
WET INGREDIENTS
1
.
3 eggs, separated
teaspoon finely chopped fresh basil or
marjoram
1 1/2 cups (295 ml) buttermilk
1/2 teaspoon oregano, dried or fresh
2 tablespoons (30 ml) olive oil
1/2 teaspoon dill seeds, smashed
1
tablespoon finely chopped onion
DRY INGREDIENTS
1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
1/2 teaspoon salt, optional
1 cup (120 g) teff flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
2 teaspoons finely chopped
fresh parsley
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1
cup grated Cheddar cheese
1/2 teaspoon mustard powder
1/2 teaspoon garlic powder
PREHEAT oven to 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4). SPRAY muffin-tin liners with
oil. MIX egg yolks with fork. Beat egg whites until loosely stiff. MIX all ingredi-
ents except eggs and cheese in saucepan and simmer for 3 minutes, stirring.
REMOVE from heat and let cool; add a little of this batter to the egg yolks, and
stir in the cheese. ADD yolk-and-cheese mixture to other ingredients. GENTLY
fold egg whites into mixture. Don't overstir. SPOON into well-oiled muffin-tin
liners, filling three-quarters full. BAKE at 350° F (180°C, or gas mark 4) for
15 minutes.
Yield: 20 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each has 94 calories, 4.6 g fat, 3.9 g protein,
9 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.
68
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Applesauce Bran Muffins A classic! This is one of our favorites. They are quick to
Applesauce Bran Muffins
A classic! This is one of our favorites. They are quick to make.
DRY INGREDIENTS
WET INGREDIENTS
1 cup (160 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (1 15 g) molasses
1 cup (100 g) rice bran
1/2 cup (185 g) unsweetened applesauce
1/2 cup (60 g) hazelnut flour
2
tablespoons (30 ml) canola oil
1
tablespoon baking powder
2
eggs, beaten
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 cup (60 ml) GF rice milk
1/2 teaspoon salt
1
teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (35 g) plain almonds, chopped
(page 28)
1/2 cup (75 g) raisins
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). BLEND dry ingredients. MIX
wet ingredients. STI R wet into dry ingredients. Do not overstir. FI LL muffin cups.
BAKE 20 minutes.
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 muffins, each has 233 calories, 9.8 g
fat, 4.7 g protein, 31.3 g carbohydrate, 3.8 g dietary fiber.
Pumpkin Muffins
I cook halved pumpkins until soft in the microwave or on top of the stove
and then scrape out the pulp for these wonderful muffins. This is a recipe
that doubles well. I freeze a container of extra pumpkin pulp.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted
2
teaspoons baking powder
1
teaspoon honey
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2
eggs
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
2
cups fresh pumpkin, cooked and
mashed
1
teaspoon nutmeg
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (125 g) plain GF yogurt
1 cup (120 g) buckwheat flour
1
cup (235 ml) orange juice or to taste
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
2 teaspoons xanthan gum
1/2 teaspoon instant coffee
69
2 teaspoons cinnamon 1/2 cup (75 g) raisins or currants 1 teaspoon allspice 1 cup
2 teaspoons cinnamon
1/2 cup (75 g) raisins or currants
1 teaspoon allspice
1
cup (100 g) plain nuts, chopped, or
(30 g) cornflakes (page 28)
1/2 cup (70 g) sugar
PREHEAT oven to 300°F (150°(, or gas mark 2). Oil or grease muffin-tin cups
or paper liners. BEAT butter and honey in bowl. ADD eggs one at a time, beat-
ing well after each addition. ADD pumpkin and remaining wet ingredients; mix
well. MIX dry ingredients together. ADD dry ingredients to pumpkin mixture;
blend well. ADD raisins and nuts to pumpkin batter. MIX well. SPOON batter
into 18 oiled paper muffin cups or 1/2 dozen large muffin-tin cups. BAKE in
lower third of oven at 300°F (150°(, or gas mark 2) for 20 minutes or until
done.
Yield: 18 medium-sized or 6 large muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 191 calories, 9.1 g fat, 3.5 g protein,
23.9 g carbohydrate, 2.3 g dietary fiber.
Blueberry Muffins
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com;CarolFenster.Ph .D.
These are best in July, when nice big blueberries can be picked and held in
this neutral batter.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (140 g) garbanzo and/or fava
bean flour
1
cup (235 ml) milk: GF rice, GF soy,
GF nut or cow's milk (page 28)
1/2 cup (1 109) rice flour
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, softened
1/2 cup (80 g) tapioca flour
3 eggs
2
teaspoons flaxseed meal
1 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1
teaspoon unflavored gelatin powder
1 tablespoon lemon peel, grated
2
teaspoons xanthan gum
1
cup (145 g) blueberries, fresh or
frozen
2
1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (100 g) sugar or (170 g) honey
1
teaspoon sea salt
70
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). GREASE 12-cup muffin tin or line
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). GREASE 12-cup muffin tin or
line with paper cups. STIR flours, flaxseed meal, gelatin powde~ xanthan gum,
baking powder, suga~ and salt. WHISK together milk, butter, eggs, vanilla, and
lemon peel. POUR liquids into well formed in flour mixture. STIR just until
ingredients are moistened. FOLD IN blueberries ever so gently. BAKE at 400°F
(200°(, or gas mark 6) for 25 minutes.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 194 calories, 5.4 g fat, 3.4 g protein,
32.8 g carbohydrate, 2.9 g dietary fiber.
Teff Muffins
The sheer goodness of teff, its sweet nutty flavor, rich brown color, and
powerful protein content, makes these a once-a-week must.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (90 g) teff flour
2 eggs, slightly beaten
1/2 cup (120 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (80 ml) olive oil
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (160 ml) GF soy milk
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (75 g) dried currants
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
2 teaspoons cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). GREASE muffin-tin paper lin-
ers. MIX dry ingredients together. BLEND wet ingredients together in separate
bowl. ADD wet ingredients to dry. FILL muffin cups three-quarters full. BAKE for
25 minutes.
Yield: 8 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 245 calories, 10.9 g fat, 4 g protein,
32.4 g carbohydrate, 2.5 g dietary fiber.
71
Almond Muffins Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com. Healthy, sweet little treats! DRY INGREDIENTS: 1/2 cup (80 g)
Almond Muffins
Adapted from www.bobsredmill.com. Healthy, sweet little treats!
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (80 g) soya granules
1 cup (120 g) almond meal flour
1/2 cup (50 g) GF flaxseed meal
1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour
1/2 cup (65 g) plain slivered almonds
1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
1
tablespoon baking powder
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 1/2 cups (295 ml) milk
1/2 teaspoon salt
3
eggs, beaten
1/2 cup (60 g) brown sugar
2
tablespoons (30 ml) canola oil
PREHEAT oven to 425°F (220°C, or gas mark 7). GREASE and flour 12 muffin
cups. COMBINE all dry ingredients. BEAT together milk, eggs, and oil. MIX with
dry ingredients just enough to moisten. FILL muffin cups two-thirds full. BAKE
at 425°F (220°C, or gas mark 7) for 17 minutes or until light brown in color.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 279 calories, 15.1 g fat,
12.8 g protein, 22.4 g carbohydrate, 5.3 g dietary fiber.
72
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
Granola and Muesli Recipe Granola is baked or roasted grains and nuts and/or dried fruits;
Granola and Muesli Recipe
Granola is baked or roasted grains and nuts and/or dried fruits; muesli is
grains soaked overnight with flavoring added. You add fruits, yogurt, and
nuts on the next day. We have found it is so frustrating to read labels of
breakfast cereals that sound so perfect for celiacs but, 10 and behold, there is
gluten-tainted barley malt or oats in the list of ingredients. We finally made
up some gluten-free granolas that are show stoppers. Basically our recipe has
one or two celiac-safe breakfast cereals, puffed millet, puffed rice, rice bran,
and buckwheat groats along with nuts and dried fruits; held together by but-
ter or oil; a little honey, maple syrup, and unsulfured molasses; flavored with
salt, cinnamon, and the secret ingredient, cardamom. You will vary the
amounts I am sure, but here is a base.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1
cup (225 g) unsalted butter, melted,
or (235 ml) vegetable oil
11/2 cups (180 g) plain chopped nuts or
seeds
1/2 cup (85 g) honey
3 cups (45 g) GF puffed millet and rice
cereals
1/2 cup (120 ml) pure maple syrup
1 cup (160 g) soya granules
1/2 cup (85 g) unsulfured molasses (not
blackstrap!)
1/2 cup (35 g) unsweetened coconut
1
teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1 cup (150 g) dried fruit, chopped (such
as cranberries, GF dates, peaches,
raisins, apples)
1 teaspoon cardamom
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
PREHEAT oven to 300°F (150°(, or gas mark 2). OIL large flat pans. MIX wet
ingredients into dry and stir thoroughly. THROW it all onto greased jelly roll or
cookie pans and stir it about. BAKE at 300°F (150°(, or gas mark 2). Watch
and stir it every 5 minutes. Be vigilant, it browns fast. Add dried fruit at last
minute so they don't loose their color.
Yield: About 6 cups
Nutritional Analysis: Each one-half cup serving has 446 calories, 27 9 fat,
9.5 g protein, 41 g carbohydrate, 4.8 9 dietary fiber.
73
Walnut Teff Muffins These muffins are not complicated; great with soup for lunch DRY INGREDIENTS:
Walnut Teff Muffins
These muffins are not complicated; great with soup for lunch
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
1/2 cups (180 g) teff flour
1/2 cup (85 g) honey
1/2 cup (50 g) soy flour
2
cups (475 ml) milk
1/2 cup
(1 12 g)
butter
2
teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon walnut flavoring or extract
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (60 g) plain chopped walnuts
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°(, or gas mark 6). GREASE muffin tin. MIX dry
ingredients together. BLEND wet ingredients together in separate bowl. ADD
wet ingredients to dry. SPOON into muffin tins. BAKE at 400°F (200°(, or gas
mark 6) for 20 minutes.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 157 calories, 8.5 9 fat, 4.8 9 protein,
15.4
9 carbohydrate, 1.9 9 dietary fiber.
Honey Muffins
A sweet muffin.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
1/2 cups hazelnut flour
1/2 cup (85 g) honey
1/2 cup brown rice flour
2/3 cup (160 ml) hazelnut milk
2
teaspoons baking powder
1 container (1.5 ounces, or 43 g)
babyfood, prunes
3
1/2 tablespoons (50 g) butte~ melted.
PREHEAT oven to 375°F (190°(, or gas mark 5). GREASE muffin pan. MIX
together hazelnut flour, rice flour, and baking powder. ADD honey, hazelnut
milk, prunes, and butter. STIR until well blended. FILL muffin tins two-thirds full.
BAKE at 375°F (190°(, or gas mark 5) for 25 minutes-test with toothpick.
Yield: 12 muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Each muffin has 168 calories, 11 9 fat, 2.3 9 protein,
14.9
9 carbohydrate, 1.7 9 dietary fiber.
