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Welding Dictionary

Accu-Pulse (MTE) - MIG process that delivers precise control of the arc even over tack welds and in tight corners.
Provides optimum and precise molten puddle control.

Accu-Rated Power (MTE) - The standard for measuring engine-driven generator power. Guarantees delivery of all power

Active Arc Stabilizer (MTE) - Enhances arc starts and provides a softer arc throughout all ranges, with less puddle
turbulence and less spatter.

Adaptive Hot Start (MTE) - Automatically increases the output amperage at the start of a Stick weld, should the start
require it. Helps eliminate sticking of the electrode at arc start.

Advanced Active Field Control Technology (MTE) - A simple and reliable patented way of accurately controlling an
engine drive's generator weld output.

Air Carbon Arc Cutting (CAC-A) - A cutting process by which metals are melted by the heat of an arc using a carbon
electrode. Molten metal is forced away from the cut by a blast of forced air.

Alternating Current (AC) - An electrical current that reverses its direction at regular intervals, such as 60 cycles alternating
current (AC), or 60 hertz.

Aluminum Pulse Hot Start (MTE) - Automatically provides more arc power to the Millermatic 350P to eliminate a "cold
start" that is inherent with aluminum starts.

Amperage - The measurement of the amount of electricity flowing past a given point in a conductor per second. Current is
another name for amperage.

Arc - The physical gap between the end of the electrode and the base metal. The physical gap causes heat due to
resistance of current flow and arc rays.

Arc-Drive (MTE) - Automatically enhances Stick welding, especially on pipe, by focusing the arc and preventing the
electrode from going out.

Auto-Crater (MTE) - Allows a TIG arc on the Trailblazer Series to crater-out, allowing time for the addition of filler,
without the loss of shielding gas. Eliminates the need for a remote control at arc end.

Auto-Line (MTE) - Allows for any primary input voltage within a range, single- or three-phase, 50 or 60 Hz. Also adjusts
for voltage spikes within the entire range.

Auto-Link (MTE) - Internal inverter power source circuit that automatically links the power source to the primary voltage
being applied (230 V or 460 V), without the need for manually linking primary voltage terminals.

Automatic Start at Idle (MTE) - Idles engine immediately when started, extending engine life and reducing fuel
consumption and noise.

Automatic Welding - Uses equipment which welds without the constant adjusting of controls by the welder or operator.
Equipment controls joint alignment by using an automatic sensing device.

Auto-Refire (MTE) - Automatically controls the pilot arc when cutting expanded metal or multiple pieces of metal, without
manual re-triggering.

Auto Remote Sense (MTE) - Automatically switches machine from panel to remote control with remote connected.
Available on Dimension NT 450, XMT 350, Trailblazer Series, and PRO 300. Eliminates confusion and need for
panel/remote switch.

Auto-Stop (MTE) - Allows a TIG arc to be stopped without the loss of shielding gas on the Trailblazer Series.
Axcess File Management (MTE) - Software that turns a standard Palm handheld into a data card and a remote pendant
for all Axcess systems. Allows e-mailing, storage, and transfer of welding programs.

Constant Current (CC) Welding Machine - These welding machines have limited maximum short circuit current. They
have a negative volt-amp curve and are often referred to as "droopers".

Constant-Speed Wire Feeder - Feeder operates from 24 or 115 VAC supplied by the welding power source.

Constant Voltage (CV), Constant Potential (CP) Welding Machine - This type of welding machine output maintains a
relatively stable, consistent voltage regardless of the amperage output. It results in a relatively flat volt-amp curve.

Cool-On-Demand (MTE) - Integrated cooler runs only when needed on Syncrowave 250 DX & 350 LX.

Current - Another name for amperage. The amount of electricity flowing past a point in a conductor every second.

Defect - One or more discontinuities that cause a testing failure in a weld.

Dig - Also called Arc Control. Gives a power source variable additional amperage during low voltage (short arc length)
conditions while welding. Helps avoid sticking Stick electrodes when a short arc length is used.

Direct Current (DC) - Flows in one direction and does not reverse its direction of flow as does alternating current.

Direct Current Electrode Negative (DCEN) - The direction of current flow through a welding circuit when the electrode lead
is connected to the negative terminal and the work lead is connected to the positive terminal of a DC welding machine. Also
called direct current, straight polarity (DCSP).

Direct Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) - The direction of current flow through a welding circuit when the electrode lead
is connected to a positive terminal and the work lead is connected to a negative terminal to a DC welding machine. Also
called direct current, reverse polarity (DCRP).

Dual Power Option (MTE) - Gives the option on the PipePro 304 engine drive to use 230 volt single- or three-phase
electric input power, eliminating engine wear, noise and emissions, as well as fuel costs.

Duty Cycle - The number of minutes out of a 10-minute time period an arc welding machine can be operated at maximum
rated output. An example would be 60% duty cycle at 300 amps. This would mean that at 300 amps the welding machine
can be used for 6 minutes and then must be allowed to cool with the fan motor running for 4 minutes.

Engine Save Start (MTE) - Idles engine 3 - 4 seconds after starting on Trailblazer 275 DC and 302. Extends engine life
and reduces fuel consumption.

Fan-On-Demand (MTE) - Internal power source cooling system that only works when needed, keeping internal
components cleaner.

FasTip Contact Tip (MTE) - Patented, single-turn for quick change - no tools needed!.

Fixed Automation - Automated, electronically controlled welding system for simple, straight or circular welds.

Flexible Automation - Automated, robotically controlled welding system for complex shapes and applications where
welding paths require torch-angle manipulation.

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) - An arc welding process which melts and joins metals by heating them with an arc
between a continuous, consumable electrode wire and the work. Shielding is obtained from a flux contained within the
electrode core. Added shielding may or may not be provided from externally supplied gas or gas mixture.

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) - See MIG Welding.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) - See TIG Welding.

Ground Connection - A safety connection from a welding machine frame to the earth. See Workpiece Connection for the
difference between work connection and ground connection.

Ground Lead - When referring to the connection from the welding machine to the work, see preferred term Workpiece Lead.

Gun-On-Demand (MTE) - Allows you to use either a standard gun or a Spoolmatic gun on Millermatic 210, 251, and
350 without flipping a switch. The machine senses which gun you are using when you pull the trigger.

Hertz - Hertz is often referred to as "cycles per second". In the United States, the frequency or directional change of
alternating current is usually 60 hertz.

High Frequency - Covers the entire frequency spectrum above 50,000 Hz. Used in TIG welding for arc ignition and

Hot Start (MTE) - Used on some Stick (SMAW) machines to make it easier to start difficult-to-start electrodes. Used for
arc starting only.

Inverter - Power source which increases the frequency of the incoming primary power, thus providing for a smaller size
machine and improved electrical characteristics for welding, such as faster response time and more control for pulse

KVA (Kilovolt-amperes) - Kilovolt-amperes. The total volts times amps divided by 1,000, demanded by a welding power
source from the primary power furnished by the utility company.

KW (Kilowatts) - Primary KW is the actual power used by the power source when it is producing its rated output. Secondary
KW is the actual power output of the welding power source. Kilowatts are found by taking volts times amps divided by 1,000
and taking into account any power factor.

Lift-Arc (MTE) - This feature allows TIG arc starting without high frequency. Starts the arc at any amperage without
contaminating the weld with tungsten.

Low OCV Stick (MTE) - Reduces OCV on several Maxstar and Dynasty models when power source is not in use
eliminating need for add-on voltage reducers.

LVC (Line Voltage Compensation) (MTE) - Keeps the output of a power source constant, regardless of minor
fluctuations in input power.

Microprocessor - One or more integrated circuits that can be programmed with stored instructions to perform a variety of

MIG Welding (GMAW or Gas Metal Arc Welding) - Also referred to as solid wire welding. An arc welding process which
joins metals by heating them with an arc. The arc is between a continuously fed filler metal (consumable) electrode and the
workpiece. Externally supplied gas or gas mixtures provide shielding.

There are four basic modes of metal transfer:

Short Circuit Transfer Gets its name from the welding wire actually short circuiting (touching)
the base metal many times per second. Some spatter is produced, but the transfer can be used in
all welding positions and on all thicknesses of metal.
Globular Transfer Named for globs of weld metal transferring across the arc in a gravity feed.
Droplets across the arc are usually larger than the electrode diameter. It does not produce a very
smooth weld bead appearance, and some spatter can occur. Usually limited to the flat and
horizontal welding positions, and not used on thin metals.

Spray Transfer - Named for a spray of tiny molten droplets across the arc, usually smaller than
the wire diameter. Uses relatively high voltage and amperage values, and the arc is on at all times
after the arc is established. Very little if any spatter is produced. Usually used on thicker metals in
the flat or horizontal welding positions.

Pulsed-Spray Transfer For this variation of spray transfer, the welding machine pulses the
output between high peak currents and low background currents. The weld pool gets to cool slightly
during the background cycle, making it slightly different than Spray Transfer. This can allow for
welding in all positions on either thin or thick metals.

For more information on MIG Welding, please see MIG Tech Tips.

MVP (Multi-Voltage Plug) (MTE) - Allows connection of Millermatic DVI or Passport to 115- or 230-volt receptacles
without tools - just choose the plug that fits the receptacles without tools - just choose the plug that fits the receptacle.

Open-Circuit Voltage (OCV) - As the name implies, no current is flowing in the circuit because the circuit is open. The
voltage is impressed upon the circuit, however, so that when the circuit is completed, the current will flow immediately.

Palm OS Compatibility - Replaces the need for data cards and remote control pendants on Axcess models.

Plasma Arc Cutting - An arc cutting process which severs metal by using a constricted arc to melt a small area of the work.
This process can cut all metals that conduct electricity. For more information on Plasma Cutting, please see Plasma Tech

Pounds Per Square Inch (psi) - A measurement equal to a mass or weight applied to one square inch of surface area.

Power Efficiency - How well an electrical machine uses the incoming electrical power.

Power Factor Correction - Normally used on single-phase, constant current power sources, to reduce the amount of
primary amperage demanded from the power company while welding.

Primary Power - Often referred to as the input line voltage and amperage available to the welding machine from the shop's
main power line. Often expressed in watts or kilowatts (KW), primary input power is AC and may be single-phase or three-

Pulsed MIG (MIG-P) - A modified spray transfer process that produces no spatter because the wire does not touch the weld
puddle. Applications best suited for pulsed MIG are those currently using the short circuit transfer method for welding steel,
14 gauge (1.8 mm) and up.

Pulsed TIG (TIG-P) - A modified TIG process appropriate for welding thinner materials.

Pulsing - Sequencing and controlling the amount of current, the frequency, and the duration of the welding arc.

Rated Load - The amperage and voltage the power source is designed to produce for a given specific duty cycle period. For
example, 300 amps, 32 load volts, at 60% duty cycle.

Regulated Metal Deposition (RMD) (MTE) - Precisely controlled short-circuit transfer technology, available as an option on
Axcess models. For spatter reduction, up to 20% reduced heat input, or filling gaps.

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) - A process in which two pieces of metal are joined by passing current between
electrodes positioned on opposite sides of the pieces to be welded. There is no arc with this process. For more information
on Resistance Spot Welding, please see Resistance Spot Welding Tech Tips.
RMS (Root Mean Square) - The "effective" values of measured AC voltage or amperage. RMS equals 0.707 times the
maximum, or peak value.

Semiautomatic Welding - The equipment controls only the electrode wire feeding. The welding gun movement is controlled
by hand.

SharpArc (MTE) - Optimizes the size and shape of the arc cone, bead width and appearance, and puddle fluidity.
Available on the Millermatic 350/350P.

Shielded Metal Arc Welding - See Stick Welding.

