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WILL under Indian Law

Posted On August 12, 2011 by &filed under Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Legal Articles.

Will is the legal declaration of a persons intention which he


wishes to be performed after his death and once the Will is made by the testator it can only be
revoke during his lifetime. A person cannot give his ancestors property in the form of a Will but
he can make a Will only of his Self-Acquired property. A Will does not involve any transfer, nor
affect any transfer inter-vivos, but it is an expression of intending to appoint a person who will
look after the properties after his (Testator) death. A Will regulates the succession and provides
for succession as declared by the testator.
Historical Background of Wills: As the time rolled the emergence of the Will became more
popular, Indian Law which is governed under Section: 5 of The Indian Succession Act, 1925
which provides different rules for intestate succession and testamentary succession in India. It
applies to all the communities in India except Muslim community. In India there is a well
developed system of succession laws that governs a persons property after his death. The
Indian Succession Act 1925 applies expressly to Wills and codicils made by Hindus, Buddhists,
Sikhs, Jains, Parsis and Christians but not to Mohammedans as they are largely covered by
Muslim Personal Law.
Statutory Definition of Will: The term Will is defined under Section: 2(h) of The Indian
Succession Act, 1925, means the legal declaration of the intention of a testator with respect to
his property which he desires to be carried into effect after his death. A testator is authorised with
a power to appoint any person as beneficiary of his Will whereas Section: 5 deals with the law
regulating succession to deceased persons moveable and immovable property
Meaning of will: A Will or testament is a legal declaration by which a person, the testator,
names one or more persons to manage his/her estate and provides for the transfer of his/her
property at the time of death. A Will can be made by anyone above 21 years of age in India. A
Will is a statement made by a testator in the written form stating the manner in which his
estate/property must be distributed after his death. A Will being a testamentary document comes
into effect after the death of the testator and if the person dies without writing any Will then he is
said to be have died intestate. The person in whose favour the testator bestows the benefits called
beneficiary or legatee. A Will is otherwise called as Testament.
Features of A Valid Will: There are certain characteristics which should be included in the
instrument of will such as :-
The Name of The Testator: The name of the testator should be mentioned accurately without
any error in initials, spelling or grammatical mistake so that it will not affect the instrument of
Will. The name of the testator can also be clarified by looking into his birth certificate or any
school certificates.
Right To Appoint Legatee: The testator is having absolute right to appoint any person as a
legatee or beneficiary of a Will and legatee should execute the Will carefully and in accordance
with the law.
To Take Effect After Death: A testator who is having power to make the Will during his
lifetime, but it will take effect only after his death. A gift made by a person during his lifetime
and will take effect during his lifetime, cannot be considered as a Will.
Revocability Under The Law: In general a Will made by the testator can be revoke at any
time during his lifetime and testator can choose any other person as his legatee. There may be
chances where a testator wishes to bring some alterations in the Will then he can make some
necessary amendments in the prepared Will which is otherwise called as Codicil. A third party
can not file a civil suit against the testator on the ground of cancellation of the Will. A Will made
by the testator may be irrevocable in some cases where an agreement is entered into contrary to
the Will, may bind the testator.
Intention of The Testator supreme: The testator of the Will has right to revoke Will at any
time which can only be proved by the intention of the testator that whether he is intending to
revoke the previous testamentary instruments made by him or he can state in his Will that This
is my last Will then it can be presumed that all the earlier testamentary instruments has been
revoked.
The Declaration to be Last Will: A person as testator has power to make declaration of Will
unnumerable times but it is always the last will of testator which will prevail. The words I
declare this to be my last will need not be stated in the instrument of the Will. Once the Will is
made by the testator Inserting of words Last and Only will at the time of death it can be
presumed that all the previous Wills will get revoked and fresh Will has to be effected.
Lost Subsequent Will: Mere loss of the original Will does not operate a revocation but it has
to be inferring by the stringent evidence to prove its revocability and a testator must show the
genuine reasons for the loss of the Will. Once it is proved that a original will is lost then
Subsequent Will will be valid.
Kinds of Wills: A testator who has right to make a Will for the future benefits of his family
members which will take effect after his death, the there are certain types of Wills which has to
be looked into:
1. Privileged Wills: As it can be understood from the word privilege provided to certain
persons. A privileged Will is one which is made by any soldier, airman, navy persons, mariner
who are willing to dispose of their estate during their course of employment. A soldier includes
officers and all other rank officers of service but does not include a civilian engineer employed
by the army, having no military status. A soldier while making an instrument of Will must have
attained the age of 18 years and where a will made by the soldier is in the oral form, will be valid
only for a month though a written Will always remain operative. A privileged Will may be
revoked by the testator by an unprivileged Will or codicil, or buy any act expressing an intention
to revoke it and accompanied by such formalities as would be sufficient to give validity to a
privileged Will, or by the burning, tearing or otherwise destroying the same by the testator.
2. Unprivileged Wills: Wills executed according to the provisions of Section 63 of the
Indian Succession Act, 1925 are called Unprivileged Wills. An unprivileged Will is one which
is created by every testator not being a soldier, airman, mariner so employed. An unprivileged
Will like Codicil can be revoked by the testator only by another Will or by some writing
declaring an intention to revoke the same and to be executed in the manner in which an
unprivileged Will can be executed under the Act or by burning, tearing or destroying of the same
by the testator or by some other person in his presence and by his directions with the intention of
revoking the same.
Who Can Make Will: Every person who is competent to contract may make a will but he must
be major, sound mind and willing to write a Will. Any person who is the sole owner of a self-
acquired property can bequeath by way of will. A person of unsound mind can also make a will
but only in lucid intervals. A Will cannot be made by some persons i.e. minors, insolvent,
persons disqualified under any law by the court. A Will executed by a minor is void and
inoperative though a testamentary guardian can be appointed for the minor to dispose off the
property. A Will can be made by the deaf and dumb person by showing consent through writing
or gestures in sign language. Nothing prevents a prisoner or alien in India from drawing a Will.
For Whom The Will Can Be Made: Any person capable of holding property can be a legatee
under a will and therefore a minor, lunatic, a corporation, a Hindu deity and other juristic person
can be a legatee. Sections 112 to 117 of Indian Succession Act, 1925 put some restrictions on
the disposition of property by will in certain cases. Dispositions of property by will in some
cases have been declared void. If the minor person has been named as legatee by a testator then a
guardian should be appointed by the testator himself to manage the bequeathed property.
What Can Be Bequeath In A Will: Any movable or immovable property can be disposed off
by a will by its owner, that property must be a self acquired property of that person and it should
not be an ancestral property of the testator. According to Section: 30 of Hindu Succession Act,
1956 provides that any Hindu may dispose off by will or other testamentary disposition any
property, which is capable of being so, disposed of by him in accordance with law.
General Procedure To Make A Will: A Will should be prepared with utmost care and must
contain several parts to make a complete Will though there is no defined format for making a
Will but a general procedure should be adopted while writing a Will by the testator which
includes:
1. Declaration In The Beginning: In the first paragraph, person who is making a Will, has to
declare that he is making this Will in his full senses and free from any kind of pressure and
undue influence and he has to clearly mention his full name, address, age, etc at the time of
writing the Will so that it confirms that a person really wishes to write a Will.
2. Details of Property and Documents: The next step is to provide list of items and their
current values, like house, land, bank fixed deposits, postal investments, mutual funds, share
certificates owned by testator. He must also state the place where he has kept all the documents if
the will documents are under safe custody of the bank then testator has to write details about the
releasing of the Will from the bank. Here it is the most important duty of the testator to
communicate the above matter to the executor of the Will or any other family members, which
will make the Will valid after testator death.
3. Details of ownership By The Testator: A testator while making a original Will should
specifically mention that who should own his entire property or assets so that it will not affect the
interest of the successors after his death. If testator wishes the name of the minor as beneficiary
then a custodian of the property should be appointed to manage the property.
4. Attestation of the Will : At the end, once the testator complete writing his Will, he must
sign the will very carefully in presence of at least two independent witnesses, who have to sign
after his signature, certifying that the testator has signed the Will in their presence. The date and
place also must be indicated clearly at the bottom of the Will. It is not necessary that a person
should sign all the pages of the Will instrument but he must sign to avoid any legal disturbances.
5. Execution of A Will: On the death of the testator, an executor of the Will or an heir of the
deceased testator can apply for probate. The court will ask the other heirs of the deceased if they
have any objections to the Will. If there are no objections, the court will grant probate .A probate
is a copy of a Will, certified by the court. A probate is to be treated as conclusive evidence of the
genuineness of a Will. In case any objections are raised by any of the heirs, a citation has to be
served, calling upon them to consent. This has to be displayed prominently in the court.
Thereafter, if no objection is received, the probate will be granted and It is only after that Will
comes into effect.
Registration of Wills: According to the Section: 18 of the Registration Act, 1908 the
registration of a Will is not compulsory. Once a Will is registered, It is a strong legal evidence
that the proper parties had appeared before the registering officers and the latter had attested the
same after. The process of registration begins when a Will instrument is deposited to the registrar
or sub-registrar of jurisdictional area by the testator himself or his authorised agent. Once the
scrutiny of Will instrument is done by the registrar and registrar is satisfied with all the
documents then registrar will make the entry in the Register-Book by writing year, month, day
and hour of such presentation of the document and will issue a certified copy to the testator. In
case if registrar refuses to order Will to be registered then testator himself or his authorised agent
can institute a civil suit in a court of law and court will pass decree of registration of Will if court
is satisfied with the evidence produced by the plaintiff. A suit can only be filed within 30 days
after the refusal of registration by the registrar. If the testator willing to withdraw the Will after
the process of registration then a sufficient reason has to be given to registrar, if satisfied he will
order for the registration of Will.
Revocation of Wills: A Will is liable to be revoked or altered by the maker of it at any time
when he is competent to dispose of his property by Will. A Will can be revoked by testator of the
Will at any point of time which can be classified into two aspects such as:-
Voluntary Revocation: A testator who wishes to revoke his original Will which is made by
him on a specified date and time, he can make revocation of the will himself by writing a
subsequent Will or codicil duly executed and by destruction of the previous will, means by
burning, tearing, destroying or striking out the signature of the original instrument of a Will.
Involuntary Revocation: According to the Section: 69 of the Indian Succession Act, 1925
which deals with revocation of will by the testators marriage, however this provision does not
apply to Hindus. Section 57 of the Indian Succession Act clearly states that a testators marriage
will not make the Will invalid.
Probate: It is the copy of the will which is given to the executor together with a certificate
granted under the seal of the court and signed, by one of the registrars, certifying that the will has
been proved. The application for probate shall be made by petition along with copy of last Will
and testament of the deceased to the court of competent jurisdiction. The copy of the will and
grant of administration of the testators estate together, form the probate. It is conclusive
evidence of the validity and due execution of the will and of the testamentary capacity of the
testator. A probate is obtained to authenticate the validity of the will and it is the only proper
evidence of the executors appointment. The grant of probate to the executor does not confer
upon him any title to the property which the testator himself had no right to dispose off which
did belong to the testator and over which he had a disposing power with a grant of administration
to the estate of the testator. Probate proceedings cannot be referred to Arbitration. The probate
court (whether it is the District Court or High Court) has been granted and conferred with
exclusive jurisdiction to grant probate of a Will of the deceased.
Wills By Muslims Under Mohammedan Law: A Will under Mohammedan Law is called
as Wasiyat, which means a moral exhortation or a declaration in compliance with moral duty of
every Muslim to make arrangements for the distribution of his estate or property. The
Mohammedan Law restricts a Muslim person to bequeath his whole property in a will and allows
him to bequeath 1/3rd of his estate by writing will, which will take effect after his death. A will
may be in the form of oral or written if the will is in writing need not be signed if signed need not
be attested. Acc to Shia Law if served bequests are made through a will, priority should be given
to determination by the order in which they are mentioned a bequest by way of will. A Will Can
be made by a person who is of sound mind, major and possessing a absolute title, in favour of a
person who is capable of holding property except unborn persons and heirs. The revocation of
will is possible only if the subsequent Will is made by the testator. A Muslim person who is
allowed to bequeath 1/3rd of his estate, he can exceed its limit on testamentary power of 1/3rd to
1/4th in case where heirs gives consent or only heir is husband or wife
This is the html version of the
file http://districtcourtsnamchi.nic.in/laws/indian_succession_act_1925.pdf.
Google automatically generates html versions of documents as we crawl the web.
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THEINDIANSUCCESSIONACT,1925
ACTNo.39OF19251*
[30thSeptember,1925.]
AnActtoconsolidatethelawapplicabletointestateandtestamentarysuccession2*;
WHEREASitisexpedienttoconsolidatethelawapplicabletointestateandtestamentary
succession2*;Itisherebyenactedasfollows:
PARTI
PRELIMINARY
1.Shorttitle..ThisActmaybecalledtheIndianSuccessionAct,1925.
2.Definitions.InthisAct,unlessthereisanythingrepugnantinthesubjector
context,
(a)"administrator"meansapersonappointedbycompetent
authoritytoadministertheestateofadeceasedperson
whenthereisnoexecutor;
(b)"codicil"meansaninstrumentmadeinrelationtoa
will,andexplaining,alteringoraddingtoits
dispositions,andshallbedeemedtoformpartofthe
will;
3*
[(bb)"DistrictJudge"meanstheJudgeofaprincipal
CivilCourtoforiginaljurisdiction;]
(c)"executor"meansapersontowhomtheexecutionofthe
lastwillofadeceasedpersonis,bythetestator's
appointment,confided;
4*[(cc)"India"meanstheterritoryofIndiaexcludingthe
StateofJammuandKashmir;]
(d)"IndianChristian"meansanativeofIndiawhois,orin
goodfaithclaimstobe,ofunmixedAsiaticdescentand
whoprofessesanyformoftheChristianreligion;
(e)"minor"meansanypersonsubjecttotheIndianMajority
Act,1875(9of1875.),whohasnotattainedhis
majoritywithinthemeaningofthatAct,andanyotherpersonwhohasnot
completedtheageofeighteenyears;and"minority"
meansthestatusofanysuchperson;

1TheActhasbeenextendedtoBerarbytheBerarLawsAct,1941(4
of1941)andtoManipurbytheUnionTerritories(Laws)Amendment
Act,1956(68of1956).
ExtendedtoandbroughtintoforcoinDadraandNagarHaveli
(w.e.f.1.7.65)bReg.6of1963,s.2&Sch.I.
2Thewords"intheProvincesofIndia"omittedbytheA.O.1950.
3Ins.byAct18of1929,s.2.
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4Ins.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.

(f)"probate"meansthecopyofawillcertifiedunderthe
sealofaCourtofcompetentjurisdictionwithagrant
ofadministrationtotheestateofthetestator;
1*
[(g)"State"includesanydivisionofIndiahavingaCourt
ofthelastresort;]and
(h)"will"meansthelegaldeclarationoftheintentionofa
testatorwithrespecttohispropertywhichhedesires
tobecarriedintoeffectafterhisdeath.
3.PowerofStateGovernmenttoexemptanyrace,sectortribeintheState
fromoperationofAct.(1)TheStateGovernmentmay,bynotificationintheOfficial
Gazette,eitherretrospectivelyfromthesixteenthdayofMarch,1865,orprospectively,
exemptfromtheoperationofanyofthefollowingprovisionsofthisAct,namely,
sections5to49,58to191,212,213and215to369,themembersofanyrace,sectortribe
intheState,orofanypartofsuchrace,sectortribe,towhomtheStateGovernment
considersitimpossibleorinexpedienttoapplysuchprovisionsoranyofthemmentionedin
the
order.
(2)TheStateGovernmentmay,byalikenotification,revokeanysuchorder,butnotso
thattherevocationshallhaveretrospectiveeffect.
(3)Personsexemptedunderthissectionorexemptedfromtheoperationofanyofthe
provisionsoftheIndianSuccessionAct,18652*(10of1865.),undersection332ofthat
ActareinthisActreferredtoas"exemptedpersons".
PARTII
OFDOMICILE
4.ApplicationofPart.ThisPartshallnotapplyifthedeceased
wasaHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,SikhorJaina.
5.Lawregulatingsuccessiontodeceasedperson'simmoveableandmoveable
property,respectively.(1)Successiontotheimmoveablepropertyin
3*
[India]ofa
persondeceasedshallberegulatedbythelawof3*[India],whereversuchpersonmayhave
hadhisdomicileatthetimeofhisdeath.

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,fortheoriginalcl.
2Rep.bythisAct.
3Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

(2)Successiontothemoveablepropertyofapersondeceasedisregulatedbythelawof
thecountryinwhichsuchpersonhadhisdomicileatthetimeofhisdeath.
Illustrations
(i)A,havinghisdomicilein
1*
[India],diesinFrance,leaving
moveablepropertyinFrance,moveablepropertyinEngland,and
property,bothmoveableandimmoveable,in1*[India].Thesuccession
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tothewholeisregulatedbythelawof1*[India].
(ii)A,anEnglishman,havinghisdomicileinFrance,diesin
1*[India],andleavesproperty,bothmoveableandimmoveable,in
1*
[India].Thesuccessiontothemoveablepropertyisregulatedbythe
ruleswhichgovern,inFrance,thesuccessiontothemoveableproperty
ofanEnglishmandyingdomiciledinFrance,andthesuccessiontothe
immoveablepropertyisregulatedbythelawof
1*
[India].
6.Onedomicileonlyaffectssuccessiontomoveables..Apersoncanhaveonlyone
domicileforthepurposeofthesuccessiontohismoveableproperty.
7.Domicileoforiginofpersonoflegitimatebirth.Thedomicileoforiginofevery
personoflegitimatebirthisinthecountryinwhichatthetimeofhisbirthhisfatherwas
domiciled;or,ifheisaposthumouschild,inthecountryinwhichhisfatherwasdomiciled
atthetimeofthefather'sdeath.
Illustration
AtthetimeofthebirthofA,hisfatherwasdomiciledinEngland.A'sdomicileof
originisinEngland,whatevermaybethecountryinwhichhewasborn.
8.Domicileoforiginofillegitimatechild.Thedomicileoforiginofanillegitimate
childisinthecountryinwhich,atthetimeofhisbirth,hismotherwasdomiciled.
9.Continuanceofdomicileoforigin.Thedomicileoforiginprevailsuntilanew
domicilehasbeenacquired.
10.Acquisitionofnewdomicile.Amanacquiresanewdomicilebytakinguphis
fixedhabitationinacountrywhichisnotthatofhisdomicileoforigin.
Explanation.Amanisnottobedeemedtohavetakenuphisfixedhabitationin
1*[India]merelybyreasonofhisresidingtherein2*[thecivil,military,navalorairforce
serviceofGovernment],orintheexerciseofanyprofessionorcalling.

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".
2Subs.bytheA.O.1950,for"HisMajesty'scivil,military,
navalorairforceservice".

Illustrations
(i)A,whosedomicileoforiginisinEngland,proceedsto
1*
[India],wherehesettlesasabarristeroramerchant,intendingto
residethereduringtheremainderofhislife.Hisdomicileisnowin
1*[India].
(ii)A,whosedomicileisinEngland,goestoAustria,andenters
theAustrianservice,intendingtoremaininthatservice.Ahas
acquiredadomicileinAustria.
(iii)A,whosedomicileoforiginisinFrance,comestoreside
in
1*
[India]underanengagementwiththeCentralGovernmentfora
certainnumberofyears.ItishisintentiontoreturntoFrance,at
theendofthatperiod.Hedoesnotacquireadomicilein1*[India].

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(iv)A,whosedomicileisinEngland,goestoresidein1*[India]
forthepurposeofwindinguptheaffairsofapartnershipwhichhas
beendissolved,andwiththeintentionofreturningtoEnglandassoon
asthatpurposeisaccomplished.Hedoesnotbysuchresidenceacquire
adomicilein1*[India],howeverlongtheresidencemaylast.
(v)A,havinggonetoresidein1*[India]inthecircumstances
mentionedinthelastprecedingillustration,afterwardsaltershis
intention,andtakesuphisfixedhabitationin1*[India].Ahas
acquiredadomicilein1*[India].
(vi)A,whosedomicileisintheFrenchSettlementof
Chandernagore,iscompelledbypoliticaleventstotakerefugein
Calcutta,andresidesinCalcuttaformanyyearsinthehopeofsuch
politicalchangesasmayenablehimtoreturnwithsafetyto
Chandernagore.Hedoesnotbysuchresidenceacquireadomicilein
1*[India].
(vii)A,havingcometoCalcuttainthecircumstancesstatedin
thelastprecedingillustration,continuestoresidethereaftersuch
politicalchangeshaveoccurredaswouldenablehimtoreturnwith
safetytoChandernagore,andheintendsthathisresidenceinCalcutta
shallbepermanent.Ahasacquiredadomicilein1*[India].
11.SpecialmodeofacquiringdomicileinIndia.Anypersonmay
acquireadomicilein1*[India]bymakinganddepositinginsome
officein
1*
[India],appointedinthisbehalfbytheStateGovernment,
adeclarationinwritingunderhishandofhisdesiretoacquiresuch
domicile;providedthathehasbeenresidentin1*[India]foroneyear
immediatelyprecedingthetimeofhismakingsuchdeclaration.
12.Domicilenotacquiredbyresidenceasrepresentativeofforeign
Government,oraspartofhisfamily.Apersonwhoisappointed
bytheGovernmentofonecountrytobeitsambassador,consulorother
representativeinanothercountrydoesnotacquireadomicileinthe
lattercountrybyreasononlyofresidingthereinpursuanceofhis
appointment;nordoesanyotherpersonacquiresuchdomicilebyreason
onlyofresidingwithsuchfirstmentionedpersonaspartofhis
family,orasaservant.

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

13.Continuanceofnewdomicile.Anewdomicilecontinuesuntil
theformerdomicilehasbeenresumedoranotherhasbeenacquired.
14.Minor'sdomicile.Thedomicileofaminorfollowsthe
domicileoftheparentfromwhomhederivedhisdomicileoforigin.
Exception.Thedomicileofaminordoesnotchangewiththatof
hisparent,iftheminorismarried,orholdsanyofficeoremployment
intheserviceofGovernment,orhassetup,withtheconsentofthe
parent,inanydistinctbusiness.

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15.Domicileacquiredbywomanonmarriage.Bymarriageawoman
acquiresthedomicileofherhusband,ifshehadnotthesamedomicile
before.
16.Wife'sdomicileduringmarriage.Awife'sdomicileduringher
marriagefollowsthedomicileofherhusband.
Exception.Thewife'sdomicilenolongerfollowsthatofher
husbandiftheyareseparatedbythesentenceofacompetentCourt,or
ifthehusbandisundergoingasentenceoftransportation.
17.Minor'sacquisitionofnewdomicile.Saveashereinbefore
otherwiseprovidedinthisPart,personcannot,duringminority,
acquireanewdomicile.
18.Lunatic'sacquisitionofnewdomicile.Aninsaneperson
cannotacquireanewdomicileinanyotherwaythanbyhisdomicile
followingthedomicileofanotherperson.
19.SuccessiontomoveablepropertyinIndiainabsenceofproofof
domicileelsewhere.Ifapersondiesleavingmoveablepropertyin
1*[India],intheabsenceofproofofanydomicileelsewhere,
successiontothepropertyisregulatedbythelawof1*[India].
PARTIII
MARRIAGE
20.Interestsandpowersnotacquirednotlostbymarriage.(1)
Nopersonshall,bymarriage,acquireanyinterestinthepropertyof
thepersonwhomheorshemarriesorbecomeincapableofdoinganyact
inrespectofhisorherownpropertywhichheorshecouldhavedone
ifunmarried.

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

(2)Thissection
(a)shallnotapplytoanymarriagecontractedbeforethe
firstdayofJanuary,1866;
(b)shallnotapply,andshallbedeemednevertohave
applied,toanymarriage,oneorbothofthepartiesto
whichprofessedatthetimeofthemarriagetheHindu,
Muhammadan,Buddhist,SikhorJainareligion.
21.Effectofmarriagebetweenpersondomiciledandonenotdomiciledin
India.Ifapersonwhosedomicileisin1*[India]marries
in1*[India]apersonwhosedomicileisin1*[India],neitherparty
acquiresbythemarriageanyrightsinrespectofanypropertyofthe
otherpartynotcomprisedinasettlementmadeprevioustothe

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marriage,whichheorshewouldnotacquiretherebyifbothwere
domiciledin1*[India]atthetimeofthemarriage.
22.Settlementofminor'spropertyincontemplationofmarriage.
(1)Thepropertyofaminormaybesettledincontemplationof
marriage,providedthesettlementismadebytheminorwiththe
approbationoftheminor'sfather,or,ifthefatherisdeadorabsent
from1*[India],withtheapprobationoftheHighCourt.
(2)Nothinginthissectionorinsection21shallapplytoany
willmadeorintestacyoccurringbeforethefirstdayofJanuary,
1866,ortointestateortestamentarysuccessiontothepropertyof
anyHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,SikhorJaina.
PARTIV
OFCONSANGUINITY
23.ApplicationofPart.NothinginthisPartshallapplytoany
willmadeorintestacyoccurringbeforethefirstdayofJanuary,
1866,ortointestateortestamentarysuccessiontothepropertyof
anyHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,Sikh,JainaorParsi.
24.Kindredorconsanguinity.Kindredorconsanguinityisthe
connectionorrelationofpersonsdescendedfromthesamestockor
commonancestor.
25.Linealconsanguinity.(1)Linealconsanguinityisthatwhich
subsistsbetweentwopersons,oneofwhomisdescendedinadirect
linefromtheother,asbetweenamanandhisfather,grandfatherand
greatgrandfather,andsoupwardsinthedirectascendingline;or
betweenamanandhisson,grandson,greatgrandsonandsodownwardsinthedirect
descendingline.

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

(2)Everygenerationconstitutesadegree,eitherascendingor
descending.
(3)Aperson'sfatherisrelatedtohiminthefirstdegree,and
solikewiseishisson;hisgrandfatherandgrandsoninthesecond
degree;hisgreatgrandfatherandgreatgrandsoninthethirddegree,
andsoon.
26.Collateralconsanguinity.(1)Collateralconsanguinityis
thatwhichsubsistsbetweentwopersonswhoaredescendedfromthe
samestockorancestor,butneitherofwhomisdescendedinadirect
linefromtheother.
(2)Forthepurposeofascertaininginwhatdegreeofkindredany
collateralrelativestandstoapersondeceased,itisnecessaryto
reckonupwardsfromthepersondeceasedtothecommonstockandthen

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downwardstothecollateralrelative,adegreebeingallowedforeach
person,bothascendinganddescending.
27.Personsheldforpurposeofsuccessiontobesimilarlyrelatedto
deceased.Forthepurposeofsuccession,thereisno
distinction
(a)betweenthosewhoarerelatedtoapersondeceased
throughhisfather,andthosewhoarerelatedtohim
throughhismother;or
(b)betweenthosewhoarerelatedtoapersondeceasedby
thefullblood,andthosewhoarerelatedtohimbythe
halfblood;or
(c)betweenthosewhowereactuallyborninthelifetimeof
apersondeceasedandthosewhoatthedateofhis
deathwereonlyconceivedinthewomb,butwhohave
beensubsequentlybornalive.
28.Modeofcomputingofdegreesofkindred.Degreesofkindred
arecomputedinthemannersetforthinthetableofkindredsetout
inScheduleI.
Illustrations
(i)Thepersonwhoserelativesaretobereckoned,andhis
cousingerman,orfirstcousin,are,asshowninthetable,relatedin
thefourthdegree;therebeingonedegreeofascenttothefather,and
anothertothecommonancestor,thegrandfather;andfromhimoneof
descenttotheuncle,andanothertothecousingerman,makinginall
fourdegrees.
(ii)Agrandsonofthebrotherandasonoftheuncle,i.e.,a
greatnephewandacousingerman,areinequaldegree,beingeachfour
degreesremoved.
(iii)Agrandsonofacousingermanisinthesamedegreeasthe
grandsonofagreatuncle,fortheyarebothinthesixthdegreeof
kindred.
PARTV
INTESTATESUCCESSION
CHAPTERI
Preliminary
29.ApplicationofPart.(1)ThisPartshallnotapplytoany
intestacyoccurringbeforethefirstdayofJanuary,1866,ortothe
propertyofanyHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,SikhorJaina.
(2)Saveasprovidedinsubsection(1)orbyanyotherlawfor
thetimebeinginforce,theprovisionsofthisPartshallconstitute
thelawof1*[India]inallcasesofintestacy.
30.Astowhatpropertydeceasedconsideredtohavediedintestate.Apersonis
deemedtodieintestateinrespectofall
propertyofwhichhehasnotmadeatestamentarydispositionwhichis

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capableoftakingeffect.
Illustrations
(i)Ahasleftnowill.Hehasdiedintestateinrespectofthe
wholeofhisproperty.
(ii)Ahasleftawill,wherebyhehasappointedBhisexecutor;
butthewillcontainsnootherprovision.Ahasdiedintestatein
respectofthedistributionofhisproperty.
(iii)Ahasbequeathedhiswholepropertyforanillegalpurpose.
Ahasdiedintestateinrespectofthedistributionofhisproperty.
(iv)Ahasbequeathed1,000rupeestoBand1,000rupeestothe
eldestsonofC,andhasmadenootherbequest;andhasdiedleaving
thesumof2,000rupeesandnootherproperty.CdiedbeforeAwithout
havingeverhadason.Ahasdiedintestateinrespectofthe
distributionof1,000rupees.
CHAPTERII
RulesincasesofIntestatesotherthanParsis
31.ChapternottoapplytoParsis.NothinginthisChaptershall
applytoParsis.
32.Devolutionofsuchproperty.Thepropertyofanintestate
devolvesuponthewifeorhusband,oruponthosewhoareofthe
kindredofthedeceased,intheorderandaccordingtotherules
hereinaftercontainedinthisChapter.
Explanation.Awidowisnotentitledtotheprovisionhereby
madeforherif,byavalidcontractmadebeforehermarriage,shehas
beenexcludedfromherdistributiveshareofherhusband'sestate.

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

33.Whereintestatehasleftwidowandlinealdescendants,orwidowand
kindredonly,orwidowandnokindred.Wheretheintestate
hasleftawidow
(a)ifhehasalsoleftanylinealdescendants,onethirdof
hispropertyshallbelongtohiswidow,andthe
remainingtwothirdsshallgotohislineal
descendants,accordingtotheruleshereinafter
contained;
(b)1*[saveasprovidedbysection33A],ifhehasleftno
linealdescendant,buthasleftpersonswhoareof
kindredtohim,onehalfofhispropertyshallbelong
tohiswidow,andtheotherhalfshallgotothosewho
arekindredtohim,intheorderandaccordingtothe
ruleshereinaftercontained;
(c)ifhehasleftnonewhoareofkindredtohim,thewhole
ofhispropertyshallbelongtohiswidow.

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2*[33A.Specialprovisionwhereintestatehasleftwidowandno
linealdescendants.(1)Wheretheintestatehasleftawidowbutno
linealdescendantsandthenettvalueofhispropertydoesnotexceed
fivethousandrupees,thewholeofhispropertyshallbelongtothe
widow.
(2)Wherethenettvalueofthepropertyexceedsthesumoffive
thousandrupees,thewidowshallbeentitledtofivethousandrupees
thereofandshallhaveachargeuponthewholeofsuchpropertyfor
suchsumoffivethousandrupees,withinterestthereonfromthedate
ofthedeathoftheintestateat4percent.perannumuntilpayment.
(3)Theprovisionforthewidowmadebythissectionshallbein
additionandwithoutprejudicetoherinterestandshareinthe
residueoftheestateofsuchintestateremainingafterpaymentofthe
saidsumoffivethousandrupeeswithinterestasaforesaid,andsuch
residueshallbedistributedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsof
section33asifitwerethewholeofsuchintestate'sproperty.
(4)Thenettvalueofthepropertyshallbeascertainedby
deductingfromthegrossvaluethereofalldebts,andallfuneraland
administrationexpensesoftheintestate,andallotherlawful
liabilitiesandchargestowhichthepropertyshallbesubject.
(5)Thissectionshallnotapply
(a)tothepropertyof
(i)anyIndianChristian,

1Ins.byAct40of1926,s.2.
2Ins.bys.3,ibid.

(ii)anychildorgrandchildofanymaleperson
whoisorwasatthetimeofhisdeathanIndian
Christian,or
(iii)anypersonprofessingtheHindu,Buddhist,
SikhorJainareligionthesuccessiontowhoseproperty
is,undersection24oftheSpecialMarriageAct,1872
(3of1872.),regulatedbytheprovisionsofthisAct;
(b)unlessthedeceaseddiesintestateinrespectofallhis
property.]
34.Whereintestatehasleftnowidow,andwherehehasleftnokindred.Where
theintestatehasleftnowidow,hispropertyshallgo
tohislinealdescendantsortothosewhoareofkindredtohim,not
beinglinealdescendants,accordingtotheruleshereinafter
contained;and,ifhehasleftnonewhoareofkindredtohim,it
shallgototheGovernment.
35.Rightsofwidower.Ahusbandsurvivinghiswifehasthesame
rightsinrespectofherproperty,ifshediesintestate,asawidow
hasinrespectofherhusband'sproperty,ifhediesintestate.
Distributionwheretherearelinealdescendants

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36.Rulesofdistribution.Therulesforthedistributionofthe
intestate'sproperty(afterdeductingthewidow'sshare,ifhehas
leftawidow)amongsthislinealdescendantsshallbethosecontained
insections37to40.
37.Whereintestatehasleftchildorchildrenonly.Wherethe
intestatehasleftsurvivinghimachildorchildren,butnomore
remotelinealdescendantthroughadeceasedchild,thepropertyshall
belongtohissurvivingchild,ifthereisonlyone,orshallbe
equallydividedamongallhissurvivingchildren.
38.Whereintestatehasleftnochild,butgrandchildorgrandchildren.Where
theintestatehasnotleftsurvivinghimany
childbuthasleftagrandchildorgrandchildrenandnomoreremote
descendantthroughadeceasedgrandchild,thepropertyshallbelongto
hissurvivinggrandchildifthereisone,orshallbeequallydivided
amongallhissurvivinggrandchildren.
Illustrations
(i)Ahasthreechildren,andnomore,John,MaryandHenry.They
alldiebeforethefather,Johnleavingtwochildren,Marythreeand
Henryfour.AfterwardsAdiesintestate,leavingthosenine
grandchildrenandnodescendantofanydeceasedgrandchild.Eachofhisgrandchildren
willhaveoneninth.
(ii)ButifHenryhasdied,leavingnochild,thenthewholeis
equallydividedbetweentheintestate'sfivegrandchildren,the
childrenofJohnandMary.
39.Whereintestatehasleftonlygreatgrandchildrenorremoterlineal
descendants.Inlikemannerthepropertyshallgotothe
survivinglinealdescendantswhoarenearestindegreetothe
intestate,wheretheyareallinthedegreeofgreatgrandchildrento
him,orareallinamoreremotedegree.
40.Whereintestateleaveslinealdescendantsnotallinsamedegreeof
kindredtohim,andthosethroughwhomthemoreremotearedescended
aredead.(1)Iftheintestatehasleftlinealdescendants
whodonotallstandinthesamedegreeofkindredtohim,andthe
personsthroughwhomthemoreremotearedescendedfromhimaredead,
thepropertyshallbedividedintosuchanumberofequalsharesas
maycorrespondwiththenumberofthelinealdescendantsofthe
intestatewhoeitherstoodinthenearestdegreeofkindredtohimat
hisdecease,or,havingbeenofthelikedegreeofkindredtohim,
diedbeforehim,leavinglinealdescendantswhosurvivedhim.
(2)Oneofsuchsharesshallbeallottedtoeachofthelineal
descendantswhostoodinthenearestdegreeofkindredtothe
intestateathisdecease;andoneofsuchsharesshallbeallottedin
respectofeachofsuchdeceasedlinealdescendants;andtheshare
allottedinrespectofeachofsuchdeceasedlinealdescendantsshall
belongtohissurvivingchildorchildrenormoreremotelineal

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descendants,asthecasemaybe;suchsurvivingchildorchildrenor
moreremotelinealdescendantsalwaystakingthesharewhichhisor
theirparentorparentswouldhavebeenentitledtorespectivelyif
suchparentorparentshadsurvivedtheintestate.
Illustrations
(i)Ahadthreechildren,John,MaryandHenry;Johndied,
leavingfourchildren,andMarydied,leavingone,andHenryalone
survivedthefather.OnthedeathofA,intestate,onethirdis
allottedtoHenry,onethirdtoJohn'sfourchildren,andthe
remainingthirdtoMary'sonechild.
(ii)Aleftnochild,butlefteightgrandchildren,andtwo
childrenofadeceasedgrandchild.Thepropertyisdividedintonine
parts,oneofwhichisallottedtoeachgrandchild,andtheremaining
oneninthisequallydividedbetweenthetwogreatgrandchildren.
(iii)Ahasthreechildren,John,MaryandHenry;Johndies
leavingfourchildren;andoneofJohn'schildrendiesleavingtwo
children.Marydiesleavingonechild.Aafterwardsdiesintestate.
OnethirdofhispropertyisallottedtoHenry,onethirdtoMary's
child,andonethirdisdividedintofourparts,oneofwhichis
allottedtoeachofJohn'sthreesurvivingchildren,andtheremaining
partisequallydividedbetweenJohn'stwograndchildren.
(iv)Ahastwochildren,andnomore,JohnandMary.Johndies
beforehisfather,leavinghiswifepregnant.ThenAdiesleavingMary
survivinghim,andinduetimeachildofJohnisborn.A'sproperty
istobeequallydividedbetweenMaryandtheposthumouschild.
Distributionwheretherearenolinealdescendants
41.Rulesofdistributionwhereintestatehasleftnolinealdescendants.Wherean
intestatehasleftnolinealdescendants,the
rulesforthedistributionofhisproperty(afterdeductingthe
widow'sshare,ifhehasleftawidow)shallbethosecontainedin
sections42to48.
42.Whereintestate'sfatherliving.Iftheintestate'sfatheris
living,heshallsucceedtotheproperty.
43.Whereintestate'sfatherdead,buthismother,brothersandsisters
living.Iftheintestate'sfatherisdead,buttheintestate's
motherislivingandtherearealsobrothersorsistersofthe
intestateliving,andthereisnochildlivingofanydeceasedbrother
orsister,themotherandeachlivingbrotherorsistershallsucceed
tothepropertyinequalshares.
Illustration
Adiesintestate,survivedbyhismotherandtwobrothersofthe
fullblood,JohnandHenry,andasisterMary,whoisthedaughterof
hismotherbutnotofhisfather.Themothertakesonefourth,each
brothertakesonefourthandMary,thesisterofhalfblood,takes
onefourth.
44.Whereintestate'sfatherdeadandhismother,abrotherorsister,and

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childrenofanydeceasedbrotherorsister,living.Ifthe
intestate'sfatherisdeadbuttheintestate'smotherisliving,and
ifanybrotherorsisterandthechildorchildrenofanybrotheror
sisterwhomayhavediedintheintestate'slifetimearealsoliving,
thenthemotherandeachlivingbrotherorsister,andtheliving
childorchildrenofeachdeceasedbrotherorsister,shallbe
entitledtothepropertyinequalshares,suchchildren(ifmorethan
one)takinginequalsharesonlytheshareswhichtheirrespective
parentswouldhavetakeniflivingattheintestate'sdeath.
Illustration
A,theintestate,leaveshismother,hisbrothersJohnandHenry,
andalsoonechildofadeceasedsister,Mary,andtwochildrenof
George,adeceasedbrotherofthehalfbloodwhowasthesonofhis
fatherbutnotofhismother.Themothertakesonefifth,Johnand
Henryeachtakesonefifth,thechildofMarytakesonefifth,andthe
twochildrenofGeorgedividetheremainingonefifthequallybetween
them.
45.Whereintestate'sfatherdeadandhismotherandchildrenofany
deceasedbrotherorsisterliving.Iftheintestate'sfatheris
dead,buttheintestate'smotherisliving,andthebrothersand
sistersarealldead,butalloranyofthem
haveleftchildrenwhosurvivedtheintestate,themotherandthe
childorchildrenofeachdeceasedbrotherorsistershallbeentitled
tothepropertyinequalshares,suchchildren(ifmorethanone)
takinginequalsharesonlytheshareswhichtheirrespectiveparents
wouldhavetakeniflivingattheintestate'sdeath.
Illustration
A,theintestate,leavesnobrotherorsisterbutleaveshis
motherandonechildofadeceasedsister,Mary,andtwochildrenofa
deceasedbrother,George.Themothertakesonethird,thechildof
Marytakesonethird,andthechildrenofGeorgedividetheremaining
onethirdequallybetweenthem.
46.Whereintestate'sfatherdead,buthismotherlivingandnobrother,
sister,nepheworniece.Iftheintestate'sfatherisdead,
buttheintestate'smotherisliving,andthereisneitherbrother,
norsister,norchildofanybrotherorsisteroftheintestate,the
propertyshallbelongtothemother.
47.Whereintestatehasleftneitherlinealdescendant,norfather,nor
mother.Wheretheintestatehasleftneitherlineal
descendant,norfather,normother,thepropertyshallbedivided
equallybetweenhisbrothersandsistersandthechildorchildrenof
suchofthemasmayhavediedbeforehim,suchchildren(ifmorethan
one)takinginequalsharesonlytheshareswhichtheirrespective
parentswouldhavetakeniflivingattheintestate'sdeath.
48.Whereintestatehasleftneitherlinealdescendant,norparent,nor
brother,norsister.Wheretheintestatehasleftneither

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linealdescendant,norparent,norbrother,norsister,hisproperty
shallbedividedequallyamongthoseofhisrelativeswhoareinthe
nearestdegreeofkindredtohim.
Illustrations
(i)A,theintestate,hasleftagrandfather,andagrandmother
andnootherrelativestandinginthesameoranearerdegreeof
kindredtohim.They,beingintheseconddegree,willbeentitledto
thepropertyinequalshares,exclusiveofanyuncleorauntofthe
intestate,unclesandauntsbeingonlyinthethirddegree.
(ii)A,theintestate,hasleftagreatgrandfather,oragreat
grandmother,andunclesandaunts,andnootherrelativestandingin
thesameoranearerdegreeofkindredtohim.Allofthesebeingin
thethirddegreewilltakeequalshares.
(iii)A,theintestate,leftagreatgrandfather,anuncleanda
nephew,butnorelativestandinginanearerdegreeofkindredtohim.
Allofthesebeinginthethirddegreewilltakeequalshares.
(iv)Tenchildrenofonebrotherorsisteroftheintestate,and
onechildofanotherbrotherorsisteroftheintestate,constitute
theclassofrelativesofthenearestdegreeofkindredtohim.They
willeachtakeoneeleventhoftheproperty.
49.Children'sadvancementsnotbroughtintohotchpot.Wherea
distributiveshareinthepropertyofapersonwhohasdiedintestate
isclaimedbyachild,oranydescendantofachild,ofsuchperson,
nomoneyorotherpropertywhichtheintestatemay,duringhislife,
havepaid,givenorsettledto,orfortheadvancementof,thechild
bywhomorbywhosedescendanttheclaimismadeshallbetakeninto
accountinestimatingsuchdistributiveshare.
CHAPTERIII
SpecialRulesforParsiIntestates
1*50.Generalprinciplesrelatingtointestatesuccession.For
thepurposeofintestatesuccessionamongParsis
(a)thereisnodistinctionbetweenthosewhowereactually
borninthelifetimeofapersondeceasedandthosewho
atthedateofhisdeathwereonlyconceivedinthe
womb,butwhohavebeensubsequentlybornalive;
(b)alinealdescendantofanintestatewhohasdiedinthe
lifetimeoftheintestatewithoutleavingawidowor
widoweroranylinealdescendantor2*[awidowor
widowerofanylinealdescendant]shallnotbetaken
intoaccountindeterminingthemannerinwhichthe
propertyofwhichtheintestatehasdiedintestate
shallbedivided;and
(c)wherea2*[widoworwidowerofanyrelative]ofan
intestatehasmarriedagaininthelifetimeofthe
intestate,2*[suchwidoworwidowershallnotbe
entitledtoreceiveanyshareofthe
propertyofwhichtheintestatehasdied

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intestate,and2*[suchwidoworwidower]shallbe
deemednottobeexistingattheintestate'sdeath.
3*51.Divisionofintestate'spropertyamongwidow,widower,childrenand
Parents.(1)Subjecttotheprovisionsofsubsection
(2),thepropertyofwhichaParsidiesintestateshallbedivided,
(a)wheresuchParsidiesleavingawidoworwidowerand
children,amongthewidoworwidower,andchildrensothatthe
widoworwidowerandeachchildreceiveequalshares;
(b)wheresuchParsidiesleavingchildren,butnowidowor
widower,amongthechildreninequalshares.
(2)WhereaParsidiesleavingoneorbothparentsinadditionto
childrenorwidoworwidowerandchildren,thepropertyofwhichsuch
Parsidiesintestateshallbesodividedthattheparentoreachof
theparentsshallreceiveashareequaltohalftheshareofeach
child."].