74
Muffins for Breakfast and Tea
CHAPTER TWO Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes Flat Cakes Writing about pancakes made us recall many
CHAPTER
TWO
Hearty Treats:
Extraordinary Pancakes
Flat Cakes
Writing about pancakes made us recall many years of Mother's Day breakfast
trays with wonderful pancakes oozing with real maple syrup. This tradition
started Mace's penchant for short-order cooking and the children's confidence
that they too could cook anything.
Pancakes are fun. Easy to make, they are quickly assembled from flour,
eggs, milk, and shortening, and then cooked on a greased flat pan, heated
until water sizzles on it.
Whether we know them as flapjacks, slapjacks, griddle cakes, johnny-
cakes, hot cakes, or flannel cakes, we all love pancakes. No matter what you
call them or where you eat them, the images pancakes evoke are similar
whether served in a tall stack of hearty golden discs dripping with melted
butter and maple syrup at a roadside diner, or in a delicate arrangement of
pale, thin cakes surrounded by fresh berries and sprinkled with powdered
sugar in the formal dining room of an elegant hotel, or on a plate at your
own kitchen table. Anticipation of these tasty treats, from the sizzle of
batter hitting the griddle in your own kitchen while family and friends watch
hungrily, to eating the first warm, sweet morsel, is half the fun.
Pancakes, waffles, and crepes are liquefied cakes. They are fried on a flat
pan or griddle. They require flipping over to cook on both sides. They can
also be cooked, as in the case of waffles, on a pan with top and bottom sur-
faces. While the cooking method for pancakes, waffles, and crepes is similar,
pancakes differ in consistency of batter and final cooked texture. Pancakes
have shortening in the recipes, whereas crepe batters are 200 percent more
liquefied, with no shortening. Pancakes and waffles are made from a thicker,
more floury batter than crepes. The thicker pancake batter retains gas cells
for some time. These gas cells are a result of the baking powder or soda
interacting with the solids in the batter. During the cooking process, the
75
gas cells expand until bubbles are created on the surface. The start of the bubbles
gas cells expand until bubbles are created on the surface. The start of the
bubbles beginning to break on the upper surface during cooking signals
that the pancakes should be flipped over, before the gas escapes.
Not only does our discovery of alternative flours make terrific, tasty grid-
dle cakes, but they are much healthier than commercial boxed wheat pancake
mixes. They are steeped in protein; alternative flours have more protein than
a meat portion of the same size. And slowing down to create pancakes of
choice knits a family, creating memories as well.
Tips for Crepes
Crepe is a French word meaning a very thin pancake that is often rolled and
filled with sweet or main-dish ingredients.
Crepes are thin pancakes often made without adding baking powder or
soda (the ingredients that make ordinary pancakes puff up). They usually are
dressed up for main courses or varied with special tastes and toppings for
dessert. They take a little skill to cook just right and to fold.
You can cook crepes by using the inside of your crepe pan or the outside
of the pan. In other words, you can turn a crepe pan upside down. I'll explain
this below.
HOW TO COOK CREPES ON AN UPSIDE-DOWN CREPE PAN
These upside-down griddles heat up over the gas or electric heating element
on your stovetop.
1.
Grease the back of your crepe pan.
2.
Preheat your upside-down griddle until a drop of water dances on it.
3.
Pour batter into a 9-inch (22.5-cm) pie pan.
4.
Turn pan so its bottom sits in the batter in the pie pan.
5.
Hold crepe pan in batter for only a minute.
6.
Gently lift pan up; gently turn it over.
7.
Immediately return pan, still upside down, to heat source. Cook just until
batter loses its wet look and slight browning shows on the edge.
S.
Release crepe; start to stack by putting wax paper between each layer of
crepes. Reserve until ready to fill and fold.
9.
Note, the first crepe cooked this way can fall off or be too lacey. Discard
and continue. As you make each one, loosen the edge with a spatula. You
may have to nudge the center. Stack and continue on to folding step.
76 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
HOW TO COOK CREPES WITH PAN RIGHT-SIDE UP 1. Select a pretty serving dish. If
HOW TO COOK CREPES WITH PAN RIGHT-SIDE UP
1. Select a pretty serving dish. If you plan to eat them right away, put your
filling to one side.
2. Heat lightly greased crepe pan over medium heat.
3. With one hand, pour in two or three tablespoons of batter.
4. With the other hand, lift the pan above the heat for a few seconds, swirling
the batter so it covers the bottom of the pan.
5. Return pan to stove, keeping medium-high heat, and cook quickly, peek-
ing at the bottom to see if it is brown.
6. Carefully turn with a spatula and cook for a few seconds. Remove.
7. Stack on your plate, inserting waxed paper between each layer of crepes.
HoW" to Serve Crepes
With all of these approaches, be sure to put the prettiest side outside. Start
your folding on a plate so it won't have to be moved after it's folded.
Fold-overs
Use: desserts or main dishes. Spread filling along center. Fold one side over,
then the other. Turn on side or fasten with toothpick.
Roll-up
Use: appetizers when cut or even whole. Spread filling over whole crepe.
Start at one side and roll up like a jelly roll.
Half folds
Use: sandwiches. Simply fold crepe in half.
Burrito roll
Use: fillings that are runny, like sloppy Joes. Spread filling thinly over all,
leaving a I-inch (2.5-cm) border. Fold right side and then left over filling.
Start at the bottom and gently roll up.
Crepe Suzette fold
Use: creamy or butter-filled runny hot liquids. Spoon filling in center. Fold in
half, then in half again, forming a triangle four layers thick.
77
Blintz or pocket fold Use: lunch or special snacks. Blintzes are often refried, so put
Blintz or pocket fold
Use: lunch or special snacks. Blintzes are often refried, so put the filling on
the browner side of the crepe. Put filling in center. Fold right side and left to
meet. Fold top of crepe down over sides or fold both top and bottom. Turn
over and flatten.
Wedges
Use: appetizers. Spread filling over crepe and cut into open-faced wedges.
Cups
Use: desserts. Squeeze into a greased muffin tin.
Crepes Suzette
Those pancakes laden with sauces, fruits, and sometimes, if there is a grown-
up involved, doused with a little brandy that lights up if lit with a match
a crepe Suzette. These glorified pancakes, delicate and thin, combined with a
rich butter and fruit sauce, have the most delicate flavor imaginable.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
11/2 cups (295 ml) GF hazelnut, soy,
or rice milk
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon vanilla or almond
flavoring or extract
1/2 cup (98 g) cornstarch
SUZETTE BUTTER FOR TOPPING
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter
1 cup (100 g) GF confectioners' sugar
WET INGREDIENTS:
2 eggs
Grated rind of 1 lemon
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter
Grated rind of 1 orange
1/2 cup (60 ml) orange juice
MIX dry ingredients in bowl. MIX wet ingredients in separate bowl. GRADUAL-
LY ADD wet ingredients to dry. STIR just to blend. Do not mix with a heavy
hand-remember that overmixing can make your baked product tough, not
light and delectable. POUR 1/2 cup (60 ml) batter into preheated, greased, flat
pan. If the pancake seems heavy, add more milk to batter. The pancake should
be paper thin. TURN pancake over when batter starts to bubble so both sides
brown equally. DUST these with confectioners' sugar. COMBINE Suzette butter
ingredients and spread on crepes while they are warm.
78 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
Yield: 6 to 8 crepes Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 crepes, each has 422 calories, 25.1
Yield: 6 to 8 crepes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 crepes, each has 422 calories, 25.1 g fat,
2.1 g protein, 46.7 g carbohydrate, 1.5 g dietary fiber.
Cinnamon Apple Crepes
A sweet dessert crepe with a deep yellow color-nice with 1 tablespoon of
melted bittersweet chocolate ladled on top of each folded crepe.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
4
egg yolks, beaten
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
2
whole eggs, beaten
1/2 cup (35 g) cornstarch
1 cup (235 ml) milk
1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter, melted
2 tablespoons (30 g) sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
MIX beaten egg yolks and whole eggs. BLEND milk and butter in a separate
bowl. COMBINE flours, sugar, salt, and gum. ALTERNATELY ADD egg and but-
ter mixtures to flour mixture, making a thin batter. REFRIGERATE for an hour or
overnight before cooking on your griddle.
Apple Crepe Topping:
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
2 tablespoons cornstarch
1/2 cup (175 ml) water
5 cooking apples, peeled, cored,
and thinly sliced
1/2 cup (150 g) sugar
1/2 cup (25 g) plain walnuts, chopped
MIX cornstarch with water in a saucepan; blend until smooth. Bring to a boil.
ADD sugar, cinnamon, and apples to the cornstarch mixture. SIMMER until
sauce thickens and apples are tender. ADD walnuts. ENCLOSE mixture into
the center of each crepe, fold over.
Yield: 6 to 8 crepes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 crepes, each has 351 calories, 10.4 g fat,
5.6
g protein, 58.3 g carbohydrate, 3.8 g dietary fiber. With suggested varia-
tion,
each has 445 calories, 15.8 g fat, 6.7 g protein, 68.7 g carbohydrate,
3.8
g dietary fiber.
79
Variations: Red Hot cinnamon apple filling-my grandmother made these for me: Melt 1/2 cup (80
Variations: Red Hot cinnamon apple filling-my grandmother made these for
me: Melt 1/2 cup (80 g) little cinnamon hearts into the apple mixture in a
saucepan.
Cream cheese filling: 1 package (3 ounces, or 85 g) GF cream cheese, 1/2 cup
(60 ml) milk, 1 tablespoon (15 ml) brandy. Mix softened cream cheese with
milk and liquor. Put apple slices on top of cream cheese filling.
Herb Crepes
These crepes are fabulous treats. Have them with pork chops. These have a
subtle, almost bitter taste, made delectable by savory herbs.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (120 g) amaranth flour
3 eggs
1 cup (100 g) soy flour
1 cup (235 ml) beer
1 teaspoon fresh or dried tarragon
1 cup (235 ml) GF chicken bouillon
1 teaspoon chopped parsley
1/2 cup (1 12 g) butter, melted
1 teaspoon chives
1
tablespoon (15 g) GF sour cream
BLEND dry ingredients. BEAT eggs. COMBINE all wet ingredients. ADD wet
ingredients to dry. SPOON or ladle onto a hot griddle. COOK until brown on
both sides.
Yield: About 12 medium crepes
Nutritional Analysis: Each crepe has 157 calories, 7.9 g fat, 6.5 g protein,
14.7 g carbohydrate, 3.2 g dietary fiber.
80
Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
Chocolate Dessert Crepe My son-in-law says this would be terrific with his morning coffee when
Chocolate Dessert Crepe
My son-in-law says this would be terrific with his morning coffee when
I served it for dessert with hot, sweet homemade applesauce over top.
So, you decide!