Shielding Gas - Protective gas used to prevent atmospheric contamination of the weld pool.

Single-Phase Circuit - An electrical circuit producing only one alternating cycle within a 360 degree time span.

Smart Fuel Tank (MTE) - Tank's design minimizes chance of fuel backflow.

Spatter - The metal particles blown away from the welding arc. These particles do not become part of the completed weld.

Spot Welding - Usually made on materials having some type of overlapping joint design. Can refer to resistance, MIG or
TIG spot welding. Resistance spot welds are made from electrodes on both sides of the joint, while TIG and MIG spots are
made from one side only.

Squarewave - The AC output of a power source that has the ability to rapidly switch between the positive and negative
half cycles of alternating current.

Stick Welding (SMAW or Shielded Metal Arc) - An arc welding process which melts and joins metals by heating them with
an arc, between a covered metal electrode and the work. Shielding gas is obtained from the electrode outer coating, often
called flux. Filler metal is primarily obtained from the electrode core. For more information on Stick Welding, please see Stick
Tech Tips.

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) [PDF] - A process by which metals are joined by an arc or arcs between a bare metal
electrode or electrodes and the work. Shielding is supplied by a granular, fusible material usually brought to the work from a
flux hopper.

Sun Vision (MTE) - Allows easy reading of digital meters in direct sunlight or shade on Trailblazer 275 DC and 302.

SureStart (MTE) - Provides consistent Axcess arc starts by precisely controlling power levels for specific wire and gas

Syncro Start (MTE) - Allows selectable customized arc starts on Syncrowave 200, Syncrowave 250 DX and 350 LX

Three-Phase Circuit - An electrical circuit delivering three cycles within a 360 degree time span, and the cycles are 120
electrical degrees apart.

TIG Welding (GTAW or Gas Tungsten Arc) - Often called TIG welding (Tungsten Inert Gas), this welding process joins
metals by heating them with a tungsten electrode which should not become part of the completed weld. Filler metal is
sometimes used and argon inert gas or inert gas mixtures are used for shielding. For more information on TIG Welding,
please see TIG Tech Tips.

Tip Saver Short Circuit Protection (MTE) - Shuts down output when the MIG contact tip is shorted to the work, on the
Millermatic 135 and 175. Extends contact tip life and protects machine.

Trigger Reset - Permits quick reset at gun rather than at machine.

Torch - A device used in the TIG (GTAW) process to control the position of the electrode, to transfer current to the arc, and
to direct the flow of the shielding gas.

Torch Detection (MTE) - Syncrowave 250 DX and 350 LX detect if TIG torch is water- or air-cooled.
Touch Start - A low-voltage, low-amperage arc starting procedure for TIG (GTAW). The tungsten is touched to the
workpiece; when the tungsten is lifted from the workpiece an arc is established.

Tri-Cor Technology (MTE) - Stabilizer design on the Bobcat 250 that delivers smoother welds and decreased spatter with
E7018 electrodes, without sacrificing performance with E6010 electrodes.

Tungsten - Rare metallic element with extremely high melting point (3410o Celsius). Used in manufacturing TIG electrodes.

Voltage - The pressure or force that pushes the electrons through a conductor. Voltage does not flow, but causes amperage
or current to flow. Voltage is sometimes termed electromotive force (EMF) or difference in potential.

Voltage-Sensing Wire Feeder - Feeder operates from arc voltage generated by welding power source.

Volt-Amp Curve - Graph that shows the output characteristics of a welding power source. Shows voltage and amperage
capabilities of a specific machine.

WaveWriter File Management (MTE) - Includes all Axcess File Management functions, plus a simple, graphical wave-
shaping program for the most demanding pulsed MIG applications.

Weld at Idle (MTE) - Allows PipePro 304 to automatically weld at a quieter, lower RPM, using less fuel. When more
output is required, he machine goes to high speed without a change in arc.

Weld Metal - The electrode and base metal that was melted while welding was taking place. This forms the welding bead.

Weld Transfer - Method by which metal is transferred from the wire to the molten puddle.

Wet-Stacking - Unburned fuel and engine oil collecting in the exhaust stack of a diesel engine, characterized by the exhaust
stack being coated with a black, sticky, oily substance. The condition is caused by the engine being run at too light of a load
for extended periods of time. Caught early, this does not cause permanent damage and can be alleviated if additional load is
applied. If ignored, permanent damage can occur to the cylinder walls and piston rings. Improved emission standards and
higher quality fuel make engines less prone to wet-stacking in recent years.

Wind Tunnel Technology (MTE) - Internal air flow on many Miller inverters, that protects electrical components and PC
boards from contamination, significantly improving reliability.

Wire Feed Speed - Expressed in in/min or mm/s, and refers to the speed and amount of filler metal fed into a weld.
Generally speaking the higher the wire feed speed, the higher the amperage.

Workpiece Connection - A means to fasten the work lead (work cable) to the work (metal to be welded on). Also, the point
at which this connection is made. One type of work connection is made with an adjustable clamp.

Workpiece Lead - The conductor cable or electrical conductor between the arc welding machine and the work.

Welding Certification, A Basic Guide

The requirement for weld procedures and the coding of welders is specified in
application standards such as:
BS 2971 Class 2 Arc Welding of Carbon Steel Pipework {Gas Pressures less
than 17 barg}

BS 2633 Class 1 Arc Welding of Carbon Steel Pipework

BS 4677 Arc Welding Of Austenitic Steel Pipework.

BS 806 Boiler Pipe Work (Refers to BS 2971 and BS 2633)

PD 5500 Unfired Pressure Vessels (Formally BS5500)

BS 2790 Shell Boilers

BS 1113 Water Tube Boilers

BS 5169 Air Receivers

Application Standards
All the above application standards require welding procedures to EN ISO
15614 Part 1 (Formerly BSEN 288-3) and welders coded to BSEN 287 Part 1.
Some applications of BS 2971 and BS 5169 permit welders to be qualified
without procedures to BS 4872, a less stringent standard.

The application standard may require tests in addition to those required by

welding standards, for example most UK boiler and pressure vessel codes
require all weld tensile tests for plate qualification above 10mm.

UK pressure systems regulations

Items that come under the UK pressure systems regulations must be 'properly
designed and constructed so as to prevent danger', and items that are repaired
or modified should not give rise to danger. The Health and Safety Executive
Guidance Booklet to the regulations interprets this statement as meaning the
manufacture or repair of any item should be carried out to suitable codes and
recommends the use of British Standards or other equivalent National

European Pressure Equipment Directive

For inspection category 2 and above all welding procedures and welder
qualifications have to be approved by a Notified Body (an Inspection Authority
Notified by a European member country under the Directive), or a Third Party
Organisation similarly approved under the Directive. All qualifications
approved by these organisations have to be accepted by all parties for work
carried out under the directive providing they are suitable for the application
and technically correct.

Welding Procedure Specifications

This is a simple instruction sheet giving details of how the weld is to be
performed, its purpose is to aid the planning and quality control of the welding
operation. EN ISO 15609 (formerly EN288 Part 2) specifies the contents of
such a specification in the form of a list of items that should be recorded,
however only relevant information need be specified, for example only in the
case of a procedure requiring heat input control would there be a necessity to
quote travel speed or run out length for manual processes.

A weld procedure specification may cover a range of thicknesses, diameters

and materials, but the range must be specified and be compatible with the rest
of the parameters on the document. I suggest that you produce a new WPS for
each type of joint and keep to the ranges of thickness and diameters specified
in the welding procedure standard.

Welding Procedures
Welding procedures are required when it is necessary to demonstrate that your
company has the ability to produce welds possessing the correct mechanical
and metallurgical properties.

A welding procedure must qualified in accordance with the requirements of an

appropriate welding procedure standard such as EN ISO 15614 Part 1 as

1. Produce a welding procedure specification as stated above.

2. Weld a test piece in accordance with the requirements of your

specification. The joint set up, welding and visual examination of the
completed weld should be witnessed by an Inspection Body. The details
of the test such as the welding current, pre-heat etc., must be recorded
during the test.

3. Once the welding is complete the test piece must be subject to

destructive and non destructive examination such as radiography and
mechanical tests as defined by the welding procedure standard. This
work can be carried out in any laboratory but the Inspection Body may
require to witness the tests and view any radiographs.

4. If the test is successful you or the test body complete the appropriate
documents which the test bodies surveyor signs and endorses. The
necessary documents are as follows:-

E1 Welding Procedure Approval Test Certificate

This is the front sheet and only gives details of what the procedure can be
used for. i.e. its range of approval.
E2 Details Of Weld Test
This gives details of what actually took place during the test weld it is
similar to a WPS but should not include ranges of welding parameters.
E3 Test Results
Details of NDT and Mechanical testing Results
E4 Welder Approval Test Certificate.
This is the welder approval part of the qualification.

Note The E1, E2, E3, E4 designations are used by some Inspection Authorities
to refer to the individual forms. Examples of these forms are given in annexes
of EN ISO 15614 and EN287.

Forms E1, E2, E3 may be referred to as the WPAR (Welding Procedure

Approval Record) or WPQR (Weld Procedure Qualification Record).

In general a new welding procedure must be qualified for each of the following
changes subject to the individual requirements of the appropriate standard

Change in parent material type.

Change of welding process

The diameter range for pipe given by the welding standard is exceeded.
Typically 0.5xD to 2xD.

The thickness range is exceeded. Typically 0.5xt to 2xt.

Any other change required by the welding standard.

Welder Approval
Once the procedure is approved it is necessary to demonstrate that all your
welders working to it have the required knowledge and skill to put down a
clean sound weld. If the welder has satisfactorily completed the procedure test
then he is automatically approved but each additional welder must be approved
by completing an approval test to an appropriate standard such as EN 287 part
1 as follows:-

Complete a weld test as stated in 2) above. The test should simulate

production conditions and the welding position should be the position
that the production welds are to be made in or one more severe
For maximum positional approval a pipe inclined at 45 degrees (referred
to as the 6G position) approves all positions except vertical down.

Test the completed weld in accordance with the relevant standard to

ensure that the weld is clean and fully fused.
For a butt weld this is normally a visual examination followed by

Once the test is completed the E4 form has to be completed by you or

the test body and signed by the test bodies surveyor.

Note The above changes that require a new welding procedure may also
apply to the welders approval, refer to the standard for precise details.

ASME 9 as far as the pressurised systems regulations are concerned can be
considered as equivalent to EN ISO 15614-1 /EN 287. However it may not be
contractually acceptable. The advantage in using ASME is that generally fewer
procedure tests are required particularly when welding pipework.

Welder Approval Without A procedure

BS 4872 is for the qualification of welders where a weld procedure is not
required either by the application standard that governs the quality of
production welds or by contractual agreement. Typically applied per BS2971
for welding of boiler pipework less than 17 bar g and 200C. Basically the
same rules mentioned above for the welder approval apply.

Acceptance Standards
In general welds must show a neat workman like appearance. The root must be
fully fused along the entire length of the weld, the profile of the cap should
blend in smoothly with the parent material and the weld should be significantly
free from imperfections. Reference should be made to the acceptance standard
for precise details.

Its a good idear to ensure that you can achieve the appropriate standard before
you call in an Inspection Body. Penetration defects and lack of fusion can often
be easily detected by sectioning welds and bending them

Welding Procedure Specifications

Welding Procedure Specification Example

A WPS is a document that describes how welding is to be carried
out in production. They are recommended for all welding
operations and many application codes and standards make
them mandatory

What information should they include?

Sufficient details to enable any competent person to apply the information

and produce a weld of acceptable quality. The amount of detail and level
of controls specified on a WPS is dependant on the application and
criticality of the joint to be welded.