1Subs.byAct17of1939,s.2,fortheoriginalss.5056(w.e.f.
1261939).
2Subs.byAct51of1991,s.2.
3Subs.bys.3,ibid.

53.Divisionofshareofpredeceasedchildofintestateleavinglineal
descendants.InallcaseswhereaParsidiesleavinganylineal
descendant,ifanychildofsuchintestatehasdiedinthelifetimeof
theintestate,thedivisionoftheshareofthepropertyofwhichthe
intestatehasdiedintestatewhichsuchchildwouldhavetakenif
livingattheintestate'sdeathshallbeinaccordancewiththe
followingrules,namely:
(a)Ifsuchdeceasedchildwasason,hiswidowandchildren
shalltakesharesinaccordancewiththeprovisionsof
thisChapterasifhehaddiedimmediatelyafterthe
intestate'sdeath:
Providedthatwheresuchdeceasedsonhaslefta
widoworawidowofalinealdescendantbutnolineal
descendant,theresidueofhisshareaftersuch
distributionhasbeenmadeshallbedividedin
accordancewiththeprovisionsofthisChapteras
propertyofwhichtheintestatehasdiedintestate,and
inmakingthedivisionofsuchresiduethesaid
deceasedsonoftheintestateshallnotbetakeninto
account.
(b)Ifsuchdeceasedchildwasadaughter,hershareshall
bedividedequallyamongherchildren.
(c)Ifanychildofsuchdeceasedchildhasalsodiedduring
thelifetimeoftheintestate,thesharewhichheor
shewouldhavetakeniflivingattheintestate's
death,shallbedividedinlikemannerinaccordance

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withclause(a)orclause(b)asthecasemaybe.
(d)Wherearemoterlinealdescendantoftheintestatehas
diedduringthelifetimeoftheintestate,the
provisionsofclause(c)shallapplymutatismutandis
tothedivisionofanysharetowhichheorshewould
havebeenentitlediflivingattheintestate'sdeath
byreasonofthepredeceaseofalltheintestate's
linealdescendantsdirectlybetweenhimorherandthe
intestate.
1*[54.Divisionofpropertywhereintestateleavesnolinealdescendantout
leavesawidoworwidowerorawidoworwidowerofanylineal
descendant.WhereaParsidieswithoutleavinganylineal
descendantbutleavingawidoworwidowerorawidoworwidowerofa
linealdescendant,thepropertyofwhichtheintestatediesintestate
shallbedividedinaccordancewiththefollowingrules,namely:
(a)iftheintestateleavesawidoworwidowerbutnowidow
orwidowerofalinealdescendant,thewidoworwidowershall
takehalfthesaidproperty;
(b)iftheintestateleavesawidoworwidowerandalsoa
widoworwidowerofanylinealdescendant,hiswidoworher
widowershallreceiveonethirdofthesaidpropertyandthe
widoworwidowerofanylinealdescendantshallreceiveanother
onethirdorifthereismorethanonesuchwidoworwidowerof
linealdescendants,thelastmentionedonethirdshallbedivided
equallyamongthem;
(c)iftheintestateleavesnowidoworwidower,butone
widoworwidowerofalinealdescendant,suchwidoworwidowerof
thelinealdescendantshallreceiveonethirdofthesaid
propertyor,iftheintestateleavesnowidoworwidowerbutmore
thanonewidoworwidoweroflinealdescendants,twothirdsof
thesaidpropertyshallbedividedamongsuchwidowsorwidower
ofthelinealdescendantsinequalshares;
(d)theresidueafterthedivisionspecifiedinclause(a)
orclause(b)orclause(c)hasbeenmadeshallbedistributed
amongtherelativesoftheintestateintheorderspecifiedin
PartIofScheduleII;andthenextofkinstandingfirstinPart
IofthatScheduleshallbepreferredtothosestandingsecond,
thesecond,thesecondtothethirdandsooninsuccession,
providedthatthepropertyshallbesodistributedthateachmale
andfemalestandinginthesamedegreeofpropinquityshall
receiveequalshares;
(e)iftherearenorelativesentitledtotheresidueunder
clause(d),thewholeoftheresidueshallbedistributedin
proportiontothesharesspecifiedamongthepersonsentitledto
receivesharesunderthissection."]

1Subs.byAct51of1991,s.4.

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55.Divisionofpropertywhereintestateleavesneitherlinealdescendants
norawidoworwidowernorawidowofanylinealdescendant.WhenaParsidies
leavingneitherlinealdescendantsnorawidoworwidowernor1*["awidoworwidowerof
anylinealdescendant"]hisorhernextofkin,intheordersetforthinPartIIofSchedule
II,shallbeentitledtosucceedtothewholeofthepropertyofwhich
heorshediesintestate.ThenextofkinstandingfirstinPartIIof
thatScheduleshallbepreferredtothosestandingsecond,thesecond
tothethird,andsooninsuccession,providedthattheproperty
shallbesodistributedthat1*["eachmaleandfemalestandinginthe
samedegreeofpropinquityshallreceiveequalshares"].
56.Divisionofpropertywherethereisnorelativeentitledtosucceed
undertheotherprovisionsofthisChapter.Wherethereisno
relativeentitledtosucceedundertheotherprovisionsofthis
ChaptertothepropertyofwhichaParsihasdiedintestate,thesaid
propertyshallbedividedequallyamongthoseoftheintestate's
relativeswhoareinthenearestdegreeofkindredtohim.]
PARTVI
TESTAMENTARYSUCCESSION
CHAPTERI
Introductory
2*57.ApplicationofcertainprovisionsofParttoaclassofwillsmadeby
Hindus,etc.TheprovisionsofthisPartwhichareset
outinScheduleIIIshall,subjecttotherestrictionsand
modificationsspecifiedtherein,apply
(a)toallwillsandcodicilsmadebyanyHindu,Buddhist,
SikhorJaina,onorafterthefirstdayofSeptember,
1870,withintheterritorieswhichatthesaiddate
weresubjecttotheLieutenantGovernorofBengalor
withinthelocallimitsoftheordinaryoriginalcivil
jurisdictionoftheHighCourtsofJudicatureatMadras
andBombay;and
(b)toallsuchwillsandcodicilsmadeoutsidethose
territoriesandlimitssofarasrelatestoimmoveable
propertysituatewithinthoseterritoriesorlimits;
3*[and

1Subs.byAct51of1991,s.5.
2S.57wasrenumberedassubsection(1)ofthatsectionandsub
section(2)addedbyAct37of1926,s.2;subsequently
subsection(2)wasomittedandsubsection(1)wasrenumbered
ass.57byAct18of1929,s.3.
3Theword"and"andcl.(c)addedbyAct18of1929,s.3.

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(c)toallwillsandcodicilsmadebyanyHindu,Buddhist,
SikhorJainaonorafterthefirstdayofJanuary,
1927,towhichthoseprovisionsarenotappliedby
clauses(a)and(b):]
Providedthatmarriageshallnotrevokeanysuchwillorcodicil.
58.GeneralapplicationofPart.(1)TheprovisionsofthisPart
shallnotapplytotestamentarysuccessiontothepropertyofany
Muhammadannor,saveasprovidedbysection57,totestamentary
successiontothepropertyofanyHindu,Buddhist,SikhorJaina;nor
shalltheyapplytoanywillmadebeforethefirstdayofJanuary,
1866.
(2)Saveasprovidedinsubsection(1)orbyanyotherlawfor
thetimebeinginforcetheprovisionsofthisPartshallconstitute
thelawof1*[India]applicabletoallcasesoftestamentary
succession.
CHAPTERII
OfWillsandCodicils
59.Personcapableofmakingwills.Everypersonofsoundmind
notbeingaminormaydisposeofhispropertybywill.
Explanation1.Amarriedwomanmaydisposebywillofany
propertywhichshecouldalienatebyherownactduringherlife.
Explanation2.Personswhoaredeafordumborblindarenot
therebyincapacitatedformakingawilliftheyareabletoknowwhat
theydobyit.
Explanation3.Apersonwhoisordinarilyinsanemaymakeawill
duringintervalinwhichheisofsoundmind.
Explanation4.Nopersoncanmakeawillwhileheisinsucha
stateofmind,whetherarisingfromintoxicationorfromillnessor
fromanyothercause,thathedoesnotknowwhatheisdoing.
Illustrations
(i)Acanperceivewhatisgoingoninhisimmediate
neighbourhood,andcananswerfamiliarquestions,buthasnota
competentunderstandingastothenatureofhisproperty,orthe
personswhoareofkindredtohim,orinwhosefavouritwouldbe
properthatheshouldmakehiswill.Acannotmakeavalidwill.
(ii)Aexecutesaninstrumentpurportingtobehiswill,buthe
doesnotunderstandthenatureoftheinstrument,northeeffectof
itsprovisions.Thisinstrumentisnotavalidwill.

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

(iii)A,beingveryfeebleanddebilitated,butcapableof
exercisingajudgmentastothepropermodeofdisposingofhis
property,makesawill.Thisisavalidwill.

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60.Testamentaryguardian.Afather,whateverhisagemaybe,may
bywillappointaguardianorguardiansforhischildduringminority.
61.Willobtainedbyfraud,coercionorimportunity.Awillor
anypartofawill,themakingofwhichhasbeencausedbyfraudor
coercion,orbysuchimportunityastakesawaythefreeagencyofthe
testator,isvoid.
Illustrations
(i)A,falselyandknowinglyrepresentstothetestator,thatthe
testator'sonlychildisdead,orthathehasdonesomeundutifulact
andtherebyinducesthetestatortomakeawillinhis,A'sfavour;
suchwillhasbeenobtainedbyfraud,andisinvalid.
(ii)A,byfraudanddeception,prevailsuponthetestatorto
bequeathalegacytohim.Thebequestisvoid.
(iii)A,beingaprisonerbylawfulauthority,makeshiswill.
Thewillisnotinvalidbyreasonoftheimprisonment.
(iv)AthreatenstoshootB,ortoburnhishouseortocausehim
tobearrestedonacriminalcharge,unlesshemakesabequestin
favourofC.B,inconsequence,makesabequestinfavourofC.The
bequestisvoid,themakingofithavingbeencausedbycoercion.
(v)A,beingofsufficientintellect,ifundisturbedbythe
influenceofothers,tomakeawillyetbeingsomuchunderthe
controlofBthatheisnotafreeagent,makesawill,dictatedbyB.
ItappearsthathewouldnothaveexecutedthewillbutforfearofB.
Thewillisinvalid.
(vi)A,beinginsofeebleastateofhealthastobeunableto
resistimportunity,ispressedbyBtomakeawillofacertain
purportanddoessomerelytopurchasepeaceandinsubmissiontoB.
Thewillisinvalid.
(vii)Abeinginsuchastateofhealthastobecapableof
exercisinghisownjudgmentandvolition,Busesurgentintercession
andpersuasionwithhimtoinducehimtomakeawillofacertain
purport.A,inconsequenceoftheintercessionandpersuasion,butin
thefreeexerciseofhisjudgmentandvolitionmakeshiswillinthe
mannerrecommendedbyB.Thewillisnotrenderedinvalidbythe
intercessionandpersuasionofB.
(viii)A,withaviewtoobtainingalegacyfromB,payshim
attentionandflattershimandtherebyproducesinhimacapricious
partialitytoA.B,inconsequenceofsuchattentionandflattery,
makeshiswill,bywhichheleavesalegacytoA.Thebequestisnot
renderedinvalidbytheattentionandflatteryofA.
62.Willmayberevokedoraltered.Awillisliabletobe
revokedoralteredbythemakerofitatanytimewhenheiscompetent
todisposeofhispropertybywill.
CHAPTERIII
OftheExecutionofunprivilegedWills
63.Executionofunprivilegedwills.Everytestator,notbeinga

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soldieremployedinanexpeditionorengagedinactualwarfare,1*[or
anairmansoemployedorengaged,]oramarineratsea,shallexecute
hiswillaccordingtothefollowingrules:
(a)Thetestatorshallsignorshallaffixhismarktothe
will,oritshallbesignedbysomeotherpersoninhis
presenceandbyhisdirection.
(b)Thesignatureormarkofthetestator,orthesignature
ofthepersonsigningforhim,shallbesoplacedthat
itshallappearthatitwasintendedtherebytogive
effecttothewritingasawill.
(c)Thewillshallbeattestedbytwoormorewitnesses,
eachofwhomhasseenthetestatorsignoraffixhis
marktothewillorhasseensomeotherpersonsignthe
will,inthepresenceandbythedirectionofthe
testator,orhasreceivedfromthetestatorapersonal
acknowledgmentofhissignatureormark,orofthe
signatureofsuchotherperson;andeachofthe
witnessesshallsignthewillinthepresenceofthe
testator,butitshallnotbenecessarythatmorethan
onewitnessbepresentatthesametime,andno
particularformofattestationshallbenecessary.
64.Incorporationofpapersbyreference.Ifatestator,ina
willorcodicildulyattested,referstoanyotherdocumentthen
actuallywrittenasexpressinganypartofhisintentions,such
documentshallbedeemedtoformapartofthewillorcodicilin
whichitisreferredto.
CHAPTERIV
OfprivilegedWills
65.Privilegedwills.Anysoldierbeingemployedinanexpedition
orengagedinactualwarfare,1*[oranairmansoemployedorengaged,]
oranymarinerbeingatsea,may,ifhehascompletedtheageof
eighteenyears,disposeofhispropertybyawillmadeinthemanner
providedinsection66.Suchwillsarecalledprivilegedwills.

1Ins.byAct10of1927,s.2andSch.I.

Illustrations
(i)A,amedicalofficerattachedtoaregimentisactually
employedinanexpedition.Heisasoldieractuallyemployedinan
expedition,andcanmakeaprivilegedwill.
(ii)Aisatseainamerchantship,ofwhichheisthepurser.
Heisamariner,and,beingatsea,canmakeaprivilegedwill.
(iii)A,asoldierservinginthefieldagainstinsurgents,isa
soldierengagedinactualwarfare,andassuchcanmakeaprivileged
will.

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(iv)A,amarinerofaship,inthecourseofavoyage,is
temporarilyonshorewhilesheislyinginharbour.Heis,forthe
purposesofthissection,amarineratsea,andcanmakeaprivileged
will.
(v)A,anadmiralwhocommandsanavalforce,butwholiveson
shore,andonlyoccasionallygoesonboardhisship,isnotconsidered
asatsea,andcannotmakeaprivilegedwill.
(vi)A,amarinerservingonamilitaryexpedition,butnotbeing
atsea,isconsideredasasoldier,andcanmakeaprivilegedwill.
66.Modeofmaking,andrulesforexecuting,privilegedwills.
(1)Privilegedwillsmaybeinwriting,ormaybemadebywordof
mouth.
(2)Theexecutionofprivilegedwillsshallbegovernedbythe
followingrules:
(a)Thewillmaybewrittenwhollybythetestator,withhis
ownhand.Insuchcaseitneednotbesignedor
attested.
(b)Itmaybewrittenwhollyorinpartbyanotherperson,
andsignedbythetestator.Insuchcaseitneednotbe
attested.
(c)Iftheinstrumentpurportingtobeawilliswritten
whollyorinpartbyanotherpersonandisnotsigned
bythetestator,itshallbedeemedtobehiswill,if
itisshownthatitwaswrittenbythetestator's
directionsorthatherecogniseditashiswill.
(d)Ifitappearsonthefaceoftheinstrumentthatthe
executionofitinthemannerintendedbythetestator
wasnotcompleted,theinstrumentshallnot,byreason
ofthatcircumstance,beinvalid,providedthathis
nonexecutionofitcanbereasonablyascribedtosome
causeotherthantheabandonmentofthetestamentary
intentionsexpressedintheinstrument.

1Ins.byAct10of1927,s.2andSch.I.

(e)Ifthesoldier,1*[airman]ormarinerhaswritten
instructionsforthepreparationofhiswill,buthas
diedbeforeitcouldbepreparedandexecuted,such
instructionsshallbeconsideredtoconstitutehis
will.
(f)Ifthesoldier,1*[airman]ormarinerhas,inthe
presenceoftwowitnesses,givenverbalinstructions
forthepreparationofhiswill,andtheyhavebeen
reducedintowritinginhislifetime,buthehasdied
beforetheinstrumentcouldbepreparedandexecuted,
suchinstructionsshallbeconsideredtoconstitutehis
will,althoughtheymaynothavebeenreducedinto

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writinginhispresence,norreadovertohim.
(g)Thesoldier,1*[airman]ormarinermaymakeawillby
wordofmouthbydeclaringhisintentionsbeforetwo
witnessespresentatthesametime.
(h)Awillmadebywordofmouthshallbenullatthe
expirationofonemonthafterthetestator,beingstill
alive,hasceasedtobeentitledtomakeaprivileged
will.
CHAPTERV
OftheAttestation,Revocation,AlterationandRevivalofWills
67.Effectofgifttoattestingwitness.Awillshallnotbe
deemedtobeinsufficientlyattestedbyreasonofanybenefitthereby
giveneitherbywayofbequestorbywayofappointmenttoanyperson
attestingit,ortohisorherwifeorhusband;butthebequestor
appointmentshallbevoidsofarasconcernsthepersonsoattesting,
orthewifeorhusbandofsuchperson,oranypersonclaimingunder
eitherofthem.
Explanation.Alegateeunderawilldoesnotlosehislegacyby
attestingacodicilwhichconfirmsthewill.
68.Witnessnotdisqualifiedbyinterestorbybeingexecutor.No
person,byreasonofinterestin,orofhisbeinganexecutorof,a
will,shallbedisqualifiedasawitnesstoprovetheexecutionofthe
willortoprovethevalidityorinvaliditythereof.
69.Revocationofwillbytestator'smarriage.Everywillshall
berevokedbythemarriageofthemaker,exceptawillmadein
exerciseofapowerofappointment,whenthepropertyoverwhichthe
powerofappointmentisexercisedwouldnot,indefaultofsuch
appointment,passtohisorherexecutororadministrator,ortothe
personentitledincaseofintestacy.
Explanation.Whereamanisinvestedwithpowertodeterminethe
dispositionofpropertyofwhichheisnottheowner,heissaidto
havepowertoappointsuchproperty.

1Ins.byAct10of1927,s.2andSch.I.

70.Revocationofunprivilegedwillorcodicil.Nounprivileged
willorcodicil,noranypartthereof,shallberevokedotherwisethan
bymarriage,orbyanotherwillorcodicil,orbysomewriting
declaringanintentiontorevokethesameandexecutedinthemanner
inwhichanunprivilegedwillishereinbeforerequiredtobeexecuted,
orbytheburning,tearing,orotherwisedestroyingthesamebythe
testatororbysomepersoninhispresenceandbyhisdirectionwith
theintentionofrevokingthesame.
Illustrations

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(i)Ahasmadeanunprivilegedwill.Afterwards,Amakesanother
unprivilegedwillwhichpurportstorevokethefirst.Thisisa
revocation.
(ii)Ahasmadeanunprivilegedwill.Afterwards,A,being
entitledtomakeaprivilegedwill,makesaprivilegedwill,which
purportstorevokehisunprivilegedwill.Thisisarevocation.
71.Effectofobliteration,interlineationoralterationinunprivileged
will.Noobliteration,interlineationorotheralteration
madeinanyunprivilegedwillaftertheexecutionthereofshallhave
anyeffect,exceptsofarasthewordsormeaningofthewillhave
beentherebyrenderedillegibleorundiscernible,unlesssuch
alterationhasbeenexecutedinlikemannerashereinbeforeis
requiredfortheexecutionofthewill:
Providedthatthewill,assoaltered,shallbedeemedtobeduly
executedifthesignatureofthetestatorandthesubscriptionofthe
witnessesismadeinthemarginoronsomeotherpartofthewill
oppositeorneartosuchalteration,oratthefootorendofor
oppositetoamemorandumreferringtosuchalteration,andwrittenat
theendorsomeotherpartofthewill.
72.Revocationofprivilegedwillorcodicil.Aprivilegedwill
orcodicilmayberevokedbythetestatorbyanunprivilegedwillor
codicil,orbyanyactexpressinganintentiontorevokeitand
accompaniedbysuchformalitiesaswouldbesufficienttogive
validitytoaprivilegedwill,orbytheburning,tearingorotherwise
destroyingthesamebythetestator,orbysomepersoninhispresence
andbyhisdirection,withtheintentionofrevokingthesame.
Explanation.Inordertotherevocationofaprivilegedwillor
codicilbyanactaccompaniedbysuchformalitiesaswouldbe
sufficienttogivevaliditytoaprivilegedwill,itisnotnecessary
thatthetestatorshouldatthetimeofdoingthatactbeina
situationwhichentitleshimtomakeaprivilegedwill.
73.Revivalofunprivilegedwill.(1)Nounprivilegedwillor
codicil,noranypartthereof,whichhasbeenrevokedinanymanner,
shallberevivedotherwise
thanbythereexecutionthereof,orbyacodicilexecutedinmanner
hereinbeforerequired,andshowinganintentiontorevivethesame.
(2)Whenanywillorcodicil,whichhasbeenpartlyrevokedand
afterwardswhollyrevoked,isrevived,suchrevivalshallnotextend
tosomuchthereofashasbeenrevokedbeforetherevocationofthe
wholethereof,unlessanintentiontothecontraryisshownbythe
willorcodicil.
CHAPTERVI
OftheconstructionofWills
74.Wordingofwill.Itisnotnecessarythatanytechnicalwords
ortermsofartbeusedinawill,butonlythatthewordingbesuch

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thattheintentionsofthetestatorcanbeknowntherefrom.
75.Inquiriestodeterminequestionsastoobjectorsubjectofwill.Forthe
purposeofdeterminingquestionsastowhatpersonor
whatpropertyisdenotedbyanywordsusedinawill,aCourtshall
inquireintoeverymaterialfactrelatingtothepersonswhoclaimto
beinterestedundersuchwill,thepropertywhichisclaimedasthe
subjectofdisposition,thecircumstancesofthetestatorandofhis
family,andintoeveryfactaknowledgeofwhichmayconducetothe
rightapplicationofthewordswhichthetestatorhasused.
Illustrations
(i)A,byhiswill,bequeaths1,000rupeestohiseldestsonor
tohisyoungestgrandchild,ortohiscousin,Mary.ACourtmaymake
inquiryinordertoascertaintowhatpersonthedescriptioninthe
willapplies.
(ii)A,byhiswill,leavestoB"myestatecalledBlackAcre".
Itmaybenecessarytotakeevidenceinordertoascertainwhatisthe
subjectmatterofthebequest;thatistosay,whatestateofthe
testator'siscalledBlackAcre.
(iii)A,byhiswill,leavestoB"theestatewhichIpurchased
ofC".Itmaybenecessarytotakeevidenceinordertoascertainwhat
estatethetestatorpurchasedofC.
76.Misnomerormisdescriptionofobject.(1)Wherethewords
usedinawilltodesignateordescribealegateeoraclassof
legateessufficientlyshowwhatismeant,anerrorinthenameor
descriptionshallnotpreventthelegacyfromtakingeffect.
(2)Amistakeinthenameofalegateemaybecorrectedbya
descriptionofhim,andamistakeinthedescriptionofalegateemay
becorrectedbythename.
Illustrations
(i)Abequeathsalegacyto"Thomas,thesecondsonofmybrother
John".ThetestatorhasanonlybrothernamedJohn,whohasnoson
namedThomas,buthasasecondsonwhosenameisWilliam.Williamwill
havethelegacy.
(ii)Abequeathsalegacy"toThomas,thesecondsonofmy
brotherJohn".Thetestatorhasanonlybrother,namedJohn,whose
firstsonisnamedThomasandwhosesecondsonisnamedWilliam.
Thomaswillhavethelegacy.
(iii)Thetestatorbequeathshisproperty"toAandB,the
legitimatechildrenofC".Chasnolegitimatechild,buthastwo
illegitimatechildren,AandB.ThebequesttoAandBtakeseffect,
althoughtheyareillegitimate.
(iv)Thetestatorgiveshisresiduaryestatetobedividedamong
"mysevenchildren"and,proceedingtoenumeratethem,mentionssix
namesonly.Thisomissionwillnotpreventtheseventhchildfrom
takingasharewiththeothers.
(v)Thetestator,havingsixgrandchildren,makesabequestto
"mysixgrandchildren"and,proceedingtomentionthembytheir
Christiannames,mentionsonetwiceoveromittinganotheraltogether.

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Theonewhosenameisnotmentionedwilltakeasharewiththeothers.
(vi)Thetestatorbequeaths"1,000rupeestoeachofthethree
childrenofA".AtthedateofthewillAhasfourchildren.Eachof
thesefourchildrenwill,ifhesurvivesthetestator,receivea
legacyof1,000rupees.
77.Whenwordsmaybesupplied.Whereanywordmaterialtothe
fullexpressionofthemeaninghasbeenomitted,itmaybesuppliedby
thecontext.
Illustration
Thetestatorgivesalegacyof"fivehundred"tohisdaughterA
andalegacyof"fivehundredrupees"tohisdaughterB.Awilltakea
legacyoffivehundredrupees.
78.Rejectionoferroneousparticularsindescriptionofsubject.
Ifthethingwhichthetestatorintendedtobequeathcanbe
sufficientlyidentifiedfromthedescriptionofitgiveninthewill,
butsomepartsofthedescriptiondonotapply,suchpartsofthe
descriptionshallberejectedaserroneous,andthebequestshalltake
effect.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB"mymarshlandslyinginLandinthe
occupationofX".ThetestatorhadmarshlandslyinginLbuthadno
marshlandsintheoccupationofX.Thewords"intheoccupationofX"
shallberejectedaserroneous,andthemarshlandsofthetestator
lyinginLwillpassbythebequest.
(ii)ThetestatorbequeathstoA"myzamindariofRampur".Hehad
anestateatRampurbutitwasataluqandnotazamindari.Thetaluq
passesbythisbequest.
79.Whenpartofdescriptionmaynotberejectedaserroneous.If
awillmentionsseveralcircumstancesasdescriptiveofthething
whichthetestatorintendstobequeath,andthereisanypropertyof
hisinrespectofwhichallthosecircumstancesexist,thebequest
shallbeconsideredaslimitedtosuchproperty,anditshallnotbe
lawfultorejectanypartofthedescriptionaserroneous,becausethe
testatorhadotherpropertytowhichsuchpartofthedescriptiondoes
notapply.
Explanation.Injudgingwhetheracasefallswithinthemeaning
ofthissection,anywordswhichwouldbeliabletorejectionunder
section78shallbedeemedtohavebeenstruckoutofthewill.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB"mymarshlandslyinginLandinthe
occupationofX".ThetestatorhadmarshlandslyinginL,someof
whichwereintheoccupationofX,andsomenotintheoccupationof
X.Thebequestwillbeconsideredaslimitedtosuchofthetestator's
marshlandslyinginLaswereintheoccupationofX.
(ii)AbequeathstoB"mymarshlandslyinginLandinthe
occupationofX,comprising1,000bighasoflands".Thetestatorhad
marshlandslyinginLsomeofwhichwereintheoccupationofXand

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somenotintheoccupationofX.Themeasurementiswholly
inapplicabletothemarshlandsofeitherclass,ortothewholetaken
together.Themeasurementwillbeconsideredasstruckoutofthe
will,andsuchofthetestator'smarshlandslyinginLaswereinthe
occupationofXshallalonepassbythebequest.
80.Extrinsicevidenceadmissibleincasesofpatentambiguity.
Wherethewordsofawillareunambiguous,butitisfoundby
extrinsicevidencethattheyadmitofapplications,oneonlyofwhich
canhavebeenintendedbythetestator,extrinsicevidencemaybe
takentoshowwhichoftheseapplicationswasintended.
Illustrations
(i)Aman,havingtwocousinsofthenameofMary,bequeathsa
sumofmoneyto"mycousinMary".Itappearsthattherearetwo
persons,eachansweringthedescriptioninthewill.Thatdescription,
therefore,admitsoftwoapplications,onlyoneofwhichcanhavebeen
intendedbythetestator.Evidenceisadmissibletoshowwhichofthe
twoapplicationswasintended.
(ii)A,byhiswill,leavestoB"myestatecalledSultanpur
Khurd".ItturnsoutthathehadtwoestatescalledSultanpurKhurd.
Evidenceisadmissibletoshowwhichestatewasintended.
81.Extrinsicevidenceinadmissibleincaseofpatentambiguityor
deficiency.Wherethereisanambiguityordeficiencyontheface
ofawill,noextrinsicevidenceastotheintentionsofthetestator
shallbeadmitted.
Illustrations
(i)Amanhasanaunt,Caroline,andacousin,Mary,andhasno
auntofthenameofMary.Byhiswillhebequeaths1,000rupeesto"my
aunt,Caroline"and1,000rupeesto"mycousin,Mary"andafterwards
bequeaths2,000rupeesto"mybeforementionedaunt,Mary".Thereis
nopersontowhomthedescriptiongiveninthewillcanapply,and
evidenceisnotadmissibletoshowwhowasmeantby"mybefore
mentionedaunt,Mary".Thebequestisthereforevoidforuncertainty
undersection89.
(ii)Abequeaths1,000rupeestoleavingablankforthe
nameofthelegatee.Evidenceisnotadmissibletoshowwhatnamethe
testatorintendedtoinsert.
(iii)AbequeathstoBrupees,or"myestateof
".
Evidenceisnotadmissibletoshowwhatsumorwhatestatethe
testatorintendedtoinsert.
82.Meaningofclausetobecollectedfromentirewill.The
meaningofanyclauseinawillistobecollectedfromtheentire
instrument,andallitspartsaretobeconstruedwithreferenceto
eachother.
Illustrations
(i)ThetestatorgivestoBaspecificfundorpropertyatthe
deathofA,andbyasubsequentclausegivesthewholeofhisproperty
toA.Theeffectoftheseveralclausestakentogetheristovestthe

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specificfundorpropertyinAforlife,andafterhisdeceaseinB;
itappearingfromthebequesttoBthatthetestatormeanttouseina
restrictedsensethewordsinwhichhedescribeswhathegivestoA.
(ii)Whereatestatorhavinganestate,onepartofwhichis
calledBlackAcre,bequeathsthewholeofhisestatetoA,andin
anotherpartofhiswillbequeathsBlackAcretoB,thelatterbequest
istobereadasanexceptionoutofthefirstasifhehadsaid"I
giveBlackAcretoB,andalltherestofmyestatetoA".
83.Whenwordsmaybeunderstoodinrestrictedsense,andwheninsense
widerthanusual.Generalwordsmaybeunderstoodina
restrictedsensewhereitmaybecollectedfromthewillthatthe
testatormeanttousetheminarestrictedsense;andwordsmaybe
understoodinawidersensethanthatwhichtheyusuallybear,where
itmaybecollectedfromtheotherwordsofthewillthatthetestator
meanttousetheminsuchwidersense.
Illustrations
(i)AtestatorgivestoA"myfarmintheoccupationofB,"and
toC"allmymarshlandsinL".Partofthefarmintheoccupationof
BconsistsofmarshlandsinL,andthetestatoralsohasothermarsh
landsinL.Thegeneralwords,"allmymarshlandsinL,"are
restrictedbythegifttoA.Atakesthewholeofthefarminthe
occupationofB,includingthatportionofthefarmwhichconsistsof
marshlandsinL.
(ii)Thetestator(asailoronshipboard)bequeathedtohis
motherhisgoldring,buttonsandchestofclothes,andtohisfriend,
A(ashipmate),hisredbox,claspknifeandallthingsnotbefore
bequeathed.Thetestator'sshareinahousedoesnotpasstoAunder
thisbequest.
(iii)A,byhiswill,bequeathedtoBallhishousehold
furniture,plate,linen,china,books,picturesandallothergoodsof
whateverkind;andafterwardsbequeathedtoBaspecifiedpartofhis
property.UnderthefirstbequestBisentitledonlytosucharticles
ofthetestator'sasareofthesamenaturewiththearticlestherein
enumerated.
84.Whichoftwopossibleconstructionspreferred.Whereaclause
issusceptibleoftwomeaningsaccordingtooneofwhichithassome
effect,andaccordingtotheotherofwhichitcanhavenone,the
formershallbepreferred.
85.Nopartrejected,ifcanbeitreasonablyconstrued.Nopart
ofawillshallberejectedasdestituteofmeaningifitispossible
toputareasonableconstructionuponit.
86.Interpretationofwordsrepeatedindifferentpartsofwill.
Ifthesamewordsoccurindifferentpartsofthesamewill,they
shallbetakentohavebeenusedeverywhereinthesamesense,unless
acontraryintentionappears.

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87.Testator'sintentiontobeeffectuatedasfaraspossible.
Theintentionofthetestatorshallnotbesetasidebecauseitcannot
takeeffecttothefullextent,buteffectistobegiventoitasfar
aspossible.
Illustration
Thetestatorbyawillmadeonhisdeathbedbequeathedallhis
propertytoC.D.forlifeandafterhisdeceasetoacertain
hospital.Theintentionofthetestatorcannottakeeffecttoitsfull
extentbecausethegifttothehospitalisvoidundersection118,but
itwilltakeeffectsofarasregardsthegifttoC.D.
88.Thelastoftwoinconsistentclausesprevails.Wheretwo
clausesofgiftsinawillareirreconcileable,sothattheycannot
possiblystandtogether,thelastshallprevail.
Illustrations
(i)Thetestatorbythefirstclauseofhiswillleaveshis
estateofRamnagar"toA,"andbythelastclauseofhiswillleaves
it"toBandnottoA".Bwillhaveit.
(ii)Ifaman,atthecommencementofhiswillgiveshishouseto
A,andatthecloseofitdirectsthathishouseshallbesoldandthe
proceedsinvestedforthebenefitofB,thelatterdispositionwill
prevail.
89.Willorbequestvoidforuncertainty.Awillorbequestnot
expressiveofanydefiniteintentionisvoidforuncertainty.
Illustration
Ifatestatorsays"IbequeathgoodstoA,"or"IbequeathtoA,"
or"IleavetoAallthegoodsmentionedintheSchedule"andno
Scheduleisfound,or"Ibequeath"money,''wheat,''oil,'"orthe
like,withoutsayinghowmuch,thisisvoid.
90.Wordsdescribingsubjectrefertopropertyansweringdescriptionat
testator'sdeath.Thedescriptioncontainedinawillwillof
property,thesubjectofgift,shall,unlessacontraryintention
appearsbythewill,bedeemedtorefertoandcomprisetheproperty
answeringthatdescriptionatthedeathofthetestator.
91.Powerofappointmentexecutedbygeneralbequest.Unlessa
contraryintentionappearsbythewill,abequestoftheestateofthe
testatorshallbeconstruedtoincludeanypropertywhichhemayhave
powertoappointbywilltoanyobjecthemaythinkproper,andshall
operateasanexecutionofsuchpower;andabequestofproperty
describedinageneralmannershallbeconstruedtoincludeany
propertytowhichsuchdescriptionmayextend,whichhemayhavepower
toappointbywilltoanyobjecthemaythinkproper,andshall
operateasanexecutionofsuchpower.
92.Impliedgifttoobjectsofpowerindefaultofappointment.
Wherepropertyisbequeathedtoorforthebenefitofcertainobjects
asaspecifiedpersonmayappointorforthebenefitofcertain

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objectsinsuchproportionsasaspecifiedpersonmayappoint,andthe
willdoesnotprovidefortheeventofnoappointmentbeingmade;if
thepowergivenbythewillisnotexercised,thepropertybelongsto
alltheobjectsofthepowerinequalshares.
Illustration
A,byhiswill,bequeathsafundtohiswife,forherlife,and
directsthatatherdeathitshallbedividedamonghischildrenin
suchproportionsassheshallappoint.Thewidowdieswithouthaving
madeanyappointment.Thefundwillbedividedequallyamongthe
children.
93.Bequestto"heirs,"etc.,ofparticularpersonwithout
qualifyingterms.Whereabequestismadetothe"heirs"or"right
heirs"or"relations"or"nearestrelations"or"family"cr"kindred"
or"nearestofkin"or"nextofkin"ofaparticularpersonwithout
anyqualifyingterms,andtheclasssodesignatedformsthedirectand
independentobjectofthebequest,thepropertybequeathedshallbe
distributedasifithadbelongedtosuchpersonandhehaddied
intestateinrespectofit,leavingassetsforthepaymentofhis
debtsindependentlyofsuchproperty.
Illustrations
(i)Aleaveshisproperty"tomyownnearestrelations".The
propertygoestothosewhowouldbeentitledtoitifAhaddied
intestate,leavingassetsforthepaymentofhisdebtsindependently
ofsuchproperty.
(ii)Abequeaths10,000rupees"toBforhislife,and,afterthe
deathofB,tomyownrightheirs".ThelegacyafterB'sdeathbelongs
tothosewhowouldbeentitledtoitifithadformedpartofA's
unbequeathedproperty.
(iii)AleaveshispropertytoB;butifBdiesbeforehim,to
B'snextofkin;BdiesbeforeA;thepropertydevolvesasifithad
belongedtoB,andhehaddiedintestate,leavingassetsforthe
paymentofhisdebtsindependentlyofsuchproperty.
(iv)Aleaves10,000rupees"toBforhislife,andafterhis
deceasetotheheirsofC".Thelegacygoesasifithadbelongedto
C,andhehaddiedintestate,leavingassetsforthepaymentofhis
debtsindependentlyofthelegacy.
94.Bequestto"representatives,"etc.,ofparticularperson.
Whereabequestismadetothe"representatives"or"legal
representatives"or"personalrepresentatives"or"executorsor
administrators"ofaparticularperson,andtheclasssodesignated
formsthedirectandindependentobjectofthebequest,theproperty
bequeathedshallbedistributedasifithadbelongedtosuchperson
andhehaddiedintestateinrespectofit.
Illustration
Abequestismadetothe"legalrepresentatives"ofA.Ahasdied
intestateandinsolvent.Bishisadministrator.Bisentitledto
receivethelegacy,andwillapplyitinthefirstplacetothe
dischargeofsuchpartofA'sdebtsasmayremainunpaid:iftherebe

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anysurplusBwillpayittothosepersonswhoatA'sdeathwouldhave
beenentitledtoreceiveanypropertyofA'swhichmightremainafter
paymentofhisdebts,ortotherepresentativesofsuchpersons.
95.Bequestwithoutwordsoflimitation.Wherepropertyis
bequeathedtoanyperson,heisentitledtothewholeinterestofthe
testatortherein,unlessitappearsfromthewillthatonlya
restrictedinterestwasintendedforhim.
96.Bequestinalternative.Whereapropertyisbequeathedtoa
personwithabequestinthealternativetoanotherpersonortoa
classofpersons,then,ifacontraryintentiondoesnotappearbythe
will,thelegateefirstnamedshallbeentitledtothelegacyifheis
aliveatthetimewhenittakeseffect;butifheisthendead,the
personorclassofpersonsnamedinthesecondbranchofthe
alternativeshalltakethelegacy.
Illustrations
(i)AbequestismadetoAortoB.Asurvivesthetestator.B
takesnothing.
(ii)AbequestismadetoAortoB.Adiesafterthedateofthe
will,andbeforethetestator.ThelegacygoestoB.
(iii)AbequestismadetoAortoB.Aisdeadatthedateof
thewill.ThelegacygoestoB.
(iv)PropertyisbequeathedtoAorhisheirs.Asurvivesthe
testator.Atakesthepropertyabsolutely.
(v)PropertyisbequeathedtoAorhisnearestofkin.Adiesin
thelifetimeofthetestator.Uponthedeathofthetestator,the
bequesttoA'snearestofkintakeseffect.
(vi)PropertyisbequeathedtoAforlife,andafterhisdeathto
Borhisheirs.AandBsurvivethetestator.BdiesinA'slifetime.
UponA'sdeaththebequesttotheheirsofBtakeseffect.
(vii)PropertyisbequeathedtoAforlife,andafterhisdeath
toBorhisheirs.Bdiesinthetestator'slifetime.Asurvivesthe
testator.UponA'sdeaththebequesttotheheirsofBtakeseffect.
97.Effectofwordsdescribingaclassaddedtobequestto
person.Wherepropertyisbequeathedtoaperson,andwordsareadded
whichdescribeaclassofpersonsbutdonotdenotethemasdirect
objectsofadistinctandindependentgift,suchpersonisentitledto
thewholeinterestofthetestatortherein,unlessacontrary
intentionappearsbythewill.
Illustrations
(i)Abequestismade
toAandhischildren,
toAandhischildrenbyhispresentwife,
toAandhisheirs,
toAandtheheirsofhisbody,
toAandtheheirsmaleofhisbody,
toAandtheheirsfemaleofhisbody,
toAandhisissue,

