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CNS Farnell Limited

Elstree Business Centre, Elstree Way,
Borehamwood, Hertfordshire,
England. WD6 1RX

Telephone: +44 (0)20 8238 6900

Facsimile: +44 (0)20 8238 6901

Email: admin@cnsfarnell.com
Website: www.cnsfarnell.com

Table of Contents


1.1 The name PUNDIT 3

1.2 The PUNDIT kit 3

1.3 Description 3

1.4 Transducers and Leads 4

1.5 Summary of Specification 5


2.1 Front Panel 7

2.2 Rear Panel 7

2.3 Mains Operation 8

2.4 Battery Operation 8

2.5 Battery Indicator 8

2.6 Full charging the internal battery 8

2.7 Mains Voltage Selection 9

2.8 Changing the Fuse 9


3.1 Transducers 10

3.2 Set reference 10

3.3 Range Selection 10

3.4 Couplant 10

3.5 Placing the transducers 10

3.6 Pulse Velocity 11

3.7 PRF Selection 11

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1 Specification of PUNDIT 6

1.1 The name PUNDIT

The instrument derives its name from the initial letters of the full title of Portable
Ultrasonic Non-destructive Digital Indicating Tester. It has been designed with site
testing particularly in mind so as to be fully portable, simple to operate and with a
high order of accuracy and stability. It generates low frequency ultrasonic pulses and
measures the time taken for them to pass from one transducer to the other through
the material between them.

1.2 The PUNDIT kit

The complete kit comprises of the following items:
a) The PUNDIT e) Reference Bar for checking zero
b) Two transducers (54kHz) f) Ultrasound couplant
c) Two transducer leads g) Operating Instructions
d) Carrying Case h) Mains lead

The optional extras available include:

Transducers, which should be used in pairs, of 24, 37, 82, 150, 200, 220, 500 kHz
and 1MHz.
1MHz P&S Wave Transducers.
54kHz Exponential Probes Receiving ExRx and Transmitting ExTx
Water proof Transducers.
Signal Buffer Amplifier.
BAX 4 / 7 Buffer Amplifier with x4 or x7 gain.
Extra long transducer leads up to 30 metres in length.
RS232C Interface.

1.3 Description
The PUNDIT 6 gives a direct reading of the time of transmission of an ultrasonic
pulse passing from a transmitting to a receiving transducer. Two time ranges are
incorporated covering from 0.1As to 999.9As in units of 0.1As and 1As to 9999As in
units of 1As. The third decimal point in the display indicates when a range has been

If the transmitted pulse is not received, or when the transducers are removed from
the test piece, the display will automatically blank and, if switched to the 0.1As range,
only the decimal point will be displayed.

A nominal 0.5 to 10As variable delay control enables the instrument to be set to a
reference reading with different types of transducer and cables. This control is used
in conjunction with a standard reference bar supplied with the instrument and having
a nominal transmission time of 26As.

The pulse generator may be operated at a voltage of either 1,200V or 500V as

selected by a switch on the rear panel. Generally, for concrete testing and for long
path lengths the generator is operated at 1,200V but, if fine cracks are being
investigated, it may be advantageous to reduce the EHT to 500V.

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Pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) of 10 pulses per second (pps) or 100pps may be
selected by a switch on the rear panel. 100pps repetition should be selected only
when the instrument is used with P&S Wave transducers and an oscilloscope, or for
certain applications when the RS232C interface is used in conjunction with a
computer. The display is updated twice per second for both PRFs. However, the
RS232C interface is strobed at 2 or 20pps depending on the PRF selected.

The receiving amplifier has a high input impedance enabling the instrument to be
used with piezoelectric and ferro-electric transducers over the frequency range 5kHz
to 1MHz.

For site use, an internal Nickel Cadmium battery will, when fully charged, supply
power for about 12 hours continuous use. When the battery voltage is low, the colon
on the display will flash once per second.

When the instrument is used on the ac mains, a built-in constant-current charger will
continuously trickle-charge the battery. A fully discharged battery should be charged
as soon as possible by connecting the instrument to the mains, selecting the
CHARGE position on the front panel rotary switch and leaving on charge for 16

A pulse, with a period equal to the transit time, is available from the BNC socket
marked Analogue on the rear panel. An oscilloscope may be coupled to the CRO
and Time Base Sync BNC sockets on the rear panel.

Output Options
RS232C The interface unit fits inside the instrument and is connected to the users
computer or printer by way of the 25way D type connector on the rear

The interface may be connected directly to a printer fitted with a serial

port, thus enabling readings to be printed as they occur or alternatively it
may be connected to a computer giving the advantage of disc storage
and data processing.

1.4 Transducers and Leads

The transducers consist of ceramic piezoelectric elements mounted in stainless steel
housings. The elements are very tightly held on to the inside face of the case to
provide highly efficient acoustic transmission. The transducer assembly is very
robust and able to withstand reasonably rough handling.

Each transducer is fitted with a BNC connector to enable it to be detached from the
cable and to allow cables of different length to be used.