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 tablespoon ground cardamom
3 tablespoons (45 g) butter
1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour
1 1/2 cups (355 ml) buttermilk
1/2 tablespoon baking soda
3 eggs, beaten
3
tablespoons (40 g) sugar
3
DRY INGREDIENTS:
tablespoons (17 g) good quality
pure cocoa
2 ounces (55 g) GF bittersweet
chocolate
1/2 teaspoon salt
MELT butter and chocolate with cardamom in a double boiler. COMBINE
buttermilk and eggs in a separate bowl. COMBINE dry ingredients. POUR
alternately the buttermilk mixture and the melted chocolate mixture into the
dry ingredients. Let batter sit for 1/2 hour. Cook on a greased hot griddle.
Yield: 6 to 8 great big monster crepes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 crepes, each has 213 calories, 9.7 g fat,
6.6 g protein, 24.9 g carbohydrate, 2.9 g dietary fiber.
Pancake Tips
Making pancakes on weekends can easily become a family tradition. Our son-
in-law invariably makes pancakes every weekend.
Pancakes can be ultra-thin, more like crepes than pancakes, or thick and
fluffy, like American breakfast pancakes. It depends on how much liquid is
added. Pancakes usually have baking powder as an ingredient. Berries, spices,
and nuts-even chocolate chips-added to the batter enhance nutrition and
taste. Any way you choose to eat them-alone, with toppings, or wrapped
around sweet or savory fillings-they are sure to be a treat.
Pancakes are great family food, and everyone from the youngest child to
the oldest adult can take part in their preparation. While the varieties of pan-
cakes are seemingly endless, there are some guidelines for making great ones.
81
1. For light pancakes made from scratch, let the batter rest 30 minutes at room
1.
For light pancakes made from scratch, let the batter rest 30 minutes at
room temperature. This gives the baking powder time to aerate the batter
as it begins the leavening process.
2.
Don't beat these pancake batters in a blender. For that matter, don't beat
them at all. Overmixing toughens these alternative flours and will pre-
vent the baking powder from aerating the batter, resulting in flat pan-
cakes.
3.
Use buttermilk if you want thick, fluffy, slightly tangy pancakes.
4.
Cook the pancakes with a very thin film of oil or butter or cooking spray
at high heat. Test the heat by dropping a few drops of water on the grid-
dle. The water will dance about if the surface is hot enough. Pancakes
should sizzle slightly when they hit your griddle or skillet.
5.
Turn pancakes when bubbles appear and edges curl and brown a little.
Use a flat-edged spatula.
6.
Note that second pancakes are best and thirds are even better. Invariably,
I under- or over-cook the first pancakes off my pan. That's why I make a
little more batter than necessary. The third pancakes have the smoothest
bottoms, for some reason!
7.
Serve pancakes right away for best eating.
But you can keep them warm
in a 200°F (95°C) oven, stacked on a plate or baking sheet.
S.
Make sure your maple syrup is the real thing. You and your special pan-
cakes deserve the best. For an extra treat, warm the syrup before serving.
9.
Try pancakes with fish, chicken, or beef for supper as a healthy substitute
for pasta or potatoes.
82 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
Basic Pancake This is my favorite pancake recipe. It is not as simple as some
Basic Pancake
This is my favorite pancake recipe. It is not as simple as some other recipes
but it always pleases our gang.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (65 g) corn starch
2 eggs, separated
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (70 g) yellow cornmeal
11/2 cups (295 ml) soy milk or buttermilk
(you can add more if the batter is too
thick)
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons (30 g) plain GF yogurt
2-3 teaspoons sugar
1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
3 tablespoons (45 g) unsalted butte~
melted
Pinch of cinnamon and nutmeg
LIGHTLY COAT griddle or flat pan with cooking spray, oil, or butter. MIX dry
ingredients together. Form a well in the middle of the flour mixture in your bowl.
MIX the egg yolks, buttermilk, yogurt, and butter in a separate bowl until
blended. POUR the liquid ingredients into the well in the flour mixture in the
first bowl. STI R until combined. BEAT egg whites in a separate bowl, using a
standing or hand mixe~ until stiff. FOLD beaten egg whites into the batter.
AD (optional) fruit, nuts, or chips now, if you wish. H EAT griddle or pan over
medium heat. TEST to make sure the griddle is hot enough with a few drops of
water; when the water dances, it is ready. POUR 1/4 cup batter onto
the prepared griddle or skillet for each pancake, leaving room for them to
spread. After 2 or 3 minutes, gently LIFT edges with a spatula to check for
color. FLIP them over when bubbles appear on the upper surfaces. COOK the
second side for another 2 to 3 minutes.
Yield: 10 to 12 medium pancakes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 pancakes, each has 117 calories,
4 g fat, 2.4 g protein, 17.8 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.
83
Fluffy Pancakes or Waffles This recipe has been modified from www.bobsredmill.com. DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS:
Fluffy Pancakes or Waffles
This recipe has been modified from www.bobsredmill.com.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (40 g) tapioca flour
3 eggs, separated
1/2 cup (95 g) brown rice flour
1
tablespoon (20 g) honey
1/2 cup (45 g) garbanzo bean flour
1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 teaspoon baking powder
2 tablespoons (30 ml) olive oil
2 tablespoons buttermilk powder
11/2 cups (315 ml) seltzer water
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
BEAT egg whites until stiff, set aside. BLEND dry ingredients. BLEND wet ingre-
dients and egg yolks. ADD wet ingredients to dry mixture. FOLD in egg whites.
PREHEAT greased griddle or waffle iron. COOK until golden brown. SERVE with
maple syrup, fresh fruit, or jelly.
Yield: 8 to 10 pancakes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 pancakes or waffles, each has 129 calo-
ries, 4.9 g fat, 4 g protein, 17.6 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber.
Apple Pancakes
An acquaintance from Germany gave me this delicious recipe. We shared a
ski house in New Hampshire, and I watched her make beautiful apple pan-
cakes several times before getting the recipe and adapting it. The secret to
success is to cook it in a large buttered frying pan, covered, using low heat.
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (70 g) sorghum flour
1 cup (235 ml) milk
1 teaspoon baking powder
2 eggs, whisked
1 teaspoon cinnamon, plus 1 teaspoon
for topping
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 apple
1 teaspoon sugar, plus 1 teaspoon for
topping
1 cup (160 g) rice flour
84
Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
PEEL and core apple, and then slice it in thin horizontal slices. MIX milk and
PEEL and core apple, and then slice it in thin horizontal slices. MIX milk and
eggs together. BLEND flours, baking powde~ cinnamon, and sugar. ADD flour
mixture to milk mixture, a little at a time, until batter thickens. POUR mixture
into oiled, hot frying pan. LAY a few apple slices on top. COVER and cook for
about five minutes. To serve: MIX 1 teaspoon each cinnamon and sugar
together for topping. SPRINKLE over the cooked pancake.
Yield: 10 to 12 pancakes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 pancakes, each has 104 calories, 1.9 g
fat, 3.2 g protein, 18.5 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber.
Variation: Substitute 1/2 cup (60 g) almond meal or rice flour for sorghum
flour.
Add
1/2 cup (30 g) finely chopped plain walnuts.
Note: You can flip the pancake, but she never did. It was ready when it curled
on the edges and lost its shine.
Down-Home Buckwheat Pancakes
These are what my son-in-law loves to make on Sunday mornings. These are
hearty, wholesome, and flavorful griddle cakes.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
cup (120 g) buckwheat flour
2 tablespoons (40 g)
molasses
unsulfured
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
1 egg, beaten
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
11/2 cups (355 g) GF rice milk
1
teaspoon baking powder
2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
1/2 teaspoon xanthan gum
1 teaspoon vinegar
MIX
dry ingredients together. MIX wet ingredients in separate bowl. LIGHTLY
STIR dry ingredients into wet, being careful not to overstir. LET SIT for a few
minutes. LADLE batter onto your hot griddle.
Yield: 10 to 12 pancakes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 pancakes, each has 109 calories, 2.9 g
fat, 2.3 g protein, 18.2 g carbohydrate, 2.7 g dietary fiber.
85
Amaranth Applesauce Pancakes This recipe has been modified from www.bobsredmill.com. Here's another hearty,
Amaranth Applesauce Pancakes
This recipe has been modified from www.bobsredmill.com. Here's another
hearty, sweet-tasting pancake that my tasters raved about.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1
apple, peeled and chopped
1/2 cup (60 g) amaranth flour
1/2 cup (125 g) applesauce
1/2 cup (30 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (80 ml) apple juice
1/2 cup (35 g) brown rice flour
2
eggs, lightly beaten
1 teaspoon baking soda
6
tablespoons (90 ml) water
1 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 teaspoon arrowroot starch
1/2 teaspoon allspice
MIX
chopped apple, applesauce, apple juice, eggs, and water in a medium
bowl. STIR together flours, baking soda, cream of tartar, arrowroot, and allspice
in small bowl. ADD flour mixture to applesauce mixture, stir until blended.
GREASE griddle; heat over medium heat. POUR scant 1/2 cup batter in griddle
for each pancake. COOK until golden brown on one side. When surface is bub-
bly and edges are slightly dry, flip pancakes over and cook until done. SERVE
with
maple syrup if desired.
Yield: Serves 3 to 4
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 4 pancakes, each has 250 calories, 4.5 g
fat, 7.6 g protein, 44.8 g carbohydrate, 5.6 g dietary fiber.
Baked Dilly Pancakes
Dairy- and yeast-free. These are perfect for luncheons, filled with creamed
tuna fish or dried beef.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1
tablespoon (15 ml) canola oil
6 tablespoons (40 g) soy flour
1/2 cup (85 g) honey
1 tablespoon grated lemon rind
2 eggs
1 tablespoon chopped dill weed
1 cup (235 ml) GF soy milk,
heated a bit
86
Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
PREHEAT oven to 425°F. GREASE 6 ramekins or flat glass bowls. BEAT the oil and
PREHEAT oven to 425°F. GREASE 6 ramekins or flat glass bowls. BEAT the oil
and honey until smooth. BEAT the eggs and stir them into the oil mixture. ADD
soy flou~ stirring lightly. ADD soy milk, lemon rind, and dill. COVER and put
aside for a bit. Sometimes I rest the batter in the refrigerator overnight. Then
put an equal amount of batter in each oiled bowl. BAKE for 10 minutes at
425°F (220°C, or gas mark 7), and then lower to 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4)
for 10 or 15 minutes more.
Yield: 6 baked pancakes that resemble cream puff shells.
Nutritional Analysis: Each pancake has 130 calories, 5.9 g fat, 5.1 g pro-
tein, 14.4 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary fiber. With suggested variation, each
has 155 calories, 5.9 g fat,S. 1 g protein, 20.6 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g dietary
fiber.
Variation: Omit the dill and add 3 tablespoons granulated sugar. You can cre-
ate a stacked cake or torte with jam in between the layers, and powdered sugar
or coconut on top. Cut into wedges to serve.
Quinoa Pancakes
I like the simplicity of these hearty pancakes.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
11/2 cups (180 g) quinoa flour
1 tablespoon (20 g) honey
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
2
cups (475 ml) GF rice milk
4 teaspoons baking powder
2
tablespoons (30 ml) vegetable oil
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon xanthan gum
MIX dry ingredients. ADD liquids and lightly whisk to mix. SPOON batter onto
hot griddle. Batter may thicken as it stands. ADD 1 or 2 tablespoons (15 or 30
ml) water, as needed, as you cook pancakes. LADLE onto your hot griddle.