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toAandhisfamily,
toAandhisdescendants,
toAandhisrepresentatives,
tpAandhispersonalrepresentatives,
toA,hisexecutorsandadministrators.
Ineachofthesecases,Atakesthewholeinterestwhichthe
testatorhadintheproperty.
(ii)AbequestismadetoAandhisbrothers.Aandhisbrothers
arejointlyentitledtothelegacy.
(iii)AbequestismadetoAforlifeandafterhisdeathtohis
issue.AtthedeathofAthepropertybelongsinequalsharestoall
personswhothenanswerthedescriptionofissueofA.
98.Bequesttoclassofpersonsundergeneraldescriptiononly.
Whereabequestismadetoaclassofpersonsunderageneral
descriptiononly,noonetowhomthewordsofthedescriptionarenot
intheirordinarysenseapplicableshalltakethelegacy.
99.Constructionofterms.Inawill
(a)theword"children"appliesonlytolinealdescendants
inthefirstdegreeofthepersonwhose"children"are
spokenof;
(b)theword"grandchildren"appliesonlytolineal
descendantsintheseconddegreeofthepersonwhose
"grandchildren"arespokenof;
(c)thewords"nephews"and"nieces"applyonlytochildren
ofbrothersorsisters;
(d)thewords"cousins",or"firstcousins",or"cousins
german,"applyonlytochildrenofbrothersor
ofsistersofthefatherormotherofthepersonwhose
"cousins,"or"firstcousins,"or"cousinsgerman,"are
spokenof;
(e)thewords"firstcousinsonceremoved"applyonlyto
childrenofcousinsgerman,ortocousinsgermanofa
parentofthepersonwhose"firstcousinsonceremoved"
arespokenof;
(f)thewords"secondcousins"applyonlytograndchildren
ofbrothersorofsistersofthegrandfatheror
grandmotherofthepersonwhose"secondcousins"are
spokenof;
(g)thewords"issue"and"descendants"applytoalllineal
descendantswhateverofthepersonwhose"issue"or
"descendants"arespokenof;
(h)wordsexpressiveofcollateralrelationshipapplyalike
torelativesoffullandofhalfblood;and
(i)allwordsexpressiveofrelationshipapplytoachildin
thewombwhoisafterwardsbornalive.
100.Wordsexpressingrelationshipdenoteonlylegitimate
relativesorfailingsuchrelativesreputedlegitimate.Intheabsence

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ofanyintimationtothecontraryinawill,theword"child,"the
word"son,"theword"daughter,"oranywordwhichexpresses
relationship,istobeunderstoodasdenotingonlyalegitimate
relative,or,wherethereisnosuchlegitimaterelative,apersonwho
hasacquired,atthedateofthewill,thereputationofbeingsuch
relative.
Illustrations
(i)Ahavingthreechildren,B,CandD,ofwhomBandCare
legitimateandDisillegitimate,leaveshispropertytobeequally
dividedamong"mychildren".ThepropertybelongstoBandCinequal
shares,totheexclusionofD.
(ii)A,havinganieceofillegitimatebirth,whohasacquired
thereputationofbeinghisniece,andhavingnolegitimateniece,
bequeathsasumofmoneytohisniece.Theillegitimatenieceis
entitledtothelegacy.
(iii)A,havinginhiswillenumeratedhischildren,andnamedas
oneofthemB,whoisillegitimate,leavesalegacyto"mysaid
children".Bwilltakeashareinthelegacyalongwiththelegitimate
children.
(iv)Aleavesalegacyto"thechildrenofB".Bisdeadandhas
leftnonebutillegitimatechildren.Allthosewhohadatthedateof
thewillacquiredthereputationofbeingthechildrenofBare
objectsofthegift.
(v)Abequeathsalegacyto"thechildrenofB".Bneverhadany
legitimatechild.CandDhad,atthedateofthewill,acquiredthe
reputationofbeingchildrenofB.Afterthedateofthewilland
beforethedeathofthetestator,EandFwereborn,andacquiredthe
reputationofbeingchildrenofB.OnlyCandDareobjectsofthe
bequest.
(vi)Amakesabequestinfavourofhischildbyacertainwoman,
nothiswife.Bhadacquiredatthedateofthewillthereputationof
beingthechildofAbythewomandesignated.Btakesthelegacy.
(vii)Amakesabequestinfavourofhischildtobebornofa
womanwhoneverbecomeshiswife.Thebequestisvoid.
(viii)Amakesabequestinfavourofthechildofwhicha
certainwoman,notmarriedtohim,ispregnant.Thebequestisvoid.
101.Rulesofconstructionwherewillpurportstomaketwo
bequeststosameperson.Whereawillpurportstomaketwobequeststo
thesameperson,andaquestionariseswhetherthetestatorintended
tomakethesecondbequestinsteadoforinadditiontothefirst;if
thereisnothinginthewilltoshowwhatheintended,thefollowing
rulesshallhaveeffectindeterminingtheconstructiontobeputupon
thewill:
(a)Ifthesamespecificthingisbequeathedtwicetothe
samelegateeinthesamewillorinthewillandagain
inthecodicil,heisentitledtoreceivethatspecific
thingonly.
(b)Whereoneandthesamewilloroneandthesamecodicil
purportstomake,intwoplaces,abequesttothesame

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personofthesamequantityoramountofanything,he
shallbeentitledtoonesuchlegacyonly.
(c)Wheretwolegaciesofunequalamountaregiventothe
samepersoninthesamewill,orinthesamecodicil,
thelegateeisentitledtoboth.
(d)Wheretwolegacies,whetherequalorunequalinamount,
aregiventothesamelegatee,onebyawillandthe
otherbyacodicil,oreachbyadifferentcodicil,the
legateeisentitledtobothlegacies.
Explanation.Inclauses(a)to(d)ofthissection,theword
"will"doesnotincludeacodicil.
Illustrations
(i)A,havingtenshares,andnomore,intheImperialBankof
India,madehiswill,whichcontainsnearitscommencementthewords
"IbequeathmytensharesintheImperialBankofIndiatoB".After
otherbequests,thewillconcludeswiththewords"andIbequeathmy
tensharesintheImperialBankofIndiatoB".Bisentitledsimply
toreceiveA'stensharesintheImperialBankofIndia.
(ii)A,havingonediamondring,whichwasgivenhimbyB,
bequeathstoCthediamondringwhichwasgivenbyB.Aafterwards
madeacodiciltohiswill,andthereby,aftergivingotherleagacies,
hebequeathedtoCthediamondringwhichwasgivenhimbyB.Ccan
claimnothingexceptthediamondringwhichwasgiventoAbyB.
(iii)A,byhiswill,bequeathstoBthesumof5,000rupeesand
afterwardsinthesamewillrepeatsthebequestinthesamewords.B
isentitledtoonelegacyof5,000rupeesonly.
(iv)A,byhiswill,bequeathstoBthesumof5,000rupeesand
afterwardsinthesamewillbequeathstoBthesumof6,000rupees.B
isentitledtoreceive11,000rupees.
(v)A,byhiswill,bequeathstoB5,000rupeesandbyacodicil
tothewillhebequeathstohim5,000rupees.Bisentitledtoreceive
10,000rupees.
(vi)A,byonecodiciltohiswill,bequeathstoB5,000rupees
andbyanothercodicilbequeathstohim,6,000rupees.Bisentitled
toreceive11,000rupees.
(vii)A,byhiswill,bequeaths"500rupeestoBbecauseshewas
mynurse",andinanotherpartofthewillbequeaths500rupeestoB
"becauseshewenttoEnglandwithmychildren".Bisentitledto
receive1,000rupees.
(viii)A,byhiswill,bequeathstoBthesumof5,000rupeesand
also,inanotherpartofthewill,anannuityof400rupees.Bis
entitledtobothlegacies.
(ix)A,byhiswill,bequeathstoBthesumof5,000rupeesand
alsobequeathstohimthesumof5,000rupeesifheshallattainthe
ageof18.Bisentitledabsolutelytoonesumof5,000rupees,and
takesacontingentinterestinanothersumof5,000rupees.
102.Constitutionofresiduarylegatee.Aresiduarylegateemay
beconstitutedbyanywordsthatshowanintentiononthepartofthe
testatorthatthepersondesignatedshalltakethesurplusorresidue

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ofhisproperty.
Illustrations
(i)Amakesherwill,consistingofseveraltestamentarypapers,
inoneofwhicharecontainedthefollowingwords:"Ithinkthere
willbesomethingleft,afterallfuneralexpenses,etc.,togiveto
B,nowatschool,towardsequippinghimtoanyprofessionhemay
hereafterbeappointedto."Bisconstitutedresiduarylegatee.
(ii)Amakeshiswill,withthefollowingpassageattheendof
it:"Ibelievetherewillbefoundsufficientinmybanker'shandsto
defrayanddischargemydebts,whichIhereby,desireBtodo,and
keeptheresidueforherownuseandpleasure."Bisconstitutedthe
residuarylegatee.
(iii)AbequeathsallhispropertytoB,exceptcertainstocks
andfunds,whichhebequeathstoC.Bistheresiduarylegatee.
103.Propertytowhichresiduarylegateeentitled.Undera
residuarybequest,thelegateeisentitledtoallpropertybelonging
tothetestatoratthetimeofhisdeath,ofwhichhehasnotmadeany
othertestamentarydispositionwhichiscapableoftakingeffect.
Illustration
Abyhiswillbequeathscertainlegacies,ofwhichoneisvoid
undersection118,andanotherlapsesbythedeathofthelegatee.He
bequeathstheresidueofhispropertytoB.Afterthedateofhiswill
Apurchasesazamindari,whichbelongstohimatthetimeofhis
death.Bisentitledtothetwolegaciesandthezamindariaspartof
theresidue.
104.Timeofvestinglegacyingeneralterms.Ifalegacyis
giveningeneralterms,withoutspecifyingthetimewhenitistobe
paid,thelegateehasavestedinterestinitfromthedayofthe
deathofthetestator,and,ifhedieswithouthavingreceivedit,it
shallpasstohisrepresentatives.
105.Inwhatcaselegacylapses.(1)Ifthelegateedoesnot
survivethetestator,thelegacycannottakeeffect,butshalllapse
andformpartoftheresidueofthetestator'sproperty,unlessit
appearsbythewillthatthetestatorintendedthatitshouldgoto
someotherperson.
(2)Inordertoentitletherepresentativesofthelegateeto
receivethelegacy,itmustbeprovedthathesurvivedthetestator.
Illustrations
(i)ThetestatorbequeathstoB"500rupeeswhichBowesme".B
diesbeforethetestator;thelegacylapses.
(ii)AbequestismadetoAandhischildren.Adiesbeforethe
testator,orhappenstobedeadwhenthewillismade.ThelegacytoA
andhischildrenlapses.
(iii)AlegacyisgiventoA,and,incaseofhisdyingbefore
thetestator,toB.Adiesbeforethetestator.ThelegacygoestoB.
(iv)AsumofmoneyisbequeathedtoAforlife,andafterhis
deathtoB.Adiesinthelifetimeofthetestator;Bsurvivesthe

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testator.ThebequesttoBtakeseffect.
(v)AsumofmoneyisbequeathedtoAonhiscompletinghis
eighteenthyear,andincaseheshoulddiebeforehecompleteshis
eighteenthyear,toB.Acompleteshiseighteenthyear,anddiesin
thelifetimeofthetestator.ThelegacytoAlapses,andthebequest
toBdoesnottakeeffect.
(vi)Thetestatorandthelegateeperishedinthesameship
wreck.Thereisnoevidencetoshowwhichdiedfirst.Thelegacy
lapses.
106.Legacydoesnotlapseifoneoftwojointlegateesdie
beforetestator.Ifalegacyisgiventotwopersonsjointly,andone
ofthemdiesbeforethetestator,theotherlegateetakesthewhole.
Illustration
ThelegacyissimplytoAandB.Adiesbeforethetestator.B
takesthelegacy.
107.Effectofwordsshowingtestator'sintentiontogive
distinctshares.Ifalegacyisgiventolegateesinwordswhichshow
thatthetestatorintendedtogivethemdistinctsharesofit,then,
ifanylegateediesbeforethetestator,somuchofthelegacyaswas
intendedforhimshallfallintotheresidueofthetestator's
property.
Illustration
AsumofmoneyisbequeathedtoA,BandC,tobeequallydivided
amongthem.Adiesbeforethetestator.BandCwillonlytakesomuch
astheywouldhavehadifAhadsurvivedthetestator.
108.Whenlapsedsharegoesasundisposedof.Whereasharewhich
lapsesisapartofthegeneralresiduebequeathedbythewill,that
shareshallgoasundisposedof.
Illustration
ThetestatorbequeathstheresidueofhisestatetoA,BandC,
tobeequallydividedbetweenthem.Adiesbeforethetestator.His
onethirdoftheresiduegoesasundisposedof.
109.Whenbequesttotestator'schildorlinealdescendantdoes
notlapseonhisdeathintestator'slifetime.Whereabequesthas
beenmadetoanychildorotherlinealdescendantofthetestator,and
thelegateediesinthelifetimeofthetestator,butanylineal
descendantofhissurvivesthetestator,thebequestshallnotlapse,
butshalltakeeffectasifthedeathofthelegateehadhappened
immediatelyafterthedeathofthetestator,unlessacontrary
intentionappearsbythewill.
Illustration
Amakeshiswill,bywhichhebequeathsasumofmoneytohis
son,B,forhisownabsoluteuseandbenefit.BdiesbeforeA,leaving
ason,C,whosurvivesA,andhavingmadehiswillwherebyhe
bequeathsallhispropertytohiswidow,D.ThemoneygoestoD.

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110.BequesttoAforbenefitofBdoesnotlapsebyA'sdeath.
Whereabequestismadetoonepersonforthebenefitofanother,the
legacydoesnotlapsebythedeath,inthetestator'slifetime,ofthe
persontowhomthebequestismade.
111.Survivorshipincaseofbequesttodescribedclass.Wherea
bequestismadesimplytoadescribedclassofpersons,thething
bequeathedshallgoonlytosuchasarealiveatthetestator'sdeath.
Exception.Ifpropertyisbequeathedtoaclassofpersons
describedasstandinginaparticulardegreeofkindredtoaspecified
individual,buttheirpossessionofitisdeferreduntilatimelater
thanthedeathofthetestatorbyreasonofapriorbequestor
otherwise,thepropertyshallatthattimegotosuchofthemasare
thenalive,andtotherepresentativesofanyofthemwhohavedied
sincethedeathofthetestator.
Illustrations
(i)Abequeaths1,000rupeesto"thechildrenofB"without
sayingwhenitistobedistributedamongthem.Bhaddiedpreviousto
thedateofthewill,leavingthreechildren,C,DandE.Ediedafter
thedateofthewill,butbeforethedeathofA.CandDsurviveA.
ThelegacywillbelongtoCandD,totheexclusionofthe
representativesofE.
(ii)Aleaseforyearsofahouse,wasbequeathedtoAforhis
life,andafterhisdeceasetothechildrenofB.Atthedeathofthe
testator,Bhadtwochildrenliving,CandD,andheneverhadany
otherchild.Afterwards,duringthelifetimeofA,Cdied,leavingE,
hisexecutor.DhassurvivedA,DandEarejointlyentitledtoso
muchoftheleaseholdtermasremainsunexpired.
(iii)AsumofmoneywasbequeathedtoAforherlife,andafter
herdeceasetothechildrenofB.Atthedeathofthetestator,Bhad
twochildrenliving,CandD,and,afterthatevent,twochildren,E
andF,wereborntoB.CandEdiedinthelifetimeofA,Chaving
madeawill,Ehavingmadenowill.Ahasdied,leavingDandF
survivingher.Thelegacyistobedividedintofourequalparts,one
ofwhichistobepaidtotheexecutorofC,onetoD,onetothe
administratorofEandonetoF.
(iv)AbequeathsonethirdofhislandstoBforhislife,and
afterhisdeceasetothesistersofB.Atthedeathofthetestator,B
hadtwosistersliving,CandD,andafterthateventanothersisterE
wasborn.CdiedduringthelifeofB,DandEhavesurvivedB.One
thirdofA'slandbelongtoD,EandtherepresentativesofC,in
equalshares.
(v)Abequeaths1,000rupeestoBforlifeandafterhisdeath
equallyamongthechildrenofC.UptothedeathofB,Chadnothad
anychild.ThebequestafterthedeathofBisvoid.
(vi)Abequeaths1,000rupeesto"allthechildrenbornortobe
born"ofBtobedividedamongthematthedeathofC.Atthedeathof
thetestator,Bhastwochildrenliving,DandE.Afterthedeathof
thetestator,butinthelifetimeofC,twootherchildren,FandG,
areborntoB.AfterthedeathofC,anotherchildisborntoB.The
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legacybelongstoD,E,FandG,totheexclusionoftheafterborn
childofB.
(vii)AbequeathsafundtothechildrenofB,tobedivided
amongthemwhentheeldestshallattainmajority.Atthetestator's
death,Bhadonechildliving,namedC.Heafterwardshadtwoother
children,namedDandE.Edied,butCandDwerelivingwhenC
attainedmajority.ThefundbelongstoC,Dandtherepresentativesof
E,totheexclusionofanychildwhomaybeborntoBafterC's
attainingmajority.
CHAPTERVII
OfvoidBequests
112.Bequesttopersonbyparticulardescription,whoisnotin
existenceattestator'sdeath.Whereabequestismadetoapersonby
aparticulardescription,andthereisnopersoninexistenceatthe
testator'sdeathwhoanswersthedescription,thebequestisvoid.
Exception.Ifpropertyisbequeathedtoapersondescribedas
standinginaparticulardegreeofkindredtoaspecifiedindividual,
buthispossessionofitisdeferreduntilatimelaterthanthedeath
ofthetestator,byreasonofapriorbequestorotherwise;andifa
personansweringthedescriptionisaliveatthedeathofthe
testator,orcomesintoexistencebetweenthateventandsuchlater
time,thepropertyshall,atsuchlatertime,gotothatperson,or,
ifheisdead,tohisrepresentatives.
Illustrations
(i)Abequeaths1,000rupeestotheeldestsonofB.Atthedeath
ofthetestator,Bhasnoson.Thebequestisvoid.
(ii)Abequeaths1,000rupeestoBforlife,andafterhisdeath
totheeldestsonofC.Atthedeathofthetestator,Chadnoson.
Afterwards,duringthelifeofB,asonisborntoC.UponB'sdeath
thelegacygoestoC'sson.
(iii)Abequeaths1,000rupeestoBforlife,andafterhisdeath
totheeldestsonofC.Atthedeathofthetestator,Chadnoson.
Afterwards,duringthelifeofB,ason,namedD,isborntoC.D
dies,thenBdies.ThelegacygoestotherepresentativeofD.
(iv)AbequeathshisestateofGreenAcretoBforlife,andat
hisdecease,totheeldestsonofC.UptothedeathofB,Chashad
noson.ThebequesttoC'seldestsonisvoid.
(v)Abequeaths1,000rupeestotheeldestsonofC,tobepaid
tohimafterthedeathofB.AtthedeathofthetestatorChasno
son,butasonisafterwardsborntohimduringthelifeofBandis
aliveatB'sdeath.C'ssonisentitledtothe1,000rupees.
113.Bequesttopersonnotinexistenceattestator'sdeath
subjecttopriorbequest.Whereabequestismadetoapersonnotin
existenceatthetimeofthetestator'sdeath,subjecttoaprior
bequestcontainedinthewill,thelaterbequestshallbevoid,unless
itcomprisesthewholeoftheremaininginterestofthetestatorin
thethingbequeathed.
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Illustrations
(i)PropertyisbequeathedtoAforhislife,andafterhisdeath
tohiseldestsonforlife,andafterthedeathofthelattertohis
eldestson.Atthetimeofthetestator'sdeath,Ahasnoson.Here
thebequesttoA'seldestsonisabequesttoapersonnotin
existenceatthetestator'sdeath.Itisnotbequestofthewhole
interestthatremainstothetestator.ThebequesttoA'seldestson
forhislifeisvoid.
(ii)AfundisbequeathedtoAforhislife,andafterhisdeath
tohisdaughters.Asurvivesthetestator.Ahasdaughterssomeof
whomwerenotinexistenceatthetestator'sdeath.ThebequesttoA's
daughterscomprisesthewholeinterestthatremainstothetestatorin
thethingbequeathed.ThebequesttoA'sdaughtersisvalid.
(iii)AfundisbequeathedtoAforhislife,andafterhisdeath
tohisdaughters,withadirectionthat,ifanyofthemmarriesunder
theageofeighteen,herportionshallbesettledsothatitmay
belongtoherselfforlifeandmaybedivisibleamongherchildren
afterherdeath.Ahasnodaughterslivingatthetimeofthe
testator'sdeath,buthasdaughtersbornafterwardswhosurvivehim.
Herethedirectionforasettlementhastheeffectinthecaseofeach
daughterwhomarriesundereighteenofsubstitutingfortheabsolute
bequesttoherabequesttohermerelyforherlife;thatistosay,a
bequesttoapersonnotinexistenceatthetimeofthetestator's
deathofsomethingwhichislessthanthewholeinterestthatremains
tothetestatorinthethingbequeathed.Thedirectiontosettlethe
fundisvoid.
(iv)AbequeathsasumofmoneytoBforlife,anddirectsthat
uponthedeathofBthefundshallbesettleduponhisdaughters,so
thattheportionofeachdaughtermaybelongtoherselfforlife,and
maybedividedamongherchildrenafterherdeath.Bhasnodaughter
livingatthetimeofthetestator'sdeath.Inthiscasetheonly
bequesttothedaughtersofBiscontainedinthedirectiontosettle
thefund,andthisdirectionamountstoabequesttopersonsnotyet
born,ofalifeinterestinthefund,thatistosay,ofsomething
whichislessthanthewholeinterestthatremainstothetestatorin
thethingbequeathed.Thedirectiontosettlethefunduponthe
daughtersofBisvoid.
114.Ruleagainstperpetuity.Nobequestisvalidwherebythe
vestingofthethingbequeathedmaybedelayedbeyondthelifetimeof
oneormorepersonslivingatthetestator'sdeathandtheminorityof
somepersonwhoshallbeinexistenceattheexpirationofthat
period,andtowhom,ifheattainsfullage,thethingbequeathedis
tobelong.
Illustrations
(i)AfundisbequeathedtoAforhislifeandafterhisdeathto
Bforhislife;andafterB'sdeathtosuchofthesonsofBasshall
firstattaintheageof25.AandBsurvivethetestator.Heretheson
ofBwhoshallfirstattaintheageof25maybeasonbornafterthe
deathofthetestator;suchsonmaynotattain25untilmorethan18

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yearshaveelapsedfromthedeathofthelongerliverofAandB;and
thevestingofthefundmaythusbedelayedbeyondthelifetimeofA
andBandtheminorityofthesonsofB.ThebequestafterB'sdeath
isvoid.
(ii)AfundisbequeathedtoAforhislife,andafterhisdeath
toBforhislife,andafterB'sdeathtosuchofB'ssonsasshall
firstattaintheageof25.Bdiesinthelifetimeofthetestator,
leavingoneormoresons.Inthis
casethesonsofBarepersonslivingatthetimeofthetestator's
decease,andthetimewheneitherofthemwillattain25necessarily
fallswithinhisownlifetime.Thebequestisvalid.
(iii)AfundisbequeathedtoAforhislife,andafterhisdeath
toBforhislife,withadirectionthatafterB'sdeathitshallbe
dividedamongstsuchofB'schildrenasshallattaintheageof18,
butthat,ifnochildofBshallattainthatage,thefundshallgoto
C.Herethetimeforthedivisionofthefundmustarriveatthe
latestattheexpirationof18yearsfromthedeathofB,aperson
livingatthetestator'sdecease.Allthebequestsarevalid.
(iv)Afundisbequeathedtotrusteesforthebenefitofthe
testator'sdaughters,withadirectionthat,ifanyofthemmarry
underage,hershareofthefundshallbesettledsoastodevolve
afterherdeathuponsuchofherchildrenasshallattaintheageof
18.Anydaughterofthetestatortowhomthedirectionappliesmustbe
inexistenceathisdecease,andanyportionofthefundwhichmay
eventuallybesettledasdirectedmustvestnotlaterthan18years
fromthedeathofthedaughterswhoseshareitwas.Allthese
provisionsarevalid.
115.Bequesttoaclasssomeofwhommaycomeunderrulesin
sections113and114.Ifabequestismadetoaclassofpersonswith
regardtosomeofwhomitisinoperativebyreasonoftheprovisions
ofsection113orsection114,suchbequestshallbe1*[voidinregard
tothosepersonsonly,andnotinregardtothewholeclass].
Illustrations
(i)AfundisbequeathedtoAforlife,andafterhisdeathto
allhischildrenwhoshallattaintheageof25.Asurvivesthe
testator,andhassomechildrenlivingatthetestator'sdeath.Each
childofA'slivingatthetestator'sdeathmustattaintheageof25
(ifatall)withinthelimitsallowedforabequest.ButAmayhave
childrenafterthetestator'sdecease,someofwhommaynotattainthe
ageof25untilmorethan18yearshaveelapsedafterthedeceaseof
A.ThebequesttoA'schildren,therefor,isinoperativeastoany
childbornafterthetestator'sdeath;2*[andinregardtothosewho
donotattaintheageof25within18yearsafterA'sdeath,butis
operativeinregardtotheotherchildrenofA].
(ii)AfundisbequeathedtoAforhislife,andafterhisdeath
toB,C,DandallotherchildrenofAwhoshallattaintheageof25.
B,C,DarechildrenofAlivingatthetestator'sdecease.Inall
otherrespectsthecaseisthesameasthatsupposedinIllustration
(i).2*[AlthoughthementionofB,CandDdoesnotpreventthe

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bequestfrombeingregardedasabequesttoaclass,itisnotwholly
void.ItisoperativeasregardsanyofthechildrenB,CorD,who
attainstheageof25within18yearsafterA'sdeath.]
3*[116.Bequesttotakeeffectonfailureofpriorbequest.Where
byreasonofanyoftherulescontainedinsections113and114,any
bequestinfavourofapersonorofaclassofpersonsisvoidin
regardtosuchpersonorthewholeofsuchclass,anybequest
containedinthesamewillandintendedtotakeeffectafterorupon
failureofsuchpriorbequestisalsovoid.]

1Subs.byAct21of1929,s.14,for"whollyvoid".
2Subs.bys.14,ibid.,forcertainoriginalwords.
3Subs.bys.14,ibid.,fortheoriginalsection.

Illustrations
(i)AfundisbequeathedtoAforhislife,andafterhisdeath
tosuchofhissonsasshallfirstattaintheageof25,forhislife,
andafterthedeceaseofsuchsontoB.AandBsurvivethetestator.
ThebequesttoBisintendedtotakeeffectafterthebequesttosuch
ofthesonsofAasshallfirstattaintheageof25,whichbequestis
voidundersection114.ThebequesttoBisvoid.
(ii)AfundisbequeathedtoAforhislife,andafterhisdeath
tosuchofhissonsasshallfirstattaintheageof25,and,ifno
sonofAshallattainthatage,toB.AandBsurvivethetestator.
ThebequesttoBisintendedtotakeeffectuponfailureofthe
bequesttosuchofA'ssonsasshallfirstattaintheageof25,which
bequestisvoidundersection114.ThebequesttoBisvoid.
1*[117.Effectofdirectionforaccumulation.(1)Wheretheterms
ofawilldirectthattheincomearisingfromanypropertyshallbe
accumulatedeitherwhollyorinpartduringanyperiodlongerthana
periodofeighteenyearsfromthedeathofthetestator,such
directionshall,saveashereinafterprovided,bevoidtotheextent
towhichtheperiodduringwhichtheaccumulationisdirectedexceeds
theaforesaidperiod,andattheendofsuchperiodofeighteenyears
thepropertyandtheincomethereofshallbedisposedofasifthe
periodduringwhichtheaccumulationhasbeendirectedtobemadehad
elapsed.
(2)Thissectionshallnotaffectanydirectionforaccumulation
forthepurposeof
(i)thepaymentofthedebtsofthetestatororany
otherpersontakinganyinterestunderthewill,
or
(ii)theprovisionofportionsforchildrenorremoter
issueofthetestatororofanyotherperson
takinganyinterestunderthewill,or
(iii)thepreservationormaintenanceofanyproperty

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bequeathed;
andsuchdirectionmaybemadeaccordingly.]
118.Bequesttoreligiousorcharitableuses.Nomanhavinga
nephewornieceoranynearerrelativeshallhavepowertobequeath
anypropertytoreligiousorcharitableuses,exceptbyawill
executednotlessthantwelvemonthsbeforehisdeath,anddeposited
withinsixmonthsfromitsexecutioninsomeplaceprovidedbylawfor
thesafecustodyofthewillsoflivingpersons:
2*["Providedthatnothinginthissectionshallapplytoa
Parsi."]

1Subs.byAct21of1929,s.14,fortheoriginalsection.
2AddedbyAct51of1991,s.6.

Illustrations
Ahavinganephewmakesabequestbyawillnotexecutedand
depositedasrequired
forthereliefofpoorpeople;
forthemaintenanceofsicksoldiers;
fortheerectionorsupportofahospital;
fortheeducationandprefermentoforphans;
forthesupportofscholars;
fortheerectionorsupportofaschool;
forthebuildingandrepairsofabridge;
forthemakingofroads;
fortheerectionorsupportofachurch;
fortherepairsofachurch;
forthebenefitofministersofreligion;
fortheformationorsupportofapublicgarden;
Allthesebequestsarevoid.
CHAPTERVIII
OfthevestingofLegacies
119.Dateofvestingoflegacywhenpaymentorpossession
postponed.Wherebythetermsofabequestthelegateeisnotentitled
toimmediatepossessionofthethingbequeathed,arighttoreceiveit
atthepropertimeshall,unlessacontraryintentionappearsbythe
will,becomevestedinthelegateeonthetestator'sdeath,andshall
passtothelegatee'srepresentativesifhediesbeforethattimeand
withouthavingreceivedthelegacy,andinsuchcasesthelegacyis
fromthetestator'sdeathsaidtobevestedininterest.
Explanation.Anintentionthatalegacytoanypersonshallnot
becomevestedininterestinhimisnottobeinferredmerelyfroma
provisionwherebythepaymentorpossessionofthethingbequeathedis
postponed,orwherebyapriorinterestthereinisbequeathedtosome
otherperson,orwherebytheincomearisingfromthefundbequeathed

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isdirectedtobeaccumulateduntilthetimeofpaymentarrives,or
fromaprovisionthat,ifaparticulareventshallhappen,thelegacy
shallgoovertoanotherperson.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB100rupees,tobepaidtohimatthedeath
ofC.OnA'sdeaththelegacybecomesvestedininterestinB,andif
hediesbeforeC,hisrepresentativesareentitledtothelegacy.
(ii)AbequeathstoB100rupees,tobepaidtohimuponhis
attainingtheageof18.OnA'sdeaththelegacybecomesvestedin
interestinB.
(iii)AfundisbequeathedtoAforlife,andafterhisdeathto
B.Onthetestator'sdeaththelegacytoBbecomesvestedininterest
inB.
(iv)AfundisbequeathedtoAuntilBattainstheageof18and
thentoB.ThelegacytoBisvestedininterestfromthetestator's
death.
(v)AbequeathsthewholeofhispropertytoBupontrusttopay
certaindebtsoutoftheincome,andthentomakeoverthefundtoC.
AtA'sdeaththegifttoCbecomesvestedininterestinhim.
(vi)AfundisbequeathedtoA,BandCinequalsharestobe
paidtothemontheirattainingtheageof18,respectively,witha
provisothat,ifallofthemdieundertheageof18,thelegacyshall
devolveuponD.Onthedeathofthetestator,thesharesvestedin
interestinA,BandC,subjecttobedivestedincaseA,BandC
shallalldieunder18,and,uponthedeathofanyofthem(exceptthe
lastsurvivor)undertheageof18,hisvestedinterestpasses,so
subject,tohisrepresentatives.
120.Dateofvestingwhenlegacycontingentuponspecified
uncertainevent.(1)Alegacybequeathedincaseaspecifieduncertain
eventshallhappendoesnotvestuntilthateventhappens.
(2)Alegacybequeathedincaseaspecifieduncertaineventshall
nothappendoesnotvestuntilthehappeningofthateventbecomes
impossible.
(3)Ineithercase,untiltheconditionhasbeenfulfilled,the
interestofthelegateeiscalledcontingent.
Exception.Whereafundisbequeathedtoanypersonuponhis
attainingaparticularage,andthewillalsogivestohimabsolutely
theincometoarisefromthefundbeforehereachesthatage,or
directstheincome,orsomuchofitasmaybenecessary,tobe
appliedforhisbenefit,thebequestofthefundisnotcontingent.
Illustrations
(i)AlegacyisbequeathedtoDincaseA,BandCshallalldie
undertheageof18.Dhasacontingentinterestinthelegacyuntil
A,BandCalldieunder18,oroneofthemattainsthatage.
(ii)AsumofmoneyisbequeathedtoA"incaseheshallattain
theageof18,"or"whenheshallattaintheageof18".A'sinterest
inthelegacyiscontingentuntiltheconditionisfulfilledbyhis
attainingthatage.
(iii)AnestateisbequeathedtoAforlife,andafterhisdeath

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toBifBshallthenbeliving;butifBshallnotbethenlivingto
C.A,BandCsurvivethetestator.BandCeachtakeacontingent
interestintheestateuntiltheeventwhichistovestitinoneor
intheotherhashappened.
(iv)Anestateisbequeathedasinthecaselastsupposed.Bdies
inthelifetimeofAandC.UponthedeathofB,Cacquiresavested
righttoobtainpossessionoftheestateuponA'sdeath.
(v)AlegacyisbequeathedtoAwhensheshallattaintheageof
18,orshallmarryunderthatagewiththeconsentofB,witha
provisothat,ifsheneitherattains18normarriesunderthatage
withB'sconsent,thelegacyshallgotoC.AandCeachtakea
contingentinterestinthelegacy.Aattainstheageof18.Abecomes
absolutelyentitledtothelegacyalthoughshemayhavemarriedunder
18withouttheconsentofB.
(vi)AnestateisbequeathedtoAuntilheshallmarryandafter
thateventtoB.B'sinterestinthebequestiscontingentuntilthe
conditionisfulfilledbyA'smarrying.
(vii)AnestateisbequeathedtoAuntilheshalltakeadvantage
ofanylawforthereliefofinsolventdebtors,andafterthatevent
toB.B'sinterestinthebequestiscontingentuntilAtakes
advantageofsuchalaw.
(viii)AnestateisbequeathedtoAifheshallpay500rupeesto
B.A'sinterestinthebequestiscontingentuntilhehaspaid500
rupeestoB.
(ix)AleaveshisfarmofSultanpurKhurdtoB,ifBshallconvey
hisownfarmofSultanpurBuzurgtoC.B'sinterestinthebequestis
contingentuntilhehasconveyedthelatterfarmtoC.
(x)AfundisbequeathedtoAifBshallnotmarryCwithinfive
yearsafterthetestator'sdeath.A'sinterestinthelegacyis
contingentuntiltheconditionisfulfilledbytheexpirationofthe
fiveyearswithoutB'shavingmarriedC,orbytheoccurrencewithin
thatperiodofaneventwhichmakesthefulfilmentofthecondition
impossible.
(xi)AfundisbequeathedtoAifBshallnotmakeanyprovision
forhimbywill.ThelegacyiscontingentuntilB'sdeath.
(xii)AbequeathsofB500rupeesayearuponhisattainingthe
ageof18,anddirectsthattheinterest,oracompetentpartthereof,
shallbeappliedforhisbenefituntilhereachesthatage.Thelegacy
isvested.
(xiii)AbequeathstoB500rupeeswhenheshallattaintheage
of18anddirectsthatacertainsum,outofanotherfund,shallbe
appliedforhismaintenanceuntilhearrivesatthatage.Thelegacy
iscontingent.
121.Vestingofinterestinbequesttosuchmembersofaclassas
shallhaveattainedparticularage.Whereabequestismadeonlyto
suchmembersofaclassasshallhaveattainedaparticularage,a
personwhohasnotattainedthatagecannothaveavestedinterestin
thelegacy.
Illustration

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AfundisbequeathedtosuchofthechildrenofAasshallattain
theageof18,withadirectionthat,whileanychildofAshallbe
undertheageof18,theincomeoftheshare,towhichitmaybe
presumedhewillbeeventuallyentitled,shallbeappliedforhis
maintenanceandeducation.NochildofAwhoisundertheageof18
hasavestedinterestinthebequest.
CHAPTERIX
OfOnerousBequests
122.Onerousbequests.Whereabequestimposesanobligationon
thelegatee,hecantakenothingbyitunlessheacceptsitfully.
Illustration
A,havingsharesin(X),aprosperousjointstockcompanyand
alsosharesin(Y),ajointstockcompanyindifficulties,inrespect
ofwhichsharesheavycallsareexpectedtobemade,bequeathstoB
allhissharesinjointstockcompanies;Brefusestoacceptthe
sharesin(Y).Heforfeitsthesharesin(X).
123.Oneoftwoseparateandindependentbequeststosameperson
maybeaccepted,andotherrefused.Whereawillcontainstwoseparate
andindependentbequeststothesameperson,thelegateeisatliberty
toacceptoneofthemandrefusetheother,althoughtheformermaybe
beneficialandthelatteronerous.
Illustration
A,havingaleaseforatermofyearsofahouseatarentwhich
heandhisrepresentativesareboundtopayduringtheterm,andwhich
ishigherthanthehousecanbeletfor,bequeathstoBtheleaseand
asumofmoney.Brefusestoacceptthelease.Hewillnotbythis
refusalforfeitthemoney.
CHAPTERX
OfContingentBequests
124.Bequestcontingentuponspecifieduncertainevent,notime
beingmentionedforitsoccurrence.Wherealegacyisgivenifa
specifieduncertaineventshallhappenandnotimeismentionedinthe
willfortheoccurrenceofthatevent,thelegacycannottakeeffect,
unlesssucheventhappensbeforetheperiodwhenthefundbequeathed
ispayableordistributable.
Illustrations
(i)AlegacyisbequeathedtoA,and,incaseofhisdeath,toB.
IfAsurvivesthetestator,thelegacytoBdoesnottakeeffect.
(ii)AlegacyisbequeathedtoA,and,incaseofhisdeath
withoutchildren,toB.IfAsurvivesthetestatorordiesinhis
lifetimeleavingachild,thelegacytoBdoesnottakeeffect.
(iii)AlegacyisbequeathedtoAwhenandifheattainstheage
of18,and,incaseofhisdeath,toB.Aattainstheageof18.The
legacytobedoesnottakeeffect.
(iv)AlegacyisbequeathedtoAforlife,and,afterhisdeath

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toB,and,"incaseofB'sdeathwithoutchildren,"toC.Thewords
"incaseofB'sdeathwithoutchildren"aretobeunderstoodas
meaningincaseBdieswithoutchildrenduringthelifetimeofA.
(v)AlegacyisbequeathedtoAforlife,and,afterhisdeathto
B,and,"incaseofB'sdeath,"toC.Thewords"incaseofB'sdeath"
aretobeconsideredasmeaning"incaseBdiesinthelifetimeofA".
125.Bequesttosuchofcertainpersonsasshallbesurvivingat
someperiodnotspecified.Whereabequestismadetosuchofcertain
personsasshallbesurvivingatsomeperiod,buttheexactperiodis
notspecified,thelegacyshallgotosuchofthemasarealiveatthe
timeofpaymentordistribution,unlessacontraryintentionappears
bythewill.
Illustrations
(i)PropertyisbequeathedtoAandBtobeequallydivided
betweenthem,ortothesurvivorofthem.IfbothAandBsurvivethe
testator,thelegacyisequallydividedbetweenthem.IfAdiesbefore
thetestator,andBsurvivesthetestator,itgoestoB.
(ii)PropertyisbequeathedtoAforlife,and,afterhisdeath,
toBandC,tobeequallydividedbetweenthem,ortothesurvivorof
them.BdiesduringthelifeofA;CsurvivesA.AtA'sdeaththe
legacygoestoC.
(iii)PropertyisbequeathedtoAforlife,andafterhisdeath
toBandC,orthesurvivor,withadirectionthat,ifBshouldnot
survivethetestator,hischildrenaretostandinhisplace.Cdies
duringthelifeofthetestator;Bsurvivesthetestator,butdiesin
thelifetimeofA.ThelegacygoestotherepresentativeofB.
(iv)PropertyisbequeathedtoAforlife,and,afterhisdeath,
toBandC,withadirectionthat,incaseeitherofthemdiesinthe
lifetimeofA,thewholeshallgotothesurvivor,Bdiesinthe
lifetimeofA.AfterwardsCdiesinthelifetimeofA.Thelegacygoes
totherepresentativeofC.
CHAPTERXI
OfConditionalBequests
126.Bequestuponimpossiblecondition.Abequestuponan
impossibleconditionisvoid.
Illustrations
(i)AnestateisbequeathedtoAonconditionthatheshallwalk
100milesinanhour.Thebequestisvoid.
(ii)Abequeaths500rupeestoBonconditionthatheshallmarry
A'sdaughter.A'sdaughterwasdeadatthedateofthewill.The
bequestisvoid.
127.Bequestuponillegalorimmoralcondition.Abequestupona
condition,thefulfilmentofwhichwouldbecontrarytolaworto
moralityisvoid.
Illustrations
(i)Abequeaths500rupeestoBonconditionthatheshallmurder

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C.Thebequestisvoid.
(ii)Abequeaths5,000rupeestohisnieceifshewilldeserther
husband.Thebequestisvoid.
128.Fulfilmentofconditionprecedenttovestingoflegacy.
Whereawillimposesaconditiontobefulfilledbeforethelegatee
cantakeavestedinterestinthethingbequeathed,thecondition
shallbeconsideredtohavebeenfulfilledifithasbeen
substantiallycompliedwith.
Illustrations
(i)AlegacyisbequeathedtoAonconditionthatheshallmarry
withtheconsentofB,C,DandE.Amarrieswiththewrittenconsent
ofB.Cispresentatthemarriage.DsendsapresenttoApreviousto
themarriage.EhasbeenpersonallyinformedbyAofhisintentions,
andhasmadenoobjection.Ahasfulfilledthecondition.
(ii)AlegacyisbequeathedtoAonconditionthatheshallmarry
withtheconsentofB,CandD.Ddies.Amarrieswiththeconsentof
BandC.Ahasfulfilledthecondition.
(iii)AlegacyisbequeathedtoAonconditionthatheshall
marrywiththeconsentofB,CandD.AmarriesinthelifetimeofB,
CandD,withtheconsentofBandConly.Ahasnotfulfilledthe
condition.
(iv)AlegacyisbequeathedtoAonconditionthatheshallmarry
withtheconsentofB,CandD.Aobtainstheunconditionalassentof
B,CandDtohismarriagewithE.AfterwardsB,CandDcapriciously
retracttheirconsent.AmarriesE.Ahasfulfilledthecondition.
(v)AlegacyisbequeathedtoAonconditionthatheshallmarry
withtheconsentofB,CandD.AmarrieswithouttheconsentofB,C
andD,butobtainstheirconsentafterthemarriage.Ahasnot
fulfilledthecondition.
(vi)AmakeshiswillwherebyhebequeathsasumofmoneytoBif
BshallmarrywiththeconsentofA'sexecutors.Bmarriesduringthe
lifetimeofA,andAafterwardsexpresseshisapprobationofthe
marriage.Adies.ThebequesttoBtakeseffect.
(vii)AlegacyisbequeathedtoAifheexecutesacertain
documentwithinatimespecifiedinthewill.Thedocumentisexecuted
byAwithinareasonabletime,butnotwithinthetimespecifiedin
thewill.Ahasnotperformedthecondition,andisnotentitledto
receivethelegacy.
129.BequesttoAandonfailureofpriorbequesttoB.Where
thereisabequesttoonepersonandabequestofthesamethingto
another,ifthepriorbequestshallfail,thesecondbequestshall
takeeffectuponthefailureofthepriorbequestalthoughthefailure
maynothaveoccurredinthemannercontemplatedbythetestator.
Illustrations
(i)Abequeathsasumofmoneytohisownchildrensurvivinghim,
and,iftheyalldieunder18,toB.Adieswithouthavingeverhada

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child.ThebequesttoBtakeseffect.
(ii)AbequeathsasumofmoneytoB,onconditionthatheshall
executeacertaindocumentwithinthreemonthsafterA'sdeath,and,
ifheshouldneglecttodoso,toC.Bdiesinthetestator'slife
time.ThebequesttoCtakeseffect.
130.Whensecondbequestnottotakeeffectonfailureoffirst.
Wherethewillshowsanintentionthatthesecondbequestshalltake
effectonlyintheeventofthefirstbequestfailinginaparticular
manner,thesecondbequestshallnottakeeffect,unlesstheprior
bequestfailsinthatparticularmanner.
Illustration
Amakesabequesttohiswife,butincasesheshoulddieinhis
lifetime,bequeathstoBthatwhichhehadbequeathedtoher.Aand
hiswifeperishtogether,undercircumstanceswhichmakeitimpossible
toprovethatshediedbeforehim,thebequesttoBdoesnottake
effect.
131.Bequestover,conditionaluponhappeningornothappeningof
specifieduncertainevent.(1)Abequestmaybemadetoanyperson
withtheconditionsuperaddedthat,incaseaspecifieduncertain
eventshallhappen,thethingbequeathedshallgotoanotherperson,
orthatincaseaspecifieduncertaineventshallnothappen,the
thingbequeathedshallgoovertoanotherperson.
(2)Ineachcasetheulteriorbequestissubjecttotherules
containedinsections120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,129and
130.
Illustrations
(i)AsumofmoneyisbequeathedtoA,tobepaidtohimatthe
ageof18,andifheshalldiebeforeheattainsthatage,toB.A
takesavestedinterestinthelegacy,subjecttobedivestedandto
gotoBincaseAdiesunder18.
(ii)AnestateisbequeathedtoAwithaprovisothatifAshall
disputethecompetencyofthetestatortomakeawill,theestategoes
toB.
(iii)AsumofmoneyisbequeathedtoAforlife,and,afterhis
death,toB,butifBshallthenbedeadleavingason,suchsonisto
standintheplaceofB.Btakesavestedinterestinthelegacy,
subjecttobedivestedifhediesleavingasoninA'slifetime.
(iv)AsumofmoneyisbequeathedtoAandB,andifeither
shoulddieduringthelifeofC,thentothesurvivorlivingatthe
deathofC.AandBdiebeforeC.Thegiftovercannottakeeffect,
buttherepresentativeofAtakesonehalfofthemoney,andthe
representativeofBtakestheotherhalf.
(v)AbequeathstoBtheinterestofafundforlife,anddirects
thefundtobedividedatherdeathequallyamongherthreechildren,
orsuchofthemasshallbelivingatherdeath.AllthechildrenofB
dieinB'slifetime.Thebequestovercannottakeeffect,butthe
interestsofthechildrenpasstotheirrepresentatives.