For most applications the information required is generally similar to that

recorded on a Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) or Welding
Procedure Approval Record (WPAR), except that ranges are usually
permitted on thicknesses, diameters, welding current, materials, joint
types etc.

If a WPS is used in conjunction with approved welding procedures then

the ranges stated should be in accordance with the approval ranges
permitted by the welding procedure.

However careful consideration should be given to the ranges specified to

ensure they are achievable, as the ranges given by welding procedure
standards do not always represent good welding practice. For example
welding positions permitted by the welding procedure standard may not
be achievable or practical for certain welding processes or consumables.

EN ISO 15609-1 (formally EN 288 Part 2) European Standard For

Welding Procedure Specifications
EN ISO 15609 Defines the contents of a Welding Procedure Specification
in the form of a list of information that should be recorded. For some
applications it may be necessary to supplement or reduce the list. For
example only in the case of a procedure requiring heat input control would
there be a necessity to quote travel speed or run-out length for manual

ASME IX American Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

QW 250 Lists the variables for each welding process, all the variables
stated should be addressed. The range permitted by the WPS is dictated
by the PQR or PQRs used to qualify it.

Typical Items That Should Be Recorded On W.P.S:-

Common to all Processes .

Procedure number

Process type

Consumable Size, Type and full Codification.

Consumable Baking Requirement if applicable

Parent material grade and spec.

Thickness range.

Plate or Pipe, Diameter range

Welding Position

Joint Fit Up, Preparation, Cleaning, Dimensions etc.

Backing Strip, Back Gouging information.

Pre-Heat (Min Temp and Method)

Interpass If Required (Maximum Temperature recorded )

Post Weld Heat Treatment. If Required (Time and Temp)

Welding Technique (weaving,max run width etc.)

Arc Energy Limits should be stated if impact tests are

required or if the material being welded is sensitive to heat

Specific To Welding Processes MMA TIG MAG

Welding current yes yes yes yes

Type of Welding current AC/DC

yes yes yes yes

Arc voltage If Auto yes yes

Pulse parameters (Pulse time and peak

If Used If Used
& backgound current)

Welding Speed If Mechanised yes yes yes

Wire configuration yes

Shielding gas (comp,flow rate) yes yes

Purge gas (comp & flow rate) If Used If Used

Tungsten electode Diameter and type. yes

Nozzle diameter yes yes

Type of Flux Codification & Brand


Nozzle Stand Off Distance (Distance

from tip of nozzle to workpiece).

A sketch of the joint configuration is required which should include the
basic dimensions of the weld preparation. Some indication of the run
sequence is also beneficial, particularly if the correct sequence is
essential to ensure the properties of the weld are maintained.

Production Sequence
Whilst this is good practice it is not a requirement of either ASME 9 or
EN288 Part 2; it could be issued as a separate QA procedure if preferred.

Non Destructive Testing

A WPS is primarily concerned with welding not N D T, this activity should
be covered by separate N D T procedures

Health, safety and environment - Job Knowledge

Cutting and gouging

Health, safety and accident prevention
Joint design
Mechanical testing
Standards and classifications
Weldability and joining of materials
Welding consumables
Welding costs
Welding defects and distortion
Welding equipment
Welding processes - arc
Welding processes - others

Cutting and gouging

Job knowledge 8: Thermal gouging

The principles of thermal gouging are outlined including the cutting processes that can be
used, materials suitable for gouging, applications and safety.

Job knowledge 9: Oxygen-fuel gas flame gouging

The principles of flame gouging are outlined including process characteristics, operating
parameters and techniques.

Job knowledge 10: Manual metal arc gouging

The principles of MMA gouging are outlined including process characteristics, electrodes,
power sources, operating parameters and applications.
Job knowledge 11: Plasma arc gouging
The principles of plasma arc gouging are outlined including process characteristics, powers
sources, electrodes, plasma and cooling gases, and operating techniques.

Job knowledge 12: Air carbon arc gouging

The principles of air carbon arc gouging are outlined including applications, electrodes,
power sources, air supply, problems of carbon pick-up, operating parameters and process

Job knowledge 49: Oxyfuel cutting - process and fuel gases.

The oxyfuel cutting process is introduced. Characteristics of the common fuel gases -
acetylene, propane, MAPP (methylacetylene-propadiene), propylene and natural gas - are

Job knowledge 50: Cutting processes - application of oxyfuel cutting

Includes advantages of the process, the choice of fuel gas and nozzle design to maximise
performance, and best practice to ensure adequate quality of the cut surface.

Job knowledge 51: Cutting processes - plasma arc cutting - process and equipment
The plasma cutting process is described covering process characteristics, power source, cut
edge quality and process variants (dual gas, water injection, water shroud, air plasma, high
tolerance plasma)

Job knowledge 52: Cutting processes - laser cutting

Describes the suitability of common materials for laser cutting; process advantages;
relationship between lens properties and cut thickness; comparison of the characteristics of
flying optics, fixed optics and hybrid systems; and problems of reflection when cutting

Job knowledge 53: Laser cutting: process variants.

CO 2 and Nd:YAG laser cutting are discussed. Topics include process characteristics, assist
gases, cut quality and process economics.

Health, safety and accident prevention

Job knowledge 26: Health, safety and accident prevention - General

The general hazards which may arise when carrying out welding and related operations, are

Job knowledge 27: Health, safety and accident prevention - oxyacetylene welding,
cutting and heating
Guidelines are given on the principal health and safety considerations for oxyacetylene
welding to ensure safe welding practices.

Job knowledge 28: Health, safety and accident prevention: electrical hazards -
power source and installation
Article gives the principal health and safety considerations to ensure safe welding practices
and prevent accidents, particularly on power source installation and electrical hazards

Job knowledge 29: Health, safety and accident prevention - arc welding
This article gives guidelines on health and safety considerations when arc welding to ensure
safe practice and prevent accidents. The principal hazards are associated with electric shock
and arc radiation.

Job knowledge 30: Health, safety and accident prevention - health risks of welding
The principal health and safety considerations are looked at to ensure safe welding
practices. A general overview of the hazards associated with fume and gases generated
during welding.

Job knowledge 31: Health, safety and accident prevention - health risks from fume
and gases during welding
Factors affecting welding fume composition for gas, MMA, FCA, MIG/MAG, TIG, plasma and
submerged arc processes.

Job knowledge 32: Health, safety and accident prevention - control of welding
Factors that affect welder's exposure to fume are summarised. The measures and
equipment used to control welding fume and gases are described.

Joint design

Job knowledge 90: Joint Design Part 1

Begins the discussion on welding joint design and introduces the fillet weld.

Job knowledge 91: Joint Design Part 2

Further discusses the fillet joint design.

Job knowledge 92: Joint Design Part 3

Discusses the welder's decision to use a T-butt weld, a fillet weld or a combination of the
two. In making this decision cost is a major factor.

Job knowledge 93: Joint Design Part 4

Looking further at weld preparation of fillet and partial/full penetration butt welds.

Job knowledge 94: Joint Design Part 5

Weld design of the edge weld, the spot weld and the plug weld.

Mechanical testing

Job knowledge 69: Mechanical testing - Tensile testing Part 1

Tensile testing is described, covering test specimen form, determination of the engineering
stress/strain curve, and derivation of test results: ultimate tensile strength, yield point,
elongation, reduction in area, Young's modulus of elasticity and proof stress.

Job knowledge 70: Mechanical testing - Tensile testing Part 2

To approve a butt welding procedure most specifications such as BS EN 288 Parts 3 and 4
and ASME IX require tensile tests to be carried out.

Job knowledge 71: Mechanical testing - notched bar or impact testing

The Charpy-V test for characterising notch toughness is described. The qualitative nature of
the test, outline procedures and test analysis are described.

Job knowledge 72: Notched bar or impact testing. Part II

An overview of impact testing of welds and some of the factors which affect the transition
temperature, such as composition and microstructure. Part 2 of a technical article on the
principles and practice of impact testing.

Job knowledge 73: Bend Testing

Bend testing is described with the type of simple equipment used and the orientation
variations for bend testing welds.

Job knowledge 74: Hardness Testing Part 1

The Brinell and Vickers Hardness tests are explained with a further discussion about the
errors in hardness testing.

Job knowledge 75: Hardness Testing Part 2

As a follow on from Part 1, micro-hardness and portable hardness testing are explained. The
investigation of metallurgical problems in welds often requires the determination of
hardness within a very small area or on components in service or too large to be able to test
in a laboratory environment.

Job knowledge 76: CTOD Testing

The concept of fracture toughness was introduced in Job Knowledge 71 but this article will
begin to enable fracture toughness to be accurately measured in a quantitative manner by
using a full size specimen The CTOD testing is described and the use of a single edged
notched bend (SENB) specimen is illustrated.

Job knowledge 77: Compact tension and J integral tests

The compact tension (CT) specimen and the J integral test, the two test methods briefly
described in this article, may also be used to characterise fracture behaviour by using the
appropriate calculation techniques irrespective of the failure mode.

Job knowledge 78: Fatigue Testing

Fatigue testing is introduced with an explanation of S/N curves.
Job knowledge 79: Fatigue Testing Part 2
Looks at some of the reasons why a welding joint exhibited no clearly established fatigue
limit as in an unwelded component.

Job knowledge 80: Fatigue Testing Part 3

Looks into Welded joint designs assigned a joint classification in relation to the joint's
fatigue performance.

Job knowledge 81: Creep and creep testing

Describes the slow failure mechanism of creep and creep testing.

Standards and classifications

Job knowledge 1: Welding and joining process classification

Process terminology according to European standard, EN 24063:1992 is explained and
factors which must be taken into account when choosing a suitable welding or joining
process are discussed.

Job knowledge 38: Standards - application standards, codes of practice and quality
The requirements for standards on welding procedure and welder approval are explained
together with the quality levels for imperfections.

Job knowledge 39: Standards - Approval of welding procedures, welder and

welding operators
The alternative routes for welding procedure approval are described together with the
requirements for welder or welding operator approval.

Job knowledge 64: A review of the application of weld symbols on drawings - Part
Introduces weld symbols according to BS EN 22553

Job knowledge 65: A review of the application of weld symbols on drawings - Part
Presents example of symbols used on weld drawings to indicate the location, type, size etc
of welds required, welding process to use, and so on.

Job knowledge 66: Fillet welded joints - a review of the practicalities.

Looks at common joint designs and features and discusses everyday practical problems of
achieving correct weld size and shape. Spotlights differences between designers' intentions
and what can happen on the shop floor, and reviews inspection issues.

Weldability and joining of materials

Job knowledge 19: Weldability of materials - carbon manganese and low alloy
Guidance is given on ferritic steel weldability and the causes of weld imperfections: porosity,
solidification cracking, hydrogen cracking and reheat cracking. Procedure and welder
techniques for reducing the risk of these in arc welding are recommended.

Job knowledge 20: Weldability of materials - stainless steel.

Weldability is discussed for austenitic, ferritic, martensitic and duplex stainless steels, with
emphasis on the avoidance of weld imperfections

Job knowledge 21: Weldability of materials - Aluminium alloys.

Characteristics of aluminium alloys are discussed with emphasis on their fusion weldability.
Suitable filler metal grades are listed. Causes and avoidance of porosity, solidification
cracking, liquation cracking and poor weld shape are described.

Job knowledge 22: Weldability of materials - Nickel and nickel alloys.

Weldability is discussed of nickel and Ni solid solution and precipitation hardening alloys,
with causes and avoidance of porosity, oxide inclusions, lack of inter-run fusion, solidification
cracks, microfissures, PWHT cracks and stress corrosion cracks.

Job knowledge 23: Weldability of materials - Copper and copper alloys.