Short co-axial cables for connecting the transducers to the PUNDIT are supplied with
the instrument. Longer cables may be used when access to the areas to be tested is
difficult. Although long cables reduce the size of both the transmitted pulse and
received signal, the signals are generally sufficient for testing even when the cables
are 30 metres long.

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Note: The instrument should be re-zeroed when changing cables. A delay of about
0.8As is introduced when using 30 metre cables on both the transmitting and
receiving transducers. To minimise attenuation when using long cables, a signal
buffer amplifier, with a low output impedance, can be inserted between the receiving
transducer and the cable.

1.5 Summary of Specification


Units Two ranges may be selected with units

of 0.1 or 1.0As.

Accuracy 0.1As.

Over range Indicated by the third decimal point in

the display.

Lost signal Display blanked.

INPUT SENSITIVITY: 250AV between 5kHz and 1MHz.

Instrument may be used with
frequencies outside this range but with
reduced sensitivity.

Impedance Approximately 500k .

TRANSMITTER: Energising pulse Nominal 1.2 kV or 500V, switch


Discharge time Depends on transducer and cable

length. With 24, 37, 54 and 82 kHz
transducers and 15m of cable
discharge time about 1.5As.

PRF 10 or 100pps, switch selected.

POWER SUPPLY: Internal rechargeable Ni-Cd battery.

Capacity for about 12 hours
continuous use. 10 hours continuous
when RS232C is fitted.

Battery low Indicated by the display colon flashing

once per second.

Battery charger Built-in constant-current charger.

Battery trickle-charged continuously
when instrument is connected to the
mains power supply.

A.C. Mains 95/125V 190/250V, 50 60Hz.

Display 4 digit, 12mm reflective LCD.

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Read rate 2/Hz.

Temperature range 0C to 40C.

OUTPUTS: Analogue pulse A pulse with length equal to transit

time is available from BNC socket on
rear panel.

CRO output
Received signal Available from BNC socket on rear
panel. True facsimile of received
signal for output up to 0.4V. For
outputs in excess of this value, the
receiving transducer may be plugged
directly into an oscilloscope with the
Time Base synchronised from the

Time Base Sync. Pulse A 3.5V positive pulse with a rise time
of 2As is also available from a BNC
socket on the rear.


Baud rate Fixed at 9600 baud.

Parity None.

Data bits 8.

Stop bits 1.

Interval between readings:

Software selected From 1 sec.to 256 hrs.
Switch selected 1 to 10 secs., mins. or hrs.
1 to 10 mins or 1 to 10 hours.

Start readings Latching push button or Restart

command from computer.

Stop readings Unlatching push button or Master

Reset command from computer.

Pause timed readings CTRL-S command from computer.

Press CTRL-Q to restart.

Power supply Powered from the PUNDIT instrument.

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2 Operating Instructions

2.1 Front Panel

Power On Switch Three position: OFF, ON, CHARGE.

When connected to the mains power supply and

switched to ON the instrument is powered from
the mains and battery is continuously trickle-

When switched to CHARGE, a full charge is

applied to the battery and the instrument is

When disconnected from the mains, but

switched to ON, the instrument is powered from
the battery.

Green LED Indicates instrument is ON.

Red LED Indicates instrument is in battery charge mode.

Range switch Selects 0.1 or 1As units.

Set Ref Allows the transit time display to be zeroed.

Rx socket Accepts input from the receiving transducer.

Tx socket Pulse output to the transmitting transducer.

Battery Indicator Indicates state of battery.

Display Transit time indicated by four digits.

Over range indicated by the third decimal point.
Lost signal display blanked.
Battery low indicated by colon flashing once per

2.2 Rear Panel

3way plug and fuse holder Mains input.

EHT slide switch Selects transmitter voltage level of 500V or

1.2kV. Normally switched to 1.2kV.

PRF slide switch Selects PRF of 10 or 100pps. Normally

switched to 10pps.

Analogue BNC socket Transit time pulse.

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CRO BNC socket Received signal output.

T.B. SYNC BNC socket +3.5V sync pulse for oscilloscope time base.
External Trig. Input, or the Y2 input socket.

250mA fuse 20mm mains fuse.

When RS232C interface is fitted:

25-way D type connector RS232C output.

Miniature rotary switch Interval between reading seconds, minutes and


Green push button switch Selects units or tens.

Red push button switch Start and Stop switch. Function is to start and
stop the transfer of readings between the
computer or printer.

Preparing for use

These instructions should be read through before attempting to use the instrument.
Please note: it is essential at all times that the battery must be fitted and connected
before connecting the instrument to the mains supply.

2.3 Mains Operation

The instrument may be operated from the mains by plugging the mains cable into the
3-way plug on the rear panel and switching the front panel rotary switch to ON.
Whenever the instrument is used on the mains, the internal battery will be trickle-
charged with a constant current. This feature ensures that the battery is maintained
in a ready-to-use state.

2.4 Battery Operation

When the instrument is disconnected from the mains supply, it is only necessary to
switch the front panel rotary switch to ON to operate from the battery. When fully
charged, the battery will operate the instrument for 12 hours. This reduces to 10
hours if the RS232C interface is fitted. When the battery is almost discharged, the
colon on the display will flash once per second. The instrument should then be
turned OFF to prevent damage to the battery.