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132.Conditionmustbestrictlyfulfilled.Anulteriorbequestof
thekindcontemplatedbysection131cannottakeeffect,unlessthe
conditionisstrictlyfulfilled.
Illustrations
(i)AlegacyisbequeathedtoA,withaprovisothat,ifhe
marrieswithouttheconsentofB,CandD,thelegacyshallgotoE.D
dies.EvenifAmarrieswithouttheconsentofBandC,thegifttoE
doesnottakeeffect.
(ii)AlegacyisbequeathedtoA,withaprovisothat,ifhe
marrieswithouttheconsentofB,thelegacyshallgotoC.Amarries
withtheconsentofB.He,afterwardsbecomesawidowerandmarries
againwithouttheconsentofB.ThebequesttoCdoesnottakeeffect.
(iii)AlegacyisbequeathedtoA,tobepaidat18,ormarriage,
withaprovisothat,ifAdiesunder18ormarrieswithouttheconsent
ofB.ThebequesttoCtakeseffect.
133.Originalbequestnotaffectedbyinvalidityofsecond.If
theulteriorbequestbenotvalidtheoriginalbequestisnotaffected
byit.
Illustrations
(i)AnestateisbequeathedtoAforhislifewithcondition
superaddedthat,ifheshallnotonagivendaywalk100milesinan
hour,theestateshallgotoB.Theconditionbeingvoid,Aretains
hisestateasifnoconditionhadbeeninsertedinthewill.
(ii)AnestateisbequeathedtoAforherlifeand,ifshedonot
desertherhusband,toB.Aisentitledtotheestateduringherlife
asifnoconditionhadbeeninsertedinthewill.
(iii)AnestateisbequeathedtoAforlife,and,ifhemarries,
totheeldestsonofBforlife.B,atthedateofthetestator's
death,hadnothadason.Thebequestoverisvoidundersection105,
andAisentitledtotheestateduringhislife.
134.Bequestconditionedthatitshallceasetohaveeffectin
caseaspecifieduncertaineventshallhappen,ornothappen.A
bequestmaybemadewiththeconditionsuperaddedthatitshallcease
tohaveeffectincaseaspecifieduncertaineventshallhappen,orin
caseaspecifieduncertaineventshallnothappen.
Illustrations
(i)AnestateisbequeathedtoAforhislife,withaproviso
that,incaseheshallcutdownacertainwood,thebequestshall
ceasetohaveanyeffect.Acutsdownthewood.Heloseshislife
interestintheestate.
(ii)AnestateisbequeathedtoA,providedthat,ifhemarries
undertheageof25withouttheconsentoftheexecutorsnamedinthe
will,theestateshallceasetobelongtohim.Amarriesunder25
withouttheconsentoftheexecutors.Theestateceasestobelongto
him.
(iii)AnestateisbequeathedtoA,providedthat,ifheshall
notgotoEnglandwithinthreeyearsafterthetestator'sdeath,his
interestintheestateshallcease.AdoesnotgotoEnglandwithin

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thetimeprescribed.Hisinterestintheestateceases.
(iv)AnestateisbequeathedtoA,withaprovisothat,ifshe
becomesanun,sheshallceasetohaveanyinterestintheestate.A
becomesanun.Shelosesherinterestunderthewill.
(v)AfundisbequeathedtoAforlife,and,afterhisdeath,to
B,ifBshallbethenliving,withaprovisothat,ifBshallbecomea
nun,thebequesttohershallceasetohaveanyeffect.Bbecomesa
nuninthelifetimeofA.Shetherebyloseshercontingentinterestin
thefund.
135.Suchconditionmustnotbeinvalidundersection120.In
orderthataconditionthatabequestshallceasetohaveeffectmay
bevalid,itisnecessarythattheeventtowhichitrelatesbeone
whichcouldlegallyconstitutetheconditionofabequestas
contemplatedbysection120.
136.Resultoflegateerenderingimpossibleorindefinitely
postponingactforwhichnotimespecified,andonnonperformanceof
whichsubjectmattertogoover.Whereabequestismadewitha
conditionsuperaddedthat,unlessthelegateeshallperformacertain
act,thesubjectmatterof
thebequestshallgotoanotherperson,orthebequestshallceaseto
haveeffectbutnotimeisspecifiedfortheperformanceoftheact;
ifthelegateetakesanystepwhichrendersimpossibleorindefinitely
postponestheperformanceoftheactrequired,thelegacyshallgoas
ifthelegateehaddiedwithoutperformingsuchact.
Illustrations
(i)AbequestismadetoA,withaprovisothat,unlessheenters
theArmy,thelegacyshallgoovertoB.AtakesHolyOrders,and
therebyrendersitimpossiblethatheshouldfulfilthecondition.B
isentitledtoreceivethelegacy.
(ii)AbequestismadetoA,withaprovisothatitshallcease
tohaveanyeffectifhedoesnotmarryB'sdaughter.Amarriesa
strangerandtherebyindefinitelypostponesthefulfilmentofthe
conditions.Thebequestceasestohaveeffect.
137.Performanceofcondition,precedentorsubsequent,within
specifiedtime.Furthertimeincaseoffraud.Wherethewillrequires
anacttobeperformedbythelegateewithinaspecifiedtime,either
asaconditiontobefulfilledbeforethelegacyisenjoyed,orasa
conditionuponthenonfulfilmentofwhichthesubjectmatterofthe
bequestistogoovertoanotherpersonorthebequestistoceaseto
haveeffect,theactmustbeperformedwithinthetimespecified,
unlesstheperformanceofitbepreventedbyfraud,inwhichcasesuch
furthertimeshallbeallowedasshallberequisitetomakeupforthe
delaycausedbysuchfraud.
CHAPTERXII
OfBequestswithDirectionsastoApplicationorEnjoyment

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138.Directionthatfundbeemployedinparticularmanner
followingabsolutebequestofsametoorforbenefitofanyperson.
Whereafundisbequeathedabsolutelytoorforthebenefitofany
person,butthewillcontainsadirectionthatitshallbeappliedor
enjoyedinaparticularmanner,thelegateeshallbeentitledto
receivethefundasifthewillhadcontainednosuchdirection.
Illustration
Asumofmoneyisbequeathedtowardspurchasingacountry
residenceforA,ortopurchaseanannuityforA,ortoplaceAinany
business.Achosestoreceivethelegacyinmoney.Heisentitledto
doso.
139.Directionthatmodeofenjoymentofabsolutebequestisto
berestricted,tosecurespecifiedbenefitforlegatee.Wherea
testatorabsolutelybequeathsafund,soastoseveritfromhisown
estate,butdirectsthatthemodeofenjoymentofitbythelegatee
shallberestrictedsoastosecureaspecifiedbenefitfor
thelegatee;ifthatbenefitcannotbeobtainedforthelegatee,the
fundbelongstohimasifthewillhadcontainednosuchdirection.
Illustrations
(i)Abequeathstheresidueofhispropertytobedividedequally
amonghisdaughters,anddirectsthatthesharesofthedaughters
shallbesettleduponthemselvesrespectivelyforlifeandbepaidto
theirchildrenaftertheirdeath.Allthedaughtersdieunmarried.The
representativesofeachdaughterareentitledtohershareofthe
residue.
(ii)Adirectshistrusteestoraiseasumofmoneyforhis
daughter,andhethendirectsthattheyshallinvestthefundandpay
theincomearisingfromittoherlife,anddividetheprincipalamong
herchildrenafterherdeath.Thedaughterdieswithouthavingever
hadachild.Herrepresentativesareentitledtothefund.
140.Bequestoffundforcertainpurposes,someofwhichcannot
befulfilled.Whereatestatordoesnotabsolutelybequeathafund,so
astoseveritfromhisownestate,butgivesitforcertainpurposes,
andpartofthosepurposescannotbefulfilled,thefund,orsomuch
ofitashasnotbeenexhaustedupontheobjectscontemplatedbythe
will,remainsapartoftheestateofthetestator.
Illustrations
(i)Adirectsthathistrusteesshallinvestasumofmoneyina
particularway,andshallpaytheinteresttohissonforlife,andat
hisdeathshalldividetheprincipalamonghischildren.Thesondies
withouthavingeverhadachild.Thefund,aftertheson'sdeath,
belongstotheestateofthetestator.
(ii)Abequeathstheresidueofhisestate,tobedividedequally
amonghisdaughters,withadirectionthattheyaretohavethe
interestonlyduringtheirlives,andthatattheirdeceasethefund
shallgototheirchildren.Thedaughtershavenochildren.Thefund
belongstotheestateofthetestator.

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CHAPTERXIII
OfBequeststoanExecutor
141.Legateenamedasexecutorcannottakeunlessheshows
intentiontoactasexecutor.Ifalegacyisbequeathedtoaperson
whoisnamedanexecutorofthewill,heshallnottakethelegacy,
unlessheprovesthewillorotherwisemanifestsanintentiontoact
asexecutor.
Illustration
AlegacyisgiventoA,whoisnamedanexecutor.Aordersthe
funeralaccordingtothedirectionscontainedinthewill,anddiesa
fewdaysafterthetestator,withouthavingprovedthewill.Ahas
manifestedanintentiontoactasexecutor.
CHAPTERXIV
OfSpecificLegacies
142.Specificlegacydefined.Whereatestatorbequeathstoany
personaspecifiedpartofhisproperty,whichisdistinguishedfrom
allotherpartsofhisproperty,thelegacyissaidtobespecific.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB
"thediamondringpresentedtomebyC":
"mygoldchain":
"acertainbaleofwool":
"acertainpieceofcloth":
"allmyhouseholdgoodswhichshallbeinoraboutmy
dwellinghouseinM.Street,inCalcutta,attimeofmy
death":
"thesumof1,000rupeesinacertainchest":
"thedebtwhichBowesme":
"allmybills,bondsandsecuritiesbelongingtomelyingin
mylodgingsinCalcutta":
"allmyfurnitureinmyhouseinCalcutta":
"allmygoodsonboardacertainshipnowlyingintheriver
Hughli":
"2,000rupeeswhichIhaveinthehandsofC":
"themoneyduetomeonthebondofD":
"mymortgageontheRampurfactory":
"onehalfofthemoneyowingtomeonmymortgageofRampur
factory":
"1,000rupees,beingpartofadebtduetomefromC":
"mycapitalstockof1,000l,inEastIndiaStock":
"mypromissorynotesoftheCentralGovernmentfor10,000
rupeesintheir4percent.loan":
"allsuchsumsofmoneyasmyexecutorsmay,aftermydeath,
receiveinrespectofthedebtduetomefromthe
insolventfirmofDandCompany":
"allthewinewhichImayhaveinmycellaratthetimeof
mydeath":

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"suchofmyhorsesasBmayselect":
"allmysharesintheImperialBankofIndia":
"allmysharesintheImperialBankofIndiawhichImay
possessatthetimeofmydeath":
"allthemoneywhichIhaveinthe51/2percent.loanof
theCentralGovernment":
"alltheGovernmentsecuritiesIshallbeentitledtoatthe
timeofmydecease."
Eachoftheselegaciesisspecific.
(ii)A,havingGovernmentpromissorynotesfor10,000rupees,
bequeathstohisexecutors"Governmentpromissorynotesfor10,000
rupeesintrusttosell"forthebenefitofB.Thelegacyisspecific.
(iii)A,havingpropertyatBenares,andalsoinotherplaces,
bequeathstoBallhispropertyatBenares.Thelegacyisspecific.
(iv)AbequeathstoB
hishouseinCalcutta:
hiszamindariofRampur:
histaluqofRamnagar:
hisleaseoftheindigofactoryofSalkya:
anannuityof500rupeesoutoftherentsofhiszamindari
ofW.
AdirectshiszamindariofXtobesold,andtheproceedstobe
investedforthebenefitofB.
Eachofthesebequestsisspecific.
(v)AbyhiswillchargeshiszamindariofYwithanannuityof
1,000rupeestoCduringhislife,andsubjecttothischargehe
bequeathsthezamindaritoD.Eachofthesebequestsisspecific.
(vi)Abequeathsasumofmoney
tobuyahouseinCalcuttaforB:
tobuyanestateinzilaFaridpurforB:
tobuyadiamondringforB;
tobuyahorseforB:
tobeinvestedinsharesintheImperialBankofIndiafor
B:
tobeinvestedinGovernmentsecuritiesforB.
AbequeathstoB
"adiamondring":
"ahorse":
"10,000rupeesworthofGovernmentsecurities":
"anannuityof500rupees":
"2,000rupeestobepaidincash":
"somuchmoneyaswillproduce5,000rupeesfourpercent.
Governmentsecurities."
Thesebequestsarenotspecific.
(vii)A,havingpropertyinEnglandandpropertyinIndia,
bequeathsalegacytoB,anddirectsthatitshallbepaidoutofthe
propertywhichhemayleaveinIndia.HealsobequeathsalegacytoC,
anddirectsthatitshallbepaidoutofpropertywhichhemayleave
inEngland.Nooneoftheselegaciesisspecific.

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143.Bequestofcertainsumwherestocks,etc.,inwhichinvested
aredescribed.Whereacertainsumisbequeathed,thelegacyisnot
specificmerelybecausethestock,fundsorsecuritiesinwhichitis
investedaredescribedinthewill.
Illustration
AbequeathstoB
"10,000rupeesofmyfundedproperty":
"10,000rupeesofmypropertynowinvestedinsharesofthe
EastIndianRailwayCompany":
"10,000rupees,atpresentsecuredbymortgageofRampur
factory."
Nooneoftheselegaciesisspecific.
144.Bequestofstockwheretestatorhad,atdateofwill,equal
orgreateramountofstockofsamekind.Whereabequestismadein
generaltermsofacertainamountofanykindofstock,thelegacyis
notspecificmerelybecausethetestatorwas,atthedateofhiswill,
possessedofstockofthespecifiedkind,toanequalorgreater
amountthantheamountbequeathed.
Illustration
AbequeathstoB5,000rupeesfivepercent.Government
securities.Ahadatthedateofthewillfivepercent.Government
securitiesfor5,000rupees.Thelegacyisnotspecific.
145.Bequestofmoneywherenotpayableuntilpartoftestator's
propertydisposedofincertainway.Amoneylegacyisnotspecific
merelybecausethewilldirectsitspaymenttobepostponeduntilsome
partofthepropertyofthetestatorhasbeenreducedtoacertain
form,orremittedtoacertainplace.
Illustration
AbequeathstoB10,000rupeesanddirectsthatthislegacyshall
bepaidassoonasA'spropertyinIndiashallberealisedinEngland.
Thelegacyisnotspecific.
146.Whenenumeratedarticlesnotdeemedspecificallybequeathed.
Whereawillcontainsabequestoftheresidueofthetestator's
propertyalongwithanenumerationofsomeitemsofpropertynot
previouslybequeathed,thearticlesenumeratedshallnotbedeemedto
bespecificallybequeathed.
147.Retention,inform,ofspecificbequesttoseveralpersons
insuccession.Wherepropertyisspecificallybequeathedtotwoor
morepersonsinsuccession,itshallberetainedintheforminwhich
thetestatorleftit,althoughitmaybeofsuchanaturethatits
valueiscontinuallydecreasing.
Illustrations
(i)A,havingleaseofahouseforatermofyears,fifteenof
whichwereunexpiredatthetimeofhisdeath,hasbequeathedthe
leasetoBforhislife,andafterB'sdeathtoC.Bistoenjoythe
propertyasAleftit,although,ifBlivesforfifteenyears,Ccan

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takenothingunderthebequest.
(ii)A,havinganannuityduringthelifeofB,bequeathsitto
C,forhislife,and,afterC'sdeath,toD.Cistoenjoytheannuity
asAleftit,although,ifBdiesbeforeD,Dcantakenothingunder
thebequest.
148.Saleandinvestmentofproceedsofpropertybequeathedto
twoormorepersonsinsuccession.Wherepropertycomprisedina
bequesttotwoormorepersonsinsuccessionisnotspecifically
bequeathed,itshall,intheabsenceofanydirectiontothecontrary,
besold,andtheproceedsofthesaleshallbeinvestedinsuch
securitiesastheHighCourtmaybyanygeneralruleauthoriseor
direct,andthefundthusconstitutedshallbeenjoyedbythe
successivelegateesaccordingtothetermsofthewill.
Illustration
A,havingaleaseforatermofyears,bequeathsallhisproperty
toBforlife,and,afterB'sdeath,toC.Theleasemustbesold,the
proceedsinvestedasstatedinthissectionandtheannualincome
arisingfromthefundistobepaidtoBforlife.AtB'sdeaththe
capitalofthefundistobepaidtoC.
149.Wheredeficiencyofassetstopaylegacies,specificlegacynot
toabatewithgenerallegacies.Ifthereisadeficiencyofassetsto
paylegacies,aspecificlegacyisnotliabletoabatewiththe
generallegacies.
CHAPTERXV
OfDemonstrativeLegacies
150.Demonstrativelegacydefined.Whereatestatorbequeathsa
certainsumofmoney,oracertainquantityofanyothercommodity,
andreferstoaparticularfundorstocksoastoconstitutethesame
theprimaryfundorstockoutofwhichpaymentistobemade,the
legacyissaidtobedemonstrative.
Explanation.Thedistinctionbetweenaspecificlegacyanda
demonstrativelegacyconsistsinthis,that
wherespecifiedpropertyisgiventothelegatee,thelegacy
isspecific;
wherethelegacyisdirectedtobepaidoutofspecified
property,itisdemonstrative.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB,1,000rupees,beingpartofadebtdueto
himfromW.HealsobequeathstoC1,000rupeestobepaidoutofthe
debtduetohimfromw.ThelegacytoBisspecific,thelegacytoC
isdemonstrative.
(ii)AbequeathstoB
"tenbushelsofthecornwhichshallgrowinmyfieldof
GreenAcre":
"80chestsoftheindigowhichshallbemadeatmyfactory
ofRampur":

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"10,000rupeesoutofmyfivepercent.promissorynotesof
theCentralGovernment":
Anannuityof500rupees"frommyfundedproperty":
"1,000rupeesoutofthesumof2,000rupeesduetomeby
C":
anannuity,anddirectsittobepaid"outoftherents
arisingfrommytalukofRamnagar".
(iii)AbequeathstoB
"10,000rupeesoutofmyestateatRamnagar,"orchargesit
onhisestateatRamnagar:
"10,000rupees,beingmyshareofthecapitalembarkedina
certainbusiness."
Eachofthesebequestsisdemonstrative.
151.Orderofpaymentwhenlegacydirectedtobepaidoutoffund
thesubjectofspecificlegacy.Whereaportionofafundis
specificallybequeathedandalegacyisdirectedtobepaidoutofthe
samefund,theportionspecificallybequeathedshallfirstbepaidto
thelegatee,andthedemonstrativelegacyshallbepaidoutofthe
residueofthefundand,sofarastheresidueshallbedeficient,out
ofthegeneralassetsofthetestator.
Illustration
AbequeathstoB1,000rupees,beingpartofadebtduetohim
fromW.HealsobequeathstoC1,000rupeestobepaidoutofthedebt
duetohimfromW.ThedebtduetoAfromWisonly1,500rupees;of
these1,500rupees,1,000rupeesbelongtoB,and500rupeesaretobe
paidtoC.Cisalsotoreceive500rupeesoutofthegeneralassets
ofthetestator.
CHAPTERXVI
OfAdemptionofLegacies
152.Ademptionexplained.Ifanythingwhichhasbeenspecifically
bequeatheddoesnotbelongtothetestatoratthetimeofhisdeath,
orhasbeenconvertedintopropertyofadifferentkind,thelegacyis
adeemed;thatis,itcannottakeeffect,byreasonofthesubject
matterhavingbeenwithdrawnfromtheoperationofthewill.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB
"thediamondringpresentedtomebyC":
"mygoldchain":
"acertainbaleofwool":
"acertainpieceofcloth":
"allmyhouseholdgoodswhichshallbeinoraboutmy
dwellinghouseinM.StreetinCalcutta,atthetimeof
mydeath."
Ainhislifetime,
sellsorgivesawaythering:
convertsthechainintoacup:

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convertsthewoolintocloth:
makestheclothintoagarment:
takesanotherhouseintowhichheremovesallhisgoods.
Eachoftheselegaciesisadeemed.
(ii)AbequeathstoB
"thesumof1,000rupees,inacertainchest":
"allthehorsesinmystable".
AtthedeathofA,nomoneyisfoundinthechest,andnohorses
inthestable.Thelegaciesareadeemed.
(iii)AbequeathstoBcertainbalesofgoods.Atakesthegoods
withhimonavoyage.Theshipandgoodsarelostatsea,andAis
drowned.Thelegacyisadeemed.
153.Nonademptionofdemonstrativelegacy.Ademonstrative
legacyisnotadeemedbyreasonthatthepropertyonwhichitis
chargedbythewilldoesnotexistatthetimeofthedeathofthe
testator,orhasbeenconvertedintopropertyofadifferentkind,but
itshallinsuchcasebepaidoutofthegeneralassetsofthe
testator.
154.Ademptionofspecificbequestofrighttoreceivesomething
fromthirdparty.Wherethethingspecificallybequeathedistheright
toreceivesomethingofvaluefromathirdparty,andthetestator
himselfreceivesit,thebequestisadeemed.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB
"thedebtwhichCowesme":
"2,000rupeeswhichIhaveinthehandsofD":
"themoneyduetomeonthebondofE":
"mymortgageontheRampurfactory."
AllthesedebtsareextinguishedinA'slifetime,somewithand
somewithouthisconsent.Allthelegaciesareadeemed.
(ii)AbequeathstoBhisinterestincertainpoliciesofhis
lifeassurance.Ainhislifetimereceivestheamountofthepolicies.
Thelegacyisadeemed.
155.Ademptionprotantobytestator'sreceiptofpartofentire
thingspecificallybequeathed.Thereceiptbythetestatorofapart
ofanentirethingspecificallybequeathedshalloperateasan
ademptionofthelegacytotheextentofthesumsoreceived.
Illustration
AbequeathstoB"thedebtduetomebyC".Thedebtamountsto
10,000rupees.CpaystoA5,000rupeestheonehalfofthedebt.The
legacyisrevokedbyademption,sofarasregardsthe5,000rupees
receivedbyA.
156.Ademptionprotantobytestator'sreceiptofportionof
entirefundofwhichportionhasbeenspecificallybequeathed.Ifa
portionofanentirefundorstockisspecificallybequeathed,the

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receiptbythetestatorofaportionofthefundorstockshall
operateasanademptiononlytotheextentoftheamountsoreceived;
andtheresidueofthefundorstockshallbeapplicabletothe
dischargeofthespecificlegacy.
Illustration
AbequeathstoBonehalfofthesumof10,000rupeesduetohim
fromW.Ainhislifetimereceives6,000rupees,partofthe10,000
rupees.The4,000rupeeswhichareduefromWtoAatthetimeofhis
deathbelongtoBunderthespecificbequest.
157.Orderofpaymentwhereportionoffundspecifically
bequeathedtoonelegatee,andlegacychargedonsamefundtoanother,
and,testatorhavingreceivedportionofthatfund,remainder
insufficienttopaybothlegacies.Whereaportionofafundis
specificallybequeathedtoonelegatee,andalegacychargedonthe
samefundisbequeathedtoanotherlegatee,then,ifthetestator
receivesaportionofthatfund,andtheremainderofthefundis
insufficienttopayboththespecificandthedemonstrativelegacy,
thespecificlegacyshallbepaidfirst,andtheresidue(ifany)of
thefundshallbeappliedsofarasitwillextendinpaymentofthe
demonstrativelegacy,andtherestofthedemonstrativelegacyshall
bepaidoutofthegeneralassetsofthetestator.
Illustration
AbequeathstoB1,000rupees,partofthedebtof2,000rupees
duetohimfromW.HealsobequeathstoC1,000rupeestobepaidout
ofthedebtduetohimfromW.Aafterwardsreceives1*[500]rupees,
partofthatdebt,anddiesleavingonly1,500rupeesduetohimfrom
W.Ofthese1,500rupees,1,000rupeesbelongtoB,and500rupeesare
tobepaidtoC.Cisalsotoreceive500rupeesoutofthegeneral
assetsofthetestator.
158.Ademptionwherestock,specificallybequeathed,doesnot
existattestator'sdeath.Wherestockwhichhasbeenspecifically
bequeatheddoesnotexistatthetestator'sdeath,thelegacyis
adeemed.
Illustration
AbequeathstoB
"mycapitalstockof1,000l.inEastIndiaStock":
"mypromissorynotesoftheCentralGovernmentfor10,000
rupeesintheir4percent.loan."
Asellsthestockandthenotes.Thelegaciesareadeemed.
Ademptionprotantowherestock,specificallybequeathed,existsin
partonlyattestator'sdeath.
159.Ademptionprotantowherestock,specificallybequeathed,
existsinpartonlyattestator'sdeath.Wherestockwhichhasbeen
specificallybequeathedexistsonlyinpartatthetestator'sdeath,
thelegacyisadeemedsofarasregardsthatpartofthestockwhich
hasceasedtoexist.

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1Subs.byAct10of1927,s.2andSch.I,for"5,000".

Illustration
AbequeathstoBhis10,000rupeesinthe51/2percent.loanof
theCentralGovernment.Asellsonehalfofhis10,000rupeesinthe
loaninquestion.Onehalfofthelegacyisadeemed.
160.Nonademptionofspecificbequestofgoodsdescribedas
connectedwithcertainplace,byreasonofremoval.Aspecificbequest
ofgoodsunderadescriptionconnectingthemwithacertainplaceis
notadeemedbyreasonthattheyhavebeenremovedfromsuchplacefrom
anytemporarycause,orbyfraud,orwithouttheknowledgeorsanction
ofthetestator.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB"allmyhouseholdgoodswhichshallbeinor
aboutmydwellinghouseinCalcuttaatthetimeofmydeath."The
goodsareremovedfromthehousetosavethemfromfire.Adiesbefore
theyarebroughtback.
(ii)AbequeathstoB"allmyhouseholdgoodswhichshallbein
oraboutmydwellinghouseinCalcuttaatthetimeofmydeath".
DuringA'sabsenceuponajourney,thewholeofthegoodsareremoved
fromthehouse.Adieswithouthavingsanctionedtheirremoval.
Neitheroftheselegaciesisadeemed.
161.Whenremovalofthingbequeatheddoesnotconstitute
ademption.Theremovalofthethingbequeathedfromtheplaceinwhich
itisstatedinthewilltobesituateddoesnotconstitutean
ademption,wheretheplaceisonlyreferredtoinordertocomplete
thedescriptionofwhatthetestatormeanttobequeath.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB"allthebills,bondsandothersecurities
formoneybelongingtomenowlyinginmylodgingsinCalcutta".At
thetimeofhisdeaththeseeffectshadbeenremovedfromhislodgings
inCalcutta.
(ii)AbequeathstoBallhisfurnituretheninhishousein
Calcutta.ThetestatorhasahouseatCalcuttaandanotherat
Chinsurah,inwhichhelivesalternately,beingpossessedofoneset
offurnitureonlywhichheremoveswithhimselftoeachhouse.Atthe
timeofhisdeaththefurnitureisinthehouseatChinsurah.
(iii)AbequeathstoBallhisgoodsonboardacertainshipthen
lyingintheriverHughli.ThegoodsareremovedbyA'sdirectionsto
awarehouse,inwhichtheyremainatthetimeofA'sdeath.
Nooneoftheselegaciesisrevokedbyademption.
162.Whenthingbequeathedisavaluabletobereceivedby
testatorfromthirdperson;andtestatorhimself,orhis
representative,receivesit.Wherethethingbequeathedisnotthe
righttoreceivesomethingofvaluefromathirdperson,butthemoney

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orothercommoditywhichmaybereceivedfromthirdpersonbythe
testatorhimselforbyhisrepresentatives,thereceiptofsuchsumof
moneyorothercommoditybythetestatorshallnotconstitutean
ademption;butifhemixesitupwiththegeneralmassofhis
property,thelegacyisadeemed.
Illustration
AbequeathstoBwhateversummaybereceivedfromhisclaimon
C.AreceivesthewholeofhisclaimonC,andsetsitapartfromthe
generalmassofhisproperty.Thelegacyisnotadeemed.
163.Changebyoperationoflawofsubjectofspecificbequest
betweendateofwillandtestator'sdeath.Whereathingspecifically
bequeathedundergoesachangebetweenthedateofthewillandthe
testator'sdeath,andthechangetakesplacebyoperationoflaw,or
inthecourseofexecutionoftheprovisionsofanylegalinstrument
underwhichthethingbequeathedwasheld,thelegacyisnotadeemed
byreasonofsuchchange.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB"allthemoneywhichIhaveinthe51/2per
cent.loanoftheCentralGovernment".Thesecuritiesforthe51/2
percent.loanareconvertedduringA'slifetimeinto5percent.
stock.
(ii)AbequeathstoBthesumof2,000l.investedinConsolsin
thenamesoftrusteesforA.Thesumof2,000l.istransferredbythe
trusteesintoA'sownname.
(iii)AbequeathstoBthesumof10,000rupeesinpromissory
notesoftheCentralGovernmentwhichhehaspowerunderhismarriage
settlementtodisposeofbywill.Afterwards,inA'slifetime,the
fundisconvertedintoConsolsbyvirtueofanauthoritycontainedin
thesettlement.
Nooneoftheselegacieshasbeenadeemed.
164.Changeofsubjectwithouttestator'sknowledge.Wherea
thingspecificallybequeathedundergoesachangebetweenthedateof
thewillandthetestator'sdeath,andthechangetakesplacewithout
theknowledgeorsanctionofthetestator,thelegacyisnotadeemed.
Illustration
AbequeathstoB"allmy3percent.Consols".TheConsolsare,
withoutA'sknowledge,soldbyhisagent,andtheproceedsconverted
intoEastIndiaStock.Thislegacyisnotadeemed.
165.Stockspecificallybequeathedlenttothirdpartyon
conditionthatitbereplaced.Wherestockwhichhasbeenspecifically
bequeathedislenttoathirdpartyonconditionthatitshallbe
replaced,anditisreplacedaccordingly,thelegacyisnotadeemed.
166.Stockspecificallybequeathedsoldbutreplaced,and
belongingtotestatorathisdeath.Wherestockspecifically
bequeathedissold,andanequalquantityofthesamestockis
afterwardspurchasedandbelongstothetestatorathisdeath,the

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legacyisnotadeemed.
CHAPTERXVII
OfthePaymentofLiabilitiesinrespectoftheSubjectofaBequest
167.Nonliabilityofexecutortoexoneratespecificlegatees.
(1)Wherepropertyspecificallybequeathedissubjectatthedeathof
thetestatortoanypledge,lienorincumbrancecreatedbythe
testatorhimselforbyanypersonunderwhomheclaims,then,unlessa
contraryintentionappearsbythewill,thelegatee,ifheacceptsthe
bequest,shallacceptitsubjecttosuchpledgeorincumbrance,and
shall(asbetweenhimselfandthetestator'sestate)beliabletomake
goodtheamountofsuchpledgeorincumbrance.
(2)Acontraryintentionshallnotbeinferredfromanydirection
whichthewillmaycontainforthepaymentofthetestator'sdebts
generally.
Explanation.Aperiodicalpaymentinthenatureoflandrevenue
orinthenatureofrentisnotsuchanincumbranceasiscontemplated
bythissection.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoBthediamondringgivenhimbyC.AtA's
deaththeringisheldinpawnbyDtowhomithasbeenpledgedbyA.
ItisthedutyofA'sexecutors,ifthestateofthetestator'sassets
willallowthem,toallowBtoredeemthering.
(ii)AbequeathstoBazamindariwhichatA'sdeathissubject
toamortgagefor10,000rupees;andthewholeoftheprincipalsum,
togetherwithinteresttotheamountof1,000rupees,isdueatA's
death.B,ifheacceptsthebequest,acceptsitsubjecttothis
charge,andisliable,asbetweenhimselfandA'sestate,topaythe
sumof11,000rupeesthusdue.
168.Completionoftestator'stitletothingsbequeathedtobeat
costofhisestate.Whereanythingistobedonetocompletethe
testator'stitletothethingbequeathed,itistobedoneatthecost
ofthetestator'sestate.
Illustrations
(i)A,havingcontractedingeneraltermsforthepurchaseofa
pieceoflandatacertainprice,bequeathstoB,anddiesbeforehe
haspaidthepurchasemoney.Thepurchasemoneymustbemadegoodout
ofA'sassets.
(ii)A,havingcontractedforthepurchaseofapieceoflandfor
acertainsumofmoney,onehalfofwhichistobepaiddownandthe
otherhalfsecuredbymortgageoftheland,bequeathsittoB,and
diesbeforehehaspaidorsecuredanypartofthepurchasemoney.
OnehalfofthepurchasemoneymustbepaidoutofA'sassets.
169.Exonerationoflegatee'simmoveablepropertyforwhichland
revenueorrentpayableperiodically.Wherethereisabequestofany
interestinimmovablepropertyinrespectofwhichpaymentinthe
natureoflandrevenueorinthenatureofrenthastobemade

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periodically,theestateofthetestatorshall(asbetweensuchestate
andthelegatee)makegoodsuchpaymentsoraproportionofthem,as
thecasemaybe,uptothedayofhisdeath.
Illustration
AbequeathstoBahouse,inrespectofwhich365rupeesare
payableannuallybywayofrent.Apayshisrentattheusualtime,
anddies25daysafter.A'sestatewillmakegood25rupeesinrespect
oftherent.
170.Exonerationofspecificlegatee'sstockinjointstock
company.Intheabsenceofanydirectioninthewill,wherethereisa
specificbequestofstockinajointstockcompany,ifanycallor
otherpaymentisduefromthetestatoratthetimeofhisdeathin
respectofthestock,suchcallorpaymentshall,asbetweenthe
testator'sestateandthelegatee,bebornebytheestate;but,ifany
callorotherpaymentbecomesdueinrespectofsuchstockafterthe
testator'sdeath,thesameshall,asbetweenthetestator'sestateand
thelegatee,bebornebythelegatee,ifheacceptsthebequest.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoBhissharesinacertainrailway.AtA's
deaththerewasduefromhimthesumof100rupeesinrespectofeach
share,beingtheamountofacallwhichhadbeendulymade,andthe
sumoffiverupeesinrespectofeachshare,beingtheamountof
interestwhichhadaccrueddueinrespectofthecall.Thesepayments
mustbebornebyA'sestate.
(ii)Ahasagreedtotake50sharesinanintendedjointstock
company,andhascontractedtopayup100rupeesinrespectofeach
share,whichsummustbepaidbeforehistitletothesharescanbe
completed.AbequeathsthesesharestoB.TheestateofAmustmake
goodthepaymentswhichwerenecessarytocompleteA'stitle.
(iii)AbequeathstoBhissharesinacertainrailway.Baccepts
thelegacy.AfterA'sdeath,acallismadeinrespectoftheshares.
Bmustpaythecall.
(iv)AbequeathstoBhissharesinajointstockcompany.B
acceptsthebequest.Afterwardstheaffairsofthecompanyarewound
up,andeachshareholderiscalleduponforcontribution.Theamount
ofthecontributionmustbebornebythelegatee.
(v)Aistheowneroftensharesinarailwaycompany.Ata
meetingheldduringhislifetimeacallismadeoffiftyrupeesper
share,payablebythreeinstalments.AbequeathshissharestoB,and
diesbetweenthedayfixedforthepaymentofthefirstandtheday
fixedforthepaymentofthesecondinstalment,andwithouthaving
paidthefirstinstalment.A'sestatemustpaythefirstinstalment,
andB,ifheacceptsthelegacy,mustpaytheremaininginstalments.
CHAPTERXVIII
OfBequestsofThingsdescribedinGeneralTerms
171.Bequestofthingdescribedingeneralterms.Ifthereisa
bequestofsomethingdescribedingeneralterms,theexecutormust

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purchaseforthelegateewhatmayreasonablybeconsideredtoanswer
thedescription.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoBapairofcarriagehorsesoradiamondring.
Theexecutormustprovidethelegateewithsucharticlesifthestate
oftheassetswillallowit.
(ii)AbequeathstoB"mypairofcarriagehorses".Ahadno
carriagehorsesatthetimeofhisdeath.Thelegacyfails.
CHAPTERXIX
OfBequestsoftheInterestorProduceofaFund
172.Bequestofinterestorproduceoffund.Wheretheinterest
orproduceofafundisbequeathedtoanyperson,andthewillaffords
noindicationofanintentionthattheenjoymentofthebequestshould
beoflimitedduration,theprincipal,aswellastheinterest,shall
belongtothelegatee.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoBtheinterestofhis5percent.promissory
notesoftheCentralGovernment.Thereisnootherclauseinthewill
affectingthosesecurities.BisentitledtoA's5percent.
promissorynotesoftheCentralGovernment.
(ii)Abequeathstheinterestofhis51/2percent.promissory
notesoftheCentralGovernmenttoBforhislife,andafterhisdeath
toC.Bisentitledtotheinterestofthenotesduringhislife,and
CisentitledtothenotesuponB'sdeath.
(iii)AbequeathstoBtherentsofhislandsatX.Bisentitled
tothelands.
CHAPTERXX
OfBequestsofAnnuities
173.Annuitycreatedbywillpayableforlifeonlyunless
contraryintentionappearsbywill.Whereanannuityiscreatedby
will,thelegateeisentitledtoreceiveitforhislifeonly,unless
acontraryintentionappearsbythewill,notwithstandingthatthe
annuityisdirectedtobepaidoutofthepropertygenerally,orthat
asumofmoneyisbequeathedtobeinvestedinthepurchaseofit.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoB500rupeesayear.Bisentitledduringhis
lifetoreceivetheannualsumof500rupees.
(ii)AbequeathstoBthesumof500rupeesmonthly.Bis
entitledduringhislifetoreceivethesumof500rupeeseverymonth.
(iii)Abequeathsanannuityof500rupeestoBforlife,andon
B'sdeathtoC.Bisentitledtoanannuityof500rupeesduringhis
life.C,ifhesurvivesB,isentitledtoanannuityof500rupees
fromB'sdeathuntilhisowndeath.
174.Periodofvestingwherewilldirectsthatannuitybe
providedoutofproceedsofproperty,oroutofpropertygenerally,or