Yield: 10 to 12 pancakes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 pancakes, each has 124 calories, 3.7 g
fat, 2.4 g protein, 20.4 g carbohydrate, 3.2 g dietary fiber.
87
Variation: Substitute yeast for the baking powder and add 1/2 teaspoon baking soda and 2
Variation: Substitute yeast for the baking powder and add 1/2 teaspoon baking
soda and 2 eggs and 1 cup (245 g) yogurt for 1 cup (235 ml) water for a richer
dessert crepe, using any of these alternative gluten-free flours.
If you want to make pancakes that are only wheat-free but not gluten-free, you
can substitute barley flour.
Oat Hotcakes with Yeast
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats are processed in an uncontami-
nated setting (see page 14).
These delicious moist-and-spicy hotcakes are stunning. Try them with fried
bananas, or better yet, fresh berries! When our grandchildren visit us in
August in New Hampshire, they pick the local huge blueberries. I carefully
fold them into the hotcake batter at the last minute. What a morning treat!
WET INGREDIENTS:
2
teaspoons baking powder
11/2 cups (355 ml)) whole milk
or GF rice milk
1/2 teaspoon allspice
2
tablespoons red curry powder
2 teaspoons honey
1/2 cup (25 g) GF rolled oats
1
tablespoon (15 ml) Thai fish oil
1/2 cup (50 g) GF oat bran
Fruit spread or jam
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (30 g) dried currants, raisins, or
fresh berries (whatever is on
the market or pickable)
1
packet dry yeast
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
COMBINE milk with honey in a microwave-safe bowl. MICROWAVE until luke-
warm (about 50 seconds on 100 percent power). REMOVE from microwave.
SPRINKLE in the yeast; mix well with a fork. Set aside. BLEND rice flour, baking
powder, allspice, and curry; then combine with oats, and oat bran. POUR
milk/yeast mixture into the bowl with the dry ingredients; add fish oil, stirring to
blend. FOLD in the dried fruit or fresh berries. (If using fresh berries, fold very
carefully so they are not mashed, otherwise they will make the hotcake batter
change color.) Let mixture rest, thicken, and increase in volume in a warm
place for 15 to 30 minutes. Do not stir again. SPRAY a nonstick frying pan with
cooking spray or lightly grease with butter. H EAT over moderate heat. Without
stirring, take spoonfuls of mix and drop into the pan. COOK until browned on
88
Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
one side (about 2 minutes). TURN OVER and cook till brown on second side (about
one side (about 2 minutes). TURN OVER and cook till brown on second side
(about 2 minutes). SERVE hotcakes immediately with fruit spread or jam.
Yield: 10 hotcakes
Nutritional Analysis: Each hotcake has 109 calories, 3.4 g fat, 3.5 g
protein, 16.1 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g dietary fiber.
Hazelnut Pancakes
Hazelnut flour is a new, rich-tasting addition to our home gluten-free pantry
shelf.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
1
cup (120 g) hazelnut meallflour
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 cup (60 g) teff flour
1/2 teaspoon cardamom
1/2 cup (70 g) garbanzo bean flour
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
teaspoon baking soda
2
tablespoons (30 ml) canola oil
2 teaspoons baking powder
2
cups (475 ml) buttermilk
1
teaspoon cream of tartar
1 egg, whisked
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
2 teaspoons hazelnut flavoring or extract
MIX
dry ingredients in a bowl. ADD liquids and whisk to mix. PREHEAT pan-
cake griddle until a drop of water will dance on it. (Oil or spray griddle as need-
ed.) SPOON batter onto hot griddle to make pancakes about 4 to 5 inches (10
to 13 cm) across. Batter may thicken as it stands. Before spooning subsequent
rounds of pancakes on the griddle, stir in more buttermilk, as needed. TURN
when edges seem dry. (They won't brown much because they don't contain
sugar.) Keep pancakes warm while you make remaining pancakes (or coolon
rack
to use as flatbread).
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 pancakes, each has 140 calories, 8.4 g
fat, 5.4 g protein, 10.8 g carbohydrate, 2.8 g dietary fiber.
89
Corn Cakes -with Yeast A little like polenta. The batter for these cakes needs an
Corn Cakes -with Yeast
A little like polenta. The batter for these cakes needs an hour to rest between
mixing and cooking. These are definitely a late-day supper starch, for a great
change made with little effort. Corn cakes are great with ham and asparagus
for supper.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
11/2 cups (355 ml) 1% milk/ warm
1 package yeast (2 1 /4 teaspoons)
2 tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
1 cup (140 g) yellow cornmeal
3 eggs/ beaten
1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1
teaspoon cumin
COMBINE all ingredients. SET ASIDE mixed ingredients to sit for 1 hour. PRE-
HEAT pancake griddle until a drop of water will IIdance ll on it. (Oil or spray
griddle as needed.) SPOON batter onto hot griddle. COOK until browned on
one side (about 2 minutes). TURN OVER and cook till brown on second side
(about 2 minutes). KEEP WARM or serve immediately with applesauce or slices
of prosciutto on top.
Yield: 10 to
12 ca kes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 corn cakes/ each has 112 calories/ 3.6
g fat/ 3.8 g protein/ 15.9 g carbohydrate/ 1.1 g dietary fiber.
90
Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
Tapioca Waffles with Cumin Light as air, waffles to eat with berries in season. Also,
Tapioca Waffles with Cumin
Light as air, waffles to eat with berries in season. Also, this recipe can be used
to make lovely sweet pancakes.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 eggs, separated
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (60 ml) oil
1 cup (120 g) tapioca flour
1 cup (235 ml) buttermilk
1 teaspoon baking soda
11/2 teaspoons baking powder
2 teaspoons brown sugar
1/2 teaspoon cumin
PREHEAT waffle iron or flat pan for stovetop cooking. BEAT egg whites and set
aside. MIX together flours, baking soda, baking powder, brown sugar, and
cumin in a bowl; set aside. Slightly BEAT egg yolks together in a small bowl.
BLEND oil and buttermilk into the slightly beaten egg yolks. MIX egg yolk mix-
ture into the dry ingredients. FOLD IN egg whites. BAKE in a waffle iron or
cook as pancakes.
Yield: 6 to 8 waffles or 10 to 12 pancakes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 waffles, each has 199 calories, 8.4 g fat,
3.1 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.
91
Buttermilk and Bran Pancakes with Fruit These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats are
Buttermilk and Bran Pancakes with Fruit
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats are processed in an uncontami-
nated setting (see page 14).
These pancakes call for GF oatmeal or oat bran to lower the glycemic index
of the pancake.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 teaspoons sugar
1 cup (100 g) unprocessed GF oat bran
or GF oatmeal flakes
1 teaspoon baking soda
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (75 g) GF dried fruit medleYI
chopped (purchase at most food
stores)
1
egg l lightly beaten
2
tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
2
cups (475 ml) buttermilk
1/2 cup (70 g) brown rice flour
1/2
cup (60
g) tapioca flour l
sifted
COMBINE the oat bran and buttermilk in a bowl. Let stand 10 minutes. STIR
the fruit medleYI flours l sugar l
and baking soda into the oat/buttermilk mixture.
ADD lightly beaten egg and melted butter. MIX thoroughly. H EAT a nonstick
frying pan till water dances on surface. CAREFULLY spray with cooking spray or
grease lightly with butter. POUR about 3 tablespoons of batter into the pan.
COOK over moderate-high heat until bubbly on top. TURN pancake to brown
the other side. REPEAT with remaining batter.
Yield: 10 medium pancakes
Nutritional Analysis: Each pancake has 160 calories l 4.1 g fat 4.6 g
protein l 26.2 g carbohydrate l 2.5 g dietary fiber.
Variation: May use 1 cup (160 g) buckwheat groats soaked overnight instead
of oat bran or oats. Substitute 1 cup (160 g) rice bran cereal and 1/2 cup (70 g)
fava bean flour instead of oat bran or oats.
92 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
Pumpkin-Walnut Flapjacks These are a winter favorite. Pumpkin puree is an emulsifier-besides provid- ing a
Pumpkin-Walnut Flapjacks
These are a winter favorite. Pumpkin puree is an emulsifier-besides provid-
ing a rich taste and many vitamins and minerals, it holds the batter together
and smoothes it like xanthan gum does in other recipes.
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
cup (160 g) rice flour
1 1 /2 cups (355 ml) buttermilk
1/2 cup (60 g) quinoa flour
1/2 cup (170 g) canned pumpkin
4 large eggs, separated,
room temperature
11/2 teaspoons GF pumpkin pie spice
(page 28)
1 teaspoon ground cloves
1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring or extract
1 teaspoon baking soda
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter, melted
1 teaspoon baking powder
pure maple syrup
1/2 teaspoon salt
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (50 g) plain walnuts, finely
chopped
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
WHISK buttermilk, pumpkin, egg yolks, sugar, and vanilla in medium bowl to
blend; whisk in melted butter. WHISK flours, pumpkin pie spice, cloves, baking
soda, baking powder, and salt in large bowl to blend. ADD dry ingredients to
buttermilk mixture and whisk to combine. BEAT egg whites using electric mixer
in medium bowl until soft peaks form. FOLD whites into batter. LIGHTLY OIL or
butter large heavy skillet; set over medium heat. POUR 1/2 cup (85 g) batter
onto skillet for each pancakes; working in batches. COOK until bubbles form on
top, about 1 1 /2 minutes. TURN flapjacks over and cook until second side
browns, about 1 minute. TRANSFER flapjacks to warm plates. SPRINKLE with
nuts. Serve with maple syrup, applesauce, apple butter, or marmalade.
Yield: 14 to 16 flapjacs
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 flapjacks, each has 136 calories,S. 7 g
fat, 4.1 g protein, 17.1 g carbohydrate, 1.1 g dietary fiber.
93
Soy Griddle Cakes These are really healthy and wholesome but also light and good. They
Soy Griddle Cakes
These are really healthy and wholesome but also light and good. They are
true cakes, a little thicker than pancakes. We like them with lunch meat as a
celiac-safe snack.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (75 g) soy flour
3
tablespoons (60 g) honey
1/2 cup (80 g) soya granules
2
eggs
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 cup (235 ml) GF soy milk
01 L skillet lightly. MIX all the above ingredients. Allow to stand for 5
minutes.
FORM patties. BROWN on each side in skillet. SERVE with jam.
Yield: 6 medium-sized griddle cakes
Nutritional Analysis: Each griddle cake has 237 calories, 8 g fat, 19.1 g
protein, 22.4 g carbohydrate, 5.6 g dietary fiber.
Variation: Flavor batter with 1/2 cup (65 g) plain slivered almonds put through
a coffee grinder, and almond flavoring.
Add chopped GF dried fruit or fresh berries, apples, or bananas as you cook.