Weldability of copper and Cu alloys (including brasses, bronzes and cupronickels) is
discussed with emphasis on fusion welding and avoidance of weld imperfections.
Recommended filler materials are listed.

Job knowledge 24: Weldability of materials - Titanium and titanium alloys.

Types of titanium and Ti alloys are described with emphasis on causes and avoidance of
weld imperfections: porosity, embrittlement and contamination cracking. Suitable filler
metals are listed.

Job knowledge 25: Weldability of materials - cast irons

Welding of various types of cast iron by oxy-fuel, MMA, MIG and FCA welding processes is
discussed with emphasis on weldability.

Job knowledge 54: Ceramics - materials, joining and applications

The characteristics of ceramics as engineering materials, industrial applications and factors
affecting selection of joining processes are described.

Job knowledge 98: Welding of HSLA Steels

Discusses the use and weldability of high strength low alloy steels.

Job knowledge 99: Welding of ferritic creep-resistant steels

Lists the composition and mechanical properties of ferritic creep-resistant steels with
discussion on their weldability.

Job knowledge 100: Welding of ferritic cryogenic steels

Explains the use and weldability of ferritic cryogenic steels.
Job knowledge 101: Welding of ferritic/martensitic steels
Explains the use, composition and weldability of ferritic/martensitic steels.

Job knowledge 102: Precipitation hardening stainless steels

Details about the use, composition and welding details of precipitation hardened stainless

Job knowledge 103: Welding of austenitic stainless steel

Goes through the composition, use, metallurgy and welding problems of austenitic stainless

Job knowledge 104: Welding of austenitic stainless steel Part 2

Continues the discussion of the welding details of precipitation hardened stainless steels.

Welding consumables

Job knowledge 82: Welding consumables

Describes the requirement of welding flux and the types of cellulosic and rutile electrodes

Job knowledge 83: Welding consumables Part 2

Covers an explanation of basic, iron powder and acid electrodes.

Job knowledge 84: Welding consumables Part 3

Describes the writing of a series of consumable specifications that enable an electrode to be
easily and uniquely identified by assigning a consumable a 'classification'.

Job knowledge 85: Welding consumables Part 4 - gas shielded comsumables

Wire consumables used in the gas shielded MIG/MAG, metal cored (MC) and flux cored (FC)
arc welding processes are looked at.

Job knowledge 86: Welding consumables Part 5 - MIG/MAG and cored carbon steel
The characteristics of solid and cored wires are briefly described.

Job knowledge 87: Submerged arc welding consumables Part 1

For submerged arc welding both the wire and flux have an effect on the weld metal
composition. The characteristics of some of the wires and fluxes available are discussed.

Job knowledge 88: Submerged arc welding consumables Part 2 - specifications

The consumables for carbon, carbon-manganese and low alloy structural steels are

Job knowledge 89: Submerged arc welding consumables. Part 3 - AWS

The specifications outlined by the American Welding Society (AWS) are explained.
Welding costs

Job knowledge 95: Calculating weld volume and weight

Calculating the weld volume and weight is crucial in estimating the cost of making a weld,
which are discussed.

Job knowledge 96: Welding Costs Part 1

Further costs of welding are discussed, such as providing a welding workshop.

Job knowledge 97: Welding Costs Part 2

Concentrates on determining the length of time to deposit the weight of weld metal.

Welding defects and distortion

Job knowledge 33: Distortion - types and causes

Covers several key issues on distortion in arc welded fabrications, especially causes of
distortion, basic types of welding distortion and factors affecting the degree of distortion

Job knowledge 34: Distortion - prevention by design

The article concentrates on providing information on the application of best practice
principles to limit distortion during the design and fabrication of arc welded structures.

Job knowledge 35: Distortion - prevention by pre-setting, pre-bending or use of

Focuses on distortion prevention through pre-setting and pre-bending parts or use of
restraint. Provides illustrated, practical information on applying techniques and includes best
practice guidelines.

Job knowledge 36: Distortion - prevention by fabrication techniques

Means of reducing and controlling weld distortion are described, covering control of
distortion by tack welding, back-to-back assembly and stiffening and selection of welding
process, technique and sequence.

Job knowledge 37: Distortion - corrective techniques

General guidelines are provided on 'best practice' for correcting distortion using mechanical
or thermal techniques.

Job knowledge 40: Weld defects/imperfections - incomplete root fusion or

Types of weld imperfections are introduced and the nature, causes, avoidance and repair of
lack of penetration at the weld root when arc welding are described. Acceptance standards
to ISO 5817 are mentioned.

Job knowledge 41: Weld defects/imperfections in welds - lack of sidewall and

inter-run fusion
The characteristic features and principal causes of lack of sidewall and inter-run fusion are
described. General guidelines on best practice are given so that welders can minimise the
risk of imperfections during fabrication.

Job knowledge 42: Defects/imperfections in welds - porosity

The characteristic features and principal causes of porosity imperfections are described. Best
practice guidelines are given so welders can minimise porosity risk during fabrication.

Job knowledge 43: Defects/imperfections in welds - slag inclusions

The characteristic features and principal causes of slag imperfections are described.

Job knowledge 44: Defects - solidification cracking.

Covers identification; causes in structural and stainless steels and in aluminium alloys;
avoidance; acceptance standards; detection and remedial action for solidification cracking in

Job knowledge 45: Defects/hydrogen cracks in steels - identification.

Describes the characteristic features and principal causes of hydrogen cracks in ferritic

Job knowledge 46: Defects - hydrogen cracks in steels - prevention and best
Methods of reducing the risk of hydrogen cracking when arc welding steels are described.

Job knowledge 47: Defects - lamellar tearing.

The characteristic features, principal causes and best practice in minimising the risk of
lamellar tearing are described.

Job knowledge 48: Defects/imperfections in welds - reheat cracking

The characteristic features and principal causes of reheat cracking are described. General
guidelines on best practice are given so that welders can minimise the risk of reheat
cracking in welded fabrications.

Job knowledge 67: A general review of geometric shape imperfections - types and
causes - part 1.
Looks at those imperfections related to poor geometric shape, particularly excess weld
metal (reinforcement), undercut, overlap (cold lapping), linear misalignment, and
incompletely filled groove. Causes, acceptability and avoidance are covered.

Job knowledge 68: A general review of the causes and acceptance of shape
imperfections - Part 2
Covers causes, avoidance and acceptance criteria for imperfections in butt and fillet weld
bead shape: excess penetration, root concavity, excess convexity, oversize and undersize
fillets (large or small throat), asymmetric fillet, and poor fit-up

Welding equipment
Job knowledge 13: Equipment for oxyacetylene welding
Gas welding torch, hoses, gas regulators and flame traps are described. Differences
between oxygen and acetylene cylinders are listed. Typical gas pressures and flow rates for
work on C-Mn steels are given. Safety checks are indicated.

Job knowledge 14: Equipment for manual metal arc (MMA or SMA) welding
The power source, electrode holder, cables, protective clothing and fume extraction
equipment required for safe MMA welding are described. Care of covered electrodes is
described, including storage and drying.

Job knowledge 15: Equipment for MIG welding

The power source, wire feed system, conduit, gun and protective equipment for MIG/MAG
welding are described. Current and voltage settings for dip and spray transfer mode and
recommended welding glass shade numbers are presented.

Job knowledge 16: Equipment for submerged arc welding.

The power sources and welding guns suitable for submerged arc welding are described,
including manual and mechanised (single and twin wire) operation. Stickout lengths, gun
angle, flux handling and protective equipment are covered.

Job knowledge 17: Equipment for tungsten inert gas (TIG, GTA) welding
Power sources, torches, backing systems and protective clothing for TIG welding are

Job knowledge 18: Equipment for plasma welding.

Equipment is described for microplasma, medium current plasma and keyhole plasma
welding including power source, torch, nozzle, electrode, plasma and shielding gases,
backing systems and protective equipment. Recommended shade numbers are given.

Welding processes - arc

Job knowledge 2: The manual metal arc process

Principles of the MMA (SMA) welding method are outlined including characteristics of the
types of electrodes and electrode coatings, suitable power sources and current ranges.

Job knowledge 4: Solid wire MIG welding

The principles of MIG/MAG welding are outlined including process characteristics, metal
transfer modes, shielding gas types and process applications.

Job knowledge 5: Submerged arc welding process

The principles of the submerged arc welding process are outlined including process features
and characteristics, process variants (e.g. multiple wire), flux types and applications.

Job knowledge 6: Tungsten inert gas (TIG or GTA) welding

The principles of TIG welding are outlined including process characteristics, power sources,
arc starting, electrodes, shielding gases and applications.
Job knowledge 7: Plasma welding
The principles of plasma welding are outlined including process characteristics, operating
modes, power sources, arc starting, electrodes, plasma and shielding gases and

Welding processes - others

Job knowledge 3: The oxyacetylene welding [gas welding] process

The principles of the oxyfuel gas welding process are presented including flame types,
equipment, operating characteristics and techniques.

Job knowledge 57: Extrusion welding of thermoplastics

Equipment, procedures and applications for extrusion welding are described.

Job knowledge 55: Welding techniques for thermoplastics

An overview of the variety of techniques available to industry for the thermal joining of
thermoplastic is presented, covering methods based on friction, heated tool, hot gas, energy
beam and electromagnetic effects.

Job knowledge 56: Hot gas welding of plastics: Part 1 - the basics
Describes the hot gas welding process, welding equipment and welding parameters,
materials that can be hot gas welded and welder certification.

Job knowledge 56b: Hot gas welding of plastics: Part 2 - welding techniques
The hot gas welding process is described covering material preparation, joint preparations,
procedures for round nozzle welding and speed welding, weld shape and finishing.

Job knowledge 58: Butt fusion welding of plastics

Butt fusion welding of plastic pipes is described concisely, including tips for a successful
weld, machine set up, aligning and clamping the pipe, preparing the pipe, noting heating
and cooling times and fusion pressures, welding, cooling and inspection.

Job knowledge 59: Friction welding of plastics

Processes suitable for joining thermoplastics are described: linear friction welding (vibration
welding), rotational friction welding (spin welding), orbital welding, angular friction welding.
Procedure, process parameters, component design and joint preparation are covered.

Job knowledge 60: Hot plate welding of plastics moulded components

The hot plate welding process is described in some detail, covering joint design, welding
equipment, procedures and welding conditions.

Job knowledge 61: Ultrasonic welding of injection moulded components - Part 1 -

Process and equipment
The equipment used for ultrasonic welding of plastic components is described

Job knowledge 62: Ultrasonic welding of injection moulded components - Part 2.

Component design and weld parameters.
Discusses joint preparation for projection and shear joints, other aspects of component
design for weldability, and selection of amplitude and welding mode.

Copyright 2010, The Welding Institute

Calculating weld volume and weight

Calculating the volume of a weld is one of the first steps to be taken when estimating the
cost of making a weld.

With this information, and knowing the deposition rate of the process, it is possible to
determine the arc time (the length of time that an arc is burning and depositing weld metal)
and the amount of welding consumables required to fill the joint. Both of these are required
in order to calculate the cost of making the weld. Costing will be dealt with in future Job
Knowledge articles.

Determining the volume of a weld requires some knowledge of basic geometrical

calculations to determine the area of the weld and multiply this figure by its length. The first
step then is to calculate the cross sectional area of the joint.

With a fillet weld or a 45 single bevel joint this is relatively simple but the calculations
become lengthier as the weld preparation becomes more complex. Fig.1 illustrates how
simple this calculation is for an equal leg length fillet weld; the area of such a weld is half
the square of the leg length, Z. When using this formula do not forget that welders seldom
deposit precisely the size of weld called up on the drawing or in the welding procedure and
that there may be some excess weld metal on the face of the weld.