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wheremoneybequeathedtobeinvestedinpurchaseofannuity.Where
thewilldirectsthatanannuityshallbeprovidedforanypersonout
oftheproceedsofproperty,oroutofpropertygenerally,orwhere
moneyisbequeathedtobeinvestedinthepurchaseofanyannuityfor
anyperson,onthetestator'sdeath,thelegacyvestsininterestin
thelegatee,andheisentitledathisoptiontohaveanannuity
purchasedforhimortoreceivethemoneyappropriatedforthat
purposebythewill.
Illustrations
(i)Abyhiswilldirectsthathisexecutorsshall,outofhis
property,purchaseanannuityof1,000rupeesforB.Bisentitledat
hisoptiontohaveanannuityof1,000rupeesforhislifepurchased
forhimortoreceivesuchasumaswillbesufficientforthe
purchaseofsuchanannuity.
(ii)AbequeathsafundtoBforhislife,anddirectsthatafter
B'sdeath,itshallbelaidoutinthepurchaseofanannuityforC.B
andCsurvivethetestator.CdiesinB'slifetime.OnB'sdeaththe
fundbelongstotherepresentativeofC.
175.Abatementofannuity.Whereanannuityisbequeathed,but
theassetsofthetestatorarenotsufficienttopayallthelegacies
givenbythewill,theannuityshallabateinthesameproportionas
theotherpecuniarylegaciesgivenbythewill.
176.Wheregiftofannuityandresiduarygift,wholeannuityto
befirstsatisfied.Wherethereisagiftofanannuityanda
residuarygift,thewholeoftheannuityistobesatisfiedbeforeany
partoftheresidueispaidtotheresiduarylegatee,and,if
necessary,thecapitalofthetestator'sestateshallbeappliedfor
thatpurpose.
CHAPTERXXI
OfLegaciestoCreditorsandPortioners
177.Creditorprimafacieentitledtolegacyaswellasdebt.
Whereadebtorbequeathsalegacytohiscreditor,anditdoesnot
appearfromthewillthatthelegacyismeantasasatisfactionofthe
debt,thecreditorshallbeentitledtothelegacy,aswellastothe
amountofthedebt.
178.Childprimafacieentitledtolegacyaswellasportion.
Whereaparent,whoisunderobligationbycontracttoprovidea
portionforachild,failstodoso,andafterwardsbequeathsalegacy
tothechild,anddoesnotintimatebyhiswillthatthelegacyis
meantasasatisfactionoftheportion,thechildshallbeentitledto
receivethelegacy,aswellastheportion.
Illustration
A,byarticlesenteredintoincontemplationofhismarriagewith
Bcovenantedthathewouldpaytoeachofthedaughtersofthe
intendedmarriageaportionof20,000rupeesonhermarriage.This

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covenanthavingbeenbroken.Abequeaths20,000rupeestoeachofthe
marrieddaughtersofhimselfandB.Thelegateesareentitledtothe
benefitofthisbequestinadditiontotheirportions.
179.Noademptionbysubsequentprovisionforlegatee.Nobequest
shallbewhollyorpartiallyadeemedbyasubsequentprovisionmadeby
settlementorotherwiseforthelegatee.
Illustrations
(i)Abequeaths20,000rupeestohissonB.Heafterwardsgives
toBthesumof20,000rupees.Thelegacyisnottherebyadeemed.
(ii)Abequeaths40,000rupeestoB,hisorphanniecewhomhehad
broughtupfromherinfancy.Afterwards,ontheoccasionofB's
marriage,Asettlesuponherthesumof30,000rupees.Thelegacyis
nottherebydiminished.
CHAPTERXXII
OfElection
180.Circumstancesinwhichelectiontakesplace.Whereaperson,
byhiswill,professestodisposeofsomethingwhichhehasnoright
todisposeof,thepersontowhomthethingbelongsshallelecteither
toconfirmsuchdispositionortodissentfromit,and,inthelatter
case,heshallgiveupanybenefitswhichmayhavebeenprovidedfor
himbythewill.
181.Devolutionofinterestrelinquishedbyowner.Aninterest
relinquishedinthecircumstancesstatedinsection180shalldevolve
asifithadnotbeendisposedofbythewillinfavourofthe
legatee,subject,nevertheless,tothechargeofmakinggoodtothe
disappointedlegateetheamountorvalueofthegiftattemptedtobe
giventohimbythewill.
182.Testator'sbeliefastohisownershipimmaterial.The
provisionsofsections180and181applywhetherthetestatordoesor
doesnotbelievethatwhichheprofessestodisposeofbyhiswillto
behisown.
Illustrations
(i)ThefarmofSultanpurwasthepropertyofC.Abequeathedit
toB,givingalegacyof1,000rupeestoC.Chaselectedtoretain
hisfarmofSultanpur,whichisworth800rupees.Cforfeitshis
legacyof1,000rupees,ofwhich800rupeesgoestoB,andthe
remaining200rupeesfallsintotheresiduarybequest,ordevolves
accordingtotherulesofintestatesuccession,asthecasemaybe.
(ii)AbequeathsanestatetoBincaseB'selderbrother(whois
marriedandhaschildren)shallleavenoissuelivingathisdeath.A
alsobequeathstoCajewel,whichbelongstoB.Bmustelecttogive
upthejewelortolosetheestate.
(iii)AbequeathstoB1,000rupees,andtoCanestatewhich
will,underasettlement,belongtoBifhiselderbrother(whois
marriedandhaschildren)shallleavenoissuelivingathisdeath.B

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mustelecttogiveuptheestateortolosethelegacy.
(iv)A,apersonoftheageof18,domiciledin1*[India]but
owningrealpropertyinEngland,towhichCisheiratlaw,bequeaths
alegacytoCand,subjectthereto,devisesandbequeathstoB"allmy
propertywhatsoeverandwheresoever,"anddiesunder21.Thereal
propertyinEnglanddoesnotpassbythewill.Cmayclaimhislegacy
withoutgivinguptherealpropertyinEngland.
183.Bequestforman'sbenefithowregardedforpurposeof
election.Abequestforaperson'sbenefitis,forthepurposeof
election,thesamethingasabequestmadetohimself.
Illustration
ThefarmofSultanpurKhurdbeingthepropertyofB,Abequeathed
ittoC:andbequeathedanotherfarmcalledSultanpurBuzurgtohis
ownexecutorswithadirectionthatitshouldbesoldandtheproceeds
appliedinpaymentofB'sdebts.Bmustelectwhetherhewillabideby
thewill,orkeephisfarmofSultanpurKhurdinoppositiontoit.
184.Personderivingbenefitindirectlynotputtoelection.A
persontakingnobenefitdirectlyunderawill,butderivingabenefit
underitindirectly,isnotputtohiselection.
Illustration
ThelandsofSultanpuraresettleduponCforlife,andafterhis
deathuponD,hisonlychild.AbequeathsthelandsofSultanpurtoB,
and1,000rupeestoC.Cdiesintestateshortlyafterthetestator,
andwithouthavingmadeanyelection.DtakesoutadministrationtoC,
andasadministratorelectsonbehalfofC'sestatetotakeunderthe
will.Inthatcapacityhereceivesthelegacyof1,000rupeesand
accountstoBfortherentsofthelandsofSultanpurwhichaccrued
afterthedeathofthetestatorandbeforethedeathofC.Inhis
individualcharacterheretainsthelandsofSultanpurinopposition
tothewill.
185.Persontakinginindividualcapacityunderwillmayinother
characterelecttotakeinopposition.Apersonwhoinhisindividual
capacitytakesabenefitunderawillmay,inanothercharacter,elect
totakeinoppositiontothewill.
Illustration
TheestateofSultanpurissettleduponAforlife,andafterhis
death,uponB.AleavestheestateofSultanpurtoD,and2,000rupees
toB,and1,000rupeestoC,whoisB'sonlychild.Bdiesintestate,
shortlyafterthetestator,withouthavingmadeanelection.Ctakes
outadministrationtoB,andasadministratorelectstokeepthe
estateofSultanpurinopposition
tothewill,andtorelinquishthelegacyof2,000rupees.Cmaydo
this,andyetclaimhislegacyof1,000rupeesunderthewill.

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

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186.Exceptiontoprovisionsoflastsixsections.
Notwithstandinganythingcontainedinsections180to185,wherea
particulargiftisexpressedinthewilltobeinlieuofsomething
belongingtothelegatee,whichisalsointermsdisposedofbythe
will,then,ifthelegateeclaimsthatthing,hemustrelinquishthe
particulargift,butheisnotboundtorelinquishanyotherbenefit
giventohimbythewill.
Illustration
UnderA'smarriagesettlementhiswifeisentitled,ifshe
surviveshim,totheenjoymentoftheestateofSultanpurduringher
life.Abyhiswillbequeathstohiswifeanannuityof200rupees
duringherlife,inlieuofherinterestintheestateofSultanpur,
whichestatehebequeathstohisson.Healsogiveshiswifealegacy
of1,000rupees.Thewidowelectstotakewhatsheisentitledto
underthesettlement.Sheisboundtorelinquishtheannuitybutnot
thelegacyof1,000rupees.
187.Whenacceptanceofbenefitgivenbywillconstitutes
electiontotakeunderwill.Acceptanceofabenefitgivenbyawill
constitutesanelectionbythelegateetotakeunderthewill,ifhe
hadknowledgeofhisrighttoelectandofthosecircumstanceswhich
wouldinfluencethejudgmentofareasonablemaninmakingan
election,orifhewaivesinquiryintothecircumstances.
Illustrations
(i)AisownerofanestatecalledSultanpurKhurd,andhasa
lifeinterestinanotherestatecalledSultanpurBuzurgtowhichupon
hisdeathhissonBwillbeabsolutelyentitled.ThewillofAgives
theestateofSultanpurKhurdtoB,andtheestateofSultanpurBuzurg
toC.B,inignoranceofhisownrighttotheestateofSultanpur
Buzurg,allowsCtotakepossessionofit,andentersintopossession
oftheestateofSultanpurKhurd.Bhasnotconfirmedthebequestof
SultanpurBuzurgtoC.
(ii)B,theeldestsonofA,isthepossessorofanestatecalled
Sultanpur.AbequeathsSultanpurtoC,andtoBtheresidueofA's
property.BhavingbeeninformedbyA'sexecutorsthattheresidue
willamountto5,000rupees,allowsCtotakepossessionofSultanpur.
Heafterwardsdiscoversthattheresiduedoesnotamounttomorethan
500rupees.BhasnotconfirmedthebequestoftheestateofSultanpur
toC.
188.Circumstancesinwhichknowledgeorwaiverispresumedor
inferred.(1)Suchknowledgeorwaiverofinquiryshall,inthe
absenceofevidencetothecontrary,bepresumedifthelegateehas
enjoyedfortwoyearsthebenefitsprovidedforhimbythewill
withoutdoinganyacttoexpressdissent.
(2)Suchknowledgeorwaiverofinquirymaybeinferredfromany
actofthelegateewhichrendersitimpossibletoplacethepersons
interestedinthesubjectmatterofthebequestinthesamecondition
asifsuchacthadnotbeendone.

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Illustration
AbequeathstoBanestatetowhichCisentitled,andtoCa
coalmine.Ctakespossessionofthemineandexhaustsit.Hehas
therebyconfirmedthebequestoftheestatetoB.
189.Whentestator'srepresentativesmaycalluponlegateeto
elect.Ifthelegateedoesnot,withinoneyearafterthedeathofthe
testator,signifytothetestator'srepresentativeshisintentionto
confirmortodissentfromthewill,therepresentativesshall,upon
theexpirationofthatperiod,requirehimtomakehiselection;and,
ifhedoesnotcomplywithsuchrequisitionwithinareasonabletime
afterhehasreceivedit,heshallbedeemedtohaveelectedto
confirmthewill.
190.Postponementofelectionincaseofdisability.Incaseof
disabilitytheelectionshallbepostponeduntilthedisability
ceases,oruntiltheelectionismadebysomecompetentauthority.
CHAPTERXXIII
OfGiftsinContemplationofDeath
191.Propertytransferablebygiftmadeincontemplationof
death.(1)Amanmaydispose,bygiftmadeincontemplationofdeath,
ofanymoveablepropertywhichhecoulddisposeofbywill.
(2)Agiftissaidtobemadeincontemplationofdeathwherea
man,whoisillandexpectstodieshortlyofhisillness,delivers,
toanotherthepossessionofanymoveablepropertytokeepasagift
incasethedonorshalldieofthatillness.
(3)Suchagiftmayberesumedbythegiver;andshallnottake
effectifherecoversfromtheillnessduringwhichitwasmade;nor
ifhesurvivesthepersontowhomitwasmade.
Illustrations
(i)A,beingill,andinexpectationofdeath,deliverstoB,to
beretainedbyhimincaseofA'sdeath,
awatch:
abondgrantedbyCtoA:
abanknote:
apromissorynoteoftheCentralGovernmentendorseedin
blank:
abillofexchangeendorsedinblank:
certainmortgagedeeds.
Adiesoftheillnessduringwhichhedeliveredthesearticles.
Bisentitledto
thewatch:
thedebtsecuredbyC'sbond:
thebanknote:
thepromissorynoteoftheCentralGovernment:
thebillofexchange:
themoneysecuredbythemortagagedeeds.
(ii)A,beingill,andinexpectationofdeath,deliverstoBthe

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keyofatrunkorthekeyofawarehouseinwhichgoodsofbulk
belongingtoAaredeposited,withtheintentionofgivinghimthe
controloverthecontentsofthetrunk,oroverthedepositedgoods,
anddesireshimtokeepthemincaseofA'sdeath.Adiesofthe
illnessduringwhichhedeliveredthesearticles.Bisentitledtothe
trunkanditscontentsortoA'sgoodsofbulkinthewarehouse.
(iii)A,beingill,andinexpectationofdeath,putsaside
certainarticlesinseparateparcelsandmarksupontheparcels
respectivelythenamesofBandC.Theparcelsarenotdelivered
duringthelifeofA.Adiesoftheillnessduringwhichhesetaside
theparcels.BandCarenotentitledtothecontentsoftheparcels.
Personclaimingrightbysuccessiontopropertyofdeceasedmayapply
forreliefagainstwrongfulpossession.
PARTVII
PROTECTIONOFPROPERTYOFDECEASED
192.Personclaimingrightbysuccessiontopropertyofdeceased
mayapplyforreliefagainstwrongfulpossession.(1)Ifanyperson
diesleavingproperty,moveableorimmoveable,anypersonclaiminga
rightbysuccessionthereto,ortoanyportionthereof,maymake
applicationtotheDistrictJudgeofthedistrictwhereanypartof
thepropertyisfoundorsituateforrelief,eitherafteractual
possessionhasbeentakenbyanotherperson,orwhenforciblemeansof
seizingpossessionareapprehended.
(2)Anyagent,relativeornearfriend,ortheCourtofWardsin
caseswithintheircognizance,may,intheeventofanyminor,orany
disqualifiedorabsentpersonbeingentitledbysuccessiontosuch
propertyasaforesaid,makethelikeapplicationforrelief.
193.InquirymadebyJudge.TheDistrictJudgetowhomsuch
applicationismadeshall,inthefirstplace,examinetheapplicant
onoath,andmaymakesuchfurtherinquiry,ifany,ashethinks
necessaryastowhetherthereissufficientgroundforbelievingthat
thepartyinpossessionortakingforciblemeansforseizing
possessionhasnolawfultitle,andthattheapplicant,ortheperson
onwhosebehalfheappliesisreallyentitledandislikelytobe
materiallyprejudicediflefttotheordinaryremedyofasuit,and
thattheapplicationismadebonafide.
194.Procedure.IftheDistrictJudgeissatisfiedthatthereis
sufficientgroundforbelievingasaforesaidbutnototherwise,he
shallsummonthepartycomplainedof,andgivenoticeofvacantor
disturbedpossessionbypublication,and,aftertheexpirationofa
reasonabletime,shalldeterminesummarilytherighttopossession
(subjecttoasuitashereinafterprovided)andshalldeliver
possessionaccordingly:
ProvidedthattheJudgeshallhavethepowertoappointan
officerwhoshalltakeaninventoryofeffects,andsealorotherwise
securethesame,uponbeingappliedtoforthepurpose,withoutdelay,

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whetherheshallhaveconcludedtheinquirynecessaryforsummoning
thepartycomplainedofornot.
195.Appointmentofcuratorpendingdeterminationofproceeding.
Ifitfurtherappearsuponsuchinquiryasaforesaidthatdangeristo
beapprehendedofthemisappropriationorwasteofthepropertybefore
thesummaryproceedingcanbedetermined,andthatthedelayin
obtainingsecurityfromthepartyinpossessionortheinsufficiency
thereofislikelytoexposethepartyoutofpossessionto
considerablerisk,providedheisthelawfulowner,theDistrictJudge
mayappointoneormorecuratorswhoseauthorityshallcontinue
accordingtothetermsofhisortheirrespectiveappointment,andin
nocasebeyondthedeterminationofthesummaryproceedingandthe
confirmationordeliveryofpossessioninconsequencethereof:
Providedthat,inthecaseofland,theJudgemaydelegatetothe
Collector,ortoanyofficersubordinatetotheCollector,thepowers
ofacurator:
Provided,further,thateveryappointmentofacuratorinrespect
ofanypropertyshallbedulypublished.
196.Powersconferrableoncurator.TheDistrictJudgemay
authorisethecuratortotakepossessionofthepropertyeither
generally,oruntilsecurityisgivenbythepartyinpossession,or
untilinventoriesofthepropertyhavebeenmade,orforanyother
purposenecessaryforsecuringthepropertyfrommisappropriationor
wastebythepartyinpossession:
ProvidedthatitshallbeinthediscretionoftheJudgetoallow
thepartyinpossessiontocontinueinsuchpossessionongiving
securityornot,andanycontinuanceinpossessionshallbesubjectto
suchordersastheJudgemayissuetouchinginventories,orthe
securingofdeedsorothereffects.
197.Prohibitionofexerciseofcertainpowersbycurators.(1)
WhereacertificatehasbeengrantedunderPartXorunderthe
SuccessionCertificateAct,18891*,(7of1889.)oragrantof
Probateorlettersofadministrationhasbeenmade,acuratorappointedunder
thisPartshallnotexerciseanyauthoritylawfullybelongingtothe
holderofthecertificateortotheexecutororadministrator.
Paymentofdebts,etc.,tocurator.

1Rep.partlybyAct39of1925,andfinallybyAct1of1938.

(2)Paymentofdebts,etc.,tocurator.Allpersonwhohavepaid
debtsorrentstoacuratorauthorisedbyaCourttoreceivethem
shallbeindemnified,andthecuratorshallberesponsibleforthe
paymentthereoftothepersonwhohasobtainedthecertificate,
probateorlettersofadministration,asthecasemaybe.

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198.Curatortogivesecurityandmayreceiveremuneration.(1)
TheDistrictJudgeshalltakefromthecuratorsecurityforthe
faithfuldischargeofhistrust,andforrenderingsatisfactory
accountsofthesameashereinafterprovided,andmayauthorisehimto
receiveoutofthepropertysuchremuneration,innocaseexceeding
fivepercentumonthemoveablepropertyandontheannualprofitsof
theimmoveableproperty,astheDistrictJudgethinksreasonable.
(2)Allsurplusmoneyrealizedbythecuratorshallbepaidinto
Court,andinvestedinpublicsecuritiesforthebenefitofthe
personsentitledtheretouponadjudicationofthesummaryproceeding.
(3)Securityshallberequiredfromthecuratorwithall
reasonabledespatch,andwhereitispracticable,shallbetaken
generallytoanswerallcasesforwhichthepersonmaybeafterwards
appointedcurator;butnodelayinthetakingofsecurityshall
preventtheJudgefromimmediatelyinvestingthecuratorwiththe
powersofhisoffice.
ReportfromCollectorwhereestateincludesrevenuepayingland.
199.ReportfromCollectorwhereestateincludesrevenuepaying
land.(1)Wheretheestateofthedeceasedpersonconsistswhollyor
inpartoflandpayingrevenuetoGovernment,inallmattersregarding
thepropertyofsummoningthepartyinpossession,ofappointinga
curator,orofnominatingindividualstothatappointment,the
DistrictJudgeshalldemandareportfromtheCollector,andthe
Collectorshallthereuponfurnishthesame:
ProvidedthatincasesofurgencytheJudgemayproceed,inthe
firstinstance,withoutsuchreport.
(2)TheJudgeshallnotbeobligedtoactinconformitywithany
suchreport,but,incaseofhisactingotherwisethanaccordingto
suchreport,heshallimmediatelyforwardastatementofhisreasons
totheHighCourt,andtheHighCourt,ifitisdissatisfiedwithsuch
reasons,shalldirecttheJudgetoproceedconformablytothereport
oftheCollector.
200.Institutionanddefenceofsuits.Thecuratorshallbe
subjecttoallordersoftheDistrictJudgeregardingtheinstitution
orthedefenceofsuits,andallsuitsmaybeinstitutedordefended
inthenameofthecuratoronbehalfoftheestate:
Providedthatanexpressauthorityshallberequisiteinthe
orderofthecurator'sappointmentforthecollectionofdebtsor
rents;butsuchexpressauthorityshallenablethecuratortogivea
fullacquittanceforanysumsofmoneyreceivedbyvirtuethereof.
201.Allowancestoapparentownerspendingcustodybycurator.
Pendingthecustodyofthepropertybythecurator,theDistrictJudge
maymakesuchallowancestopartieshavingaprimafacierightthereto
asuponasummaryinvestigationoftherightsandcircumstancesofthe
partiesinterestedheconsidersnecessary,andmay,athisdiscretion,
takesecurityfortherepaymentthereofwithinterest,intheeventof
thepartybeingfound,upontheadjudicationofthesummary

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proceeding,nottobeentitledthereto.
202.Accountstobefiledbycurator.Thecuratorshallfile
monthlyaccountsinabstract,andshall,ontheexpiryofeachperiod
ofthreemonths,ifhisadministrationlastssolong,and,upongiving
upthepossessionoftheproperty,fileadetailedaccountofhis
administrationtothesatisfactionoftheDistrictJudge.
203.Inspectionofaccountsandrightofinterestedpartytokeep
duplicate.(1)Theaccountsofthecuratorshallbeopentothe
inspectionofallpartiesinterested;anditshallbecompetentfor
anysuchinterestedpartytoappointaseparatepersontokeepa
duplicateaccountofallreceiptsandpaymentsbythecurator.
(2)Ifitisfoundthattheaccountsofthecuratorarein
arrear,orthattheyareerroneousorincomplete,orifthecurator
doesnotproducethemwheneverheisorderedtodosobytheDistrict
Judge,heshallbepunishablewithfinenotexceedingonethousand
rupeesforeverysuchdefault.
204.Bartoappointmentofsecondcuratorforsameproperty.If
theJudgeofanydistricthasappointedacurator,inrespectofthe
wholeofthepropertyofadeceasedperson,suchappointmentshall
precludetheJudgeofanyotherdistrictwithinthesameStatefrom
appointinganyothercurator,buttheappointmentofacuratorin
respectofaportionofthepropertyofthedeceasedshallnot
precludetheappointmentwithinthesameStateofanothercuratorin
respectoftheresidueoranyportionthereof:
ProvidedthatnoJudgeshallappointacuratororentertaina
summaryproceedinginrespectofpropertywhichisthesubjectofa
summaryproceedingpreviouslyinstitutedunderthisPartbefore
anotherJudge:
Provided,further,thatiftwoormorecuratorsareappointedby
differentJudgesforseveralpartsofanestate,theHighCourtmay
makesuchorderasitthinksfitfortheappointmentofonecuratorof
thewholeproperty.
205.Limitationoftimeforapplicationforcurator.An
applicationunderthisParttotheDistrictJudgemustbemadewithin
sixmonthsofthedeathoftheproprietorwhosepropertyisclaimedby
rightinsuccession.
206.BartoenforcementofPartagainstpublicsettlementor
legaldirectionsbydeceased.NothinginthisPartshallbedeemedto
authorisethecontraventionofanypublicactofsettlementorofany
legaldirectionsgivenbyadeceasedproprietorofanypropertyfor
thepossessionofhispropertyafterhisdeceaseintheeventof
minorityorotherwise,and,ineverysuchcase,assoonastheJudge
havingjurisdictionoverthepropertyofadeceasedpersonis
satisfiedoftheexistenceofsuchdirections,heshallgiveeffect
thereto.

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207.CourtofWardstobemadecuratorincaseofminorshaving
propertysubjecttoitsjurisdiction.NothinginthisPartshallbe
deemedtoauthoriseanydisturbanceofthepossessionofaCourtof
Wardsofanyproperty;andincaseaminor,orotherdisqualified
personwhosepropertyissubjecttotheCourtofWards,istheparty
onwhosebehalfapplicationismadeunderthisPart,theDistrict
Judge,ifhedeterminestosummonthepartyinpossessionandto
appointacurator,shallinvesttheCourtofWardswiththe
curatorshipoftheestatependingtheproceedingwithouttaking
securityasaforesaid;andiftheminororotherdisqualifiedperson,
upontheadjudicationofthesummaryproceeding,appearstobe
entitledtotheproperty,possessionshallbedeliveredtotheCourt
ofWards.
208.Savingofrighttobringsuit.Nothingcontainedinthis
Partshallbeanyimpedimenttothebringingofasuiteitherbythe
partywhoseapplicationmayhavebeenrejectedbeforeorafterthe
summoningofthepartyinpossession,orbythepartywhomayhave
beenevictedfromthepossessionunderthisPart.
209.Effectofdecisionofsummaryproceeding.Thedecisionofa
DistrictJudgeinasummaryproceedingunderthisPartshallhaveno
othereffectthanthatofsettlingtheactualpossession;butforthis
purposeitshallbefinal,andshallnotbesubjecttoanyappealor
review.
PARTVIII
REPRESENTATIVETITLETOPROPERTYOFDECEASEDONSUCCESSION
210.Appointmentofpubliccurators.TheStateGovernmentmay
appointpubliccuratorsforanydistrictornumberofdistricts;and
theDistrictJudgehavingjurisdictionshallnominatesuchpublic
curatorsinallcaseswherethechoiceofacuratorisleft
discretionarywithhimunderthisPart.
211.Characterandpropertyofexecutororadministratorassuch.
(1)Theexecutororadministrator,asthecasemaybe,ofadeceased
personishislegalrepresentativeforallpurposes,andallthe
propertyofthedeceasedpersonvestsinhimassuch.
(2)WhenthedeceasedwasaHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,Sikh,
1*[JainaorParsi]oranexemptedperson,nothinghereincontained
shallvestinanexecutororadministratoranypropertyofthe
deceasedpersonwhichwouldotherwisehavepassedbysurvivorshipto
someotherperson.
212.Righttointestate'sproperty.(1)Norighttoanypartof
thepropertyofapersonwhohasdiedintestatecanbeestablishedin
anyCourtofJustice,unlesslettersofadministrationhavefirstbeen
grantedbyaCourtofcompetentjurisdiction.

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(2)Thissectionshallnotapplyinthecaseoftheintestacyof
aHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,Sikh,Jaina,2*[IndianChristianor
Parsi].
213.Rightasexecutororlegateewhenestablished.(1)Noright
asexecutororlegateecanbeestablishedinanyCourtofJustice,
unlessaCourtofcompetentjurisdictionin3*[India]hasgranted
probateofthewillunderwhichtherightisclaimed,orhasgranted
lettersofadministrationwiththewillorwithacopyofan
authenticatedcopyofthewillannexed.
4*[(2)Thissectionshallnotapplyinthecaseofwillsmadeby
Muhammadans,andshallonlyapply
(i)inthecaseofwillsmadebyanyHindu,Buddhist,Sikh
orJainawheresuchwillsareoftheclassesspecified
inclauses(a)and(b)ofsection57;and

1Subs.byAct16of1962,s.2,for"orJaina".
2Subs.bys.3,ibid.,for"orIndianChristian".
3Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".
4Subs.byAct16of1962,s.4,forsubsection(2).

(ii)inthecaseofwillsmadebyanyParsidying,afterthe
commencementoftheIndianSuccession(Amendment)Act,
1962,(16of1962.)wheresuchwillsaremadewithin
thelocallimitsofthe1*[ordinaryoriginalcivil
jurisdiction]oftheHighCourtsatCalcutta,Madras
andBombay,andwheresuchwillsaremadeoutsidethose
limits,insofarastheyrelatetoimmovableproperty
situatewithinthoselimits.]

1Subs.byAct52of1964,s.3andSch.II,for"ordinarycivil
jurisdiction".

214.Proofofrepresentativetitleaconditionprecedentto
recoverythroughtheCourtsofdebtsfromdebtorsofdeceased
persons.(1)NoCourtshall
(a)passadecreeagainstadebtorofadeceasedpersonfor
paymentofhisdebttoapersonclaimingonsuccession
tobeentitledtotheeffectsofthedeceasedpersonor
toanypartthereof,or
(b)proceed,uponanapplicationofapersonclaimingtobe
soentitled,toexecuteagainstsuchadebtoradecree
ororderforthepaymentofhisdebt,
exceptontheproduction,bythepersonsoclaimingof
(i)aprobateorlettersofadministrationevidencingthe
granttohimofadministrationtotheestateofthe

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deceased,or
(ii)acertificategrantedundersection31orsection32of
theAdministratorGeneral'sAct,1913,(3of1913.)and
havingthedebtmentionedtherein,or
(iii)asuccessioncertificategrantedunderPartXand
havingthedebtspecifiedtherein,or
(iv)acertificategrantedundertheSuccessionCertificate
Act,18891*,(7of1889.)or
(v)acertificategrantedunderBombayRegulationNo.VIII
of1827,and,ifgrantedafterthefirstdayofMay,
1889,havingthedebtspecifiedtherein.
(2)Theword"debt"insubsection(1)includesanydebtexcept
rent,revenueorprofitspayableinrespectoflandusedfor
agriculturalpurposes.
215.Effectioncertificateofsubsequentprobateorlettersof
administration.(1)Agrantofprobateorlettersofadministrationin
respectofanestateshallbedeemedtosupersedeanycertificate
previouslygrantedunderPartXorundertheSuccessionCertificate
Act,18891*(7of1889),orBombayRegulationNo.VIIIof1827,in
respectofanydebtsorsecuritiesincludedintheestate.
(2)Whenatthetimeofthegrantoftheprobateorlettersany
suitorotherproceedinginstitutedbytheholderofanysuch
certificateregardinganysuchdebtorsecurityispending,theperson
towhomthegrantismadeshall,onapplyingtotheCourtinwhichthe
suitorproceedingispending,beentitledtotaketheplaceofthe
holderofthecertificateinthesuitorproceeding:

1Rep.partlybyAct39of1925,andfinallybyAct1of1938.

Providedthat,whenanycertificateissupersededunderthis
section,allpaymentsmadetotheholderofsuchcertificatein
ignoranceofsuchsupersessionshallbeheldgoodagainstclaimsunder
theprobateorlettersofadministration.
216.Granteeofprobateoradministrationalonetosue,etc.,
untilsamerevoked.Afteranygrantofprobateorlettersof
administration,nootherthanthepersontowhomthesamemayhave
beengrantedshallhavepowertosueorprosecuteanysuit,or
otherwiseactasrepresentativeofthedeceased,throughouttheState
inwhichthesamemayhavebeengranted,untilsuchprobateorletters
ofadministrationhasorhavebeenrecalledorrevoked.
PARTIX
PROBATE,LETTERSOFADMINISTRATIONANDADMINISTRATIONOFASSETS
OFDECEASED
217.ApplicationofPart.SaveasotherwiseprovidedbythisAct

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orbyanyotherlawforthetimebeinginforce,allgrantsofprobate
andlettersofadministrationwiththewillannexedandthe
administrationoftheassetsofthedeceasedincasesofintestate
successionshallbemadeorcarriedout,asthecasemaybe,in
accordancewiththeprovisionsofthisPart.
CHAPTERI
OfGrantofProbateandLettersofAdministration
218.Towhomadministrationmaybegranted,wheredeceasedisa
Hindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,Sikh,Jainaorexemptedperson.(1)If
thedeceasedhasdiedintestateandwasaHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,
SikhorJainaoranexemptedperson,administrationofhisestatemay
begrantedtoanypersonwho,accordingtotherulesforthe
distributionoftheestateapplicableinthecaseofsuchdeceased,
wouldbeentitledtothewholeoranypartofsuchdeceased'sestate.
(2)Whenseveralsuchpersonsapplyforsuchadministration,it
shallbeinthediscretionoftheCourttograntittoanyoneormore
ofthem.
(3)Whennosuchpersonapplies,itmaybegrantedtoacreditor
ofthedeceased.
219.WheredeceasedisnotaHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,Sikh,
Jainaorexemptedperson.Ifthedeceasedhasdiedintestateandwas
notapersonbelongingtoanyoftheclassesreferredtoinsection
218,thosewhoareconnectedwithhim,eitherbymarriageorby
consanguinity,areentitledtoobtainlettersofadministrationofhis
estateandeffectsintheorderandaccordingtotheruleshereinafter
stated,namely:
(a)Ifthedeceasedhasleftawidow,administrationshall
begrantedtothewidow,unlesstheCourtseescauseto
excludeher,eitheronthegroundofsomepersonal
disqualification,orbecauseshehasnointerestinthe
estateofthedeceased.
Illustrations
(i)Thewidowisalunaticorhascommittedadulteryorhasbeen
barredbyhermarriagesettlementofallinterestinherhusband's
estate.Thereiscauseforexcludingherfromtheadministration.
(ii)Thewidowhasmarriedagainsincethedeceaseofher
husband.Thisisnotgoodcauseforherexclusion.
(b)IftheJudgethinksproper,hemayassociateanyperson
orpersonswiththewidowintheadministrationwho
wouldbeentitledsolelytotheadministrationifthere
werenowidow.
(c)Ifthereisnowidow,oriftheCourtseescauseto
excludethewidow,itshallcommittheadministration
tothepersonorpersonswhowouldbebeneficially
entitledtotheestateaccordingtotherulesforthe
distributionofanintestate'sestate:
Providedthat,whenthemotherofthedeceasedis

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oneoftheclassofpersonssoentitled,sheshallbe
solelyentitledtoadministration.
(d)Thosewhostandinequaldegreeofkindredtothe
deceasedareequallyentitledtoadministration.
(e)Thehusbandsurvivinghiswifehasthesamerightof
administrationofherestateasthewidowhasin
respectoftheestateofherhusband.
(f)Whenthereisnopersonconnectedwiththedeceasedby
marriageorconsanguinitywhoisentitledtolettersof
administrationandwillingtoact,theymaybegranted
toacreditor.
(g)Wherethedeceasedhasleftpropertyin1*[India],
lettersofadministrationshallbegrantedaccordingto
theforegoingrules,notwithstandingthathehadhis
domicileinacountryinwhichthelawrelatingto
testateandintestatesuccessiondiffersfromthelaw
of1*[India].
220.Effectoflettersofadministration.Lettersof
administrationentitletheadministratortoallrightsbelongingto
theintestateaseffectuallyasiftheadministrationhadbeengranted
atthemomentafterhisdeath.
221.Actsnotvalidatedbyadministration.Lettersof
administrationdonotrendervalidanyintermediateactsofthe
administratortendingtothediminutionordamageoftheintestate's
estate.
222.Probateonlytoappointedexecutor.(1)Probateshallbe
grantedonlytoanexecutorappointedbythewill.
(2)Theappointmentmaybeexpressedorbynecessaryimplication.
Illustrations
(i)AwillsthatCbehisexecutorifBwillnot.Bisappointed
executorbyimplication.
(ii)AgivesalegacytoBandseverallegaciestootherpersons,
amongtheresttohisdaughterinlawC,andadds"butshouldthe
withinnamedCbenotlivingIdoconstituteandappointBmywhole
andsoleexecutrix".Cisappointedexecutrixbyimplication.
(iii)Aappointsseveralpersonsexecutorsofhiswilland
codicilsandhisnephewresiduarylegatee,andinanothercodicilare
thesewords,"Iappointmynephewmyresiduarylegateetodischarge
alllawfuldemandsagainstmywillandcodicilssignedofdifferent
dates".Thenephewisappointedanexecutorbyimplication.
223.Personstowhomprobatecannotbegranted.Probatecannotbe
grantedtoanypersonwhoisaminororisofunsoundmind2*[norto
anyassociationofindividualsunlessitisacompanywhichsatisfies
theconditionsprescribedbyrulestobemade4*[,bynotificationin
theOfficialGazette]bythe3*[StateGovernment]inthisbehalf].

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1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".
2AddedbyAct17of1931,s.2.Thewords"nor,unlessthe
deceasedwasaHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,SikhorJainaoran
exemptedperson,toamarriedwomanwithoutthepreviousconsentof
herhusband"whichoriginallyoccurredattheendofthissectionhad
beenomittedbyAct18of1927,s.2.
3Thewords"G.G.inC."havebeensuccessivelyamendedbytheA.
O.1937andtheA.O.1950toreadasabove.
4Ins.byAct20of1983,s.2&Sch.(w.e.f.1531984).

224.Grantofprobatetoseveralexecutorssimultaneouslyorat
differenttimes.Whenseveralexecutorsareappointed,probatemaybe
grantedtothemallsimultaneouslyoratdifferenttimes.
Illustration
AisanexecutorofB'swillbyexpressappointmentandCan
executorofitbyimplication.ProbatemaybegrantedtoAandCat
thesametimeortoAfirstandthentoC,ortoCfirstandthento
A.
225.Separateprobateofcodicildiscoveredaftergrantof
probate.(1)Ifacodicilisdiscoveredafterthegrantofprobate,a
separateprobateofthatcodicilmaybegrantedtotheexecutor,ifit
innowayrepealstheappointmentofexecutorsmadebythewill.
(2)Ifdifferentexecutorsareappointedbythecodicil,the
probateofthewillshallberevoked,andanewprobategrantedofthe
willandthecodiciltogether.
226.Accrualofrepresentationtosurvivingexecutor.When
probatehasbeengrantedtoseveralexecutors,andoneofthemdies,
theentirerepresentationofthetestatoraccruestothesurviving
executororexecutors.
227.Effectofprobate.Probateofawillwhengranted
establishedthewillfromthedeathofthetestator,andrendersvalid
allintermediateactsoftheexecutorassuch.
228.Administration,withcopyannexed,ofauthenticatedcopyof
willprovedabroad.Whenawillhasbeenprovedanddepositedina
Courtofcompetentjurisdictionsituatedbeyondthelimitsofthe
State,whetherwithinorbeyondthelimitsof1*[India],anda
properlyauthenticatedcopyofthewillisproduced,lettersof
administrationmaybegrantedwithacopyofsuchcopyannexed.
229.Grantofadministrationwhereexecutorhasnotrenounced.
Whenapersonappointedanexecutorhasnotrenouncedthe
executorship,lettersofadministrationshallnotbegrantedtoany
otherpersonuntilacitationhasbeenissued,callinguponthe
executortoacceptorrenouncehisexecutorship:

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Providedthat,whenoneormoreofseveralexecutorshaveproved
awill,theCourtmay,onthedeathofthesurvivorofthosewhohave
proved,grantlettersofadministrationwithoutcitingthosewhohave
notproved.
230.Formandeffectofrenunciationofexecutorship.The
renunciationmaybemadeorallyinthepresenceoftheJudge,orbya
writingsignedbythepersonrenouncing,andwhen
madeshallprecludehimfromeverthereafterapplyingforprobateof
thewillappointinghimexecutor.

1Subs.bytheA.O.1950for"HisMajesty'sdominions".

231.Procedurewhereexecutorrenouncesorfailstoacceptwithin
timelimited.Ifanexecutorrenouncesorfailstoacceptan
executorshipwithinthetimelimitedfortheacceptanceorrefusal
thereof,thewillmaybeprovedandlettersofadministration,witha
copyofthewillannexed,maybegrantedtothepersonwhowouldbe
entitledtoadministrationincaseofintestacy.
232.Grantofadministrationtouniversalorresiduarylegatees.
When
(a)thedeceasedhasmadeawill,buthasnotappointedan
executor,or
(b)thedeceasedhasappointedanexecutorwhoislegally
incapableorrefusestoact,orwhohasdiedbeforethe
testatororbeforehehasprovedthewill,or
(c)theexecutordiesafterhavingprovedthewill,but
beforehehasadministeredalltheestateofthe
deceased,
anuniversaloraresiduarylegateemaybeadmittedtoprovethewill,
andlettersofadministrationwiththewillannexedmaybegrantedto
himofthewholeestate,orofsomuchthereofasmaybe
unadministered.
233.Righttoadministrationofrepresentativeofdeceased
residuarylegatee.Whenaresiduarylegateewhohasabeneficial
interestsurvivesthetestator,butdiesbeforetheestatehasbeen
fullyadministered,hisrepresentativehasthesamerightto
administrationwiththewillannexedassuchresiduarylegatee.
234.Grantofadministrationwherenoexecutor,norresiduary
legateenorrepresentativeofsuchlegatee.Whenthereisnoexecutor
andnoresiduarylegateeorrepresentativeofaresiduarylegatee,or
hedeclinesorisincapabletoact,orcannotbefound,thepersonor
personswhowouldbeentitledtotheadministrationoftheestateof
thedeceasedifhehaddiedintestate,oranyotherlegateehavinga
beneficialinterest,oracreditor,maybeadmittedtoprovethewill,

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andlettersofadministrationmaybegrantedtohimorthem
accordingly.
235.Citationbeforegrantofadministrationtolegateeother
thanuniversalorresiduary.Lettersofadministrationwiththewill
annexedshallnotbegrantedtoanylegateeotherthananuniversalor
aresiduarylegatee,untilacitationhasbeenissuedandpublishedin
themannerhereinaftermentioned,callingonthenextofkintoaccept
orrefuselettersofadministration.
236.Towhomadministrationmaynotbegranted.Lettersof
administrationcannotbegrantedtoanypersonwhoisaminororisof
unsoundmind,1*[nortoanyassociationofindividualsunlessitisa
companywhichsatisfiestheconditionsprescribedbyrulestobemade
2*[",bynotificationintheOfficialGazette,"]bythe3*[State
Government]inthisbehalf].
2*[236A.LayingofrulesbeforeStateLegislature.Everyrule
madebytheStateGovernmentundersection223andsection236shall
belaid,assoonasitismade,beforetheStateLegislature."].
CHAPTERII
OfLimitedGrants
Grantslimitedinduration
237.Probateofcopyordraftoflostwill.Whenawillhasbeen
lostormislaidsincethetestator'sdeath,orhasbeendestroyedby
wrongoraccidentandnotbyanyactofthetestator,andacopyor
thedraftofthewillhasbeenpreserved,probatemaybegrantedof
suchcopyordraft,limiteduntiltheoriginaloraproperly
authenticatedcopyofitisproduced.
238.Probateofcontentsoflostordestroyedwill.Whenawill
hasbeenlostordestroyedandnocopyhasbeenmadenorthedraft
preserved,probatemaybegrantedofitscontentsiftheycanbe
establishedbyevidence.
239.Probateofcopywhereoriginalexists.Whenthewillisin
thepossessionofapersonresidingoutoftheStateinwhich
applicationforprobateismade,whohasrefusedorneglectedto
deliveritup,butacopyhasbeentransmittedtotheexecutor,andit
isnecessaryfortheinterestsoftheestatethatprobateshouldbe
grantedwithoutwaitingforthearrivaloftheoriginal,probatemay
begrantedofthecopysotransmitted,limiteduntilthewilloran
authenticatedcopyofitisproduced.
240.Administrationuntilwillproduced.Wherenowillofthe
deceasedisforthcoming,butthereisreasontobelievethatthereis
awillinexistence,lettersofadministrationmaybegranted,limited
untilthewilloranauthenticatedcopyofitisproduced.
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1AddedbyAct17of1931,s.2.Thewords"nor,unlessthe
deceasedwasaHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,Sikh,orJainaoran
exemptedperson,toamarriedwomanwithoutthepreviousconsentof
herhusband"whichoriginallyoccurredattheendofthissectionhad
beenomittedbyAct18of1927,s.2.
2Ins.byAct20of1983,S.2&Sch.(w.e.f.15384).
3Thewords"G.G.inC."havebeensuccessivelyamendedbytheA.
O.1937andtheA.O.1950toreadasabove.