Potato and Rice Pancakes
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1
egg, beaten
3 tablespoons (20 g) potato flour
2/3 cup (160 ml) buttermilk or milk of
choice
2 tablespoons (lOg) rice flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1
tablespoon (15 ml) oil
1 teaspoon salt
Pepper to taste
Optional: 1/4 cup onions. Chopped
01 L skillet with 2 tablespoons of canola oil (enough so the pancake batter will
not stick to the pan). MIX the wet ingredients together. MIX the dry ingredients
in a separate bowl. ADD the dry ingredients to the wet ingredients. PREHEAT
skillet then pan-fry over medium heat. TURN the pancakes to brown both sides.
Yield: 12 medium-sized pancakes.
Nutritional Analysis: Each pancake has 69 calories, 1.8 g fat, 2.1 g
protein, 10.9 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.
94
Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
Potato Pancakes Another supper pancake! These are especially delicious because of the curry. DRY INGREDIENTS:
Potato Pancakes
Another supper pancake! These are especially delicious because of the curry.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 teaspoon baking powder
3
potatoes, raw, grated
1 teaspoon dill weed
1 medium zucchini, grated
1 tablespoon yellow curry
1/2 cup (60 g) carrots, grated
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (65 g) onion, finely chopped
2
eggs, beaten
1/2 cup (35 g) garbanzo flour
2
1/2 cup (30 g) potato flour
tablespoons (30 ml) olive
or canola oil
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup (160 ml) white wine
COMBINE potatoes, zucchini, carrots, and onion. ADD beaten eggs and oil;
stir to combine. MIX the dry ingredients; add to potato mixture. ADD the wine
to desired consistency-may need less. SPOON or ladle onto a hot griddle;
brown on both sides.
Yield: About 12 medium pancakes.
Nutritional Analysis: Each pancake has 96 calories, 3.5 g fat, 3 g protein,
13.2 g carbohydrate, 2.1 g dietary fiber.
95
Potato Cakes Great for supper, especially with stew! WET INGREDIENTS: DRY INGREDIENTS: 3 tablespoons (45
Potato Cakes
Great for supper, especially with stew!
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
3
tablespoons (45 ml) oil
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
2
cups (475 ml) water or GF soy milk
1 cup (100 g) potato flakes
2
eggs
1 tablespoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1
teaspoon chopped parsley
2 teaspoons coriander
MIX wet ingredients together. MIX dry ingredients in a separate bowl. COM-
BINE wet ingredients with the dry ingredients and stir well. POUR small
amounts of the batter onto a hot nonstick or oiled griddle. Serve with gravy and
chopped apples.
Yield: 8 to 10 cakes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 cakes, each has 98 calories, 5.2 g fat,
2.1 g protein, 10.8 g carbohydrate, trace dietary fiber.
Sour Milk Pancakes
These reflect my love of pungent, slightly tangy foods.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
11/2 cups (355 ml) buttermilk (or sour
milk)
1
tablespoon (15 g) brown suga~
packed
1 egg, beaten
1/2 cup (25 g) GF instant potato flakes
or (50 g) soy flour
1 tablespoon (15 ml) canola oil
1
cup (120 g) potato starch
1/2 cup (40 g) rice flour
OIL skillet well. ADD buttermilk slowly to beaten egg, then add oil and brown
sugar. BLEND soy flour, potato starch, and rice flour. BEAT flours into butter-
milk mixture. Let dough stand overnight to ferment. PAN FRY over medium
heat, turning to brown both sides.
96
Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
Yield: 8 to 10 pancakes Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 pancakes, each has 135 calories, 0.5
Yield: 8 to 10 pancakes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 10 pancakes, each has 135 calories, 0.5 g
fat 4.4 g protein, 24.3 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.
Note: To sour milk, add 1 1/2 tablespoons (20 ml) vinegar or 1 1/2 tablespoons
(23 ml) lemon juice per 1 cup (235 ml) milk. Allow it to thicken to consistency
of buttermilk. Soured milk keeps in refrigerator for 3 to 4 days.
Flannel Shirt Cakes
These brown-hued pancakes are modified from a children's cookbook from
the 1920s. These supper pancakes were so named because they are thick and
heavy like the flannel shirts that lumberjacks wore at the turn of the century.
Please note that the combination of bean and rice flours gives you a complete
protein, akin to meat. This makes a hearty breakfast that will stay with you
all day!
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 tablespoon baking powder
3 eggs, separated
1/2 teaspoon salt
21/2 cups (570 ml) milk (or buttermilk,
GF rice milk, or GF soy milk)
2 teaspoons sugar
4 tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
1/2 cup (85 g) molasses
1/2 cup (70 g) garbanzo and/or fava
bean flour
11/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
MIX the baking powder, salt, sugar, flours, and xanthan gum. BEAT the egg
yolks and add to the milk. POUR the butter, molasses, egg yolks, and milk into
the flour mixture. BEAT egg whites well; fold into batter. STIR and let mixture
ferment for 15 minutes. SPOON out or ladle out onto a hot, greased griddle;
brown on both sides and serve with butter, real maple syrup, honey, applesauce,
fresh berries, etc.
Yield: 4 to 5 large servings
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 waffles, each has 248 calories, 10.2 g
fat 5.5 g protein, 33.5 g carbohydrate, 2.2 g dietary fiber.
Note: Great with thick bacon or Swedish meatballs.
97
Street Waffles These are like the waffles baked in front of you on the street
Street Waffles
These are like the waffles baked in front of you on the street in Europe and
dusted heavily with confectioners' sugar. We like to make these festive waffles
on weekends. Get out your dusty wedding-present waffle iron!
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
11/2 cups (175 g) brown rice flour
2 large eggs/ well beaten
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour or buck-
wheat flour
1 tablespoon (15 g) sugar or honey
1/2 cup (25 g) flaxseed meal
11/2 cups (355 ml) GF rice or soy milk or
buttermilk
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup (60 ml) canola oil
1 teaspoon cream of tartar
HEAT waffle iron. COMBINE rice flour, tapioca flour or buckwheat flour/
flaxseed meal/ baking powder, and cream of tartar in a large bowl. COMBINE
beaten eggs and sugar in a small bowl; stir into flour mixture.
ADD milk gradu-
ally/ beating until batter is smooth. STIR in oil. BAKE in hot waffle iron that has
been sprayed with nonstick vegetable spray/ for 3 to 5 minutes. SERVE waffles
with butter and warm real maple syrup/ honey/ fresh fruit/ or jam.
Yield: 6 to 8 waffles
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 8 waffles/ each has 248 calories/ 10.2 g
fat/ 5.5 g protein/ 33.5 g carbohydrate/ 2.2 g dietary fiber.
Quinoa Griddlecakes
These healthy pancakes are Mace's favorite. Try them with bacon.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
1
package (2 1/4 teaspoons) dry yeast
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (120 g) quinoa flour 1/4 cup
(25 g) soy flour
1/2 cup (120 ml) warm water
2 tablespoons (40 g) honey
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2 eggs
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup (245 g) plain GF yogurt
2 tablespoons (28 g) butter, melted
1 tablespoon cinnamon
1/2 cup (120 ml) milk/ GF rice milk/
or GF soy milk
98
Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
STIR yeast into warm water; stir in honey and set aside to proof for 5
STIR yeast into warm water; stir in honey and set aside to proof for 5 minutes.
BEAT eggs, yogurt, and milk together in mixing bowl. ADD yeast mixture. ADD
flours, soda, salt, melted butter, cinnamon, and nutmeg; mix until blended.
PLACE batter in warm place; let stand for 20 or 30 minutes or until bubbly. (May
even stand overnight.) PREHEAT oiled griddle. POUR batter onto preheated,
oiled griddle and bake until puffy and bubbly on top and edges begin to brown.
TURN and cook until done, checking underside. SERVE immediately with
desired topping. We prefer real maple syrup.
Yield: 10 to 12 griddlecakes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 griddlecakes, each has 114 calories,
4.4 g fat, 4.6 g protein, 14 g carbohydrate, 1.4 g dietary fiber.
Variation: You may substitute buttermilk for the yogurt, but we like these best
when we use the yogurt.
Especially Tender Teff Pancakes
Used with permission from Cyndy Clark of Grassroots Baking Company.
Teff, the protein powerhouse from Ethiopia, makes hearty, healthy, pancakes.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (70 g) brown rice flour
2 eggs, lightly beaten
1/2 cup (30 g) teff flour
1/2 cup (160 ml) milk or GF milk alterna-
tive (preferred) (page 28)
1/2 cup (40 g) sweet rice flour, tapioca
flour, or potato starch
3 tablespoons (45 ml) canola
or safflower oil
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
COMBINE all dry ingredients. WHISK in eggs, milk or milk alternative, and oil.
POUR into hot, oiled pan. TURN when bubbles form on top and bottom is
browned. SERVE with maple syrup, agave syrup, fruit syrup, nut butter, or
topping of your choice.
Yield: 4 to 6 pa nca kes
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 6 pancakes, each has 181 calories, 9.8 g
fat, 4.2 g protein, 19.1 g carbohydrate, 1 g dietary fiber.
99
Coconut Pancakes These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed in an
Coconut Pancakes
These are gluten-free (GF) ONLY if the oats have been processed in an
uncontaminated setting (see page 14).
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (35 g) unsweetened coconut
flakes
2
cups (475 ml) GF rice milk
2
tablespoons (28 g) butte~ melted
1/2 cup(70 g) sorghum flour
2
eggs
1 cup (100 g) GF oat flour
2
tablespoons (40 g) honey
2 teaspoons GF baking powder
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1/2 teaspoon salt
MIX dry ingredients in bowl. ADD liquids and whisk to mix. LET FERMENT for
15 minutes (while you cook ham or bacon as an accompaniment). PREHEAT
griddle, grease as needed. SPOON batter onto hot griddle. TURN when edges
seem dry. If batter thickens, add 1 to 2 tablespoons (15 to 30 ml) water to the
batter as needed.
Yield: 4 servings
Nutritional Analysis: Each pancake has 398 calories, 16.7 g fat, 10.1 g
protein, 51 .8 g carbohydrate, 11.5 g dietary fiber.
Note: These pancakes are great with cut-up fruit served over the top for
dessert.
100 Hearty Treats: Extraordinary Pancakes
CHAPTER THREE Our Daily Breads For the Love of Bread This chapter explains how to
CHAPTER
THREE
Our Daily Breads
For the Love of Bread
This chapter explains how to make wheat- and gluten-free breads along with
the bread-making methods, tools, grains, and binders happily now
available to you in this wonderful time in the world when protein-full
grains-flavorful, healthy alternatives to wheat-grown in Ethiopia or South
America are easily accessible.
No longer is the celiac tied to the white flours in the GF flour combina-
tion (Bette Hagman's classic gluten-free flour mix of white rice flour, potato
starch, and tapioca flour) or the cornstarch and potato starch combination
offered in other gluten-free recipe books. And if you are like us and want to
avoid white flours for health reasons as well as the quest for variety, you will
be thrilled with the tastes of flours like quinoa, teff, sorghum, millet, almond
meal, cornmeal, hazelnut, soy, and buckwheat.