Fig.1. Area of an equal leg length fillet weld

An asymmetrical fillet weld is a little more difficult; the area of a triangle is given by the
base Z times the height Z divided by 2 so when a fillet weld is deposited with unequal leg
2 1

lengths the area can be calculated from multiplying the throat, a, by the length of the face I
and divided by 2 as illustrated in Fig.2.
Fig.2. Area of an unequal leg length fillet

Turning now to butt welds, the calculations become a little more complex.

There are three factors that determine the volume of the weld in a single V butt weld. These
are the angle of the bevel, b, the excess weld metal and the root gap, g, as illustrated in Fig
3. To calculate the area of this weld we need to be able to add together the areas of the four
components illustrated in Fig.3.

Fig.3. The four areas of a single-V butt


The dimension 'c' is given by (tan b x t); the area of a single red triangle is therefore t(tan b
x t)/2. The total area of the two red regions added together can be calculated using the
formula 2t(tan b x t)/2 or t(tanb x t).

The width of the weld cap, w, is given by W = 2(tan b x t) + g.

The area of the excess weld metal is approximated by the formula (W x h)/2.

The area provided by the root gap by g x t.

The bevel angles, b, most often used are 10 = (tan 0.176), 15 = (tan 0.268), 22.5 =
(tan 0.414) 32.5 = (tan 0.637) and 45 = (tan 1.00). As will become obvious when the
weight is calculated, it is easier to ensure that the decimal point is in the right place if
centimetres are used in the calculations rather than millimetres.

As a worked example, if the weld is in a plate 2.5cm thickness, 0.3cm root gap, 65
included angle ( b = 32.50; tan 32.5 = 0.637) and with a cap height of 0.2cm we have:-

a. c = tan32.5 x 2.5 = 0.637 x 2.5 = 1.59cm

b. w = 2(0.637x2.5) + 0.3 = 3.485cm so the area of the cap = (3.485x0.2)/2 = 0.348
sq. cm.

c. area of the orange area = 0.3 x 2.5 = 0.75 sq.cm.

d. area of the two red areas = 2 x (1.59 x 2.5)/2 = 3.97sq.cm.

This gives a total area of 5.07sq cm. The volume can then be calculated by multiplying the
length of the weld by the area - ensuring that this length is also given in centimetres!

Conventionally, the volume is often expressed in cubic centimetres (cu.cm). per metre so in
this example the volume is 507 cu. cm/metre.

To obtain the weight of weld metal this figure is then multiplied by the density of the alloy.
Table 1 gives the density of some of the more common alloys in gm/cu.cm. Note that with
some alloys the alloying elements can change the density quite significantly.

Table 1. Densities of some of the more common alloys.

Alloy Density (gm/cm ) 3

iron 7.87

0.25% carbon steel 7.86

12%Cr steel 7.70

304 stainless steel 7.92

nickel 8.90

80/20 Ni.Cr 8.40

625 type alloy 8.44

copper 8.94

70/30 brass 8.53

7% Al bronze 7.89

aluminium 2.70

Al 5052 2.65

Al 7075 2.8

The weight of weld metal to fill one metre length of the joint described above would
therefore be; in carbon steel (507 x 7.86) = 3985gms or 3.98kgs/metre; in a 5XXX series
aluminium alloy (507 x 2.65) = 1343gms, 1.34kgs/metre.

Calculating the weight of weld metal in double sided V-joints uses the same approach by
dividing the weld into its individual 'V's and adding the products.
A J-preparation, however, adds another area into the equation; that of the half circle at the
root of the weld, see Fig.4. The formulae given above to calculate 'c', the area of the two
red components and the excess weld metal remain unchanged but the width of the cap
must be increased by 2r. There are also the two areas, 'A' and 'B', to calculate and the two
white root radius areas to be added to the total.

Fig.4. Single 'U' preparation (other

notation as in Fig.3)

The relevant formulae are thus:

a. the dimension 'c' is given by (tan b x (t-r)); the total area of the two red regions is
therefore given by the formula 2((t-r)(tan b x (t-r))/2 or ((t.-r)(tan b x (t-r)).

b. the width of the weld cap, w, is given by w = 2(tan b x (t-r)) + g +2r.

c. the area of the excess weld metal is given by the formula (w x h)/2.

d. the area 'A' is (t-r) x (2r +g).

e. the area 'B' is g x r.

f. the root radius area is ( r )/4


For a double-U preparation it is necessary to calculate the areas of both sides and add these

Having calculated the weight of weld metal required to fill a weld preparation it is then
possible to calculate the weight of filler metal required (these two figures are not necessarily
the same) and to estimate the time required to deposit this weld metal; both essential in
order to arrive at a cost of fabricating the weld. This will be covered in future Job Knowledge

This article was written by Gene Mathers.

Last Reviewed 2008 / Copyright 2008 TWI Ltd

Welding costs

The previous Connect article, number 95, dealt with the methods of determining the weight
of deposited weld metal in a joint, enabling the cost of welding consumables to be

This is obviously the first step towards calculating the cost of

actually making a welded joint but there are many other
factors that need to be considered but which are beyond the
scope of these articles.

The most significant of these costs is the overhead; the cost of

providing a welding workshop or site and the costs of
managing and running the organisation.

These costs are dependent on the accounting practices of the organisation. They comprise
factors such as rent, rates, bank interest, cost of indirect workers, ie those not directly
involved in fabricating, depreciation of plant etc. In addition, other accounting decisions (for
example, where the costs of machining and assembly are absorbed) may affect the
decisions on which is the most cost-effective joining method.

One of the most significant costs is that of labour and this inevitably varies with industry,
time and country. The costs mentioned above cannot generally be influenced by the
decisions made by a welding engineer. These articles will therefore concentrate on those
aspects of welding activities that are not subject to accounting practices, overhead or labour

There are many costs, other than the cost of depositing weld metal that will affect the price
of a welded fabrication.

The work done by the designer in designing the most cost-effective joint in an item that can
be placed in the most advantageous position for welding will have major effect on costs. For
example, the type of joint preparation the designer selects; a single or double-V preparation
can be flame cut, a J-preparation must be machined and is generally far more expensive. A
machined J-preparation, however, may have less volume than a single-V, depending on
thickness; will be more accurate and therefore quicker to assemble within tolerance and
may result in a lower repair rate leading to a lower cost than the V preparation.
Costs that are directly affected by welding engineering decisions, in addition to the cost of
actually depositing weld metal, are therefore; joint preparation, assembly time (which
includes positioning in any jig or fixture and tacking), cleaning and dressing the weld,
removal from jigs or fixture, post weld heat treatment, costs of non-destructive testing and
cost of repairs.

The amount of weld metal deposited is rarely the same as the amount of filler metal
purchased. This is the result of losses when, for example, GMAW or submerged arc welding
wire is trimmed back to the contact tip, when the wire reel runs out and the length of wire
between the drive roll and the contact tip is scrapped or the wire or reel is damaged.

Such losses tend to be quite small but this is not the case with coated electrodes. Damaged
flux coatings, incorrectly stored electrodes and the stub ends discarded by the welder all
contribute to as much as a third of the purchased weight of manual metallic arc electrodes
being scrapped. Some electrode manufacturers' catalogues give figures for these losses
which can vary depending on electrode type and diameter.

To assist in calculating the amount of welding consumables to be purchased Table 1 gives

some multiplication factors for the more common arc welding processes. The weight of weld
metal in the joint should be multiplied by this factor to give the amount of welding
consumable required. These figures assume good housekeeping and shop floor discipline
such that consumables are not wasted or scrapped unnecessarily.

Table 1 Multiplication factor. Weight of weld metal to give the weight of filler
metal required.

Arc welding process Multiplication factor

MMA (SMAW) 1.5

TIG (GTAW) 1.1


Sub Arc (SAW) 1.02

FCAW 1.2

MCAW 1.1

The other consumables in this cost equation are shielding gases or flux.
The conventional shoulder height welding gas cylinder contains approximately 10,000 litres
of shielding gas at a pressure of 200bar. As the gas flow rates normally used in production
are around 12 to 15 litres per minute, this typical cylinder should provide in the region of 10
to 12 hours of welding time, allowing for losses at the beginning and end of the arcing

The rate of flux consumption in submerged arc welding is approximately 1kg of flux for
every 1kg of deposited weld metal. This assumes good housekeeping and an efficient flux
recirculation system. Calculation of the amount required (and hence the cost) of these
consumables is therefore relatively straightforward.

The cost of the welder's time to weld a joint does not depend solely on the deposition rate
of the process. A most important factor in determining the time required by the welder is
what is known as the 'duty cycle' or 'operating factor'. This is a percentage figure giving the
amount of time that the arc is burning and weld metal is being deposited versus the total
time that the welder is working.

Table 2 gives some figures for the more common arc welding processes. Note that these do
NOT include set-up or assembly time and individual circumstances can increase or decrease
these figures.

Table 2 Duty cycles for arc welding processes

Arc welding process Duty cycle %

MMA (SMAW) 15 - 30

TIG (GTAW) 25 - 40

Mechanised TIG 80 - 90

MIG/MAG (GMAW) 30 - 45

Mechanised MIG/MAG 80 - 90

Sub Arc (SAW) 80 - 95

FCAW 25 - 45

Mechanised FCAW 70 - 85

MCAW 30 - 45
The lost time in this figure can be accounted for by considering all of the other activities that
the welder performs. In MMA welding, for example, time is required for tacking, de-slagging
and cleaning a weld pass, for changing electrodes, for changing position, for rest breaks and
for removal of the item from a fixture. Similar activities need to be performed using the
other welding processes.

Increasing the duty cycle is therefore one method of increasing productivity, either by
organising the shop floor such that lost time is reduced or by the use of a higher duty cycle
process. However, remember that the arcing time may well be only a very small proportion
of the total time to manufacture and attention to other aspects of the manufacturing cycle
may give better returns than simply increasing the welding duty cycle.

Reference to Table 1 also suggests that mechanisation is one method to increase the duty
cycle. Caution needs to be exercised, however, if the total (floor to floor) time is to be
reduced. For one-off or small batch items the time taken to prepare and set up a
mechanised system to weld the item may be longer than that taken to weld using a manual
process. Note also that if a mechanised system is used, the duty cycle may in fact decrease,
as the welding speed is increased and the weld is completed in a shorter time although the
number of items welded per day will increase. It is therefore essential to consider the
complete manufacturing cycle to achieve the most cost effective solution.

Part 2

This article was written by Gene Mathers.

Last Reviewed 2008 / Copyright 2008 TWI Ltd

Flux cored arc welding

Welding costs - continued

Part 1

The previous two Connect articles dealt with the

mechanics of costing a weld: how to calculate the
weld volume and how to calculate the amount of
welding consumables required to fill a weld

The final step in costing a weld is to determine the length of time to deposit this weight of
weld metal. This is obviously a function of the deposition rate of the process. The deposition
rate is generally expressed as kgs/hr or lbs/hr deposited at a given welding current, welding
continuously and without any breaks for electrode changing or deslagging.

The deposition rate will be affected by many factors and it will not be possible within the
limitations of these articles to list the precise deposition rates for any specific process or
welding current. Such data can be found in publications referenced below or by a web
search. The ranges of approximate deposition rates for the commoner arc welding processes
are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 Indicative deposition rates - arc welding processes

Deposition Rate kgs/hr

Welding Process min max

MMA 0.4 5.5

MAG 0.6 12

FCAW 1.0 15

Single wire SAW 3 16

To obtain an accurate figure for the specific parameters to be used is a relatively simple
exercise. Weighing a plate, depositing weld metal using the required parameters on this
plate for a fixed time and then re-weighing the plate will give an accurate figure that may be
used for estimating purposes.