Grantsfortheuseandbenefitofothershavingright
241.Administration,withwillannexed,toattorneyofabsent
executor.WhenanyexecutorisabsentfromtheStateinwhich
applicationismade,andthereisnoexecutorwithintheStatewilling
toact,lettersofadministration,withthewillannexed,maybe
grantedtotheattorneyoragentoftheabsentexecutor,fortheuse
andbenefitofhisprincipal,limiteduntilheshallobtainprobateor
lettersofadministrationgrantedtohimself.
242.Administration,withwillannexed,toattorneyofabsent
personwho,ifpresent,wouldbeentitledtoadminister.Whenany
persontowhom,ifpresent,lettersofadministration,withthewill
annexed,mightbegranted,isabsentfromtheState,lettersof
administration,withthewillannexedmaybegrantedtohisattorney
oragent,limitedasmentionedinsection241.
243.Administrationtoattorneyofabsentpersonentitledto
administerincaseofintestacy.Whenapersonentitledto
administrationincaseofintestacyisabsentfromtheState,andno
personequallyentitlediswillingtoact,lettersofadministration
maybegrantedtotheattorneyoragentoftheabsentperson,limited
asmentionedinsection241.
244.Administrationduringminorityofsoleexecutororresiduary
legatee.Whenaminorissoleexecutororsoleresiduarylegatee,
lettersofadministration,withthewillannexed,maybegrantedto
thelegalguardianofsuchminorortosuchotherpersonastheCourt
maythinkfituntiltheminorhasattainedhismajorityatwhich
period,andnotbefore,probateofthewillshallbegrantedtohim.
245.Administrationduringminorityofseveralexecutorsor
residuarylegatees.Whentherearetwoormoreminorexecutorsandno
executorwhohasattainedmajority,ortwoormoreresiduarylegatees
andnoresiduarylegateewhohasattainedmajority,thegrantshallbe
limiteduntiloneofthemshallhaveattainedhismajority.
246.Administrationforuseandbenefitoflunaticorminor.Ifa
soleexecutororasoleuniversalorresiduarylegatee,oraperson

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whowouldbesolelyentitledtotheestateoftheintestateaccording
totheruleforthedistributionofintestates'estatesapplicablein
thecaseofthedeceased,isaminororlunatic,lettersof
administration,withorwithoutthewillannexed,asthecasemaybe,
shallbegrantedtothepersontowhomthecareofhisestatehasbeen
committedbycompetentauthority,or,ifthereisnosuchperson,to
suchotherpersonastheCourtmaythinkfittoappoint,fortheuse
andbenefitoftheminororlunaticuntilheattainsmajorityor
becomesofsoundmind,asthecasemaybe.
247.Administrationpendentelite.Pendinganysuittouchingthe
validityofthewillofadeceasedpersonorforobtainingorrevoking
anyprobateoranygrantoflettersofadministration,theCourtmay
appointanadministratoroftheestateofsuchdeceasedperson,who
shallhavealltherightsandpowersofageneraladministrator,other
thantherightofdistributingsuchestate,andeverysuch
administratorshallbesubjecttotheimmediatecontroloftheCourt
andshallactunderitsdirection.
Grantsforspecialpurposes
248.Probatelimitedtopurposespecifiedinwill.Ifanexecutor
isappointedforanylimitedpurposespecifiedinthewill,the
probateshallbelimitedtothatpurpose,andifheshouldappointan
attorneyoragenttotakeadministrationonhisbehalf,thelettersof
administration,withthewillannexed,shallbelimitedaccordingly.
249.Administration,withwillannexed,limitedtoparticular
purpose.Ifanexecutorappointedgenerallygivesanauthoritytoan
attorneyoragenttoproveawillonhisbehalf,andtheauthorityis
limitedtoaparticularpurpose,thelettersofadministration,with
thewillannexed,shallbelimitedaccordingly.
250.Administrationlimitedtopropertyinwhichpersonhas
beneficialinterest.Whereapersondies,leavingpropertyofwhichhe
wasthesoleorsurvivingtrustee,orinwhichhehadnobeneficial
interestonhisownaccount,andleavesnogeneralrepresentative,or
onewhoisunableorunwillingtoactassuch,lettersof
administration,limitedtosuchproperty,maybegrantedtothe
beneficiary,ortosomeotherpersononhisbehalf.
251.Administrationlimitedtosuit.Whenitisnecessarythat
therepresentativeofapersondeceasedbemadeapartytoapending
suit,andtheexecutor,orpersonentitledtoadministrationisunable
orunwillingtoact,lettersofadministrationmaybegrantedtothe
nomineeofapartyinsuchsuit,limitedforthepurposeof
representingthedeceasedinthesaidsuit,orinanyothercauseor
suitwhichmaybecommencedinthesameorinanyotherCourtbetween
theparties,oranyotherparties,touchingthemattersatissuein
thesaidcauseorsuit,anduntilafinaldecreeshallbemadetherein

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andcarriedintocompleteexecution.
252.Administrationlimitedtopurposeofbecomingpartytosuit
tobebroughtagainstadministrator.If,attheexpirationoftwelve
monthsfromthedateofanyprobateorlettersofadministration,the
executororadministratortowhomthesamehasbeengrantedisabsent
fromtheStatewithin
whichtheCourtwhichhasgrantedtheprobateorlettersof
administrationexercisesjurisdiction,theCourtmaygrant,toany
personwhomitmaythinkfit,lettersofadministrationlimitedtothe
purposeofbecomingandbeingmadeapartytoasuittobebrought
againsttheexecutororadministrator,andcarryingthedecreewhich
maybemadethereinintoeffect.
253.Administrationlimitedtocollectionandpreservationof
deceased'sproperty.Inanycaseinwhichitappearsnecessaryfor
preservingthepropertyofadeceasedperson,theCourtwithinwhose
jurisdictionanyofthepropertyissituatemaygranttoanyperson,
whomsuchCourtmaythinkfit,lettersofadministrationlimitedto
thecollectionandpreservationofthepropertyofthedeceasedandto
thegivingofdischargesfordebtsduetohisestate,subjecttothe
directionsoftheCourt.
254.Appointment,asadministrator,ofpersonotherthanonewho,
inordinarycircumstances,wouldbeentitledtoadministration.(1)
Whenapersonhasdiedintestate,orleavingawillofwhichthereis
noexecutorwillingandcompetenttoactorwheretheexecutoris,at
thetimeofthedeathofsuchperson,residentoutoftheState,and
itappearstotheCourttobenecessaryorconvenienttoappointsome
persontoadministertheestateoranypartthereof,otherthanthe
personwho,inordinarycircumstances,wouldbeentitledtoagrantof
administration,theCourtmay,initsdiscretion,havingregardto
consanguinity,amountofinterest,thesafetyoftheestateand
probabilitythatitwillbeproperlyadministered,appointsuchperson
asitthinksfittobeadministrator.
(2)Ineverysuchcaselettersofadministrationmaybelimited
ornotastheCourtthinksfit.
Grantswithexception
255.Probateoradministration,withwillannexed,subjectto
exception.Wheneverthenatureofthecaserequiresthatanexception
bemade,probateofawill,orlettersofadministrationwiththewill
annexed,shallbegrantedsubjecttosuchexception.
256.Administrationwithexception.Wheneverthenatureofthe
caserequiresthatanexceptionbemade,lettersofadministration
shallbegrantedsubjecttosuchexception.
Grantsoftherest

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257.Probateoradministrationofrest.Wheneveragrantwith
exceptionofprobate,oroflettersofadministrationwithorwithout
thewillannexed,hasbeenmade,the
personentitledtoprobateoradministrationoftheremainderofthe
deceased'sestatemaytakeagrantofprobateorlettersof
administration,asthecasemaybe,oftherestofthedeceased's
estate.
Grantofeffectsunadministered
258.Grantofeffectsunadministered.Ifanexecutortowhom
probatehasbeengrantedhasdied,leavingapartofthetestator's
estateunadministered,anewrepresentativemaybeappointedforthe
purposeofadministeringsuchpartoftheestate.
259.Rulesastograntsofeffectsunadministered.Ingranting
lettersofadministrationofanestatenotfullyadministered,the
Courtshallbeguidedbythesamerulesasapplytooriginalgrants,
andshallgrantlettersofadministrationtothosepersonsonlyto
whomoriginalgrantsmighthavebeenmade.
260.Administrationwhenlimitedgrantexpiredandstillsome
partofestateunadministered.Whenalimitedgranthasexpired,by
effluxoftime,orthehappeningoftheeventorcontingencyonwhich
itwaslimited,andthereisstillsomepartofthedeceased'sestate
unadministered,lettersofadministrationshallbegrantedtothose
personstowhomoriginalgrantsmighthavebeenmade.
CHAPTERIII
AlterationandRevocationofGrants
261.WhaterrorsmayberectifiedbyCourt.Errorsinnamesand
descriptions,orinsettingforththetimeandplaceofthedeceased's
deathorthepurposeinalimitedgrant,mayberectifiedbytheCourt
andthegrantofprobateorlettersofadministrationmaybealtered
andamendedaccordingly.
262.Procedurewherecodicildiscoveredaftergrantof
administrationwithwillannexed.If,afterthegrantoflettersof
administrationwiththewillannexed,acodicilisdiscovered,itmay
beaddedtothegrantondueproofandidentification,andthegrant
maybealteredandamendedaccordingly.
263.Revocationorannulmentforjustcause.Thegrantofprobateor
lettersofadministrationmayberevokedorannulledforjustcause.
Explanation.Justcauseshallbedeemedtoexistwhere
(a)theproceedingstoobtainthegrantweredefectivein
substance;or

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(b)thegrantwasobtainedfraudulentlybymakingafalse
suggestion,orbyconcealingfromtheCourtsomething
materialtothecase;or
(c)thegrantwasobtainedbymeansofanuntrueallegation
ofafactessentialinpointoflawtojustifythe
grant,thoughsuchallegationwasmadeinignoranceor
inadvertently;or
(d)thegranthasbecomeuselessandinoperativethrough
circumstances;or
(e)thepersontowhomthegrantwasmadehaswilfullyand
withoutreasonablecauseomittedtoexhibitan
inventoryoraccountinaccordancewiththeprovisions
ofChapterVIIofthisPart,orhasexhibitedunder
thatChapteraninventoryoraccountwhichisuntruein
amaterialrespect.
Illustrations
(i)TheCourtbywhichthegrantwasmadehadnojurisdiction.
(ii)Thegrantwasmadewithoutcitingpartieswhooughttohave
beencited.
(iii)Thewillofwhichprobatewasobtainedwasforgedor
revoked.
(iv)AobtainedlettersofadministrationtotheestateofB,as
hiswidow,butithassincetranspiredthatshewasnevermarriedto
him.
(v)AhastakenadministrationtotheestateofBasifhehad
diedintestate,butawillhassincebeendiscovered.
(vi)Sinceprobatewasgranted,alaterwillhasbeendiscovered.
(vii)Sinceprobatewasgranted,acodicilhasbeendiscovered
whichrevokesoraddstotheappointmentofexecutorsunderthewill.
(viii)Thepersontowhomprobatewas,orlettersof
administrationwere,grantedhassubsequentlybecomeofunsoundmind.
CHAPTERIV
OfthePracticeingrantingandrevokingProbatesand
LettersofAdministration
264.JurisdictionofDistrictJudgeingrantingandrevoking
probates,etc.(1)TheDistrictJudgeshallhavejurisdictionin
grantingandrevokingprobatesandlettersofadministrationinall
caseswithinhisdistrict.
(2)Exceptincasestowhichsection57applies,noCourtinany
localareabeyondthelimitsofthetownsofCalcutta,Madrasand
Bombay,1*shall,wherethedeceasedisaHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,
SikhorJainaoranexemptedperson,receiveapplicationsforprobate
orlettersofadministrationuntiltheStateGovernmenthas,bya
notificationintheOfficialGazette,authoriseditsotodo.
265.PowertoappointdelegateofDistrictJudgetodealwith
noncontentiouscases.(1)TheHighCourtmayappointsuchjudicial
officerswithinanydistrictasitthinksfittoactfortheDistrict

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Judgeasdelegatestograntprobateandlettersofadministrationin
noncontentiouscases,withinsuchlocallimitsasitmayprescribe:
Providedthat,inthecaseofHighCourtsnotestablishedby
RoyalCharter,suchappointmentsshallnotbewithouttheprevious
sanctionoftheStateGovernment.
(2)Personssoappointedshallbecalled"DistrictDelegates".
266.DistrictJudge'spowersastograntofprobateand
administration.TheDistrictJudgeshallhavethelikepowersand
authorityinrelationtothegrantingofprobateandlettersof
administration,andallmattersconnectedtherewith,asarebylaw
vestedinhiminrelationtoanycivilsuitorproceedingpendingin
hisCourt.
267.DistrictJudgemayorderpersontoproducetestamentary
papers.(1)TheDistrictJudgemayorderanypersontoproduceand
bringintoCourtanypaperorwriting,beingorpurportingtobe
testamentary,whichmaybeshowntobeinthepossessionorunderthe
controlofsuchperson.
(2)Ifitisnotshownthatanysuchpaperorwritingisinthe
possessionorunderthecontrolofsuchperson,butthereisreasonto
believethathehastheknowledgeofanysuchpaperorwriting,the
Courtmaydirectsuchpersontoattendforthepurposeofbeing
examinedrespectingthesame.
(3)Suchpersonshallbeboundtoanswertrulysuchquestionsas
maybeputtohimbytheCourt,and,ifsoordered,toproduceand
bringinsuchpaperorwriting,andshallbesubjecttothelike
punishmentundertheIndianPenalCode,incaseofdefaultinnot
attendingorinnotansweringsuchquestionsornotbringinginsuch
paperorwriting,ashewouldhavebeensubjecttoincasehehadbeen
apartytoasuitandhadmadesuchdefault.
(4)Thecostsoftheproceedingshallbeinthediscretionofthe
Judge.

1Thewords"andtheprovinceofBurma"omittedbytheA.O.1937.

268.ProceedingsofDistrictJudge'sCourtinrelationtoprobate
andadministration.TheproceedingsoftheCourtoftheDistrictJudge
inrelationtothegrantingofprobateandlettersofadministration
shall,saveashereinafterotherwiseprovided,beregulated,sofaras
thecircumstancesofthecasepermit,bytheCodeofCivilProcedure,
1908.(5of1908.)
269.WhenandhowDistrictJudgetointerfereforprotectionof
property.(1)Untilprobateisgrantedofthewillofadeceased
person,oranadministratorofhisestateisconstituted,theDistrict
Judge,withinwhosejurisdictionanypartofthepropertyofthe
deceasedpersonissituate,isauthorisedandrequiredtointerfere

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fortheprotectionofsuchpropertyattheinstanceofanyperson
claimingtobeinterestedtherein,andinallothercaseswherethe
Judgeconsidersthatthepropertyincursanyriskoflossordamage;
andforthatpurpose,ifhethinksfit,toappointanofficertotake
andkeeppossessionoftheproperty.
(2)ThissectionshallnotapplywhenthedeceasedisaHindu,
Muhammadan,Buddhist,SikhorJainaoranexemptedperson,norshall
itapplytoanypartofthepropertyofanIndianChristianwhohas
diedintestate.
270.WhenprobateoradministrationmaybegrantedbyDistrict
Judge.Probateofthewillorlettersofadministrationtotheestate
ofadeceasedpersonmaybegrantedbyaDistrictJudgeundertheseal
ofhisCourt,ifitappearsbyapetition,verifiedashereinafter
provided,ofthepersonapplyingforthesamethatthetestatoror
intestate,asthecasemaybe,atthetimeofhisdeceasehadafixed
placeofabode,oranyproperty,moveableorimmoveable,withinthe
jurisdictionoftheJudge.
271.DisposalofapplicationmadetoJudgeofdistrictinwhich
deceasedhadnofixedabode.WhentheapplicationismadetotheJudge
ofadistrictinwhichthedeceasedhadnofixedabodeatthetimeof
hisdeath,itshallbeinthediscretionoftheJudgetorefusethe
application,ifinhisjudgmentitcouldbedisposedofmorejustlyor
convenientlyinanotherdistrict,or,wheretheapplicationisfor
lettersofadministration,tograntthemabsolutely,orlimitedtothe
propertywithinhisownjurisdiction.
272.Probateandlettersofadministrationmaybegrantedby
Delegate.Probateandlettersofadministrationmay,uponapplication
forthatpurposetoanyDistrictDelegate,begrantedbyhiminany
caseinwhichthereisnocontention,ifitappearsbypetition,
verified
ashereinafterprovided,thatthetestatororintestate,asthecase
maybe,atthetimeofhisdeathhadafixedplaceofabodewithinthe
jurisdictionofsuchDelegate.
273.Conclusivenessofprobateorlettersofadministration.
Probateorlettersofadministrationshallhaveeffectoverallthe
propertyandestate,moveableorimmoveable,ofthedeceased,
throughouttheStateinwhichthesameisoraregranted,andshallbe
conclusiveastotherepresentativetitleagainstalldebtorsofthe
deceased,andallpersonsholdingpropertywhichbelongstohim,and
shallaffordfullindemnitytoalldebtors,payingtheirdebtsandall
personsdeliveringupsuchpropertytothepersontowhomsuchprobate
orlettersofadministrationhavebeengranted:
Providedthatprobatesandlettersofadministrationgranted
(a)byaHighCourt,or
(b)byaDistrictJudge,wherethedeceasedatthetimeof
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jurisdictionofsuchJudge,andsuchJudgecertifies
thatthevalueofthepropertyandestateaffected
beyondthelimitsoftheStatedoesnotexceedten
thousandrupees,
shall,unlessotherwisedirectedbythegrant,havelikeeffect
throughout1*[theotherStates2*].
3*[Theprovisotothissectionshallapplyin4*[India]5*after
theseparationofBurmaandAdenfromIndiatoprobatesandlettersof
administrationgrantedinBurmaandAdenbeforethedateofthe
separation,orafterthatdateinproceedingswhichwerependingat
thatdate.]
6*[Theprovisoshallalsoapplyin4*[India]7*8*afterthe
separationofPakistanfromIndiatoprobatesandlettersof
administrationgrantedbeforethedateoftheseparation,orafter
thatdateinproceedingspendingatthatdate,inanyofthe
territorieswhichonthatdateconstitutedPakistan.]

1Subs.bytheA.O.1948for"thewholeofBritishIndia".
2Thewords"ofIndia"omittedbytheA.O.1950.
3Ins.bytheA.O.1937.
4Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".
51stApril,1937.
6AddedbytheA.O.1948.
7Thewords"ofIndia"omittedbyAct42of1953,s.4andSch.
III.
815thAugust,1947.

274.TransmissiontoHighCourtsofcertificateofgrantsunder
provisotosection273.(1)Whereprobateorlettersofadministration
hasorhavebeengrantedbyaHighCourtorDistrictJudgewiththe
effectreferredtointheprovisotosection273,theHighCourtor
DistrictJudgeshallsendacertificatethereoftothefollowing
Courts,namely:
(a)whenthegranthasbeenmadebyaHighCourt,toeachof
theotherHighCourts;
(b)whenthegranthasbeenmadebyaDistrictJudge,tothe
HighCourttowhichsuchDistrictJudgeissubordinate
andtoeachoftheotherHighCourts.
(2)Everycertificatereferredtoinsubsection(1)shallbe
madeasnearlyascircumstancesadmitintheformsetforthin
ScheduleIV,andsuchcertificateshallbefiledbytheHighCourt
receivingthesame.
(3)Whereanyportionoftheassetshasbeenstatedbythe
petitioner,ashereinafterprovidedinsections276and278,tobe
situatewithinthejurisdictionofaDistrictJudgeinanotherState,
theCourtrequiredtosendthecertificatereferredtoinsubsection
(1)shallsendacopythereoftosuchDistrictJudge,andsuchcopy
shallbefiledbytheDistrictJudgereceivingthesame.

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275.Conclusivenessofapplicationforprobateoradministration
ifproperlymadeandverified.Theapplicationforprobateorletters
ofadministration,ifmadeandverifiedinthemannerhereinafter
provided,shallbeconclusiveforthepurposeofauthorisingthegrant
ofprobateoradministration;andnosuchgrantshallbeimpeachedby
reasononlythatthetestatororintestatehadnofixedplaceofabode
ornopropertywithinthedistrictatthetimeofhisdeath,unlessby
aproceedingtorevokethegrantifobtainedbyafrauduponthe
Court.
276.Petitionforprobate.(1)Applicationforprobateorfor
lettersofadministration,withthewillannexed,shallbemadebya
petitiondistinctlywritteninEnglishorinthelanguageinordinary
useinproceedingsbeforetheCourtinwhichtheapplicationismade,
withthewillor,inthecasesmentionedinsections237,238and239,
acopy,draft,orstatementofthecontentsthereof,annexed,and
stating
(a)thetimeofthetestator'sdeath.
(b)thatthewritingannexedishislastwillandtestament,
(c)thatitwasdulyexecuted,
(d)theamountofassetswhicharelikelytocometothe
petitioner'shands,and
(e)whentheapplicationisforprobate,thatthepetitioner
istheexecutornamedinthewill.
(2)Inadditiontotheseparticulars,thepetitionshallfurther
state,
(a)whentheapplicationistotheDistrictJudge,thatthe
deceasedatthetimeofhisdeathhadafixedplaceof
abode,orhadsomeproperty,situatewithinthe
jurisdictionoftheJudge;and
(b)whentheapplicationistoaDistrictDelegate,thatthe
deceasedatthetimeofhisdeathhadafixedplaceof
abodewithinthejurisdictionofsuchDelegate.
(3)WheretheapplicationistotheDistrictJudgeandany
portionoftheassetslikelytocometothepetitioner'shandsis
situateinanotherState,thepetitionshallfurtherstatetheamount
ofsuchassetsineachStateandtheDistrictJudgeswithinwhose
jurisdictionsuchassetsaresituate.
277.Inwhatcasestranslationofwilltobeannexedtopetition.
VerificationoftranslationbypersonotherthanCourttranslator.In
caseswhereinthewill,copyordraft,iswritteninanylanguage
otherthanEnglishorthanthatinordinaryuseinproceedingsbefore
theCourt,thereshallbeatranslationthereofannexedtothe
petitionbyatranslatoroftheCourt,ifthelanguagebeonefor
whichatranslatorisappointed;or,ifthewill,copyordraft,isin
anyotherlanguage,thenbyanypersoncompetenttotranslatethe
same,inwhichcasesuchtranslationshallbeverifiedbythatperson
inthefollowingmanner,namely:

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"I(A.B.)dodeclarethatIreadandperfectlyunderstand
thelanguageandcharacteroftheoriginal,andthat
theaboveisatrueandaccuratetranslationthereof.".
278.Petitionforlettersofadministration.(1)Applicationfor
lettersofadministrationshallbemadebypetitiondistinctlywritten
asaforesaidandstating
(a)thetimeandplaceofthedestator'sdeath;
(b)thefamilyorotherrelativesofthedeceased,andtheir
respectiveresidences;
(c)therightinwhichthepetitionerclaims;
(d)theamountofassetswhicharelikelytocometothe
petitioner'shands;
(e)whentheapplicationistotheDistrictJudge,thatthe
deceasedatthetimeofhisdeathhadafixedplaceof
abode,orhadsomeproperty,situatewithinthe
jurisdictionoftheJudge;and
(f)whentheapplicationistoaDistrictDelegate,thatthe
deceasedatthetimeofhisdeathhadafixedplaceof
abodewithinthejurisdictionofsuchDelegate.
(2)WheretheapplicationistotheDistrictJudgeandany
portionoftheassetslikelytocometothepetitioner'shandsis
situateinanotherState,thepetitionshallfurtherstatetheamount
ofsuchassetsineachStateandtheDistrictJudgeswithinwhose
jurisdictionsuchassetsaresituate.
279.Additiontostatementinpetition,etc.,forprobateor
lettersofadministrationincertaincases.(1)Everypersonapplying
toanyoftheCourtsmentionedintheprovisotosection273for
probateofawillorlettersofadministrationofanestateintended
tohaveeffectthroughout1*[India],shallstateinhispetition,in
additiontothemattersrespectivelyrequiredbysection276and
section278,thattothebestofhisbeliefnoapplicationhasbeen
madetoanyotherCourtforaprobateofthesamewillorforletters
ofadministrationofthesameestate,intendedtohavesucheffectas
lastaforesaid,
or,whereanysuchapplicationhasbeenmade,theCourttowhich
itwasmade,thepersonorpersonsbywhomitwasmadeandthe
proceedings(ifany)hadthereon.
(2)TheCourttowhichanysuchapplicationismadeunderthe
provisotosection273may,ifitthinksfit,rejectthesame.
280.Petitionforprobate,etc.,tobesignedandverified.The
petitionforprobateorlettersofadministrationshallinallcases
besubscribedbythepetitionerandhispleader,ifany,andshallbe
verifiedbythepetitionerinthefollowingmanner,namely:
"I(A.B.),thepetitionerintheabovepetition,declare
thatwhatisstatedthereinistruetothebestofmy
informationandbelief.".

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281.Verificationofpetitionforprobate,byonewitnessto
will.Wheretheapplicationisforprobate,thepetitionshallalsobe
verifiedbyatleastoneofthewitnessestothewill(when
procurable)inthemannerortotheeffectfollowing,namely:
"I(C.D.),oneofthewitnessestothelastwilland
testamentofthetestatormentionedintheabove
petition,declarethat

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

282.Punishmentforfalseavermentinpetitionordeclaration.If
anypetitionordeclarationwhichisherebyrequiredtobeverified
containsanyavermentwhichthepersonmakingtheverificationknows
orbelievestobefalse,suchpersonshallbedeemedtohavecommitted
anoffenceundersection193oftheIndianPenalCode.(45of1860.)
283.PowersofDistrictJudge.(1)InallcasestheDistrict
JudgeorDistrictDelegatemay,ifhethinksproper,
(a)examinethepetitionerinperson,uponoath;
(b)requirefurtherevidenceofthedueexecutionofthe
willortherightofthepetitionertothelettersof
administration,asthecasemaybe;
(c)issuecitationscallinguponallpersonsclaimingto
haveanyinterestintheestateofthedeceasedtocome
andseetheproceedingsbeforethegrantofprobateor
lettersofadministration.
(2)Thecitationshallbefixedupinsomeconspicuouspartof
thecourthouse,andalsointheofficeoftheCollectorofthe
districtandotherwisepublishedormadeknowninsuchmannerasthe
JudgeorDistrictDelegateissuingthesamemaydirect.
(3)Whereanyportionoftheassetshasbeenstatedbythe
petitionertobesituatewithinthejurisdictionofaDistrictJudge
inanotherState,theDistrictJudgeissuingthesameshallcausea
copyofthecitationtobesenttosuchotherDistrictJudge,who
shallpublishthesameinthesamemannerasifitwereacitation
issuedbyhimself,andshallcertifysuchpublicationtotheDistrict
Judgewhoissuedthecitation.
284.Caveatsagainstgrantofprobateoradministration.(1)
Caveatsagainstthegrantofprobateoradministrationmaybelodged
withtheDistrictJudgeoraDistrictDelegate.
(2)ImmediatelyonanycaveatbeinglodgedwithanyDistrict
Delegate,heshallsendcopythereoftotheDistrictJudge.
(3)ImmediatelyonacaveatbeingenteredwiththeDistrict
Judge,acopythereofshallbegiventotheDistrictDelegate,ifany,
withinwhosejurisdictionitisallegedthedeceasedhadafixedplace
ofabodeatthetimeofhisdeath,andtoanyotherJudgeorDistrict
DelegatetowhomitmayappeartotheDistrictJudgeexpedientto

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transmitthesame.
Formofcaveat.
(4)Thecaveatshallbemadeasnearlyascircumstancesadmitin
theformsetforthinScheduleV.
285.Afterentryofcaveat,noproceedingtakenonpetitionuntil
afternoticetocaveator.Noproceedingshallbetakenonapetition
forprobateorlettersofadministrationafteracaveatagainstthe
grantthereofhasbeenenteredwiththeJudgeorDistrictDelegateto
whomtheapplicationhasbeenmadeornoticehasbeengivenofits
entrywithsomeotherDelegate,untilaftersuchnoticetotheperson
bywhomthesamehasbeenenteredastheCourtmaythinkreasonable.
286.DistrictDelegatewhennottograntprobateor
administration.ADistrictDelegateshallnotgrantprobateorletters
ofadministrationinanycaseinwhichthereiscontentionastothe
grant,orinwhichitotherwiseappearstohimthatprobateorletters
ofadministrationoughtnottobegrantedinhisCourt.
Explanation."Contention"meanstheappearanceofanyonein
person,orbyhisrecognisedagent,orbyapleaderdulyappointedto
actonhisbehalf,toopposetheproceeding.
287.PowertotransmitstatementtoDistrictJudgeindoubtful
caseswherenocontention.Ineverycaseinwhichthereisno
contention,butitappearstotheDistrictDelegatedoubtfulwhether
theprobateorlettersofadministrationshouldorshouldnotbe
granted,orwhenanyquestionarisesinrelationtothegrant,or
applicationforthegrant,ofanyprobateorlettersof
administration,theDistrictDelegatemay,ifhethinksproper,
transmitastatementofthematterinquestiontotheDistrictJudge,
whomaydirecttheDistrictDelegatetoproceedinthematterofthe
application,accordingtosuchinstructionsastotheJudgemayseem
necessary,ormayforbidanyfurtherproceedingbytheDistrict
Delegateinrelationtothematterofsuchapplication,leavingthe
partyapplyingforthegrantinquestiontomakeapplicationtothe
Judge.
288.Procedurewherethereiscontention,orDistrictDelegate
thinksprobateorlettersofadministrationshouldberefusedinhis
Court.Ineverycaseinwhichthereiscontention,ortheDistrict
Delegateisofopinionthattheprobateorlettersofadministration
shouldberefusedinhisCourt,thepetition,withanydocumentswhich
mayhavebeenfiledtherewith,shallbereturnedtothepersonbywhom
theapplicationwasmade,inorderthatthesamemaybepresentedto
theDistrictJudge,unlesstheDistrictDelegatethinksit
necessary,forthepurposesofjustice,toimpoundthesame,whichhe
isherebyauthorisedtodo;and,inthatcase,thesameshallbesent
byhimtotheDistrictJudge.
289.GrantofprobatetobeundersealofCourt.Whenitappears

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totheDistrictJudgeorDistrictDelegatethatprobateofawill
shouldbegranted,heshallgrantthesameunderthesealofhisCourt
intheformsetforthinScheduleVI.
290.Grantoflettersofadministrationtobeundersealof
Court.WhenitappearstotheDistrictJudgeorDistrictDelegatethat
lettersofadministrationtotheestateofapersondeceased,withor
withoutacopyofthewillannexed,shouldbegranted,heshallgrant
thesameunderthesealofhisCourtintheformsetforthinSchedule
VII.
291.Administrationbond.(1)Everypersontowhomanygrantof
lettersofadministration,otherthanagrantundersection241,is
committed,shallgiveabondtotheDistrictJudgewithoneormore
suretyorsureties,engagingfortheduecollection,gettingin,and
administeringtheestateofthedeceased,whichbondshallbeinsuch
formastheJudgemay,bygeneralorspecialorder,direct.
(2)WhenthedeceasedwasaHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,Sikhor
Jainaoranexemptedperson
(a)theexceptionmadebysubsection(1)inrespectofa
grantundersection241shallnotoperate.
(b)theDistrictJudgemaydemandalikebondfromany
persontowhomprobateisgranted.
292.Assignmentofadministrationbond.TheCourtmay,on
applicationmadebypetitionandonbeingsatisfiedthatthe
engagementofanysuchbondhasnotbeenkept,anduponsuchtermsas
tosecurity,orprovidingthatthemoneyreceivedbepaidintoCourt,
orotherwise,astheCourtmaythinkfit,assignthesametosome
person,hisexecutorsoradministrators,whoshallthereuponbe
entitledtosueonthesaidbondinhisortheirownnameornamesas
ifthesamehadbeenoriginallygiventohimortheminsteadoftothe
JudgeoftheCourt,andshallbeentitledtorecoverthereon,as
trusteesforallpersoninterested,thefullamountrecoverablein
respectofanybreachthereof.
293.Timeforgrantofprobateandadministration.Noprobateof
awillshallbegranteduntilaftertheexpirationofsevenclear
days,andnolettersofadministrationshall
begranteduntilaftertheexpirationoffourteencleardays,fromthe
dayofthetestatororintestate'sdeath.
294.Filingoforiginalwillsofwhichprobateoradministration
withwillannexedgranted.(1)EveryDistrictJudge,orDistrict
Delegate,shallfileandpreservealloriginalwills,ofwhichprobate
orlettersofadministrationwiththewillannexedmaybegrantedby
him,amongtherecordsofhisCourt,untilsomepublicregistryfor
willsisestablished.
(2)TheStateGovernmentshallmakeregulationsforthe
preservationandinspectionofthewillssofiled.

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295.Procedureincontentiouscases.Inanycasebeforethe
DistrictJudgeinwhichthereiscontention,theproceedingsshall
take,asnearlyasmaybe,theformofaregularsuit,accordingto
theprovisionsoftheCodeofCivilProcedure,1908(5of1908.)in
whichthepetitionerforprobateorlettersofadministration,asthe
casemaybe,shallbetheplaintiff,andthepersonwhohasappeared
toopposethegrantshallbethedefendant.
296.Surrenderofrevokedprobateorlettersofadministration.
(1)Whenagrantofprobateorlettersofadministrationisrevokedor
annulledunderthisAct,thepersontowhomthegrantwasmadeshall
forthwithdeliveruptheprobateorletterstotheCourtwhichmade
thegrant.
(2)Ifsuchpersonwilfullyandwithoutreasonablecauseomitsso
todeliveruptheprobateorletters,heshallbepunishablewithfine
whichmayextendtoonethousandrupees,orwithimprisonmentfora
termwhichmayextendtothreemonths,orwithboth.
297.Paymenttoexecutororadministratorbeforeprobateor
administrationrevoked.Whenagrantofprobateorlettersof
administrationisrevoked,allpaymentsbonafidemadetoanyexecutor
oradministratorundersuchgrantbeforetherevocationthereofshall,
notwithstandingsuchrevocation,bealegaldischargetotheperson
makingthesame;andtheexecutororadministratorwhohasactedunder
anysuchrevokedgrantmayretainandreimbursehimselfinrespectof
anypaymentsmadebyhimwhichthepersontowhomprobateorletters
ofadministrationmayafterwardsbegrantedmighthavelawfullymade.
298.Powertorefuselettersofadministration.Notwithstanding
anythinghereinbeforecontained,itshall,wherethedeceasedwasa
Muhammadan,Buddhistorexemptedperson,oraHindu,SikhorJainato
whomsection57doesnotapply,beinthediscretionoftheCourtto
makeanorderrefusing,forreasons
toberecordedbyitinwriting,tograntanyapplicationforletters
ofadministrationmadeunderthisAct.
299.AppealsfromordersofDistrictJudge.Everyordermadebya
DistrictJudgebyvirtueofthepowersherebyconferreduponhimshall
besubjecttoappealtotheHighCourtinaccordancewiththe
provisionsoftheCodeofCivilProcedure,1908(5of1908.),
applicabletoappeals.
300.ConcurrentjurisdictionofHighCourt.(1)TheHighCourt
shallhaveconcurrentjurisdictionwiththeDistrictJudgeinthe
exerciseofallthepowersherebyconferredupontheDistrictJudge.
(2)Exceptincasestowhichsection57applies,noHighCourt,
inexerciseoftheconcurrentjurisdictionherebyconferredoverany
localareabeyondthelimitsofthetownsofCalcutta,Madrasand
Bombay1*shall,wherethedeceasedisaHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,

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SikhorJainaoranexemptedperson,receiveapplicationsforprobate
orlettersofadministrationuntiltheStateGovernmenthas,bya
notificationintheOfficialGazette,authoriseditsotodo.
301.Removalofexecutororadministratorandprovisionfor
successor.TheHighCourtmay,onapplicationmadetoit,suspend,
removeordischargeanyprivateexecutororadministratorandprovide
forthesuccessionofanotherpersontotheofficeofanysuch
executororadministratorwhomayceasetoholdoffice,andthe
vestinginsuchsuccessorofanypropertybelongingtotheestate.
302.Directionstoexecutororadministrator.Whereprobateor
lettersofadministrationinrespectofanyestatehasorhavebeen
grantedunderthisAct,theHighCourtmay,onapplicationmadetoit,
givetotheexecutororadministratoranygeneralorspecial
directionsinregardtotheestateorinregardtotheadministration
thereof.
CHAPTERV
OfExecutorsoftheirownWrong
303.Executorofhisownwrong.Apersonwhointermeddleswith
theestateofthedeceased,ordoesanyotheractwhichbelongstothe
officeofexecutor,whilethereisnorightfulexecutoror
administratorinexistence,therebymakeshimselfanexecutorofhis
ownwrong.

1Thewords"andtheprovinceofBurma"omittedbytheA.O.1937.

Exceptions.(1)Intermeddlingwiththegoodsofthedeceasedfor
thepurposeofpreservingthemorprovidingforhisfuneralorforthe
immediatenecessitiesofhisfamilyorproperty,doesnotmakean
executorofhisownwrong.
(2)Dealingintheordinarycourseofbusinesswithgoodsofthe
deceasedreceivedfromanotherdoesnotmakeanexecutorofhisown
wrong.
Illustrations
(i)Ausesorgivesawayorsellssomeofthegoodsofthe
deceased,ortakesthemtosatisfyhisowndebtorlegacyorreceives
paymentofthedebtsofthedeceased.Heisanexecutorofhisown
wrong.
(ii)A,havingbeenappointedagentbythedeceasedinhis
lifetimetocollecthisdebtsandsellhisgoods,continuestodoso
afterhehasbecomeawareofhisdeath.Heisanexecutorofhisown
wronginrespectofactsdoneafterhehasbecomeawareofthedeath
ofthedeceased.
(iii)Asuesasexecutorofthedeceased,notbeingsuch.Heis
anexecutorofhisownwrong.

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304.Liabilityofexecutorofhisownwrong.Whenapersonhasso
actedastobecomeanexecutorofhisownwrong,heisanswerableto
therightfulexecutororadministrator,ortoanycreditororlegatee
ofthedeceased,totheextentoftheassetswhichmayhavecometo
hishandsafterdeductingpaymentsmadetotherightfulexecutoror
administrator,andpaymentsmadeinduecourseofadministration.
CHAPTERVI
OfthePowersofanExecutororAdministrator
305.Inrespectofcausesofactionsurvivingdeceasedanddebts
dueatdeath.Anexecutororadministratorhasthesamepowertosue
inrespectofallcausesofactionthatsurvivethedeceased,andmay
exercisethesamepowerfortherecoveryofdebtsasthedeceasedhas
whenliving.
306.Demandsandrightsofactionoforagainstdeceasedsurvive
toandagainstexecutororadministrator.Alldemandswhatsoeverand
allrightstoprosecuteordefendanyactionorspecialproceeding
existinginfavouroforagainstapersonatthetimeofhisdecease,
survivetoandagainsthisexecutorsoradministrators;exceptcauses
ofactionfordefamation,assault,asdefinedintheIndianPenal
Code,(45of1860.)orotherpersonalinjuriesnotcausingthedeath
oftheparty;andexceptalsocaseswhere,afterthedeathofthe
party,thereliefsoughtcouldnotbeenjoyedorgrantingitwouldbe
nugatory.
Illustrations
(i)Acollisiontakesplaceonarailwayinconsequenceofsome
neglectordefaultofanofficial,andapassengerisseverelyhurt,
butnotsoastocausedeath.Heafterwardsdieswithouthaving
broughtanyaction.Thecauseofactiondoesnotsurvive.
(ii)Asuesfordivorce.Adies.Thecauseofactiondoesnot
survivetohisrepresentative.
307.Powerofexecutororadministratortodisposeofproperty.
(1)Subjecttotheprovisionsofsubsection(2),anexecutoror
administratorhaspowertodisposeofthepropertyofthedeceased,
vestedinhimundersection211,eitherwhollyorinpart,insuch
mannerashemaythinkfit.
Illustrations
(i)Thedeceasedhasmadeaspecificbequestofpartofhis
property.Theexecutor,nothavingassentedtothebequest,sellsthe
subjectofit.Thebaleisvalid.
(ii)Theexecutorintheexerciseofhisdiscretionmortgagesa
partoftheimmoveableestateofthedeceased.Themortgageisvalid.
(2)IfthedeceasedwasHindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,Sikhor
Jainaoranexemptedperson,thegeneralpowerconferredbysub
section(1)shallbesubjecttothefollowingrestrictionsand
conditions,namely:

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(i)Thepowerofanexecutortodisposeofimmoveable
propertysovestedinhimissubjecttoanyrestriction
whichmaybeimposedinthisbehalfbythewill
appointinghim,unlessprobatehasbeengrantedtohim
andtheCourtwhichgrantedtheprobatepermitshimby
anorderinwriting,notwithstandingtherestriction,
todisposeofanyimmoveablepropertyspecifiedinthe
orderinamannerpermittedbytheorder.
(ii)Anadministratormaynot,withouttheprevious
permissionoftheCourtbywhichthelettersof
administrationweregranted,
(a)mortgage,chargeortransferbysale,
gift,exchangeorotherwiseanyimmoveable
propertyforthetimebeingvestedinhimunder
section211,or
(b)leaseanysuchpropertyforaterm
exceedingfiveyears.
(iii)Adisposalofpropertybyanexecutororadministrator
incontraventionofclause(i)orclause(ii),asthe
casemay
be,isvoidableattheinstanceofanyotherperson
interestedintheproperty.
(3)Beforeanyprobateorlettersofadministrationisorare
grantedinsuchacase,thereshallbeendorsedthereonorannexed
theretoacopyofsubsection(1)andclauses(i)and(iii)ofsub
section(2)orofsubsection(1)andclauses(ii)and(iii)ofsub
section(2),asthecasemaybe.
(4)Aprobateorlettersofadministrationshallnotberendered
invalidbyreasonoftheendorsementorannexurerequiredbysub
section(3)nothavingbeenmadethereonorattachedthereto,not
shalltheabsenceofsuchanendorsementorannexureauthorisean
executororadministratortoactotherwisethaninaccordancewiththe
provisionsofthissection.
308.Generalpowersofadministration.Anexecutoror
administratormay,inadditionto,andnotinderogationof,anyother
powersofexpenditurelawfullyexercisablebyhimincurexpenditure
(a)onsuchactsasmaybenecessaryforthepropercareor
managementofanypropertybelongingtoanyestate
administeredbyhim,and
(b)withthesanctionoftheHighCourt,onsuchreligious,
charitableandotherobjects,andonsuchimprovements,
asmaybereasonableandproperinthecaseofsuch
property.
309.Commissionoragencycharges.Anexecutororadministrator
shallnotbeentitledtoreceiveorretainanycommissionoragency
chargesatahigherratethanthatforthetimebeingfixedinrespect
oftheAdministratorGeneralbyorundertheAdministratorGeneral's
Act,1913(3of1913).