The wide range of flours now available through sources such as Bob's
Red Mill, Ener-G Foods, and Arrowhead Mills is incredible and energizing.
The only trouble is that it would take two lifetimes to experiment with them
completely. We can offer you some successful recipes, but more important,
enthusiastically tell you that you too can create breads using these new,
alternative flours that will beat any store-bought white rice bread. You can
relax and be inventive as long as you realize that certain principles must be
understood:
1.
Alternative flours are heavier than wheat, thus you use only 7/8 cup
(125 g)
alternative flour
to substitute for
1
cup
(120 g)
wheat flour
when adapting a recipe.
2.
You must use a binder as a substitute for the gluten. In 1984, Laurel's
Kitchen Bread Book offered methylcellulose, as suggested by the USDA lab-
oratory in Berkeley. In the late 1980s and the 1990s, Bette Hagman offered
xanthan gum and guar gum. Gelatin, pectin, eggs, mayonnaise, applesauce,
101
carrageenan, and even dried seaweed also act as binders. You can be flexible with this
carrageenan, and even dried seaweed also act as binders. You can be
flexible with this imperative as well! Guar gum and carrageenan are less
expensive than xanthan gum but more difficult to find. Guar gum can have
a laxative effect, but only if you eat a lot of it.
Yeast Breads and Quick-Rising Breads
In this chapter, we offer two types of breads: yeast breads and quick breads.
Yeast breads are those made with yeast as their rising agent or leavener. These
take longer to make because the yeast needs time to rise within the structure
of the bread's ingredients. Quick breads are those made with instant rising
agents or leaveners, such as baking soda and baking powder. No waiting time
is necessary for these breads to rise.
Gluten-Free Bread Baking
There is a revolution going on today, started thirty years ago by an idealistic
retiree, Bob Moore, whose belief in the efficacy of whole grains was grounded
in the biblical verses he and his wife live by. By chance Moore found a library
book about an old grain mill in New Hampshire. The book was about the
goodness of using two hard stones turning slowly against each other to get
the best from grain. He borrowed money, bought an old barn in Oregon, and
diligently founded Bob's Red Mill, where grains from all over the earth are
shipped into his mills, ground in the ancient way to get the most from them,
packaged, and sold nationwide. In spite of a fire during the 1980s, Bob's Red
Mill continues to experiment with new grains. They will answer telephone
calls and be wonderfully supportive. They will happily send you their cata-
logue. What permeates the company is Moore's enthusiasm. When we met
with him, he showed us his new videotape on milling flours and baking
bread, bought us sandwiches, and encouraged us to create this book.
Bette Hagman, the pioneer in gluten-free cooking, adapted traditional
recipes to make breads that were gluten-free. Her gluten-free mixes of rice
flour, tapioca, and potato starch enhanced the lives of many deprived celiacs
and continue to inspire caretakers of celiacs.
Inspired by these generous people, we were eager to begin making bread
at home. We excitedly bought a bread machine to make our bread making
fast and easy in this day of "hurry up and eat." Following recipes, we made
breads. But there were problems. We found that the bread fell during the
second rising in the bread machine. For a few years we just took the pan
out of the machine before the second beating and put it directly into the
102 Our Daily Breads
oven. The results were uneven, and the center of the loaf was too wet and
oven. The results were uneven, and the center of the loaf was too wet and
sticky. We returned to mixing dough by hand and added two steps, ferment-
ing and proofing.
After many experiments, we have found that the best gluten- and wheat-
free bread we make involves only one slow rising. The slower and cooler the
rising, the better. You have undoubtedly heard people talk of using their
clothes dryer or a microwave oven to speed up the yeast's action in bread
making-we have used both methods. But cool rising makes a better-
flavored loaf. To make really tasty bread, go slow! Let your dough rise even
overnight. The story is this: yeast breaks down the proteins in any flour.
Somehow, it acts as an enzyme and releases all the good amino acids with
their nutrition and rich flavors, if it is permitted to work slowly. A baker I
know sometimes leaves his bread dough in the refrigerator for three days (a
patient man indeed!). So we now make bread in the morning and let it rise in
a loaf pan sitting covered in a sunny place all day.
I want to end this introduction by once again emphasizing how healthy
these breads are. They have much more protein than wheat breads do. Their
protein is a perfect substitute for meat when the bread is made from a combi-
nation of grain flour and bean flour. This combination produces a marriage of
amino acids that is perfectly balanced. (That's the reason a small amount of
soy or fava flour is found in many of the recipes in this book.) Have fun with
these breads. Remember, you can substitute flours according to what you
have available.
Yeast Breads
ESSENTIALS TO KNOW ABOUT YEAST BREADS
Truthfully, making yeast bread hasn't been easy for us. Most loaves made in
the bread-making machine are too solid and often wet. In the end, until we
met Per, our transplanted Danish baker friend whom we met at a backwoods
holistic spa in Oregon, we loved baking gluten-free everything except breads.
Per talked us through the steps of starting yeast in warm sugar-laced water or
milk and hand mixing wet ingredients into dry in carefully planned steps:
proofing and baking dough into loaves of bread.
103
We have been enjoying Per's traditional methods. Proofing dough works as long as there is
We have been enjoying Per's traditional methods. Proofing dough works
as long as there is protein and yeast to get the bubbling started. The dough
can't be overbeaten or the dough gets limp and soggy, and correct heat during
every step helps. Our breads are more solid than wheat breads, but they smell
and taste far richer.
Our doughs are essentially batter-wetter than typical wheat bread
dough. I no longer knead these gluten- and wheat-free bread doughs. A
rather lumpy mass, only lightly mixed, will rise for you slowly, and you will
have bread to die for.
Steps in Preparing Yeast Breads
1. Preheating. Prepare oven so you can go from proofing to baking without
the dough falling.
2. Proofing. Proofing the dough is important. We prefer to do a slow proof-
ing. If you want to do a more traditional proofing. The ideal temperature
is 90°F to 115°F (32°C to 46°C), with a humidity of 80 to 85 percent.
Take the dough out of the bowl, punch it down to redistribute the yeast,
and add flour gradually. The dough stays wettish-don't be upset. It will
be lumpy, too, but that's okay.
Put bread dough into a bread pan with sides ungreased and bottom
greased. I have experimented with "hot" proofing, using an oven
temperature of 200°F (95°C) and setting a pan below full of water to add
humidity so the top of the dough won't crack as it rises. We used our
electric oven with the temperature set at the lowest level and a damp
cloth placed over the top of the bowl, or a pan of water set next to the
bowl, to keep the dough from drying out. At other times, I simply set the
bread pan in a prewarmed clothes dryer.
3. Baking. Preheat baking oven so bread can be popped into oven right after
proofing. After the dough has risen about 1;2 inch 0.25 cm) or so, we
put it in the oven, about 350°F 080°C, or gas mark 4) to 400°F (200°C,
or gas mark 6). The leaner the dough, the hotter the oven! Sometimes I
bake my bread without eggs in a 450°F (230°C, or gas mark 8) oven to
get a brown crust, then turn the oven down to 325°F 070°C, or gas mark
3) in order to bake the center of the loaf. It's like making a huge scone-
the crust is very hard and dark. Just be sure to turn the oven down after
ten minutes or so!
104 Our Daily Breads
ESSENTIALS FOR YEAST BREAD MAKING Tools Thermometer Baking thermometers are basic. They cost under $7.00
ESSENTIALS FOR YEAST BREAD MAKING
Tools
Thermometer
Baking thermometers are basic. They cost under $7.00 at the supermarket or
kitchen store.
Measuring cups and measuring spoons
Use glass measuring cups in two or three sizes for liquid ingredients, and
metal cups for flours and other dry ingredients. I like measuring spoons that
hang together from a stiff wire; keep two sets of them.
Mixing bowls
Don't bother with wooden bowls, no matter how quaint. Ceramic bowls are
classic but nests of plastic or metal bowls don't break when dropped by sticky
fingers.
Loaf pans
Spend money on solid, thick bread pans.
Kitchen scale
Professionals always weigh their ingredients, but the reality is that I rarely do.
Observe what happens. Your goal is to create a cakelike batter. Per, our
Oregon baker/advisor recommends that we hold some flour back, then add it
if dough seems too loose or creamy.
Flours
Gluten-free flours and yeast are used in the making of our gluten-free yeast
breads. The flours we incorporate into our bread recipes are gluten-free and
wheat-free: buckwheat, sorghum, almond meal, amaranth, soy, quinoa, teff,
rice, corn, fava bean, millet, tapioca, cornstarch, potato starch, and arrowroot.
Rye and barley flours have some glu ten content. They make delicious
wheat-free bread when combined with small additions of gluten-free flours.
Great for wheat-intolerant children and adults!
We use potato starch, corn starch, tapioca flour, and rice flour as substi-
tutes for the wheat flour in some favorite bread recipes from the 1950s.
Alternative flours have limited shelf lives. They are perishable, so refriger-
ate them.
Yeast
There are millions of species of yeast, but the type we use today comes from
the species with a Latin name, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Before the days of
commercial bread making, developing the yeast for home breads involved
105
weeks of fussing. There were potato yeasts, barms, and brewer's yeast, a bitter yeast used
weeks of fussing. There were potato yeasts, barms, and brewer's yeast, a bitter
yeast used in beer making.
Today, the yeasts we take for granted come in either moist cakes or foil
packets of active dried yeast. It is made in huge vats in which molasses, min-
eral salts, and ammonia are seeded with carefully picked strains of yeast,
which grow until tons of yeast are produced, harvested, washed and
rewashed, emulsified, then dried and packaged.
How does yeast work?
Yeast loves a lukewarm climate, between 70°F and 85°F (21°C and 29°C)
degrees. Yeast is a single-celled fungus; it needs food and water, which bread
dough supplies. No matter what kind of flour you use, we are assured that all
have calories and nitrogen, so the yeast can convert the dough into protein.
We begin to understand why bread rises even without gluten, which
surprised me. Yeast metabolizes bread dough, producing carbon dioxide.
If you slit the top of the bread dough with a knife just before it goes into the
oven, a lot of the carbon dioxide is released. This cut looks nice on the
browned crust and lightens the bread. The by-products of the breakdown
process increase flavor and release stored minerals. In wheat bread, the
expanding cells of yeast support the stretched dough proteins. The holding
up that we like in breads doesn't happen when using gluten-free flours unless
we use a binder such as xanthan gum. Note: to work, yeast has to be really
fresh.
A cooking thermometer is a great asset. Water that you dissolve your yeast
in should be between 110°F and 115°F (43°C and 46°C). The yeast won't
grow if the water is too hot. Lots of recipes suggest adding a bit of sugar to the
yeast mixture, but I have found that this makes the process too fast.
Binders
What are these binders we keep mentioning? Binders suspend and hold
together our gluten-free flours, which so desperately lack the binding action
of glutinous flours.