There is one golden rule for minimising the cost of making a weld and, whilst this may seem
to be self-evident, it is worth repeating: deposit the minimum amount of the highest quality
weld metal with the largest gauge electrode or wire at the highest current in the shortest
possible time. This is obviously the ideal and can seldom be achieved in practice because of
limitations on heat input, access etc.

The implications of applying the golden rule are:

a. To deposit the minimum amount of weld metal the designer, aided by the welding
engineer, must select the smallest weld preparation that is capable of providing the
required weld quality. If the included angle is too narrow then lack of side wall fusion
is a possibility with the consequent costs of repair; too wide an angle is wasteful in
terms of deposited weld metal. Remember, though, that the cost of providing a weld
preparation (by flame-cutting, edge planning, milling etc) must also be included in
any costing exercise as must the cost of assembly. Machined weld preparations are
more accurate than flame cut edges and this may result in faster set-up times and a
reduced weld repair rate.

It may be possible to use a square edge preparation by using the deep penetration
characteristics of some of the welding processes; electron beam and laser welding
are the best examples of this technique. Plasma-TIG and activated flux TIG can
penetrate up to 10mm in a single pass; the 'finger' penetration of spray transfer MAG
welding can penetrate up to 6mm and a submerged arc weld can penetrate up to
15mm. There is also the benefit when using a square edge preparation in that the
consumption of filler metal is substantially reduced, the bulk of the weld metal being
provided by the parent material.

The final option on reducing costs when butt welding is for the designer to specify a
partial penetration joint. The most expensive weld pass in any full penetration butt
weld is the root pass and if this can be eliminated by using partial penetration joints
then substantial savings can be made. However, the decision to use partial
penetration welds should not be taken lightly but only if service conditions permit the
presence of a large crevice at the weld root. The designer will therefore need to
consider whether fatigue, creep, corrosion etc are likely to occur and must clearly
specify where the joints are permitted and the minimum acceptable weld throat.

b. Depositing the highest quality weld metal infers that the weld repair rate will be
reduced. Repair weld metal is very costly, particularly if the unacceptable defects are
detected late in the fabrication programme; perhaps after final assembly where
access is difficult or after post weld heat treatment. Accurate weld preparations and
fit-up, easy access for the welder, welds made in the flat position and well trained
welders will all help to minimise the weld repair rate.

c. Depositing weld metal with the largest electrode or wire at the highest current will
obviously give the highest weld deposition rate and shortest joint completion time.
The deposition rate figures in Table 1 give the minimum and maximum deposition
rates at minimum and maximum welding currents. As an example, a 1.2mm
diameter MAG wire at 120amps will deposit around 1.2 kgs/hr, at 380amps around 8
kgs/hr. To enable high welding currents to be used the item must be placed in the
flat position and there must be easy access for the welder. One benefit of using the
high welding currents is that the number of weld runs to fill the joint will be reduced
and this, in most circumstances, will result in less distortion than a large number of
low current weld passes. Remedial work to correct distortion can therefore be
reduced. A further benefit when welding the ferritic steels is that high current and
therefore high heat input may allow any preheat to be reduced or eliminated entirely.

However, there are limitations to this approach to improving productivity. If achieving high
toughness is a factor then it is likely that heat input will need to be controlled when welding
the ferritic steels, placing a limit on the welding current and travel speed. High welding
currents also imply a large, fluid weld pool and it may not be possible to control this pool
when welding in any other than the flat position - for example, MAG welding cannot be
performed using spray transfer (high welding current) in the vertical position due to the
absence of a flux to hold the pool in place. Using a manual process at such high currents
also results in increased welder fatigue resulting in a reduced duty cycle. A solution to this
problem is to mechanise or automate the process.

To achieve the most cost effective solution to producing a welded structure is therefore not
simply to increase duty cycle or deposition rate but to consider all aspects of fabrication
from the design stage to final inspection, involving all members of the team from designer
to welder.

This article was written by Gene Mathers.


Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding, Publ Lincoln Co.

Standard Data for Arc Welding, Publ TWI (out of print)

Welding Handbook Vol 2 Welding Processes, Publ American Welding Society

Last Reviewed 2008 / Copyright 2008 TWI Ltd Dishing of the steel
plate between
stiffeners can be
seen clearly on the
Distortion bow of this ship
(Courtesy MOD)
Types and causes

This article covers several key issues on distortion in arc welded

fabrications, especially basic types of and factors affecting the
degree of distortion.

What causes distortion?

Because welding involves highly localised heating of joint edges to

fuse the material, non-uniform stresses are set up in the
component because of expansion and contraction of the heated
material. Initially, compressive stresses are created in the
surrounding cold parent metal when the weld pool is formed due to
the thermal expansion of the hot metal (heat affected zone) adjacent to the weld pool.
However, tensile stresses occur on cooling when the contraction of the weld metal and the
immediate heat affected zone is resisted by the bulk of the cold parent metal.

The magnitude of thermal stresses induced into the material can be seen by the volume
change in the weld area on solidification and subsequent cooling to room temperature. For
example, when welding CMn steel, the molten weld metal volume will be reduced by
approximately 3% on solidification and the volume of the solidified weld metal/heat affected
zone (HAZ) will be reduced by a further 7% as its temperature falls from the melting point
of steel to room temperature.

If the stresses generated from thermal expansion/contraction exceed the yield strength of
the parent metal, localised plastic deformation of the metal occurs. Plastic deformation
causes a permanent reduction in the component dimensions and distorts the structure.
What are the main types of distortion?

Distortion occurs in six main forms:

Longitudinal shrinkage

Transverse shrinkage

Angular distortion

Bowing and dishing



The principal features of the more common forms of distortion for butt and fillet welds are

Contraction of the weld area on cooling results in both transverse and longitudinal

Non-uniform contraction (through thickness) produces angular distortion in addition to

longitudinal and transverse shrinkage.

For example, in a single V butt weld, the first weld run produces longitudinal and transverse
shrinkage and rotation. The second run causes the plates to rotate using the first weld
deposit as a fulcrum. Hence, balanced welding in a double side V butt joint can be used to
produce uniform contraction and prevent angular distortion.
Similarly, in a single side fillet weld, non-uniform contraction produces angular distortion of
the upstanding leg. Double side fillet welds can therefore be used to control distortion in the
upstanding fillet but because the weld is only deposited on one side of the base plate,
angular distortion will now be produced in the plate.

Longitudinal bowing in welded plates happens when the weld centre is not coincident with
the neutral axis of the section so that longitudinal shrinkage in the welds bends the section
into a curved shape. Clad plate tends to bow in two directions due to longitudinal and
transverse shrinkage of the cladding; this produces a dished shape. Dishing is also produced
in stiffened plating. Plates usually dish inwards between the stiffeners, because of angular
distortion at the stiffener attachment welds (see main photograph).

In plating, long range compressive stresses can cause elastic buckling in thin plates,
resulting in dishing, bowing or rippling.

Distortion due to elastic buckling is unstable: if you attempt to flatten a buckled plate, it will
probably 'snap' through and dish out in the opposite direction.

Twisting in a box section is caused by shear deformation at the corner joints This is caused
by unequal longitudinal thermal expansion of the abutting edges. Increasing the number of
tack welds to prevent shear deformation often reduces the amount of twisting.

How much shall I allow for weld shrinkage?

It is almost impossible to predict accurately the amount of shrinking. Nevertheless, a 'rule of

thumb' has been composed based on the size of the weld deposit. When welding steel, the
following allowances should be made to cover shrinkage at the assembly stage.

Transverse Shrinkage

Fillet Welds 0.8mm per weld where the leg length does not exceed 3/4 plate thickness

Butt weld 1.5 to 3mm per weld for 60 V joint, depending on number of runs

Longitudinal Shrinkage

Fillet Welds 0.8mm per 3m of weld

Butt Welds 3mm per 3m of weld

Increasing the leg length of fillet welds, in particular, increases shrinkage.

What are the factors affecting distortion?

If a metal is uniformly heated and cooled there would be almost no distortion. However,
because the material is locally heated and restrained by the surrounding cold metal,
stresses are generated higher than the material yield stress causing permanent distortion.
The principal factors affecting the type and degree of distortion, are:

Parent material properties

Amount of restraint

Joint design

Part fit-up

Welding procedure

Parent material properties

Parent material properties which influence distortion are coefficient of thermal expansion
and specific heat per unit volume. As distortion is determined by expansion and contraction
of the material, the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material plays a significant role
in determining the stresses generated during welding and, hence, the degree of distortion.
For example, as stainless steel has a higher coefficient of expansion than plain carbon steel,
it is more likely to suffer from distortion.


If a component is welded without any external restraint, it distorts to relieve the welding
stresses. So, methods of restraint, such as 'strong-backs' in butt welds, can prevent
movement and reduce distortion. As restraint produces higher levels of residual stress in the
material, there is a greater risk of cracking in weld metal and HAZ especially in crack-
sensitive materials.

Joint design

Both butt and fillet joints are prone to distortion. It can be minimised in butt joints by
adopting a joint type which balances the thermal stresses through the plate thickness. For
example, a double-sided in preference to a single-sided weld. Double-sided fillet welds
should eliminate angular distortion of the upstanding member, especially if the two welds
are deposited at the same time.

Part fit-up

Fit-up should be uniform to produce predictable and consistent shrinkage. Excessive joint
gap can also increase the degree of distortion by increasing the amount of weld metal
needed to fill the joint. The joints should be adequately tacked to prevent relative
movement between the parts during welding.
Welding procedure

This influences the degree of distortion mainly through its effect on the heat input. As
welding procedure is usually selected for reasons of quality and productivity, the welder has
limited scope for reducing distortion. As a general rule, weld volume should be kept to a
minimum. Also, the welding sequence and technique should aim to balance the thermally
induced stresses around the neutral axis of the component.

The article was prepared by Bill Lucas in collaboration with Geert Verhaeghe and Rick
Leggatt. E-mail: nmo@twi.co.uk

Copyright by TWI, 1999

Job knowledge for welders

Distortion - prevention by design
Strongbacks on girder flange to prevent cross
bowing. Courtesy John Allen

General guidelines are given below as 'best practice' for

limiting distortion when considering the design of arc welded

Design principles
At the design stage, welding distortion can often be prevented, or at least restricted, by

elimination of welding

weld placement

reducing the volume of weld metal

reducing the number of runs

use of balanced welding

Elimination of welding
As distortion and shrinkage are an inevitable result of welding, good design requires that
not only the amount of welding is kept to a minimum, but also the smallest amount of weld
metal is deposited. Welding can often be eliminated at the design stage by forming the plate
or using a standard rolled section, as shown in Fig 1.

Fig. 1 Elimination of welds by: a) forming

the plate; b) use of rolled or extruded
If possible, the design should use intermittent welds
rather than a continuous run, to reduce the amount of
welding. For example, in attaching stiffening plates, a
substantial reduction in the amount of welding can
often be achieved whilst maintaining adequate

Weld placement
Placing and balancing of welds are important in designing for minimum distortion. The closer
a weld is positioned to the neutral axis of a fabrication, the lower the leverage effect of the
shrinkage forces and the final distortion. Examples of poor and good designs are shown in
Fig 2.

Fig. 2 Distortion may be reduced by placing

the welds around the neutral axis

As most welds are deposited away from the neutral

axis, distortion can be minimised by designing the
fabrication so the shrinkage forces of an individual
weld are balanced by placing another weld on the
opposite side of the neutral axis. Whenever possible,
welding should be carried out alternately on opposite
sides, instead of completing one side first. In large structures, if distortion is occurring
preferentially on one side, it may be possible to take corrective actions, for example, by
increasing welding on the other side to control the overall distortion.