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310.Purchasebyexecutororadministratorofdeceased's
property.Ifanyexecutororadministratorpurchases,eitherdirectly
orindirectly,anypartofthepropertyofthedeceased,thesaleis
voidableattheinstanceofanyotherpersoninterestedinthe
propertysold.
311.Powersofseveralexecutorsoradministratorsexercisableby
one.Whenthereareseveralexecutorsoradministrators,thepowersof
allmay,intheabsenceofanydirectiontothecontrary,beexercised
byanyoneofthemwhohasprovedthewillortakenout
administration.
Illustrations
(i)Oneofseveralexecutorshaspowertoreleaseadebtdueto
thedeceased.
(ii)Onehaspowertosurrenderalease.
(iii)Onehaspowertosellthepropertyofthedeceasedwhether
moveableorimmoveable.
(iv)Onehaspowertoassenttoalegacy.
(v)Onehaspowertoendorseapromissorynotepayabletothe
deceased.
(vi)ThewillappointsA,B,CandDtobeexecutors,anddirects
thattwoofthemshallbeaquorum.Noactcanbedonebyasingle
executor.
312.Survivalofpowersondeathofoneofseveralexecutorsor
administrators.Uponthedeathofoneormoreofseveralexecutorsor
administrators,intheabsenceofanydirectiontothecontraryinthe
willorgrantoflettersofadministration,allthepowersofthe
officebecomevestedinthesurvivorsorsurvivor.
313.Powersofadministratorofeffectsunadministered.The
administratorofeffectsunadministeredhas,withrespecttosuch
effects,thesamepowersastheoriginalexecutororadministrator.
314.Powersofadministratorduringminority.Anadministrator
duringminorityhasallthepowersofanordinaryadministrator.
315.Powersofmarriedexecutrixoradministratrix.Whenagrant
ofprobateorlettersofadministrationhasbeenmadetoamarried
woman,shehasallthepowersofanordinaryexecutoror
administrator.
CHAPTERVII
OftheDutiesofanExecutororAdministrator
316.Astodeceased'sfuneral.Itisthedutyofanexecutorto
providefundsfortheperformanceofthenecessaryfuneralceremonies
ofthedeceasedinamannersuitabletohiscondition,ifhehasleft
propertysufficientforthepurpose.

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317.Inventoryandaccount.(1)Anexecutororadministrator
shall,withinsixmonthsfromthegrantofprobateorlettersof
administration,orwithinsuchfurthertimeastheCourtwhichgranted
theprobateorlettersmayappoint,exhibitinthatCourtaninventory
containingafullandtrueestimateofallthepropertyinpossession,
andallthecredits,andalsoallthedebtsowingbyanypersonto
whichtheexecutororadministratorisentitledinthatcharacter;andshallinlikemanner,
withinoneyearfromthegrantorwithinsuchfurthertimeasthesaidCourt
mayappoint,exhibitanaccountoftheestate,showingtheassets
whichhavecometohishandsandthemannerinwhichtheyhavebeen
appliedordisposedof.
(2)TheHighCourtmayprescribetheforminwhichaninventory
oraccountunderthissectionistobeexhibited.
(3)Ifanexecutororadministrator,onbeingrequiredbythe
Courttoexhibitaninventoryoraccountunderthissection,
intentionallyomitstocomplywiththerequisition,heshallbedeemed
tohavecommittedanoffenceundersection176oftheIndianPenal
Code(45of1860.).
(4)Theexhibitionofanintentionallyfalseinventoryoraccount
underthissectionshallbedeemedtobeanoffenceundersection193
ofthatCode.
318.InventorytoincludepropertyinanypartofIndiain
certaincases.Inallcaseswhereagranthasbeenmadeofprobateor
lettersofadministrationintendedtohaveeffectthroughout1*[India]
2*,theexecutororadministratorshallincludeintheinventoryof
theeffectsofthedeceasedallhismoveableandimmoveableproperty
situatein1*[India],andthevalueofsuchpropertysituateineach
stateshallbeseparatelystatedinsuchinventory,andtheprobateor
lettersofadministrationshallbechargeablewithafeecorresponding
totheentireamountorvalueofthepropertyaffectedthereby
wheresoeversituatewithin1*[India].
319.Astopropertyof,anddebtsowingto,deceased.The
executororadministratorshallcollect,withreasonablediligence,
thepropertyofthedeceasedandthedebtsthatwereduetohimatthe
timeofhisdeath.
320.Expensestobepaidbeforealldebts.Funeralexpensestoa
reasonableamount,accordingtothedegreeandqualityofthe
deceased,anddeathbedcharges,includingfeesformedical
attendance,andboardandlodgingforonemonthprevioustohisdeath,
shallbepaidbeforealldebts.
321.Expensestobepaidnextaftersuchexpenses.Theexpenses
ofobtainingprobateorlettersofadministration,includingthecosts
incurredfororinrespectofanyjudicialproceedingsthatmaybe
necessaryforadministeringtheestate,shallbepaidnextafterthe
funeralexpensesanddeathbedcharges.

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1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".
2Thewords"ofIndia"omittedbyAct48of1952,s.3andSch.II.

322.Wagesforcertainservicestobenextpaid,andthenother
debts.Wagesdueforservicesrenderedtothedeceasedwithinthree
monthsnextprecedinghisdeathbyanylabourer,artizanordomestic
servantshallnextbepaid,andthentheotherdebtsofthedeceased
accordingtotheirrespectivepriorities(ifany).
323.Saveasaforesaid,alldebtstobepaidequallyand
rateably.Saveasaforesaid,nocreditorshallhavearightof
priorityoveranother;buttheexecutororadministratorshallpayall
suchdebtsasheknowsof,includinghisown,equallyandrateablyas
farastheassetsofthedeceasedwillextend.
324.Applicationofmoveablepropertytopaymentofdebtswhere
domicilenotinIndia.(1)Ifthedomicileofthedeceasedwasnotin
1*[India],theapplicationofhismoveablepropertytothepaymentof
hisdebtsistoberegulatedbythelawof1*[India].
(2)Nocreditorwhohasreceivedpaymentofapartofhisdebtby
virtueofsubsection(1)shallbeentitledtoshareintheproceeds
oftheimmoveableestateofthedeceasedunlesshebringssuchpayment
intoaccountforthebenefitoftheothercreditors.
(3)ThissectionshallnotapplywherethedeceasedwasaHindu,
Muhammadan,Buddhist,SikhorJainaoranexemptedperson.
Illustration
Adies,havinghisdomicileinacountrywhereinstrumentsunder
sealhavepriorityoverinstrumentsnotundersealleavingmoveable
propertytothevalueof5,000rupees,andimmoveablepropertytothe
valueof10,000rupees,debtsoninstrumentsundersealtotheamount
of10,000rupees,anddebtsoninstrumentsnotundersealtothesame
amount.Thecreditorsholdinginstrumentsundersealreceivehalfof
theirdebtsoutoftheproceedsofthemoveableestate.Theproceeds
oftheimmoveableestatearetobeappliedinpaymentofthedebtson
instrumentsnotundersealuntilonehalfofsuchdebtshasbeen
discharged.Thiswillleave5,000rupeeswhicharetobedistributed
rateablyamongstallthecreditorswithoutdistinction,inproportion
totheamountwhichmayremainduetothem.
325.Debtstobepaidbeforelegacies.Debtsofeverydescription
mustbepaidbeforeanylegacy.
326.Executororadministratornotboundtopaylegacieswithout
indemnity.Iftheestateofthedeceasedissubjecttoanycontingent
liabilities,anexecutororadministratorisnotboundtopayany
legacywithoutasufficientindemnitytomeettheliabilitieswhenever
theymaybecomedue.

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1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

327.Abatementofgenerallegacies.Iftheassets,afterpayment
ofdebts,necessaryexpensesandspecificlegacies,arenotsufficient
topayallthegenerallegaciesinfull,thelattershallabateorbe
diminishedinequalproportions,and,intheabsenceofanydirection
tothecontraryinthewill,theexecutorhasnorighttopayone
legateeinpreferencetoanother,ortoretainanymoneyonaccountof
alegacytohimselfortoanypersonforwhomheisatrustee.
328.Nonabatementofspecificlegacywhenassetssufficientto
paydebts.Wherethereisaspecificlegacy,andtheassetsare
sufficientforthepaymentofdebtsandnecessaryexpenses,thething
specifiedmustbedeliveredtothelegateewithoutanyabatement.
329.Rightunderdemonstrativelegacywhenassetssufficientto
paydebtsandnecessaryexpenses.Wherethereisademonstrative
legacy,andtheassetsaresufficientforthepaymentofdebtsand
necessaryexpenses,thelegateehasapreferentialclaimforpayment
ofhislegacyoutofthefundfromwhichthelegacyisdirectedtobe
paiduntilsuchfundisexhaustedandif,afterthefundisexhausted,
partofthelegacystillremainsunpaid,heisentitledtorankfor
theremainderagainstthegeneralassetsasforalegacyoftheamount
ofsuchunpaidremainder.
330.Rateableabatementofspecificlegacies.Iftheassetsare
notsufficienttoanswerthedebtsandthespecificlegacies,an
abatementshallbemadefromthelatterrateablyinproportionto
theirrespectiveamounts.
Illustration
AhasbequeathedtoBadiamondringvaluedat500rupees,andto
Cahorse,valuedat1,000rupees.Itisfoundnecessarytosellall
theeffectsofthetestator;andhisassets,afterpaymentofdebts,
areonly1,000rupees.Ofthissumrupees33354aretobepaidtoB,
andrupees666108toC.
331.Legaciestreatedasgeneralforpurposeofabatement.For
thepurposeofabatement,alegacyforlife,asumappropriatedbythe
willtoproduceanannuity,andthevalueofanannuitywhennosum
hasbeenappropriatedtoproduceit,shallbetreatedasgeneral
legacies.
CHAPTERVIII
OfAssenttoaLegacybyExecutororAdministrator
332.Assentnecessarytocompletelegatee'stitle.Theassentof
theexecutororadministratorisnecessarytocompletealegatee's

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titletohislegacy.
Illustrations
(i)AbyhiswillbequeathstoBhisGovernmentpaperwhichisin
depositwiththeImperialBankofIndia.TheBankhasnoauthorityto
deliverthesecurities,norBarighttotakepossessionofthem,
withouttheassentoftheexecutor.
(ii)AbyhiswillhasbequeathedtoChishouseinCalcuttain
thetenancyofB.Cisnotentitledtoreceivetherentswithoutthe
assentoftheexecutororadministrator.
333.Effectofexecutor'sassenttospecificlegacy.(1)The
assentoftheexecutororadministratortoaspecificbequestshallbe
sufficienttodivesthisinterestasexecutororadministrator
therein,andtotransferthesubjectofthebequestofthelegatee,
unlessthenatureorthecircumstancesofthepropertyrequirethatit
shallbetransferredinaparticularway.
(2)Thisassentmaybeverbal,anditmaybeeitherexpressor
impliedfromtheconductoftheexecutororadministrator.
Illustrations
(i)Ahorseisbequeathed.Theexecutorrequeststhelegateeto
disposeofit,orathirdpartyproposestopurchasethehorsefrom
theexecutor,andhedirectshimtoapplytothelegatee.Assentto
thelegacyisimplied.
(ii)Theinterestofafundisdirectedbythewilltobeapplied
forthemaintenanceofthelegateeduringhisminority.Theexecutor
commencessotoapplyit.Thisisanassenttothewholeofthe
bequest.
(iii)AbequestismadeofafundtoAandafterhimtoB.The
executorpaystheinterestofthefundtoA.Thisisanimpliedassent
tothebequesttoB.
(iv)Executorsdieafterpayingallthedebtsofthetestator,
butbeforesatisfactionofspecificlegacies.Assenttothelegacies
maybepresumed.
(v)Apersontowhomaspecificarticlehasbeenbequeathedtakes
possessionofitandretainsitwithoutanyobjectiononthepartof
theexecutor.Hisassentmaybepresumed.
334.Conditionalassent.Theassentofanexecutoror
administratortoalegacymaybeconditional,andiftheconditionis
onewhichhehasarighttoenforce,anditisnotperformed,thereis
noassent.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathstoBhislandsofSultanpur,whichatthedateof
thewill,andatthedeathofA,weresubjecttoamortgagefor10,000
rupees.Theexecutorassentstothebequest,onconditionthatBshall
withinalimitedtimepaytheamountdueonthemortgageatthe
testator'sdeath.Theamountisnotpaid.Thereisnoassent.
(ii)Theexecutorassentstoabequestonconditionthatthe
legateeshallpayhimasumofmoney.Thepaymentisnotmade.The
assentisneverthelessvalid.

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335.Assentofexecutortohisownlegacy.(1)Whentheexecutor
oradministratorisalegatee,hisassenttohisownlegacyis
necessarytocompletehistitletoit,inthesamewayasitis
requiredwhenthebequestistoanotherperson,andhisassentmay,in
likemanner,beexpressedorimplied.
(2)Assentshallbeimpliedifinhismannerofadministeringthe
propertyhedoesanyactwhichisreferabletohischaracterof
legateeandisnotreferabletohischaracterofexecutoror
administrator.
Illustration
Anexecutortakestherentofahouseortheinterestof
Governmentsecuritiesbequeathedtohim,andappliesittohisown
use.Thisisassent.
336.Effectofexecutor'sassent.Theassentoftheexecutoror
administratortoalegacygiveseffecttoitfromthedeathofthe
testator.
Illustrations
(i)Alegateesellshislegacybeforeitisassentedtobythe
executor.Theexecutor'ssubsequentassentoperatesforthebenefitof
thepurchaserandcompleteshistitletothelegacy.
(ii)Abequeaths1,000rupeestoBwithinterestfromhisdeath.
Theexecutordoesnotassenttohislegacyuntiltheexpirationofa
yearfromA'sdeath.BisentitledtointerestfromthedeathofA.
337.Executorwhentodeliverlegacies.Anexecutoror
administratorisnotboundtopayordeliveranylegacyuntilthe
expirationofoneyearfromthetestator'sdeath.
Illustration
Abyhiswilldirectshislegaciestobepaidwithinsixmonths
afterhisdeath.Theexecutorisnotboundtopaythembeforethe
expirationofayear.
CHAPTERIX
OfthePaymentandApportionmentofAnnuities
338.Commencementofannuitywhennotimefixedbywill.Wherean
annuityisgivenbyawillandnotimeisfixedforitscommencement,
itshallcommencefromthetestator'sdeath,andthefirstpayment
shallbemadeattheexpirationofayearnextafterthatevent.
339.Whenannuity,tobepaidquarterlyormonthly,firstfalls
due.Wherethereisadirectionthattheannuityshallbepaid
quarterlyormonthly,thefirstpaymentshallbedueattheendofthe
firstquarterorfirstmonth,asthecasemaybe,afterthetestator's
death;andshall,iftheexecutororadministratorthinksfit,bepaid
whendue,buttheexecutororadministratorshallnotbeboundtopay
ittilltheendoftheyear.

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340.Datesofsuccessivepaymentswhenfirstpaymentdirectedto
bemadewithinagiventimeorondaycertain:deathofannuitant
beforedateofpayment.(1)Wherethereisadirectionthatthefirst
paymentofanannuityshallbemadewithinonemonthoranyother
divisionoftimefromthedeathofthetestator,oronadaycertain,
thesuccessivepaymentsaretobemadeontheanniversaryofthe
earliestdayonwhichthewillauthorisesthefirstpaymenttobe
made.
(2)Iftheannuitantdiesintheintervalbetweenthetimesof
payment,anapportionedshareoftheannuityshallbepaidtohis
representative.
CHAPTERX
OftheInvestmentofFundstoprovideforLegacies
341.Investmentofsumbequeathed,wherelegacy,notspecific,
givenforlife.Wherealegacy,notbeingaspecificlegacy,isgiven
forlife,thesumbequeathedshallattheendoftheyearbeinvested
insuchsecuritiesastheHighCourtmaybyanygeneralruleauthorise
ordirect,andtheproceedsthereofshallbepaidtothelegateeas
thesameshallaccruedue.
342.Investmentofgenerallegacy,tobepaidatfuturetime:
disposalofintermediateinterest.(1)Whereagenerallegacyisgiven
tobepaidatafuturetime,theexecutororadministratorshall
investasumsufficienttomeetitinsecuritiesofthekindmentioned
insection341.
(2)Theintermediateinterestshallformpartoftheresidueof
thetestator'sestate.
343.Procedurewhennofundchargedwith,orappropriatedto,
annuity.Whereanannuityisgivenandnofundischargedwithits
paymentorappropriatedbythewilltoanswerit,aGovernmentannuity
ofthespecifiedamountshallbepurchased,or,ifnosuchannuitycan
beobtained,thenasumsufficienttoproducetheannuityshallbe
investedforthatpurposeinsecuritiesofthekindmentionedin
section341.
344.Transfertoresiduarylegateeofcontingentbequest.Wherea
bequestiscontingent,theexecutororadministratorisnotboundto
investtheamountofthelegacy,butmaytransferthewholeresidueof
theestatetotheresiduarylegatee,ifany,onhisgivingsufficient
securityforthepaymentofthelegacy,ifitshallbecomedue.
345.Investmentofresiduebequeathedforlife,withoutdirection
toinvestinparticularsecurities.(1)Wherethetestatorhas
bequeathedtheresidueofhisestatetoapersonforlifewithoutany
directiontoinvestitinanyparticularsecurities,somuchthereof
asisnotatthetimeofthetestator'sdeceaseinvestedinsecurities
ofthekindmentionedinsection341shallbeconvertedintomoneyand

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investedinsuchsecurities.
(2)ThissectionshallnotapplyifthedeceasedwasaHindu,
Muhammadan,Buddhist,SikhorJainaoranexemptedperson.
346.Investmentofresiduebequeathedforlife,withdirectionto
investinspecifiedsecurities.Whenthetestatorhasbequeathedthe
residueofhisestatetoapersonforlifewithadirectionthatit
shallbeinvestedincertainspecifiedsecurities,somuchofthe
estateasisnotatthetimeofhisdeathinvestedinsecuritiesof
thespecifiedkindshallbeconvertedintomoneyandinvestedinsuch
securities.
347.Timeandmannerofconversionandinvestment.Such
conversionandinvestmentasarecontemplatedbysections345and346
shallbemadeatsuchtimesandinsuchmannerastheexecutoror
administratorthinksfit;and,untilsuchconversionandinvestment
arecompleted,thepersonwhowouldbeforthetimebeingentitledto
theincomeofthefundwhensoinvestedshallreceiveinterestatthe
rateof4percent.perannumuponthemarketvalue(tobecomputedas
atthedateofthetestator'sdeath)ofsuchpartofthefundashas
notbeensoinvested:
Providedthattherateofinterestpriortocompletionof
investmentshallbesixpercent.perannumwhenthetestatorwasa
Hindu,Muhammadan,Buddhist,SikhorJainaoranexemptedperson.
348.Procedurewhereminorentitledtoimmediatepaymentor
possessionofbequest,andnodirectiontopaytopersononhis
behalf.(1)Where,bythetermsofabequest,thelegateeisentitled
totheimmediatepaymentorpossessionofthemoneyorthing
bequeathed,butisaminor,andthereisnodirectioninthewillto
payittoanypersononhisbehalf,theexecutororadministrator
shallpayordeliverthesameintotheCourtoftheDistrictJudge,by
whomorbywhoseDistrictDelegatetheprobatewas,orlettersof
administrationwiththewillannexedwere,grantedtotheaccountof
thelegatee,unlessthelegateeisawardoftheCourtofWards.
(2)IfthelegateeisawardoftheCourtofWards,thelegacy
shallbepaidtotheCourtofWardstohisaccount.
(3)SuchpaymentintotheCourtoftheDistrictJudge,ortothe
CourtofWards,asthecasemaybe,shallbeasufficientdischarge
forthemoneysopaid.
(4)Moneywhenpaidinunderthissectionshallbeinvestedin
thepurchaseofGovernmentsecurities,which,withtheinterest
thereon,shallbetransferredorpaidtothepersonentitledthereto,
orotherwiseappliedforhisbenefit,astheJudgeortheCourtof
Wards,asthecasemaybe,maydirect.
349.Legatee'stitletoproduceofspecificlegacy.Thelegatee
ofaspecificlegacyisentitledtotheclearproducethereof,ifany,
fromthetestator'sdeath.

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Exception.Aspecificbequest,contingentinitsterms,doesnot
comprisetheproduceofthelegacybetweenthedeathofthetestator
andthevestingofthelegacy.Theclearproduceofitformspartof
theresidueofthetestator'sestate.
Illustrations
(i)AbequeathshisflockofsheeptoB.BetweenthedeathofA
anddeliverybyhisexecutorthesheepareshornorsomeoftheewes
producelambs.ThewoolandlambsarethepropertyofB.
(ii)AbequeathshisGovernmentsecuritiestoB,butpostpones
thedeliveryofthemtillthedeathofC.Theinterestwhichfallsdue
betweenthedeathofAandthedeathofCbelongstoB,andmust,
unlessheisaminor,bepaidtohimasitisreceived.
(iii)Thetestatorbequeathsallhisfourpercent.Government
promissorynotestoAwhenheshallcompletetheageof18.A,ifhe
completesthatage,isentitledtoreceivethenotes,buttheinterest
whichaccuseinrespectofthembetweenthetestator'sdeathandA's
completing18,formpartoftheresidue.
CHAPTERXI
OftheProduceandInterestofLegacies
350.Residuarylegatee'stitletoproduceofresiduaryfund.The
legateeunderageneralresiduaryfundfromthetestator'sdeath.
Exception.Ageneralresiduarybequestcontingentinitsterms
doesnotcomprisetheincomewhichmayaccrueuponthefundbequeathed
betweenthedeathofthetestatorandthevestingofthelegacy.Such
incomegoesasundisposedof.
Illustrations
(i)ThetestatorbequeathstheresidueofhispropertytoA,a
minor,tobepaidtohimwhenheshallcompletetheageof18.The
incomefromthetestator'sdeathbelongstoA.
(ii)ThetestatorbequeathstheresidueofhispropertytoAwhen
heshallcompletetheageof18.A,ifhecompletesthatage,is
entitledto
receivetheresidue.Theincomewhichhasaccruedinrespectofit
sincethetestator'sdeathgoesasundisposedof.
351.Interestwhennotimefixedforpaymentofgenerallegacy.
Wherenotimehasbeenfixedforthepaymentofagenerallegacy,
interestbeingstorunfromexpirationofoneyearfromthetestator's
death.
Exception.(1)Wherethelegacyisbequeathedinsatisfactionof
adebt,interestrunsfromthedeathofthetestator.
(2)Wherethetestatorwasaparentoramoreremoteancestorof
thelegatee,orhasputhimselfintheplaceofaparentofthe
legatee,thelegacyshallbearinterestfromthedeathofthe
testator.
(3)Whereasumisbequeathedtoaminorwithadirectiontopay
forhismaintenanceoutofit,interestispayablefromthedeathof
thetestator.

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352.Interestwhentimefixed.Whereatimehasbeenfixedfor
thepaymentofagenerallegacy,interestbeginstorunfromthetime
sofixed.Theinterestuptosuchtimeformspartoftheresidueof
thetestator'sestate.
Exception.Wherethetestatorwasaparentoramoreremote
ancestorofthelegatee,orhasputhimselfintheplaceofaparent
ofthelegateeandthelegateeisaminor,thelegacyshallbear
interestfromthedeathofthetestator,unlessaspecificsumis
givenbythewillformaintenance,orunlessthewillcontainsa
directiontothecontrary.
353.Rateofinterest.Therateofinterestshallbefourper
cent.perannuminallcasesexceptwhenthetestatorwasaHindu,
Muhammadan,Buddhist,SikhorJainaoranexemptedperson,inwhich
caseitshallbesixpercent.perannum.
354.Nointerestonarrearsofannuitywithinfirstyearafter
testator'sdeath.Nointerestispayableonthearrearsofanannuity
withinthefirstyearfromthedeathofthetestator,althougha
periodearlierthantheexpirationofthatyearmayhavebeenfixedby
thewillformakingthefirstpaymentoftheannuity.
355.Interestonsumtobeinvestedtoproduceannuity.Wherea
sumofmoneyisdirectedtobeinvestedtoproduceanannuity,
interestispayableonitfromthedeathofthetestator.
CHAPTERXII
OftheRefundingofLegacies
356.RefundoflegacypaidunderCourt'sorders.Whenanexecutor
oradministratorhaspaidalegacyundertheorderofaCourt,heis
entitledtocalluponthelegateetorefundintheeventoftheassets
provinginsufficienttopayallthelegacies.
357.Norefundifpaidvoluntarily.Whenanexecutoror
administratorhasvoluntarilypaidalegacy,hecannotcallupona
legateetorefundintheeventoftheassetsprovinginsufficientto
payallthelegacies.
358.Refundwhenlegacyhasbecomedueonperformanceof
conditionwithinfurthertimeallowedundersection137.Whenthetime
prescribedbythewillfortheperformanceofaconditionhaselapsed,
withouttheconditionhavingbeenperformed,andtheexecutoror
administratorhasthereupon,withoutfraud,distributedtheassets;in
suchcase,iffurthertimehasbeenallowedundersection137forthe
performanceofthecondition,andtheconditionhasbeenperformed
accordingly,thelegacycannotbeclaimedfromtheexecutoror
administrator,butthosetowhomhehaspaiditareliabletorefund
theamount.

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359.Wheneachlegateecompellabletorefundinproportion.When
theexecutororadministratorhaspaidawaytheassetsinlegacies,
andheisafterwardsobligedtodischargeadebtofwhichhehadno
previousnotice,heisentitledtocalluponeachlegateetorefundin
proportion.
360.Distributionofassets.Whereanexecutororadministrator
hasgivensuchnoticesastheHighCourtmay,byanygeneralrule,
prescribeor,ifnosuchrulehasbeenmade,astheHighCourtwould
giveinanadministrationsuit,forcreditorsandotherstosendinto
himtheirclaimsagainsttheestateofthedeceased,heshall,atthe
expirationofthetimethereinnamedforsendinginclaims,beat
libertytodistributetheassets,oranypartthereof,indischargeof
suchlawfulclaimsasheknowsof,andshallnotbeliableforthe
assetssodistributedtoanypersonofwhoseclaimheshallnothave
hadnoticeatthetimeofsuchdistribution:
Providedthatnothinghereincontainedshallprejudicetheright
ofanycreditororclaimanttofollowtheassets,oranypartthereof,
inthehandsofthepersonswhomayhavereceivedthesame
respectively.
361.Creditormaycalluponlegateetorefund.Acreditorwhohas
notreceivedpaymentofhisdebtmaycalluponalegateewhohas
receivedpaymentofhislegacytorefund,whethertheassetsofthe
testator'sestatewereorwerenotsufficient
atthetimeofhisdeathtopaybothdebtsandlegacies;andwhether
thepaymentofthelegacybytheexecutororadministratorwas
voluntaryornot.
362.Whenlegatee,notsatisfiedorcompelledtorefundunder
section361,cannotobligeonepaidinfulltorefund.Iftheassets
weresufficienttosatisfyallthelegaciesatthetimeofthe
testator'sdeath,alegateewhohasnotreceivedpaymentofhis
legacy,orwhohasbeencompelledtorefundundersection361,cannot
obligeonewhohasreceivedpaymentinfulltorefund,whetherthe
legacywerepaidtohimwithorwithoutsuit,althoughtheassetshave
subsequentlybecomedeficientbythewastingoftheexecutor.
363.Whenunsatisfiedlegateemustfirstproceedagainst
executor,ifsolvent.Iftheassetswerenotsufficienttosatisfyall
thelegaciesatthetimeofthetestator'sdeath,alegateewhohas
notreceivedpaymentofhislegacymust,beforehecancallona
satisfiedlegateetorefund,firstproceedagainsttheexecutoror
administratorifheissolvent;butiftheexecutororadministrator
isinsolventornotliabletopay,theunsatisfiedlegateecanoblige
eachsatisfiedlegateetorefundinproportion.
364.Limittorefundingofonelegateetoanother.Therefunding
ofonelegateetoanothershallnotexceedthesumbywhichthe
satisfiedlegacyoughttohavebeenreducediftheestatehadbeen

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properlyadministered.
Illustration
Ahasbequeathed240rupeestoB,480rupeestoC,and720rupees
toD.Theassetsareonly1,200rupeesand,ifproperlyadministered,
wouldgive200rupeestoB.400rupeestoCand600rupeestoD.Cand
Dhavebeenpaidtheirlegaciesinfull,leavingnothingtoB.Bcan
obligeCtorefund80rupees,andDtorefund120rupees.
365.Refundingtobewithoutinterest.Therefundingshallinall
casesbewithoutinterest.
366.Residueafterusualpaymentstobepaidtoresiduary
legatee.Thesurplusorresidueofthedeceased'sproperty,after
paymentofdebtsandlegacies,shallbepaidtotheresiduarylegatee
whenanyhasbeenappointedbythewill.
367.TransferofassetsfromIndiatoexecutororadministrator
incountryofdomicilefordistribution.Whereapersonnothavinghis
domicilein1*[India]hasdiedleavingassetsbothin1*[India]andin
thecountryinwhichhehadhisdomicileatthetimeofhisdeath,and
therehasbeenagrantofprobateorlettersofadministrationin
1*[India]withrespecttotheassetsthereandagrantof
administrationinthecountryofdomicile
withrespecttotheassetsinthatcountry,theexecutoror
administrator,asthecasemaybe,in1*[India],afterhavinggiven
suchnoticesasarementionedinsection360,andafterhaving
discharged,attheexpirationofthetimethereinnamed,suchlawful
claimsasheknowsof,may,insteadofhimselfdistributingany
surplusorresidueofthedeceased'spropertytopersonsresidingout
of1*[India]whoareentitledthereto,transfer,withtheconsentof
theexecutororadministrator,asthecasemaybe,inthecountryof
domicile,thesurplusorresiduetohimfordistributiontothose
persons.

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

CHAPTERXIII
OftheLiabilityofanExecutororAdministratorforDevastation
368.Liabilityofexecutororadministratorfordevastation.When
anexecutororadministratormisappliestheestateofthedeceased,or
subjectsittolossordamage,heisliabletomakegoodthelossor
damagesooccasioned.
Illustrations
(i)Theexecutorpaysoutoftheestateanunfoundedclaim.Heis
liabletomakegoodtheloss.
(ii)Thedeceasedhadavaluableleaserenewablebynoticewhich
theexecutorneglectstogiveatthepropertime.Theexecutoris

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liabletomakegoodtheloss.
(iii)Thedeceasedhadaleaseoflessvaluethantherent
payableforit,butterminableonnoticeataparticulartime.The
executorneglectstogivethenotice.Heisliabletomakegoodthe
loss.
369.Liabilityofexecutororadministratorforneglecttoget
anypartofproperty.Whenanexecutororadministratoroccasionsa
losstotheestatebyneglectingtogetinanypartofthepropertyof
thedeceased,heisliabletomakegoodtheamount.
Illustrations
(i)Theexecutorabsolutelyreleasesadebtduetothedeceased
fromasolventperson,orcompoundswithadebtorwhoisabletopay
infull.Theexecutorisliabletomakegoodtheamount.
(ii)Theexecutorneglectstosueforadebttillthedebtoris
abletopleadthattheclaimisbarredbylimitationandthedebtis
therebylosttotheestate.Theexecutorisliabletomakegoodthe
amount.
PARTX
SUCCESSIONCERTIFICATES
370.RestrictionongrantofcertificatesunderthisPart.(1)A
successioncertificate(hereinafterinthisPartreferredtoasa
certificate)shallnotbegrantedunderthisPartwithrespect
toanydebtorsecuritytowhicharightisrequiredbysection212or
section213tobeestablishedbylettersofadministrationorprobate:

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

Providedthatnothingcontainedinthissectionshallbedeemed
topreventthegrantofacertificatetoanypersonclaimingtobe
entitledtotheeffectsofadeceasedIndianChristian,ortoanypart
thereof,withrespecttoanydebtorsecurity,byreasonthataright
theretocanbeestablishedbylettersofadministrationunderthis
Act.
(2)ForthepurposesofthisPart,"security"means
(a)anypromissorynote,debenture,stockorothersecurity
oftheCentralGovernmentorofaStateGovernment;
(b)anybond,debenture,orannuitychargedbyActof
Parliament1*[oftheUnitedKingdom]ontherevenuesof
India;
(c)anystockordebentureof,orsharein,acompanyor
otherincorporatedinstitution;
(d)anydebentureorothersecurityformoneyissuedby,or
onbehalfof,alocalauthority;
(e)anyothersecuritywhichthe2*[StateGovernment]may,
bynotificationintheOfficialGazette,declaretobe

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asecurityforthepurposesofthisPart.
371.Courthavingjurisdictiontograntcertificate.TheDistrict
Judgewithinwhosejurisdictionthedeceasedordinarilyresidedatthe
timeofhisdeath,or,ifatthattimehadnofixedplaceof
residence,theDistrictJudge,withinwhosejurisdictionanypartof
thepropertyofthedeceasedmaybefound,maygrantacertificate
underthisPart.
372.Applicationforcertificate.(1)Applicationforsucha
certificateshallbemadetotheDistrictJudgebyapetitionsigned
andverifiedbyoronbehalfoftheapplicantinthemannerprescribed
bytheCodeofCivilProcedure,1908,(5of1908.)forthesigningand
verificationofaplaintbyoronbehalfofaplaintiff,andsetting
forththefollowingparticulars,namely:
(a)thetimeofthedeathofthedeceased;
(b)theordinaryresidenceofthedeceasedatthetimeof
hisdeathand,ifsuchresidencewasnotwithinthe
locallimitsofthejurisdictionoftheJudgetowhomthe
applicationismade,thenthepropertyofthedeceased
withinthoselimits;

1Ins.bytheA.O.1950.
2Thewords"G.G.inC."havebeensuccessivelyamendedbytheA.
O.1937andtheA.O.1950toreadasabove.

(c)thefamilyorothernearrelativesofthedeceasedand
theirrespectiveresidences;
(d)therightinwhichthepetitionerclaims;
(e)theabsenceofanyimpedimentundersection370orunder
anyotherprovisionofthisActoranyotherenactment,
tothegrantofthecertificateortothevalidity
thereofifitweregranted;and
(f)thedebtsandsecuritiesinrespectofwhichthe
certificateisappliedfor.
(2)Ifthepetitioncontainsanyavermentwhichtheperson
verifyingitknowsorbelievestobefalse,ordoesnotbelievetobe
true,thatpersonshallbedeemedtohavecommittedanoffenceunder
section198oftheIndianPenalCode.(45of1860.)
1*[(3)Applicationforsuchacertificatemaybemadeinrespect
ofanydebtordebtsduetothedeceasedcreditororinrespectof
portionsthereof.]
373.Procedureonapplication.(1)IftheDistrictJudgeis
satisfiedthatthereisgroundforentertainingtheapplication,he
shallfixadayforthehearingthereofandcausenoticeofthe
applicationandofthedayfixedforthehearing
(a)tobeservedonanypersontowhom,intheopinionof

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theJudge,specialnoticeoftheapplicationshouldbe
given,and
(b)tobepostedonsomeconspicuouspartofthecourthouse
andpublishedinsuchothermanner,ifany,asthe
Judge,subjecttoanyrulesmadebytheHighCourtin
thisbehalf,thinksfit,
anduponthedayfixed,orassoonthereafterasmaybepracticable,
shallproceedtodecideinasummarymannertherighttothe
certificate.
(2)WhentheJudgedecidestherighttheretotobelongtothe
applicant,theJudgeshallmakeanorderforthegrantofthe
certificatetohim.
(3)IftheJudgecannotdecidetherighttothecertificate
withoutdeterminingquestionsoflaworfactwhichseemtobetoo
intricateanddifficultfordeterminationinasummaryproceeding,hemay
neverthelessgrantacertificatetotheapplicantifheappearstobe
thepersonhavingprimafaciethebesttitlethereto.

1AddedbyAct14of1928,s.2.

(4)Whentherearemoreapplicantsthanoneforacertificate,
anditappearstotheJudgethatmorethanoneofsuchapplicantsare
interestedintheestateofthedeceased,theJudgemay,indeciding
towhomthecertificateistobegranted,haveregardtotheextentof
interestandthefitnessinotherrespectsoftheapplicants.
374.Contentsofcertificate.WhentheDistrictJudgegrantsa
certificate,heshallthereinspecifythedebtsandsecuritiesset
forthintheapplicationforthecertificate,andmaytherebyempower
thepersontowhomthecertificateisgranted
(a)toreceiveinterestordividendson,or
(b)tonegotiateortransfer,or
(c)bothtoreceiveinterestordividendson,andto
negotiateortransfer,
thesecuritiesoranyofthem.
375.Requisitionofsecurityfromgranteeofcertificate.(1)The
DistrictJudgeshallinanycaseinwhichheproposestoproceedunder
subsection(3)orsubsection(4)ofsection373,andmay,inany
othercase,require,asaconditionprecedenttothegrantingofa
certificate,thatthepersontowhomheproposestomakethegrant
shallgivetotheJudgeabondwithoneormoresuretyorsureties,or
othersufficientsecurity,forrenderinganaccountofdebtsand
securitiesreceivedbyhimandforindemnityofpersonswhomaybe
entitledtothewholeoranypartofthosedebtsandsecurities.
(2)TheJudgemay,onapplicationmadebypetitionandoncause
showntohissatisfaction,anduponsuchtermsastosecurity,or
providingthatthemoneyreceivedbepaidintoCourt,orotherwise,as

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hethinksfit,assignthebondorothersecuritytosomeproper
person,andthatpersonshallthereuponbeentitledtosuethereonin
hisownnameasifithadbeenoriginallygiventohiminsteadofto
theJudgeoftheCourt,andtorecover,astrusteeforallpersons
interested,suchamountasmayberecoverablethereunder.
376.Extensionofcertificate.(1)ADistrictJudgemay,onthe
applicationoftheholderofacertificateunderthisPart,extendthe
certificatetoanydebtorsecuritynotoriginallyspecifiedtherein,andeverysuchextension
shallhavethesameeffectasifthedebtorsecuritytowhichthe
certificateisextendedhadbeenoriginallyspecifiedtherein.
(2)Upontheextensionofacertificate,powerswithrespectto
thereceivingofinterestordividendson,orthenegotiationor
transferof,anysecuritytowhichthecertificatehasbeenextended
maybeconferred,andabondorfurtherbondorothersecurityforthe
purposesmentionedinsection375mayberequired,inthesamemanner
asupontheoriginalgrantofacertificate.
377.Formsofcertificateandextendedcertificate.Certificates
shallbegrantedandextensionsofcertificatesshallbemade,as
nearlyascircumstancesadmit,intheformssetforthinSchedule
VIII.
378.Amendmentofcertificateinrespectofpowersasto
securities.WhereaDistrictJudgehasnotconferredontheholderof
acertificateanypowerwithrespecttoasecurityspecifiedinthe
certificate,orhasonlyempoweredhimtoreceiveinterestor
dividendson,ortonegotiateortransfer,thesecurity,theJudge
may,onapplicationmadebypetitionandoncauseshowntohis
satisfaction,amendthecertificatebyconferringanyofthepowers
mentionedinsection374orbysubstitutinganyoneforanyotherof
thosepowers.
379.ModeofcollectingCourtfeesoncertificates.(1)Every
applicationforacertificateorfortheextensionofacertificate
shallbeaccompaniedbyadepositofasumequaltothefeepayable
undertheCourtfeesAct,1870,(7of1870.)inrespectofthe
certificateorextensionappliedfor.
(2)Iftheapplicationisallowed,thesumdepositedbythe
applicantshallbeexpended,underthedirectionoftheJudge,inthe
purchaseofthestamptobeusedfordenotingthefeepayableas
aforesaid.
(3)Anysumreceivedundersubsection(1)andnotexpendedunder
subsection(2)shallberefundedtothepersonwhodepositedit.
380.Localextentofcertificate.AcertificateunderthisPart
shallhaveeffectthroughout1*[India]2*.

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".

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2Thewords"ofIndia"omittedbytheA.O.1950.

1*[Thissectionshallapplyin2*[India]3*aftertheseparation
ofBurmaandAdenfromIndiatocertificatesgrantedinBurmaandAden
beforethedateoftheseparation,orafterthatdateinproceedings
whichwerependingatthatdate.]
4*[Itshallalsoapplyin2*[India]5*6*aftertheseparationof
PakistanfromIndiatocertificatesgrantedbeforethedateofthe
separation,orafterthatdateinproceedingspendingatthatdatein
anyoftheterritorieswhichonthatdateconstitutedPakistan.]
381.Effectofcertificate.Subjecttotheprovisionsofthis
Part,thecertificateoftheDistrictJudgeshall,withrespecttothe
debtsandsecuritiesspecifiedtherein,beconclusiveasagainstthe
personsowingsuchdebtsorliableonsuchsecurities,andshall,
notwithstandinganycontraventionofsection370,orotherdefect,
affordfullindemnitytoallsuchpersonsasregardsallpayments
made,ordealingshad,ingoodfaithinrespectofsuchdebtsor
securitiestoorwiththepersontowhomthecertificatewasgranted.
EffectofcertificategrantedorextendedbyIndianrepresentativein
foreignStateandincertainothercases.
7*[382.EffectofcertificategrantedorextendedbyIndian
representativeinforeignStateandincertainothercases.Wherea
certificateintheform,asnearlyascircumstancesadmit,ofSchedule
VIII
(a)hasbeengrantedtoaresidentwithinaforeignStateby
anIndianrepresentativeaccreditedtothatState,or
(b)hasbeengrantedbeforethecommencementofthePartB
States(Laws)Act,1951,(3of1951.)toaresident
withinanyPartBStatebyadistrictjudgeofthat
Stateorhasbeenextendedbyhiminsuchform,or
(c)hasbeengrantedafterthecommencementofthePartB
States(Laws)Act,1951,toaresidentwithintheState
ofJammuandKashmirbythedistrictjudgeofthat
Stateorhasbeenextendedbyhiminsuchform,
thecertificateshall,whenstampedinaccordancewiththeprovisions
oftheCourtfeesAct,1870,(7of1870.)withrespecttocertificates
underthisPart,havethesameeffectinIndiaasacertificate
grantedorextendedunderthisPart.]