Thus, yeast must be augmented with vegetable binders when baking with
gluten-free flours. The binders we use are xanthan gum and guar gum. (Note:
guar gum is also sold as a laxative; it might cause distress to some people.) I
add gelatin to my breads just to be sure the bread holds together. I am
pleased that my breads hold together well and slice easier and taste better
than commercially produced rice breads do! Yours will do even better. You've
had our efforts to start you on this journey.
106 Our Daily Breads
Oil or Butter For bread making, I use oil: canola or olive oil, rather than
Oil or Butter
For bread making, I use oil: canola or olive oil, rather than butter, which
might interfere with the action of the xanthan gum. However, I do love butter
in cookies, muffins, and cakes. Oils enhance bread flavor. Oil also conditions
the bread dough. I suppose this means it greases the way for the flour-and-
water mixture to expand. Be sure your oil is fresh. Rancid oil can spoil the
whole loaf.
Salt
Salt is really important. Add salt to your batter after the yeast and liquids are
mixed with the dry ingredients. Salt inhibits the growth of the yeast and adds
flavor. Saltless loaves are often crumbly and have a porous top crust. All of
our recipes call for table salt. If you use kosher salt, use twice as much as our
recipes call for because its bulkier than table salt.
Sweeteners
Sugar in any form makes the loaf more tender. Fruit juice, honey, molasses,
brown or white sugar affects the loaf's flavor.
An old wives' tale is that yeast must have sugar to rise. Not true. Yeast
can convert the flours into sugar perfectly easily. However, sugar does help a
bit. Most of our recipes involve a form of sugar.
Milk powder is a form of sugar. It helps the yeast to work and the crust
to brown. That is why it appears in many recipes.
Respect a celiac's need to be careful not to depend on high sugar content
for good taste. With celiac disease being a disorder of the immune system,
diabetes can be the next step, so hold down sugar content.
Liquids
Don't bother with distilled water. It is too soft. Ordinary water has enough
minerals to feed the yeast. Many other liquids are added to breads: soy milk,
rice milk, whole milk, juices, cooked cereals, eggs, and flavorings. If your
water is very hard, adding vinegar can give you better-rising bread.
107
Pointers for Making Wheat- and Gluten-Free Breads The following pointers will help guide you to
Pointers for Making Wheat- and
Gluten-Free Breads
The following pointers will help guide you to successful gluten- and wheat-
free bread making.
1.
My best tool for mixing gluten- and wheat-free bread doughs are my own
oiled hands. You don't toughen breads this way, and kids love this part!
2.
Mixing dry ingredients into wet in three parts by hand, literally, results in
a lightly mixed, lumpy dough that is perfect to put into a greased loaf tin
to rise.
3.
Start with three bowls-large, medium, and small. Put your wet ingredi-
ents into the largest bowl, put dry ingredients into the medium bowl, and
beat your eggs in the small bowl. Use a large wire whisk to whisk the wet
and dry ingredients together.
4.
Use fresh yeast. Yeast is dated on packages or jars. Don't try to save
money using old yeast. I prefer packages of dry yeast. One .2S-ounce
(7 g) package holds 21;4 teaspoons of yeast.
5.
Use regular yeast, not quick rising.
6.
The water for softening the yeast must be only lukewarm. Too hot will
kill the yeast; too cold, the yeast will not work. Test with a thermometer
(lOsoF to 115°F [4 JOC
to 46°C]) or put a drop on the inside of your
wrist, as one tests a baby's bottle. The water should contain some sugar. If
using a bread machine, follow the directions accompanying your machine
for water temperature.
7.
Xanthan gum is necessary for all the yeast recipes to help make the
breads springy and chewy. It replaces, in part, the gluten that rice and
potato flours lack. This is available in health food stores or from Bob's
Red Mill.
8.
Guar gum may be substituted for the xanthan gum if you can find it. Use
less guar gum than xanthan gum. Note: guar gum is less expensive than
xanthan gum.
9.
Using small loaf tins results in a better textured loaf of bread.
10.
Try cold proofing for flavorful breads. We sometimes let my dough rise
all day-it improves the flavor of the bread, and the finished product
rises nicely.
11.
Adding extra protein in the form of eggs, dry milk solids, or GF cottage
cheese helps the yeast work. Remember that milk protein helps yeast too.
Ricotta cheese can be substituted for cottage cheese.
108 Our Daily Breads
12. A teaspoon of vinegar added to any yeast bread recipe helps the yeast work
12. A teaspoon of vinegar added to any yeast bread recipe helps the yeast
work and develops flavor. Vinegar may be replaced by gluten-free dough
enhancer, cream of tartar, or buttermilk.
13. Milk powder, unless otherwise specified, is nonfat dry milk powder.
14. When you use alternative flours, the dough might be sticky and heavy.
Gluten-free baked products dry out quickly, so when storing, cover and
refrigerate them.
15. Combine flours. Combining grain flours and bean flours-such as rice
with soy, quinoa with garbanzo bean, etc.-results in a perfect protein
made up of all the amino acids. Learn the variety of flavors flours give to
your baked goods by learning the unique taste of each new flour. Soy is
bitter, but we love it combined with the blandness of rice flour. Quinoa
and buckwheat have nutty textures and tastes. Ground-up nuts and flax
go well with the coarse textures of some of the flours, such as quinoa and
amaranth.
16 Adding applesauce, eggs, or molasses works well to bind breads. Xanthan
gum as well guarantees crumbly textures will hold together.
17. When baking vegan, you really need to add guar or xanthan gums to
bind the breads.
18. To keep the dough sustained in the risen state from proofing, get your
baking oven up to the recommended heat and quickly move the dough to
the oven for baking so the dough won't collapse.
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Chopped Nut Sorghum Bread I wanted my house to smell like fresh bread, so I
Chopped Nut Sorghum Bread
I wanted my house to smell like fresh bread, so I invented this bread, which
looks and smells like whole wheat bread.
To make this bread handsomely dark, we use prune puree from the baby
food section of the grocery. Flaxseed meal and ground pecans lend the
brown specks.
WET INGREDIENTS:
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1
cup (235 ml) low-fat milk or GF rice
2
teaspoons sugar
milk
1 1 /2 tablespoons yeast stirred into 1/2 cup
(120 ml) warm water
1/2 cup (125 g) soft tofu
11/2 cups (245 g) sorghum flour
1/2 cup (60 g) potato flour
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
2 teaspoons sea salt
3 tablespoons (45 ml) olive oil
3 teaspoons xanthan gum
1 teaspoon vinegar
1 containers (3 ounces, or 135 g)
baby food, prunes
2 eggs, lightly beaten
1 envelope (.25 ounces, or 7 g)
unflavored gelatin
1/2 cup (50 g) flaxseed meal
1/2 cup (60 g) ground plain walnuts
or pecans
PREHEAT oven to 350°F (180°C, or gas mark 4). GREASE 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5
x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. DUST bottom of pan with flour. HEAT milk just to
105°F (41 °C), using a thermometer. MIX milk, yeast, and sugar together. Set
aside in a large bowl and let the yeast start to bubble. COMBINE flours, salt,
gum, gelatin, flaxseed meal, and ground nuts in a large bowl. ADD to yeast
mixture gradually. CREAM TOGETHER tofu, oil, vinega~ and prune baby food.
Add beaten eggs. ADD tofu mixture to the flour-and-yeast mixture, being
careful not to overmix. GATH ER dough into a ball and put it in the greased
loaf pan. Set aside to rise to top of pan. When the bread has risen to the top
of the pan, move it directly to your preheated oven. BAKE at 350°F (180°C,
or gas mark 4) for about 1 hour. Enjoy the smell and attractive appearance of
your bread.
Yield: 12 to 20 slices of bread
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 slices, each has 156 calories, 6 g fat,
3.9 g protein, 21.7 g carbohydrate, 2.9 g dietary fiber.
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Our Daily Breads
Teff Pepperoni Bread Teff packs a wallop nutritionally and it's notable for its own natural
Teff Pepperoni Bread
Teff packs a wallop nutritionally and it's notable for its own natural sweetness
and individual taste. The slivers of pepperoni add to the remarkably good
flavor of this bread.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (120 g) teff flour
2 cups (320 g) rice flour
1/2 cup (120 g) cooked teff grain
1 package (.25 ounces/ or 7 g) dry yeast
11/2 cups (295 ml) warm water/ divided
2 teaspoons brown sugar
1/2 pound (115 g) pepperoni
1 cup (120 g) tapioca flour
4 teaspoons xanthan gum
11/2 teaspoons salt
WET INGREDIENTS:
2 tablespoons (30 g) olive oil
oil for greasing the bowl and loaf pan
GREASE bottom only of a 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. SOAK
teff flour/ rice flour/ and cooked teff grain overnight. PUT the yeast into a meas-
uring cup with 1/2 cup (60 ml) warm water. Add a pinch of sugar and stir. Let
stand for 5 to 10 minutes until the bubbles form. If the yeast does not bubble
up/ discard and start with a new package. Good yeast is really important with
this loaf. CUT the pepperoni into very small/ thin julienne strips/ about 1/2 inch
(1.25 cm) long. Set them aside.
PUT the previously soaked teff flour/ rice flour/ and cooked teff grain mixture in
a large bowl; add half of the remaining tapioca flour and the xanthan gum/
remaining brown sugar/ salt/ and the pepperoni
strips. POU R in the yeast mix-
ture and the olive oil. The teff will start out as one large lump/ but will begin to
separate into tiny grains as you continue to mix. STIR the mixture with a wood-
en spoon. The dough will be slightly wet. ADD the second half of the flour very
gradually/ stirring it in with a spoon as you do so; then taking over with greased
hands. When the dough is still damp but pulls away from the mixing bowl; put it
in the loaf pan for proofing. Since the teff has liquid in it the dough will be
loose and pudding-ish. COAT the top with oil. COVER with a wet clean towel
and let start to rise/ about 45 minutes. BUTTER another 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x
13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan and put the dough in it/ pressing the dough down to fill
the pan completely. Cover the pan with the towel again and put in a warm
place. Let rise for about 3 hours/ until doubled in size.
PREHEAT the oven to 450°F (230°C/ or gas mark 8). SLASH the top of the
dough in two or three diagonals using a sharp razor blade/ then with a mister/
spray the dough with warm water to give the crust more crunch. BAKE at 450°F
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(230°C, or gas mark 8) for 10 minutes, then 325°F (170°C, or gas mark 3)
(230°C, or gas mark 8) for 10 minutes, then 325°F (170°C, or gas mark 3) for
30 minutes or until the bottom sounds hollow when tapped. PUT the pan on a
rack to cool, and after about 10 minutes, turn the loaf out and continue to cool
on the rack. Serve warm or reheat in the oven later on.
Yield: 1 large loaf
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 slices, each has 163 calories, 39 g fat,
3.5 g protein, 27.7 g carbohydrate, 2.3 g dietary fiber.
Monkey Bread
You might try using a bread-making machine or just mix by hand (our way).
This type of bread was a favorite of Nancy Reagan's and is a favorite of our
grandchildren.