2.5 Battery Indicator

The indicator gives an approximate indication of the voltage level of the battery when
on load. The instrument will operate for several hours when the pointer is at the
extreme right hand side of the dial. When the pointer deflects to the left hand red
section, it can be assumed that the battery is nearing the discharge end point.

2.6 Full charging the internal battery

A discharged battery should be charged at the full rate for 16 hours. Connect the
instrument to the mains supply and set the front panel rotary switch to CHARGE.
The red LED will indicate that the battery is on full charge.

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2.7 Mains Voltage Selection
The procedure for selecting the operating voltage of the PUNDIT 6 is as follows:

1) Switch the main switch to the OFF position;

2) Disconnect the unit from the mains supply and unplug the mains cable from the
inlet on the rear panel;

3) Turn the unit so that the rear panel faces you and is the right way up;

4) Take a small flat-bladed screwdriver and place it into the small slot on the left-
hand side of the mains inlet module. Lever the flap open.

5) Locate the drum with the voltages marked on it and remove it carefully. Rotate
the drum so that the required mains voltage is uppermost.

6) Push the drum back into place, snap shut the flap and check that the required
voltage is indicated through the window in the flap.

Reconnect the mains cable and the instrument is ready for use.

2.8 Changing the Fuse

Changing the fuse is achieved as follows:

Follow steps (1) to (4) above;

5) Locate the fuse carrier (it has an arrow painted on it) and remove it using the

6) Take the existing fuse out and replace with one of the same type and rating
(T250mA type);

7) Return the fuse carrier into place, making sure that the arrow points in the
direction shown on the flap. Snap shut the flap.

Reconnect the mains cable and the instrument is ready for use.

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3 Taking Pulse Velocity Measurements

3.1 Transducers
The transducer crystals can retain a high voltage charge for a considerable time. A
charge can also build up in the crystals over a period of time due to them being
subjected to vibrations during transport. Care should be exercised when handling
the BNC Connector whilst connecting to the instrument so as to avoid a shock from a
charged transducer.

3.2 Set reference

A reference bar, with engraved pulse transit time, is provided to check the instrument
zero. Apply a smear of ultrasound couplant to the transducer faces and press the
transducers firmly to the ends of the bar. Adjust the SET REF control until the
reference bar transit time is obtained on the display. The PUNDIT is highly stable
and it is not necessary to make frequent reference checks.

On receiving a pulse, the transducers and reference bar have a comparatively long
ring-down time which can exceed the 10ms pulse interval when the instrument PRF
is switched to 100pps. For this reason the PRF must be switched to the 10pps when
setting the reference.

3.3 Range Selection

For maximum accuracy it is recommended that the 0.1As range be selected for path
lengths up to about 400mm. The third decimal point on the display will indicate when
a range has been exceeded. If the transmitted pulse is not received, or when the
transducers are removed from the test piece, the display will automatically blank.

3.4 Couplant
It is essential in all ultrasonic pulse tests to use some form of couplant between the
faces of the transducers and the material under test. Failure to do so will result in a
loss of signal due to inadequate acoustic coupling.

The ultrasound couplant provided in the kit provides good coupling when used on
concrete or other materials having smooth surfaces. Silicone grease, medium
bearing grease or liquid soap may also be used to good effect. For rougher surfaces,
a thick grease or petroleum jelly is recommended.

3.5 Placing the transducers

It is possible to take measurement of pulse velocity by placing the transducers in
three alternative positions:

a) Direct transmission with transducers on opposite faces of the material.

b) Semi-direct transmission with transducers on adjacent faces.
c) Indirect or surface transmission with the transducers on the same faces.

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(a) is the most sensitive method as the receiving transducer will receive maximum
energy from the transmitted pulse.

(b) is the next preferred method and (c) should be used only when it is impossible to
get to two faces of the material being tested. The received pulse amplitude, for the
same path length, is only about 1% of that received when using method (a).

3.6 Pulse Velocity

Having determined the method of transducer placement, make careful
measurements of the path length L. Apply couplant to the faces of the transducers
and press hard onto the material under test. Do not move the transducers while a
reading is being taken as this can generate noise signals and errors in

The pulse velocity is given by: v = L/T (where T is the transit time)

It is advisable, when using very long leads, to prevent the two leads from coming into
close contact with each other when transit time measurement are being made. If this
is not done, it is possible for the receiver lead to pick up unwanted signals from the
transmitter lead which will result in an incorrect display of transit time. If this
happens, the readings on the display will be unstable.

3.7 PRF Selection

The transducers supplied with the PUNDIT instrument are not damped and,
therefore, on being energised by the transmitter pulse generator they have a long
ring-down time. The ring-down time may exceed the 10ms pulse interval when the
PRF is switched to 100pps.

This effect may cause errors when testing short path length specimens having low
internal damping.

A bibliography of relevant papers and journal articles can be found on our

website www.cnsfarnell.com.

Also on the website are the answers to some frequently asked questions and an
introduction to the whole subject of concrete testing with the PUNDIT.

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