Reducing the volume of weld metal

To minimise distortion, as well as for economic reasons, the volume of weld metal should be
limited to the design requirements.
For a single-sided joint, the cross-section of the weld should be kept as small as possible to
reduce the level of angular distortion, as illustrated in Fig 3.

Fig. 3 Reducing the amount of angular distortion and

lateral shrinkage by: a) reducing the volume of weld
metal; b) using single pass weld
Joint preparation angle and root gap should be minimised providing the
weld can be made satisfactorily. To facilitate access, it may be possible to specify a larger
root gap and smaller preparation angle. By cutting down the difference in the amount of
weld metal at the root and the face of the weld, the degree of angular distortion will be
correspondingly reduced. Butt joints made in a single pass using deep penetration have little
angular distortion, especially if a closed butt joint can be welded (Fig 3). For example, thin
section material can be welded using plasma and laser welding processes and thick section
can be welded, in the vertical position, using electrogas and electroslag processes. Although
angular distortion can be eliminated, there will still be longitudinal and transverse shrinkage.

In thick section material, as the cross sectional area of a double-V joint preparation is often
only half that of a single-V preparation, the volume of weld metal to be deposited can be
substantially reduced. The double-V joint preparation also permits balanced welding about
the middle of the joint to eliminate angular distortion.

As weld shrinkage is proportional to the amount of weld metal, both poor joint fit-up and
over-welding will increase the amount of distortion. Angular distortion in fillet welds is
particularly affected by over-welding. As design strength is based on throat thickness, over-
welding to produce a convex weld bead does not increase the allowable design strength but
it will increase the shrinkage and distortion.

Reducing the number of runs

There are conflicting opinions on whether it is better to deposit a given volume of weld
metal using a small number of large weld passes or a large number of small passes.
Experience shows that for a single-sided butt joint, or a single-side fillet weld, a large single
weld deposit gives less angular distortion than if the weld is made with a number of small
runs. Generally, in an unrestrained joint, the degree of angular distortion is approximately
proportional to the number of passes.

Completing the joint with a small number of large weld deposits results in more longitudinal
and transverse shrinkage than a weld completed in a larger number of small passes. In a
multi-pass weld, previously deposited weld metal provides restraint, so the angular
distortion per pass decreases as the weld is built up. Large deposits also increase the risk of
elastic buckling particularly in thin section plate.

Use of balanced welding

Balanced welding is an effective means of controlling angular distortion in a multi-pass butt
weld by arranging the welding sequence to ensure that angular distortion is continually
being corrected and not allowed to accumulate during welding. Comparative amounts of
angular distortion from balanced welding and welding one side of the joint first are shown
schematically in Fig 4. The balanced welding technique can also be applied to fillet joints.
Fig. 4 Balanced welding to reduce the
amount of angular distortion
If welding alternately on either side of the joint is not
possible, or if one side has to be completed first, an
asymmetrical joint preparation may be used with
more weld metal being deposited on the second side.
The greater contraction resulting from depositing the
weld metal on the second side will help counteract
the distortion on the first side.

Best practice
The following design principles can control distortion:

eliminate welding by forming the plate and using rolled or extruded sections

minimise the amount of weld metal

do not over weld

use intermittent welding in preference to a continuous weld pass

place welds about the neutral axis

balance the welding about the middle of the joint by using a double-V joint in
preference to a single-V joint

Adopting best practice principles can have surprising cost benefits. For example, for a
design fillet leg length of 6mm, depositing an 8mm leg length will result in the deposition of
57% additional weld metal. Besides the extra cost of depositing weld metal and the increase
risk of distortion, it is costly to remove this extra weld metal later. However, designing for
distortion control may incur additional fabrication costs. For example, the use of a double-V
joint preparation is an excellent way to reduce weld volume and control distortion, but extra
costs may be incurred in production through manipulation of the workpiece for the welder to
access the reverse side.

This article was prepared by Bill Lucas with help from Rick Leggatt and Gene Mathers.
Last Reviewed 2010 / Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

Functions of a Welding Inspector

Functions of a welding inspector may include:

(1) Codes, standards and specifications: Interpretation of the intent and ensuring the requirements of codes, standards
and specifications are met.

(2) Welding procedures: Ensuring that a procedure is available, has been approved and is being employed in production.

(3) Witnessing of welder and procedure approval tests: Witnessing the preparation of test plates and destructive tests
and verifying compliance with appropriate standards and specifications.

(4) Welder approvals: Verifying that adequate and valid welder approvals are available, and that only approved welders are
used in production.

(5) Parent material: Verifying parent material against documentation and markings.

(6) Welding consumables identity: Verification of correctness of welding consumables (electrodes, filler wires,
consumable inserts, gases, fluxes etc.)

(7) Pre-weld inspection: Verification that dimensions, fit-up and weld preparations are in accordance with specifications.

(8) Preheating: Verification that any required preheat is in accordance with the specified procedure.

(9) In-process welding inspection and surveillance: Surveillance during welding to verify compliance with specified
procedures including any preheat, interpass temperature control and post heat requirements.

(10) Inspection and Test Plans: Assistance and agreement with the preparation of Inspection and Test Plans (ITPs)

(11) Post-weld heat treatment: Verification, when required that post weld heat treatment has been conducted in
accordance with specification requirements.

(12) Post-weld visual inspection: Visual inspection and dimensional check of completed weldment against specification
requirements and drawings.

(13) NDT reports: The study and cognisance of NDT results on any welding work for which the welding inspector is
responsible. Where the duties of the welding inspector include using NDT methods such as liquid penetrant, magnetic
particle, radiography or ultrasonic inspection then it is suggested that he/she obtains certification in accordance with the
related approval schemes.

(14) Reports: Evaluation of and preparation of inspection reports for the employer or the client.

(15) Records: Maintenance of records of inspections carried out

A welding inspector should act in a professional manner:

- When reporting unacceptable conditions, always use the correct terminology.

- Never approve the start of welding until the welding procedure has been approved.

- Always ensure the welding is being carried out within the limits of the approved procedure.

- Always be prepared to learn and listen.

- Have inspection experience and knowledge

- Never approve anything that does not meet the requirements unless it has been accepted by the client.

- Always work with people and not against them.

- Use engineering judgment and commonsense.

- Always seek to obtain respect and cooperation.

- Be in a good physical condition and be able to go where the welder has been.

Interested in improving your welding inspection knowledge, then contact HERA on 09 262 4847 or email your interest to

CV - Qa/Qc Engineer / Welding Inspector, Oil and Gas

Year of birth 1975

Permanent/Home Location/Address

City or Town darbhanga

Country INDIA

Current Location/Address

Country QATAR

Primary Fluency

English Read, write and speak fluently


Main Nationality INDIA

Experience Classification

Job Function Years Experience

QA/QC Engineer 10

Welding Inspector 5

Industry Years Experience

Oil and Gas 10


Highest Degree

Qualification Subject Establishment/CountryYear

Degree B.TECH in A.M.U Aligarh, India 1999


HNC/ONC/Certificat Certified welding American Welding 2008

e inspector Society(AWS)

Trade Qualifications NDT Level II ASNT 2009

Computer Skills and Software Used

ms word, ms excel, ms power point

Work Locations

Are you willing to move

or relocate?

Yes - I will travel



Start Available Now


Earliest Start Date Given 4 weeks notice

Ideal Next Job

looking for work in a QA/QC Engineer / welding inspector role in the middle east and its open to all

Required Salary & Conditions

USD2000- 2500 per month( basic for 8 hours) plus paid housing and fooding plus atleast 15 days paid
leave after 180 days of work.

Employment History

Total Years of Work 11


Commenced Full 1999

Time Work:

Name Qatar Kentz

Job Title: Qa/Qc Engineer / Welding Inspector

Duration From : 2005 To:


More than 10 years of experience in Oil & Gas Projects including 5 years experience in Middle East in
the field of QA/QC. Working in Qatar Kentz as a QA/QC Engineer / Welding Inspector for the past 5
years for its ongoing various onshore and offshore project. Through knowledge of welding processes.
Through knowledge of stage wise and final inspection. Fully conversant with various codes like
ASME, AWS and API etc. Familiar with various engineering materials. Familiar with destructive and
non destructive tests. Fully conversant with engineering drawings, codes, standards and specification

Work Experience

1. Employers Name: QATAR KENTZ

Position Held: QA/QC Engineer / Welding Inspector

Period : 04th April 2005 to till date

[4 years 8 Month]
Project: Qatar Gas Expansion project,
SHELL Pearl GTL project
Location: Ras Laffan Industrial City (State of Qatar)

Project: Qatar Petroleum Project

(Installation of intelligent pigging facilities)
Location: Qatar Petroleum offshore platform PS2 &PS3

Project: SIPCHEM Acetyl Complex Project

(Loading and Receiving facilities of Acetic Acid,
Acetic Anhydrate and VAM)
Location: Jubail Industrial City , Saudi Arabia

Project: Laffan Refinery Project

(Loading and Receiving facilities of products)

Location: Raslaffan Industrial City , Qatar

KENTZ Group having ISO 9001 certification is an international group of companies with approximately
15,000 staff in Europe, Africa, Middle East, Asia and the Americas. The KENTZ Group is represented by
subsidiaries and offices in 16 countries world-wide. KENTZ Group has been providing quality services to
leading international clients Since 1919. The Group's activities are focused on Hydrocarbons, Process,
Power, Industrial and Communications business sectors.

Supervising and managing all Quality Control functions in the work place.
Leading a team of QC inspectors for day to day QC functions.
Preparing and submitting the Project Quality Plan and Inspection Test Plan to client for approval.
Inspection and verification of various raw material like pipes, fittings, valves, structural material and
welding consumables with certificates as per codes and project specification.
Reviewing of documents like project quality plan, inspection test plan, design, drawings, codes,
project specification etc.
Identifying, preparing and witnessing WPS and PQR as per codes and project specification.
Witnessing Welder Qualification Test as per code and project specification.
Preparing, implementing and monitoring the procedure for low hydrogen electrodes.
Performing stage wise and final inspection for the production weld joint in coordination with client.
Checking Preheat and PWHT requirement for Piping and Equipments.
Identifying the joints for NDE and making request for NDE.
Witnessing PT, MT & UT and Reviewing the Radiographic film.
Performing review and recording of the test results.
Preparing the Test Pack for Hydro Test and Pneumatic Test.
Preparing Final QC Dossier for handing over to client and maintaining proper filing system with full
traceability to retrieve the documents.
Acting as focal point in implementing the Project Quality Plan to clients satisfaction.
Establishing and maintaining excellent relationship with clients.
Coordinating with third party inspection agencies for all related inspection activities.
Acting as coordination point for internal and external audits.


Position Held: QA/QC Engineer

Period: 05th March 2001 to 2ndApril2005 (04 Years)

Project: RMP (Refinery Modernization Project) of BPCL

Location: Mahul Refinery, Mumbai (India)


Petron Engineering Construction Ltd. has seen steady growth over two and a half decades from
1976.The Group consists of five operating divisions employing more than 5,000 people. The company
provides services in Mechanical, Erection, Piping, Electrical, Instrumentation, Painting, Refractory &
Insulation work for Refineries, Chemicals, Petrochemicals, Cement, Fertilizers, Metallurgical, Power
plants and other Industrial Plants.