WET INGREDIENTS:
3 large eggs, lightly beaten
1/2 cup (60 ml) oil
1/2 cup (60 ml) plus 1 tablespoon
(15 ml) water
1 cup (235 ml) buttermilk or sour milk
1/2 cup (50 g) sugar
11/2 teaspoons salt
1 package dry yeast
Sweet Dust Coating
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 cups (280 g) brown rice flour
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (80 g) rice flour
1/4 cup (50 g) sugar (superfine, if you
have it on hand)
3 tablespoons cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon salt
3 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°C, or gas mark 6). GREASE a Bundt pan or an
8-inch (20-cm) cake pan, using a spray of oil or a paper napkin saturated with
oil. COMBINE wet ingredients in a large bowl or baking pan of a bread maker.
BLEN D dry ingredients together, including the yeast, in a separate bowl. ADD
well-blended dry ingredients to combined wet ingredients. SELECT
NormallWhite cycle for bread machine. MIX all ingredients in the bread
machine-use a rubber spatula to scrape the inside edges of the bread
machine to incorporate all the mixture. Alternatively, mix all ingredients by
hand; let rise till doubled in size. REMOVE bread pan after first bake cycle.
COMBINE Sweet Dust Coating ingredients. Roll fistfuls of risen dough lightly in
sweet coating. Put the rolls in the cake pan, stuffing all coated balls side by
112 Our Daily Breads
side. (You can knead the remains of the flour, sugar, and cinnamon with soft- ened
side. (You can knead the remains of the flour, sugar, and cinnamon with soft-
ened butter and then sprinkle over tops of the monkey rolls.) BAKE at 400°F
(200°C, or gas mark 6), until a knife stuck in the center comes out clean.
Yield: 10 to 12 lovely light rolls to pull apart
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 rolls, each has 279 calories, 6.8 g fat,
4.8 g protein, 49.6 g carbohydrate, 3.2 g dietary fiber.
Variation: Make a glaze by combining 1/2 cup (50 g) confectioners' sugar with
1/4 cup (60 ml) milk and 1/2 teaspoon vanilla flavoring. Drizzle over rolls before
baking. Try making these into hot cross buns for Easter: drizzle glaze in crosses
over the top of each bun.
Note: You can make sour milk by adding vinegar to milk.
Granola Yeast Bread
This is a favorite of Mace's.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (85 g) dry milk powder
1 cup (140 g) sorghum flour
3 tablespoons (40 g) sugar, divided
1 cup (160 g) brown rice flour
1 package dry yeast
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
WET INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (160 ml) lukewarm water
1
cup (140) GF granola ground fine
4
tablespoons (55 g) butter, melted
(see recipe in chapter 1, page 73)
2 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
additional cup (235 ml) water
1 teaspoon vinegar
1
1
1/2 teaspoons salt
3
eggs, room temperature
GREASE two 2 1/2 x 5-inch (6.25 x 13-cm) loaf pans, then sprinkle with rice
flour. Alternatively, you can use a 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan
plus a few muffin tins. COMBINE flours, granola, xanthan gum, salt, dry milk,
and all but 2 teaspoons of the sugar in a large bowl. DISSOLVE the remaining
sugar in 1/2 cup (160 ml) lukewarm water and mix in the yeast. SET aside.
COMBINE the butter with the additional cup of water and vinegar in a small
bowl. BLEND the dry ingredients with a wooden spoon. Slowly add the butter-
water mixture. ADD the eggs. The mixture should feel slightly warm. POUR the
yeast water into the ingredients in the bowl. STIR just until mixed (a cakelike
consistency is the goal with gluten-free sorghum-based bread). PLACE the mix-
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ing bowl in a warm spot, cover with plastic wrap and a towel. Let the
ing bowl in a warm spot, cover with plastic wrap and a towel. Let the dough rise
for approximately 1 hour, or until doubled. Return the risen dough to the mixer
and beat on high speed for 3 minutes. The dough will seem more like cookie
dough than bread dough, but don't be alarmed. SPOON the dough into pre-
pared pans, filling two-thirds full. Let the dough rise in pans (45 to 60 minutes)
until it is above the tops of the pans.
PREHEAT the oven to 375°F (190°C, or
gas mark 5). BAKE a large loaf for approximately 1 hour, small loaves slightly
less, and muffins for about 25 minutes.
Yield: 2 small or 1 large loaf plus a few muffins
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 20 slices from 2 small loaves, each slice has
176 calories, 6 g fat, 4.4 g protein, 26.1 g carbohydrate, 1.8 g dietary fiber.
Buck-wheat Yeast Bread
This makes a dark, handsome loaf; healthy and hearty with winter stews and
soups.
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
1/2 cup (60 ml) water, very warm
3
eggs, beaten
package (.25 ounces, or 7 g)
dry yeast
Pinch sugar
11/2 cups (355 ml) milk
2 tablespoons (40 g) unsulfured
molasses
11/2 cups (210 g) brown rice flour
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch
1 teaspoon sea salt
3 tablespoons (45 g) butte~ melted
1 tablespoon xanthan gum
1 teaspoon cardamom
DRY INGREDIENTS:
1/2 cup (60 g) buckwheat flour
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
GREASE 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. ASSEMBLE all ingredi-
ents on table first so the ingredients will be at room temperature, and so you
can move quickly and the dough will remain warm as you move it from bowl to
loaf pan to oven. MIX yeast, sugar, and water in a glass measuring cup. Cover
with a paper towel and let the yeast rise to the top of the cup. STIR yeast mix-
ture into beaten eggs; add milk, molasses, and melted butter. ADD dry ingredi-
ents into wet, a third at a time, stirring with a large wooden spoon or your
hands until the batter becomes rich and cakelike. COVER with a damp cloth
and let rise all day or overnight at room temperature. It will taste better the
114
Our Daily Breads
longer it proofs. PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°C, or gas mark 6). SCORE top of
longer it proofs. PREHEAT oven to 400°F (200°C, or gas mark 6). SCORE top
of the risen loaf with diagonal cuts. BAKE the loaf at 400°F (200°C, or gas
mark 6) for about 1/2 to 3/4 hour.
Yield: 1 large loaf of firm, fairly dense bread
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 12 slices, each has 145 calories, 5.3 g fat
3.5 g protein, 20.8 g carbohydrate, 1.4 g dietary fiber.
Yeast Bread -with Molasses
Try a bread maker for this recipe. If you haven't got one, your oiled hands are
wonderful tools for mixing.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
3 eggs, lightly beaten
1 cup (160 g) white rice flour
11/2 cups (410 ml) water
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch flour
1
teaspoon vinegar or 1 1/2 teaspoons
dough enhancer (lemon)
1/2 cup (80 g) kasha (buckwheat
groats, which are gluten-free),
ground slightly in coffee grinder
2 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
11/2 teaspoons table salt
3
tablespoons (45 ml) olive oil or
(45 g) butter
1
tablespoon (20 g) molasses
3
tablespoons (40 g) sugar
1
tablespoon dry yeast
BLEND together the flours, kasha, xanthan gum, and salt. COMBINE the eggs,
water, vinegar or dough enhancer,
oil, and molasses. STI R together the sugar
and yeast. PLACE the ingredients in the baking pan of the bread maker, in the
order suggested in your manual. BAKE on regular bread setting at 350°F
(180°C, or gas mark 4) until brown.
Yield: 1 loaf
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 16 slices, each has 181 calories, 4.1 g fat,
3.9 g protein, 32.1 g carbohydrate, 2.2 g dietary fiber.
Note: I've found that using the bread machine's two rising cycles results in
bread that is wet in the center. This harkens back to the don't overstir principle.
There are bread makers now that can be preprogrammed for one rising cycle. If
you intend to make your own gluten-free bread in a bread machine, search for
this feature.
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Brown and White Rice Bread Sassy, quick yeast bread. DRY INGREDIENTS: WET INGREDIENTS: 2 1/2
Brown and White Rice Bread
Sassy, quick yeast bread.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
WET INGREDIENTS:
2 1/2 cups (360 g) white rice flour
3 eggs, lightly beaten
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
1 teaspoon cider vinegar
2 1/2 teaspoons xanthan gum
3
3 tablespoons (40 g) sugar
tablespoons (45 ml) canola oil
1 1 /2 cups (355 ml) water
11/2 teaspoons salt
1/2 cup (65 g) dry milk
2
packages (.25 ounces, or 7 g, each)
active dry yeast
1/2 cup (75 g) golden raisins
PREHEAT oven to 325°F (170°(, or gas mark 3). GREASE bottom of 9 x 5 x 3-
inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX the dry and wet ingredients in separate
bowls. ADD wet ingredients to dry and stir just until it reaches the consistency of
cake batter. Put in loaf pan. PROOF for 15 minutes in a warm oven. Let it rise.
BAKE in oven at 325°F (170°(, or gas mark 3) for 1 hour.
Yield: 1 loaf
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 15 slices, each has 215 calories, 5.5 g fat,
5.1 g protein, 36.5 g carbohydrate, 1.8 g dietary fiber.
Chickpea Yeast Bread
So healthy because it's made from bean and grain flours. Plus, it is light and
good, slightly sweet.
WET INGREDIENTS:
1
cup (120 g) tapioca flour
3 large eggs, lightly beaten
1/2 cup (65 g) cornstarch
1 teaspoon cider vinegar
3
teaspoons xanthan gum
3
tablespoons (45 ml) olive oil
11/2 cups (315 ml) water
3
tablespoons (45 g) brown sugar
2
1
teaspoon pure maple syrup
teaspoons sea salt
1/2 cup (65 g) dry milk
1
DRY INGREDIENTS:
package (.25 ounces, or 7 g)
dry yeast
1 cup (140 g) chickpea flour
1 cup (140 g) brown rice flour
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Our Daily Breads
GREASE bottom of 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan.
GREASE bottom of 9 x 5 x 3-inch (22.5 x 13 x 7.5-cm) loaf pan. MIX the dry
and wet ingredients in separate bowls. ADD wet ingredients to dry and stir just
until cake-batter consistency. PUT in loaf pan. PROOF for 45 minutes or longer
in a barely warm oven; let rise slightly. Remove from oven and let sit on coun-
tertop. PREH EAT oven to 325°F (170°C, or gas mark 3). BAKE in oven at
325°F (170 °C, or gas mark 3) for 1 hour. If it browns too quickly, cover with a
piece of aluminum foil, shiny-side up.
Yield: 12 to 15 slices
Nutritional Analysis: Assuming 15 slices, each has 194 calories, 5.6 g fat,
4.9 g protein, 30.8 g carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber.
Country Two-Step Yeast Bread
You will need a bread-making machine. Rising time: 2 hours or overnight.
DRY INGREDIENTS:
2 cups (320 g) rice flour
2 1/2 teaspoons or 1 package (.25
ounce, or 7 g) active dry yeast
1/2 cup (60 g) tapioca flour
1/2 cup (60 g) potato starch flour
WET INGREDIENTS:
2 cups (475 ml) water