Reviewed clients specifications , work scope and prepared detailed quality execution plan for project
Reviewed Sub contractors WPS/PQR, Inspection/Test Plan and Procedures
Identified and prepared Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) & PQR for jobs as per project
specifications and verified Welders meet PQR requirements.
Coordinated with clients to undertake Procedure Qualification Tests (PQT), done inspection of
prepared test specimens and witnessed destructive tests.
Ensured product / work are in line with applicable quality and technical standards, contractual
agreements and company approved quality control procedures.
Done Verification of welding machines to ensure equipment meets the job requirements.
Conducted fitt-up and dimension inspections as per Inspection and Test Plan (ITP) and provided
technical guidance for welding sequence and distortion control.
Monitored Welder performance and conducted visual inspections of welds and repairs of welds in
accordance with Company procedures and international codes of practice.
Made sure welding consumables are as per WPS and Code.
Prepared the NDT request as per Clients requirement and co-ordinated with NDT sub contractors.

3. Employers Name DURHA COMPONENT

Position Held: QA/QC Engineer
Period: 15th July1999 to 07th February 2001
(1 Years)
Project: BXP (Barauni Expansion Project) of IOCL

Location: Barauni Refinery, Bihar (India)


Performed Inspection of Raw Materials, stage wise fabrication and Final Inspection of fabricated items.
Conducted Fit up, Visual, Dimensional inspection & Monitoring of Welding parameters during welding.
Prepared and Witnessed procedure tests and welder/welding operator qualification tests.
Maintained Welders continuity record and prepared Welders Performance/ Qualification Records.
Monitored the construction process from all aspects to ensure activities meet job quality and design
requirements in accordance with Company procedures and international standards
Prepared the NDT request and co-ordinated with NDT sub contractors.
Witnessed the hardness test, reviewed PHWT charts, NDT activities.
Reviewed hydrostatic/pneumatic test packages for piping systems and monitored test and also
ensuring procedures are adhered to & witnessed Hydrostatic and Pneumatic Test for Vessels and Piping.
Prepared all equipment punch lists and verify all items are in place and act as an agent for the
Company during punch list activity.
-20670 8 Add Message

Posted By: welding inspector

sinnadurai Posted: 8/7/2006 11:45 GMT-07


18+ Years Experience in Inspection of Welding, Fabrication & Erection

S. Seetharaman,
Dr. Selvamani complex, Door No #
Soorakuzhi, Virudhachalam road,
Andimadam (Post), Perambalur (District),
Tamil Nadu
INDIA- 621801.
PHONE: 00914331242207, 00966 551021454
E-mail ID: sinrams@yahoo.com

Personnel profile:


Nationality: Indian
Date of birth: 04th Feb 1967
Marital Status: Married
Language Known: English, Hindi, Tamil, Malayalam.
Passport Details: No. A-9293735
Valid till 25-04-2011. Place of issue- RIYADH, K. S. A.

Technical Qualification:





Certification No: 04101011, Expiry Date: October-2007.


Certification No: 24641, Expiry Date: 24 June 2011

o ASNT LEVEL II in Ultrasonic Test (UT)

ASNT LEVEL-II in Radiography Test (RT)
ASNT LEVEL -II in Magnetic particle Test (MPT)
ASNT LEVEL- II in Penetrant Test (PT).
ASNT LEVEL-II in Radiography Film Interpretation (RTFI)

Total Experience: 18 YEARS

15 Years in abroad
3 Years in India
Experience and Qualified for all QC functions related to work involving welding
inspection activities, familiar with International Codes as well as Saudi Aramco
Engineering Standards.
Areas of Expertise
Familiar with International codes like API 1104, ASME- V, VIII, IX, B31.3,
B31.4, and B31.8. AWS D1.1, API-650, API-620 and Saudi Aramco Engineering
Review WPS, Qualify PQR and WQT.
Carrying out stage inspections as per Quality control plans / Project
Document Control and Test Pack preparation.
Inspection Experience in Pipe and Structural Fabrication in Shop and on
construction Sites

Computer Literature: M. S. Office, AUTO CAD-2004





CONTRACTOR: M. S. AL-SUWAIDI (ISO 9002)- Saudi Arabia


Review of document such as Welding Procedure Specification (WPS),
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR), and Welder Qualification Record.
Materials receiving inspection of piping materials, structural materials and
gaskets and welding electrode and filler materials.
Review NDE procedure and Positive Materials Identification System.
Review parent metal and weld joint identification system
Review of electrode issuance control procedure
Review of Heat Treatment procedure.
Fabrication shop qualification and approval.
Welding consumable verification, Daily visual inspection of storage and
Welding equipment calibration verification electrode baking oven, portable
oven and inspection instruments.
Positive Materials Identification of low alloy steel, duplex stainless steel,
Cooper Nickel Materials.
Pre-welding and weld joint fit-up inspection, In- process welding inspection.
Post welding visual inspection and weld repair verification.
Witness of Hardness testing and post welding heat treatment
Production weld and welder repair rate assessment (by joint wise and by
linear wise)
Final inspection of completed pipe spools and structural components.
Final inspection for release.
Percentage coverage of NDE as per applicable standard (by line wise, Drawing
wise and welder wise)
Final welding documentation (welding summary report, record weld map and
NDT reports)
Controlling the issue of NCRs to record any non- conforming items and
ensuring that appropriate corrective actions are taken.
Vendor inspection for API oil storage tank, Pressure Multimedia filters etc.
Inspection of Plumb ness, pneumatic test, oil penetrant test, vacuum test,
Hydro test, and final settlement inspection of tanks.
Monitor the ultrasonic test for thickness measure inspection prior to Tie- In.
Welding Inspection activities on normal Tie-In job and Hot Tapping
Review Hydrotest procedure
Check calibration of pressure gauge and safety relief valve
Hydrotest inspection of plant piping and pipe line
Reinstatement Inspection.
ASTM A106 Gr B, API 5L Gr B, A105 Gr B, SS304, 304L, 316, 316L, Low Alloy
Steel A335 Gr P11, A335GrP22, ALLUMINIUM ALLOY 6061-T6, A333 (LTCS),
Cu- Ni etc.




Review of project Quality plans, Inspection Test plans and construction Method
Statements to cover all project activities.
Witnessing for the welder qualification test (WQT) and procedure qualification
test with various materials P1-P1, P1-P3, P1-P4
Daily visit to consumable store, check for consumable storage and handling,
baking and holding oven temperature as per specification.
Raise RFI for joint fit-up and welded joints of tubes, tube attachments, skin
bars welding and structural welding.
Monitoring welding inspection with various materials P1-P1, P1-P3, P1-P4.
Periodically inspect the electrode issuance and issuance log, electrode backing
and maintaining oven temperature log.
Preparing weld map, joint number and enter the joint detail, RT reports in the
Request for NDT and co-ordinate with NDT crew, review and control the NDT
Prepare welding inspection summary report.
Controlling the issue of NCRs to record any non- conforming items and
ensuring that appropriate corrective actions are taken.
Ensuring the accurate calibration records is maintained for welding
equipments, ovens and measuring instruments.
Maintain all the records of welder qualifications, performance etc.
Resolve clients non-conformities
Carry out 100% weld visual inspection
Maintaining the welders performance record.





Review the WPS, PQR
Witness inspection for the welder qualification test (WQT).
Daily check for consumable storage and handling, baking and holding oven
temperature as per specification.
Carry out fit-up and welding inspection on daily basis.
Carry out during welding inspection, check for inter pass temperature, preheat
Plotting of daily welded joints on ISO.
Monitor %of NDE line wise and welder wise as per project requirement
Request for NDT and PWHT and co-ordination
Monitor weekly welder performance and overall rejection rate.
Monitor line wise weld summary
Review the calibration certificate of welding equipment, baking ovens,
portable oven and measuring instruments.
Take care for TIE-INs, check existing line material and guide to use correct
type of filler metal, electrode as per WPS.
Carry out line check inspection, issue punch list to production crew, witness
for punch items, offer the line check to client, witness clients punch items.
Review hydrotest package check the ISO drawings, plan drawings, P&ID
drawings, and limit of hydrotest.
Check calibration certificate of pressure gauge and safety relief valve,
hydrotested manifold.





Periodically check the electrode issuance, issuance log and electrode baking
and maintaining oven temperature.
Inspect overall welding process before, during and after.
Prepare and check the quantity and quality of the welding consumable to
meet the requirements of project.
Periodically check the electrode temperature and inter pass cleaning and
voltage and current settings.
Ensuring that accurate calibration records are maintained for all welding
machines, inspection and testing instruments in use.
Monitoring welding inspection with various materials.
Carry out fit-up and welding inspection on daily basis.
Plotting of daily welded joints on ISO
Monitor % of NDE line wise and welder wise as per w-011 (Aramco standard)
Monitor weekly welder performance and overall rejection rate.
Monitor line wise weld summary.
Maintain all the records of welder qualification, performance etc.
Maintain the calibration certificate of welding equipment, ovens and
measuring instruments etc.
Maintaining QA/QC documentation activities to comply with company system.
Monitoring PWHT process and maintaining the proper document.

Experience details : AS WELDING SUPERVISOR

PETROKEMYA [SABIC]- Butene-3 Samsung project, Jubail.
SAUDI ARAMCO-gas plant project, TPL [TECHNIP-Italy], Hawiyah.
KEMYA [SABIC]- Expansion project, jubail.
SADAF (SABIC) MTBE project, jubail.
SAUDI ARAMCO-Gas plant project, Uthmaniya.
SADAF (SABIC) Ethylene project, jubail


Responsible for the inspection of all welding activities
Inspection of consumable as per WPS.
Review the WPS, PQR,
Prepare and check the quantity and quality of the welding consumable to
meet the requirements of project.
Control and periodically check the electrode baking and issuance log and
maintain electrode baking and maintaining oven temperature.
Carry out fit-up and welding inspection on daily basis.
Monitoring welding inspection with various materials.
Ensuring that accurate calibration records are maintained for all welding
machines, inspection and testing instruments in use.
Periodically inspect preheat and inter pass temperature.
Review and updating on the ISO drawing of the daily fit-up and welding
inspection report, NDT report details.
Prepare daily welding inspection summary report.
Prepare the weekly monitoring welder performance Record and overall
rejection rate.
Monitoring NDE % line wise and welder wise.
Monitor Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT).



SADAF (SABIC)-Expansion project, jubail.
SADAF (SABIC) TANK Repair and maintenance project
Fit-up inspection of pipe spools at fabrication shop and site, check for root
gap, root face bevel angle, alignment, mismatch as per WPS, levelness, line
number, drawing number, joint number etc as per ISO drawing.
Fit-up inspection of pipe support, platform, column and all type of structural
Review project specification, approved drawings quality control plan,
procedures, method of statements and other relevant documents.
Review material traceability reports against the actual heat number of
Carry out line check inspection, check for orifice flange, valve type and
direction, gasket, bolt and nut as per specification on ISO drawing, any missing
items, check levelness, straightness, plumbness.
Monitor NDT requirements as per applicable codes or standards.
Site investigation and preparation of technical clarification/ queries for design
changed. I.e. changed for piping and piping components, pipe sizing, material
specifications and re-route of pipelines.
Responsible for test package preparation consisting of piping and instruments
diagram (P&ID), line list and isometric drawing of the above ground piping.
Reflect the as-built drawing to the isometric drawings master file.
Checked piping lines to ensure all the associated appurtenances for the piping
system was properly installed i.e. bolts/nuts, gaskets, pressure taps, plugs,
vents and drains including the pipe supports.
Make punch list and witness the punch items. Offer line for hydrotest to client.

Prepare line history sheet for the test packages prior to hydrostatic testing.
Reinstatement and installation of control valves including permanent bolts /
nuts and gaskets

Experience details : AS MECHANICAL FOREMAN

BOILER ERECTION), (May-1990-March-1991)


v Responsible for fabrication and erection of Heavy structural columns,
Platforms, Ducts, Crane Headers.
v Responsible for fabrication and erection of pipe spools.



NON DUSTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION (NDE)-Seminar is conducted by Training
Center for NDT Technology, Dammam (K. S. A)