1Ins.bytheA.O.1937.
2Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".
31stApril,1937.
4AddedbytheA.O.1948.
5Thewords"ofIndia"omittedbyAct48of1952,s.3andSch.II.
615thAugust,1947.
7Subs.byAct34of1957,s.2,fortheformersection.

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383.Revocationofcertificate.Acertificategrantedunderthis
Partmayberevokedforanyofthefollowingcauses,namely:
(a)thattheproceedingstoobtainthecertificatewere
defectiveinsubstance;
(b)thatthecertificatewasobtainedfraudulentlybythe
makingofafalsesuggestion,orbytheconcealment
fromtheCourtofsomethingmaterialtothecase;
(c)thatthecertificatewasobtainedbymeansofanuntrue
allegationofafactessentialinpointoflawto
justifythegrantthereof,thoughsuchallegationwas
madeinignoranceorinadvertently;
(d)thatthecertificatehasbecomeuselessandinoperative
throughcircumstances;
(e)thatadecreeorordermadebyacompetentCourtina
suitorotherproceedingwithrespecttoeffects
comprisingdebtsorsecuritiesspecifiedinthe
certificaterendersitproperthatthecertificate
shouldberevoked.
384.Appeal.(1)SubjecttotheotherprovisionsofthisPart,an
appealshalllietotheHighCourtfromanorderofaDistrictJudge
granting,refusingorrevokingacertificateunderthisPart,andthe
HighCourtmay,ifitthinksfit,byitsorderontheappeal,declare
thepersontowhomthecertificateshouldbegrantedanddirectthe
DistrictJudge,onapplicationbeingmadetherefor,tograntit
accordingly,insupersessionofthecertificate,ifany,already
granted.
(2)Anappealundersubsection(1)mustbepreferredwithinthe
timeallowedforanappealundertheCodeofCivilProcedure,1908.(5
of1908).
(3)Subjecttotheprovisionsofsubsection(1)andtothe
provisionsastoreferencetoandrevisionbytheHighCourtandasto
reviewofjudgmentoftheCodeofCivilProcedure,1908,(5of1908.)
asappliedbysection141ofthatCode,anorderofaDistrictJudge
underthisPartshallbefinal.
385.Effectoncertificateofpreviouscertificate,probateor
lettersofadministration.SaveasprovidedbythisAct,acertificate
grantedthereunderinrespectofanyoftheeffectsofadeceased
personshallbeinvalidiftherehasbeenapreviousgrantofsucha
certificateorofprobateorlettersofadministrationinrespectof
theestateofthedeceasedpersonandifsuchpreviousgrantisin
force.
386.Validationofcertainpaymentsmadeingoodfaithtoholder
ofinvalidcertificate.WhereacertificateunderthisParthasbeen
supersededorisinvalidbyreasonofthecertificatehavingbeen
revokedundersection383,orbyreasonofthegrantofacertificatetoaperson

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namedinanappellateorderundersection384,orbyreasonofa
certificatehavingbeenpreviouslygranted,orforanyothercause,
allpaymentsmadeordealingshad,asregardsdebtsandsecurities
specifiedinthesupersededorinvalidcertificate,toorwiththe
holderofthatcertificateinignoranceofitssupersessionor
invalidity,shallbeheldgoodagainstclaimsunderanyother
certificate.
387.EffectofdecisionsunderthisAct,andliabilityofholder
ofcertificatethereunder.NodecisionunderthisPartuponany
questionofrightbetweenanypartiesshallbeheldtobarthetrial
ofthesamequestioninanysuitorinanyotherproceedingbetween
thesameparties,andnothinginthisPartshallbeconstruedto
affecttheliabilityofanypersonwhomayreceivethewholeorany
partofanydebtorsecurity,oranyinterestordividendonany
security,toaccounttherefortothepersonlawfullyentitledthereto.
388.InvestitureofinferiorCourtswithjurisdictionofDistrict
CourtforpurposesofthisAct.(1)TheStateGovernmentmayby
notificationintheOfficialGazette,investanyCourtinferiorin
gradetoaDistrictJudgewithpowertoexercisethefunctionsofa
DistrictJudgeunderthisPart.
(2)AnyinferiorCourtsoinvestedshall,withinthelocallimits
ofitsjurisdiction,haveconcurrentjurisdictionwiththeDistrict
JudgeintheexerciseofallthepowersconferredbythisPartupon
theDistrictJudge,andtheprovisionsofthisPartrelatingtothe
DistrictJudgeshallapplytosuchaninferiorCourtasifitwerea
DistrictJudge:
ProvidedthatanappealfromanysuchorderofaninferiorCourt
asismentionedinsubsection(1)ofsection384shalllietothe
DistrictJudge,andnottotheHighCourt,andthattheDistrictJudge
may,ifhethinksfit,byhisorderontheappeal,makeanysuch
declarationanddirectionasthatsubsectionauthorisestheHigh
CourttomakebyitsorderonanappealfromanorderofaDistrict
Judge.
(3)AnorderofaDistrictJudgeonanappealfromanorderofan
inferiorCourtunderthelastforegoingsubsectionshall,subjectto
theprovisionsastoreferencetoandrevisionbytheHighCourtand
astoreviewofjudgmentoftheCodeofCivilProcedure,1908,(5of
1908.)asappliedbysection141ofthatCode,befinal.
(4)TheDistrictJudgemaywithdrawanyproceedingsunderthis
PartfromaninferiorCourt,andmayeitherhimselfdisposeofthemor
transferthemtoanothersuchCourtestablishedwithinthelocal
limitsofthejurisdictionoftheDistrictJudgeandhavingauthority
todisposeoftheproceedings.
(5)Anotificationundersubsection(1)mayspecifyanyinferior
CourtspeciallyoranyclassofsuchCourtsinanylocalarea.
(6)AnyCivilCourtwhichforanyofthepurposesofany
enactmentissubordinateto,orsubjecttothecontrolof,aDistrict
Judgeshall,forthepurposesofthissection,bedeemedtobeaCourt

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inferioringradetoaDistrictJudge.
389.Surrenderofsupersededandinvalidcertificates.(1)Whena
certificateunderthisParthasbeensupersededorisinvalidfromany
ofthecausesmentionedinsection386,theholderthereofshall,on
therequisitionoftheCourtwhichgrantedit,deliverituptothat
Court.
(2)Ifhewilfullyandwithoutreasonablecauseomitssoto
deliveritup,heshallbepunishablewithfinewhichmayextendto
onethousandrupees,orwithimprisonmentforatermwhichmayextend
tothreemonthsorwithboth.
390.ProvisionswithrespecttocertificatesunderBombay
Regulation8of1827.NotwithstandinganythinginBombayRegulation
No.VIIIof1827theprovisionsofsection370,subsection(2),
section372,subsection(1),clause(f),andsections374,375,376,
377,378,379,381,383,384,387,388and389withrespectto
certificatesunderthisPartandapplicationstherefor,andofsection
317withrespecttotheexhibitionofinventoriesandaccountsby
executorsandadministrators,shall,sofarastheycanbemade
applicable,apply,respectively,tocertificatesgrantedunderthat
Regulationandapplicationsmadeforcertificatesthereunder,after
the1stdayofMay,1889,andtotheexhibitionofinventoriesand
accountsbytheholdersofsuchcertificatessogranted.
PARTXI
MISCELLANEOUS
391.Saving.NothinginPartVIII,PartIXorPartXshall
(i)validateanytestamentarydispositionwhichwould
otherwisehavebeeninvalid;
(ii)invalidateanysuchdispositionwhichwouldotherwise
havebeenvalid;
(iii)depriveanypersonofanyrightofmaintenanceto
whichhewouldotherwisehavebeenentitled;or
(iv)affecttheAdministratorGeneral'sAct,1913.(3of
1913.)
392.Repeals.[Repeals.]Rep.bytheRepealingAct,1927(12of
1927),s.2andSch.

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SCHEDULEI
(Seesection28.)
TABLEOFCONSANGUINITY
Great
Grandfather's
Father.
4
Great
Great
Grandfather.GreatUncle.
3
5
Grandfather.GreatUncle.
2
4
Father.
Uncle.
GreatUncle's
son.
1
3
5
THEPERSON
WHOSE
RELATIVES
Brother.
CousinSecond
ARETOBE
german.Cousin.
RECKONED.
2
46
Sonofthe
Son.
Nephew.Cousin
german.
1
3
5
Sonofthe
NephewGrandsonof
Grandson.
ortheCousin
Brother'sgerman.
Grandson.
2
Great
Grandson.

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1*[SCHEDULEII
PARTI
(Seesection54)
(1)Fatherandmother.
(2)Brothersandsisters(otherthanhalfbrothersandsisters)
andlinealdescendantsofsuchofthemasshallhavepredeceasedthe
intestate.
(3)Paternalandmaternalgrandparents.
(4)Childrenofpaternalandmaternalgrandparentsandthelineal
descendantsofsuchofthemashavepredeceasedtheintestate.
(5)Paternalandmaternalgrandparents'parents.
(6)Paternalandmaternalgrandparents'parents'childrenandthe
linealdescendantsofsuchofthemashavepredeceasedtheintestate.
PARTII
(Seesection55)
(1)Fatherandmother.
(2)Brothersandsisters(otherthanhalfbrothersandsisters)
andlinealdescendantsofsuchofthemasshallhavepredeceasedthe
intestate.
(3)Paternalandmaternalgrandparents.
(4)Childrenofpaternalandmaternalgrandparentsandthelineal
descendantsofsuchofthemashavepredeceasedtheintestate.
(5)Paternalandmaternalgrandparents'parents.
(6)Paternalandmaternalgrandparents'childrenandthelineal
descendantsofsuchofthemashavepredeceasedtheintestate.
(7)Halfbrothersandsistersandthelinealdescendantsofsuch
ofthemashavepredeceasedtheintestate.
(8)Widowsofbrothersorhalfbrothersandwidowersofsisters
orhalfsisters.
(9)Paternalormaternalgrandparents'children'swidowsor
widowers.
(10)Widowsorwidowersofdeceasedlinealdescendantsofthe
intestatewhohavenotmarriedagainbeforethedeathofthe

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intestate.]

1Subs.byAct51of1991,s.7

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SCHEDULEIII
(Seesection57.)
PROVISIONSOFPARTVIAPPLICABLETOCERTAINWILLSANDCODICILS
DESCRIBEDINSECTION57
Sections59,61,62,63,64,68,70,71,73,74,75,76,77,78,
79,80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90,95,96,98,101,102,
103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,
1*[117,]119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,
131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143,144,
145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,
159,160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172,
173,174,175,176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,
187,188,189and190.
Restrictionsandmodificationsinapplicationofforegoingsections.
1.Nothingthereincontainedshallauthoriseatestatorto
bequeathpropertywhichhecouldnothavealienatedintervivos,orto
depriveanypersonsofanyrightofmaintenanceofwhich,butforthe
applicationofthesesections,hecouldnotdeprivethembywill.
2.NothingthereincontainedshallauthoriseanyHindu,Buddhist,
SikhorJaina,tocreateinpropertyanyinterestwhichhecouldnot
havecreatedbeforethefirstdayofSeptember,1870.

1Ins.byAct21of1929,s.14.

3.Nothingthereincontainedshallaffectanylawofadoptionor
intestatesuccession.
4.Inapplyingsection70thewords"thanbymarriageor"shall
beomitted.
5.Inapplyinganyofthefollowingsections,namely,sections
seventyfive,seventysix,onehundredandfive,onehundredandnine,
onehundredandeleven,onehundredandtwelve,onehundredand
thirteen,onehundredandfourteen,onehundredandfifteen,andone
hundredandsixteentosuchwillsandcodicilsthewords"son,"
"sons,""child,"and"children"shallbedeemedtoincludeanadopted
child;andtheword"grandchildren"shallbedeemedtoincludethe
children,whetheradoptedornaturalborn,ofachildwhetheradopted
ornaturalborn;andtheexpression"daughterinlaw"shallbedeemed
toincludethewifeofanadoptedson.

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SCHEDULEIV
[Seesection274(2).]
FORMOFCERTIFICATE
I,A.B.,Registrar(orasthecasemaybe)oftheHighCourtof
Judicatureat(orasthecasemaybe)herebycertifythatonthe
dayof,theHighCourtofJudicatureat(orasthecasemaybe)
grantedprobateofthewill(orlettersofadministrationofthe
estate)ofC.D.,lateof,decreased,toE.F.ofandG.H.of,and
thatsuchprobate(orletters)has(orhave)effectoverallthe
propertyofthedeceasedthroughout1*[India]2*.
SCHEDULEV
[Seesection284(4).]
FORMOFCAVEAT
LetnothingbedoneinthematteroftheestateofA.B.,lateof
,deceased,whodiedonthedayofat,withoutnoticetoC.D.of

1Subs.byAct3of1951,s.3andSch.,for"theStates".
2Thewords"ofIndia"omittedbytheA.O.1950.

SCHEDULEVI
(Seesection289.)
FORMOFPROBATE
I,
JudgeoftheDistrictof
[orDelegateappointedforgrantingprobateorlettersof
administrationin(hereinsertthelimitsoftheDelegate's
jurisdiction)],herebymakeknownthatonthedayofintheyear,the
lastwillof,lateof,acopywhereofishereuntoannexed,wasproved
andregisteredbeforeme,andthatadministrationofthepropertyand
creditsofthesaiddeceased,andinanywayconcerninghiswillwas
grantedto,theexecutorinthesaidwillnamed,hehavingundertaken
toadministerthesame,andtomakeafullandtrueinventoryofthe
saidpropertyandcreditsandexhibitthesameinthisCourtwithin
sixmonthsfromthedateofthisgrantorwithinsuchfurthertimeas
theCourtmay,fromtimetotime,appoint,andalsotorendertothis
Courtatrueaccountofthesaidpropertyandcreditswithinoneyear
fromthesamedate,orwithinsuchfurthertimeastheCourtmay,from
timetotime,appoint.

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SCHEDULEVII
(Seesection290.)
FORMOFLETTERSOFADMINISTRATION
I,
,JudgeoftheDistrictof
[orDelegateappointedforgrantingprobateorlettersof
administrationin(hereinsertthelimitsoftheDelegate's
jurisdiction)],herebymakeknownthatonthedayoflettersof
administration(withorwithoutthewillannexed,asthecasemaybe),
ofthepropertyandcreditsof,lateof,deceased,weregrantedto,
thefather(orasthecasemaybe)ofthedeceased,hehaving
undertakentoadministerthesameandtomakeafullandtrue
inventoryofthesaidpropertyandcreditsandexhibitthesamein
thisCourt,withinsixmonthsfromthedateofthisgrantorwithin
suchfurthertimeastheCourtmay,fromtimetotime,appoint,and
alsotorendertothisCourtatrueaccountofthesaidpropertyand
creditswithinoneyearfromthesamedate,orwithinsuchfurther
timeastheCourtmay,fromtimetotime,appoint.

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SCHEDULEVIII
(Seesection377.)
FORMSOFCERTIFICATEANDEXTENDEDCERTIFICATE
IntheCourtof
ToA.B.
WhereasyouappliedonthedayofforacertificateunderPartX
oftheIndianSuccessionAct,1925,inrespectofthefollowingdebts
andsecurities,namely:
Debts

Amountofdebt,
Descriptionanddateof
Serial
1*[Name]ofincludinginterest,on
instrument,ifany,by
Number
debtor
dateofapplicationfor
whichthedebtis
certificate
secured

Securities

DESCRIPTION

Serial
Marketvalueofsecurity
Number
DistinguishName,titleAmountorondateofapplication
ingnumberorclassofparvalueforcertificate
orletterofsecurity
ofsecurity

Thiscertificateisaccordinglygrantedtoyouandempowersyou
tocollectthosedebts[and][toreceive][interest][dividends][on]
[tonegotiate][totransfer][thosesecurities].
Datedthis
dayof
DistrictJudge.

1Subs.byAct48of1952,s.3andSch.II,for"Number".

IntheCourtof

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OntheapplicationofA.B.madetomeonthedayof,Ihereby
extendthiscertificatetothefollowingdebtsandsecurities,
namely:
Debts

Amountofdebt,
Descriptionanddateof
Serial
Nameof
includinginterest,on
instrument,ifany,by
Number
debtor
dateofapplicationfor
whichthedebtis
certificate
secured

Securities

DESCRIPTION

Serial
Marketvalueofsecurity
Number
DistinguishName,titleAmountorondateofapplication
ingnumberorclassofparvalueforcertificate
orletterofsecurity
ofsecurity

ThisextensionempowersA.B.tocollectthosedebts[and][to
receive][interest][dividends][on][tonegotiate][totransfer]
[thosesecurities].
Datedthis
dayof
DistrictJudge.
SCHEDULEIX.[EnactmentsRepealed.]Rep.bytheRepealingAct,
1927(12of1927),s.2andSch.
Source:http://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=192539
Downloaddate:July20,2006
lawyers in Chennai
lawyers in Bangalor
lawyers in Hyderaba
lawyers in Cochin
lawyers in Pondiche
lawyers in Agra

Everybody likes to make sure that the life he has led has been meaningful and is
concerned about his property after his death. A person can ensure as to how his
property should devolve and to whom it shall devolve, after his death, through a
Will. If a person dies without leaving behind his Will, his property would devolve by
way of law of intestate succession and not testamentary succession (i.e. in
accordance to the Will) Hence, it is preferable that one should make a Will to ensure
that one's actual intension is followed and the property is devolved accordingly. Will
is an important testamentary instrument through which a testator can give away his
property in accordance to his wishes. The importance and impact of a will can be
seen through the controversy that arose with regards to the will of Priyamwada
Birla, widow of M.P.Birla, which decided the fate of the Birla group of Industries.

The origin and growth of Will amongst the Hindus is unknown. However Wills were
well known to the Mohammedans and contact with them during the Mohammedan
rule, and later on with the European countries, was probably responsible for the
practice of substituting informal written or oral testamentary instruments with
formal testamentary instruments. The Indian Succession Act, 1925, consolidating
the laws of intestate (with certain exceptions) and testamentary succession
supersedes the earlier Acts, and is applicable to all the Wills and codicils of Hindus,
Buddhists, Sikhs and Jainas throughout India. The Indian Succession Act, 1925, does
not govern Mohammedans and they can dispose their property according to Muslim
Law

This project endeavors to analyze briefly all the important aspects of testamentary
succession under Hindu law.

Definition of Will & other Related Terms


Will: A Will is a solemn document by which a dead man entrusts to the living to the
carrying out of his wishes. S. S.2(h) of Indian Succession Act, 1925 provides that Will
means the legal declaration of the intention of a person with respect to his property,
which he desires to take effect after his death Will has been defined in Corpus Juris
Secundum as A Will is the legal declaration of a mans intention, which he wills to
be performed after his death, or an instrument by which a person makes a
disposition of his property to take effect after his death.

Codicil: Codicil is an instrument made in relation to a Will, explaining, altering or


adding to its dispositions and is deemed to be a part of the Will. The purpose of
codicil is to make some small changes in the Will, which has already been executed.
If the testator wants to change the names of the executors by adding some other
names, or wants to change certain bequests by adding to the names of the legatees
or subtracting some of them, a Codicil in addition to the Will can be made to do so.
The codicil must be reduced to writing and has to be signed by the testator and
attested by two witnesses. It is also the duty of the court to arrive at the intention of
the testator by reading the Will and all the codicils.

Executor: An executor is appointed by the testator, as distinguished from an


administrator who is appointed by the court. Where the Will confers the powers to
collect the outstanding, pay debts and manage the properties, the person can be
said to be appointed as an executor by implication.

Probate: Probate is an evidence of the appointment of the executor and unless


revoked, is conclusive as to the power of the executor. The grant of probate to the
executor however does not confer upon him any title to the property.

Letter of Administration: Letter of Administration is a certificate granted by the


competent court to an administrator where there exists a Will authorizing him to
administer the estate of the deceased in accordance with the Will. If the Will does
not name any executor, an application can be filed in the court for grant of Letter of
Administration for the property

Attestation of Will: Attesting means signing a document for the purpose of testifying
the signature of the executants. Therefore an attesting witness signing before the
executants has put his mark on the Will, cannot be said to be a valid attestation. It
is necessary that both the witnesses must sign in the presence of the testator but it
is not necessary that the testator have to sign in their presence. Further it is not
necessary that both the witnesses have to sign at the same time. It is also not
necessary that the attesting witnesses should know the contents of the Will.

Essential Features of a Will

A Will can be made at any time in the life of a person. A Will can be changed a
number of times and there are no legal restrictions as to the number of times it can
be changed. It can be withdrawn at anytime during the lifetime of the person
making the Will. A Will has to be attested by two or more witnesses, each of who
should have seen the testator signing the Will.

The essential features are:

1. Legal declaration: The documents purporting to be a Will or a testament must be


legal, i.e. in conformity with the law and must be executed by a person legally
competent to make it. Further the declaration of intention must be with respect to
the testators property It is a legal document, which has a binding force upon the
family.

2. Disposition of property: In a Will, the testator bequeaths or leaves his property to


the person or people he chooses to leave his assets/belongings. A Hindu person by
way of his Will can bequeath all his property. However, a member of an undivided
family cannot bequeath his coparcenery interest in the family property

3. Takes effect after death: The Will is enforceable only after the death of the
testator

Under section 18 of the Registration Act the registration of a Will is not compulsory.
Also, the SC in Narain Singh v. Kamla Devi has held that mere non-registration of
the Will an inference cannot be drawn against the genuines of the Will. However it is
advisable to register it as it provides strong legal evidence about the validity of the
Will. Once a Will is registered, it is placed in the safe custody of the Registrar and
therefore cannot be tampered with, destroyed, mutilated or stolen. It is to be
released only to the testator himself or, after his death, to an authorized person who
produces the Death Certificate

Since a testamentary disposition always speaks from the grave of the testator, the
required standard of proof is very high. The initial burden of proof is always on the
person who propounds the Will.
Kinds of Wills

Conditional Wills: A Will maybe made to take effect on happening of a condition. In


Rajeshwar v. Sukhdeo the operation of the Will was postponed till after the death of
the testators wife. However if it is ambiguous whether the testator intended to
make a Will conditional, the language of the documents as well as the
circumstances are to be taken into consideration.

Joint Wills: Two or more persons can make a joint Will. If the joint Will is joint and is
intended to take effect after the death of both, it will not be admitted to probate
during the life time of either and are revocable at any time by either during the joint
lives or after the death of the survivor.

Mutual Wills: Two or more persons may agree to make mutual Wills i.e. to confer on
each other reciprocal benefits. In mutual Wills the testators confer benefit on each
other but if the legatees and testators are distinct, it is not a mutual Will. Mutual
Wills are also known as reciprocal Wills and its revocation is possible during the
lifetime of either testator. But if a testator has obtained benefit then the claim
against his property will lie. Where joint Will is a single document containing the
Wills of two persons, mutual Wills are separate Wills of two persons.

Privileged Wills: Privileged Wills are a special category of Wills and other general
Wills are known as unprivileged Wills. S.65 of ISA provides that a Will made by a
soldier or a airman or a mariner, when he is in actual service and is engaged in
actual warfare, would be a privileged Will. S.66 provides for the mode of making and
rules for executing privileged Wills. Ss. 65 and 66 are special provisions applicable
to privileged Wills whereas other sections relating to Wills are general provisions
which will be supplementary to Sections 65 and 66 in case of privileged Wills.

Who Can Make A Will

S.59 of Indian Succession Act provides that every person who is of sound mind and
is not a minor can make a Will.

Persons of Unsound Mind

U/s. 59 of ISA the existence of a sound mind is a sine quo non for the validity of the
Will. Most of the Wills are not made by young persons who are fully fit but are made
by persons who are aged and bed ridden Hence, law does not expect that the
testator should be in a perfect state of health , or that he should be able to give
complicated instructions as to how his property was to be distributed. A sound
disposing mind implies sufficient capacity to deal with and understand the
disposition of property in his Will -

1) the testator must understand that he is giving away his property to one or more
objects

2) he must understand and recollect the extent of his property 3) he must also
understand the persons and the extent of claims included as well as those who are
excluded from the Will. In Swifen v. Swifen it was held that the testator must retain
a degree of understanding to comprehend what he is doing, and have a volition or
power of choice.

Minors: A minor who has not completed the age of 18 years is not capable of
making Wills. The onus of proof on determining whether the person was a minor at
the time of making a Will is on the person who has relied upon the Will. S.12 of the
Indian Contract Act also provides that a minor is incompetent to contract.

Other Persons Incapable Of Making A Will:

Explanation I to S.59 of ISA provides that a Hindu married woman is capable of


disposing by Will only that property which she can alienate during her lifetime.
Explanation II provides that the persons who are deaf, dumb or blind can prepare a
Will if they are able to prove that they were aware of what they were doing.
Explanation III provides for persons who are mentally ill and insane. However
subsequent insanity does not make the Will invalid i.e. if a person makes a Will
while he is of sound mind and then subsequently becomes insane the Will is valid
and is not rendered invalid by subsequent insanity. Further a person of unsound
mind can make a Will during his lucid interval. A Will made by a person who is
intoxicated or is suffering from any other illness, which renders him incapable of
knowing what he is doing, is invalid.

Though the burden of proof to prove that the Will was made out of free volition is on
the person who propounds the Will , a Will that has been proved to be duly signed
and attested Will be presumed to have been made by a person of sound mind,
unless proved otherwise. Further, a bequest can be made to an infant, an idiot, a
lunatic or other disqualified person as it is not necessary that the legatee should be
capable of assenting it.
Revocability

S.62 of the Indian Succession Act deals with the characteristic of a Will being
revocable or altered anytime during the lifetime of the testator. S. 70 of ISA
provides the manner in which it can be revoked

A mere intention to revoke is not an effective revocation. The revocation of the Will
should be in writing and an express revocation clause would revoke all the prior
Wills and codicils. If there is no express clause to the effect then the former Will
would become invalid to the extent of its inconsistency with the latest Will, this is
known as an implied revocation (however it should be shown that the differences
are irreconcilable). However if there is no inconsistency between the Wills then they
cannot be considered as two separate Wills but the two must be read together to
indicate the testamentary intention of the testator.

Revocation can also be made in writing through declaring an intention to revoke and
the writing must be signed by the testator and attested by two witnesses. The deed
of revocation has to be executed in the same way as the Will itself.

The Will maybe burnt or torn by the testator or by some other person in his
presence and by his direction with the intention of revoking the same. The burning
of the Will must be actual and not symbolic. The burning must destroy the Will
atleast to the extent of his entirety. Further the Will need not be torn into pieces. It
would be sufficient if it is slightly torn with the intent of revocation.

The Will can be revoked expressly by another Will or codicil, by implied revocation,
by some writing, by burning or tearing or by destroying otherwise. Cancellation of a
Will by drawing lines across it is not a mode of revocation. Under the Hindu Law the
Will is not revoked by marriage or by subsequent birth.

Alterations

S.71 of ISA is applicable to alterations if they are made after the execution of the
Will but not before it. The said section provides that any obliteration, interlineations
or any other alteration in a Will made after its execution is inoperative unless the
alteration is accompanied by the signatures of the testator and the attesting
witnesses or it is accompanied by a memorandum signed by the testator and by the
attesting witnesses at the end of the Will or some other part referring to the
alterations. the alterations if executed as required by the section would be read as a
part of the Will itself. However, if these requirements are not fulfilled then the
alterations would be considered to be invalid and the probate will be issued omitting
the alterations. The signatures of the testator and the attesting witnesses must be
with regards to the alteration and must be in proximity of the alteration. Further
they should be in the Will itself and not in a separate distinct paper. But if the
obliteration is such that the words cannot be deciphered then the Will would be
considered as destroyed to that extent.

Wording of The Will

S.74 of ISA provides that a Will maybe made in any form and in any language. No
technical words need to be used in making a Will but if technical words are used it is
presumed that they are in used in their legal sense unless the context indicates
otherwise. Any want of technical words or accuracy in grammar is immaterial as
long as the intention is clear.

Another general principle applied is that the Will is to be so read as to lead to a


testacy and not intestacy i.e if two constructions are possible then the construction
that avoids instestacy should be followed.

Further there is another principle, which says that the construction that postpones
the vesting of legacy in the property disposed should be avoided. The intention of
the testator should be decided after construing the Will as a whole and not the
clauses in isolation. In Gnanambal Ammal v. T. Raju Aiyar the Supreme Court held
that the cardinal maxim to be observed by the Court in construing a Will is the
intention of the testator. This intention is primarily to be gathered from the
language of the document, which is to be read as a whole.

The primary duty of the court is to determine the intention of the testator from the
Will itself by reading of the Will. The SC in Bhura v Kashi Ram held that a
construction which would advance the intention of the testator has be favoured and
as far as possible effect is to be given to the testators intention unless it is contrary
to law. The court should put itself in the armchair of the testator. In Navneet Lal v.
Gokul & Ors the SC held that the court should consider the surrounding
circumstances, the position of the testator, his family relationships, the probability
that he would use words in a particular sense. However it also held that these
factors are merely an aid in ascertaining the intention of the testator. The Court
cannot speculate what the testator might have intended to write. The Court can
only interprete in accordance with the express or implied intention of the testator
expressed in the Will. It cannot recreate or make a Will for the testator.

Execution of a Will

On the death of the testator, an executor of the Will (executor is the legal
representative for all purposes of a deceased person and all the property of a
testator vests in him. Whereas a trustee becomes a legal owner of the trust and his
office and the property are blended together) or an heir of the deceased testator
can apply for probate. The court will ask the other heirs of the deceased if they have
any objections to the Will. If there are no objections, the court grants probate. A
probate is a copy of a Will, certified by the court. A probate is to be treated as
conclusive evidence of the genuineness of a Will. It is only after this that the Will
comes into effect.

Signature of The Testator

S.63(a) of ISA provides that the testator shall sign or affix his mark. If the testator is
unable to write his signature then he may execute the Will by a mark and by doing
so his hand maybe guided by another person. In another words a thumb impression
has been held as valid.

Restrictions on A Will

1. Transfer to unborn persons is invalid.

Where a bequest is made to a person by a particular description, and there is no


person in existence at the testator's death who answers that description, the
bequest is void. S.113 of Indian Succession Act, 1925 provides that for a transfer to
an unborn person, a prior interest for life has to be created in another person and
the bequest must comprise of whole of the remaining interest of the testator. In
Sopher v. Administrator-General of Bengal a grandfather made the bequest to his
grandson who was yet to be born, by creating a prior interest in his son and
daughter in law. The Court upheld the transfer to an unborn person and the Court
held that since the vested interest was transferred when the grandsons were born
and only the enjoyment of possession was postponed till they achieved the age of
twenty one the transfer was held to be valid.

In Girish Dutt v. Datadin , the Will stated that the property was to be transferred to a
female descendant (who was unborn) only if the person did not have any male
descendant. The Court held that since the transfer of property was dependent on
the condition that there has to be no male descendant, the transfer of interest was
limited and not absolute and thereby the transfer was void. For a transfer to a
unborn person to be held valid, absolute interest needs to be transferred and it
cannot be a limited interest.

2. Transfer made to create perpetuity

S.114 of the Indian Succession Act, 1925 provides that no bequest is valid whereby
the vesting of the thing bequeathed may be delayed beyond the lifetime of one or
more persons living at the testator's death and the minority of some person who
shall be in existence at the expiration of that period, and to whom, if he attains full
age, the thing bequeathed is to belong.

The rule against perpetuity provides that the property cannot be tied for an
indefinite period. The property cannot be transferred in an unending way. The rule is
based on the considerations of public policy since property cannot be made
inalienable unless it is in the interest of the community. The rule against perpetuity
invalidates any bequest which delays vesting beyond the life or lives-in-being and
the minority of the donee who must be living at the close of the last life. Hence
property can be transferred to a unborn person who has to be born at the expiration
of the interest created and the maximum permissible remoteness is of 18 years i.e
the age of minority in India.

In Stanely v. Leigh it was laid down that for the rule of perpetuity to be not
applicable there has to be 1)a transfer 2)an interest in an unborn person must be
created 3)takes effect after the life time of one or more persons and during his
minority 4)unborn person should be in existence at the expiration of the interest

3. Transfer to a class some of whom may come under above rules

S.115 of ISA provides that if a bequest is made to a class of persons with regard to
some of whom it is inoperative by reasons of the fact that the person is not in
existence at the testator's death or to create perpetuity, such bequest shall be void
in regard to those persons only and not in regard to the whole class.

A number of persons are said to be a class when they can be designated by some
general name as grandchildren, children and nephews. In Pearks v. Mosesley
defined gift to a class as a gift to all those who shall come within a certain category
or description defined by a general or collective formula and who if they take at all
are to take one divisible subject in certain proportionate shares.
4 Transfer to take effect on failure of prior Transfer

S.116 of ISA provides that where by reason of any of the rules contained in sections
113 and 114 and bequest in favour of a person of a class of persons is void in
regard to such person or the whole of such class, any bequest contained in the
same Will and intended to take effect after or upon failure of such prior bequest is
also void.

he principle of this section is based upon the presumed intention of the testator that
the person entitled at the subsequent limitation is not intended to be benefited
except at the exhaustion of the prior limitation. In Girish Dutt case one S gave
property to B for life and after her death if there be any male descendants whether
born as son or daughter to them absolutely. In the absence of any issue, whether
male or female, living at the time of Bs death, the gifted property was to go to C. it
was held that the gift in favour of C was dependent upon the failure of the prior
interest in the favour of daughter and hence the gift in favour of C was also invalid.
However alternative bequests are valid.

Invalid Wills

Wills invalid due to fraud, coercion or undue influence

S.61 of ISA provides that a Will, or any part of Will made, which has been caused by
fraud or coercion, basically not by free will, will be void and the Will would be set
aside.

Fraud: S.17 of the Indian Contract Act provides for fraud. Actual fraud can be
committed through 1) misrepresentation 2) concealment . Fraud in all cases implies
a willful act on the part of anyone whereby, another is sought to be deprived by
illegal or inequitable means, of which he is entitled to

Coercion: S.15 of Indian Contract Act defines coercion. Any force or fear of death, or
of bodily hurt or imprisonment would invalidate a Will. In Ammi Razu v. Seshamma ,
a man threatening to commit suicide induced his wife and son to give him a release
deed. It was held that even though suicide was not punishable by the Indian Penal
Code yet it was forbidden by law and hence the release deed must be set aside as
having been obtained by coercion.

Undue influence: Undue influence u/s.16 of Indian Contract Act is said to be


exercised when the relations existing between the two parties are such that one of
the parties is in the position to dominate the will of the other and uses that position
to obtain an unfair advantage over the other. However neither fiduciary relationship
nor a dominating position would raise a presumption of undue influence in case of
Wills as all influences are not unlawful. Persuasion on the basis of affection or ties is
lawful. The influence of a person in fiduciary relationship would be lawful so long as
the testator understands what he is doing. Thus it can be said that a testator maybe
led but cannot be driven.

Wills Void Due To Uncertainty

S.89 of ISA states that if the Will were uncertain as regards either to the object or
subject of the Will then it would be invalid. The Will may express some intention but
if it is vague and not definite then it will be void for the reason of uncertainty. The
Will may depose of the property absurdly or irrationally i.e the intention maybe
irrational or unreasonable, but that does not make it uncertain. For uncertainty to
be proved it has to be proved that the intention declared by the testator in the Will
is not clear as to what is he giving or whom is he giving. Only if the uncertainty goes
to the very root of the matter, then only the Will has to be held void on the grounds
of uncertainty.

Will Void Due To Impossibility Of Condition

S. 124 of ISA provides that a contingent legacy can take effect only on happening of
that contingency. A conditional Will is that Will which is dependent on the happening
of a specific condition the non-happening of which would make the Will inoperative.
S.126 of ISA provides that a bequest upon an impossible condition is void. The
condition maybe condition precedent or condition subsequent.

Will void due to illegal or immoral condition

S.127 of ISA provides that a bequest, which is based upon illegal or immoral
condition, is void. The condition which is contrary, forbidden, or defeats any
provision of law or is opposed to public policy, then the bequest would be invalid. A
condition absolutely restraining marriage would also make the bequest void. S.138
of ISA provides that the direction provided in the Will as to the manner in which the
property bequeathed is to be enjoyed then the direction would be void though the
Will would be valid.
Bibliography

List Of Cases Referred

1. A.E.G. Carapeit v. A.Y. Derederin AIR 1969 Cal 359

2. Ammi Razu v. Seshamma ILR 41 Mad 33

3. Bhura v Kashi Ram (1994) 2 SCC 111

4. Bodi v. Venkatasami (1915) 24 Pat 395

5. Charu Chandra v. Kitish Chandra AIR 1948 Cal 351

6. Ganpatrao v. Vasantrao AIR 1932 Bom LR 1371

7. Girish Dutt v. Datadin AIR 1934 Oudh 35

8. Gnanambal Ammal v. T. Raju Aiyar AIR 1951 SC 103

9. Gurdilal Kaur & Ors v. Katar Kaur & Ors (1998) 4 SCC 384

10. Hartley v. Tibber (1853) 16 Beav 510

11. Jotindra Nath v. Rajlakshmi AIR 1933 Cal 449

12. Kasturi v. Ponnammal AIR 1961 SC 1302

13. KV Subbaraju v. C Subaraju AIR 1968 SC 947

14. KV Subbaraju v. C Subaraju AIR 1968 SC 947

15. Lakshmi Chand v. Anandi (1926) 53 IA 123

16. Mt. Gomtibai v. Kanchhedilal (1949) 2 MLJ 469

17. Narain Singh v. Kamla Devi AIR 1954 SC 280

18. Navneet Lal v. Gokul & Ors AIR 1976 SC 794

19. Raghubar v Ram Rakha 1 CWN 428

20. Ram Nath v. Ram Nagina AIR 1962 Pat 481

21. Ramesh Chandra v. Lakahan Chandra AIR 1962 AP 178

22. Ramgopal v. Apina Kunwar AIR 1922 All 366

23. Shermail v. Ahmed Omer 33 Bom LR 1056

24. Sopher v. Administrator-General of Bengal AIR 1944 PC 67


25. Subbarami v. Ramamma (1920) 43 Mad 824

26. Swifen v. Swifen 1 F anf F 584

27. Thrnappa v. I.O. Bank AIR 1943 Mad 743

28. Veerattalingam v. Raesh AIR 1990 SC 2201

29. Virendra Singh Pal v. Kashibat 1998 (4) CCC 602 (MP)

List of Statues Referred

1. General Clauses Act, 1897

2. Hindu Succession Act, 1956

3. Hindu Wills Act, 1870

4. Indian Contract Act, 1872

5. Indian Succession Act, 1865

6. Indian Succession Act, 1925

7. Mental Health Act, 1987

8. The Probate And Administration Act, 1981

List of Books Referred

1. Paruck The Indian Succession Act, ed. S S Subramani & K Kannan(9th edition,
Butterworths, New Delhi, 2002)

2. Sanjiva Rows, The Indian Succession Act, 1925, ed.Prafulla Pant (seventh
edition,Butterworths, New Delhi, 2000)

3. T.P.Gopalakrishnans Law of Wills, (sixth edition, the Law Book Company (P) Ltd.,
Allahbad, 1998).
Types of Wills- Legal FAQ

No Need to mention here that Wills are always effective after death, never in the life
time of the testator. Section 63 of the Indian Succession Act, 1925 provides that a
Will is liable to be revoked or altered by the maker of it at any time when he is
competent to dispose of his property by Will, Therefore, the essential characteristic
of a Will is its revocability.

Privileged and Unprivileged Wills Wills executed according to the provisions of


section 63 of the Indian Succession Act are called Unprivileged Wills and Wills
executed under section 66 of the Act, by a soldier employed in an expedition or
engaged in actual warfare, or by an airman so employed or engaged, or by mariner
being at sea, are called Privileged Wills. It is provided in the Act that such a Will may
be written wholly by the testator with his own hands and, in such a case, it need not
be signed or attested; or it may be written wholly or in part by another person, in
which case, it may be signed by the testator but need not be attested. If, however,
an instrument purporting to be a Will is written wholly or in part by another person
and is not signed by the testator, it shall be deemed to be his Will, if it is shown that
it was written by the testators directions or was recognised by him as him Will. if,
on the face of it, the instrument appears to be incomplete, it shall nevertheless, be
demand to he the Will of ht testator, provided the fact that it was not completed,
can be attributed to some cause other than the abandonment of the testamentary
intentions expressed in the instrument. Further, if such a soldier, airman or mariner
has written instructions for the preparation of his Will, but has not died before it
could be prepared and executed, the instructions shall be deemed to be his Will;
and if such a person has, in the presence of two witnesses, given verbal instructions
for the preparation of his Will, and such instructions have been reduced to writing in
his lifetime, but he has died before the Will could be prepared and executed, then
such instructions are to be considered to constitute his Will, although they may not
have been reduced into writing in his presence, nor read over to him. It is also
provided that such a soldier, airman or mariner may make a Will by word of mouth
by declaring his intention before two witnesses present at the same time, but such
a Will shall become null at the expiration of one month after the testator, being still
alive, has ceased to be entitled to make a privileged Will.
An unprivileged Will like Codicil can be revoked by the testator only by another Will
or by some writing declaring an intention to revoke the same and 3executed in the
manner in which an unprivileged Will can be executed under the Act or by burning,
tearing or destroying of the same by the testator or by some other person in his
presence and by his directions with the intention of revoking the same.

Mere loss of a Will does not operate as a revocation but where a Will is destroyed by
the testator or with his privacy or approbation, it is to be deemed to have been
revoked.

No obliteration, interlineations or other alternation made in any unprivileged Will


after the execution thereof, can have any effect except so far as the words or
meaning of the Will have been thereby rendered illegible or unidiscernible, unless
such alteration has been executed in the same manner as is required for the
execution of the Will; but a Will, as so altered, shall be deemed to be duly executed
if the signature of the testator and the subscription of ht witnesses is made in the
margin or some other part of the Will opposite or near to such alternation, or at the
foot or end or opposite to a memorandum referring to such alteration, and written
at the and or some other part of the Will.

A privileged Will or Codicil may be revoked by the testator by an unprivileged Will or


codicil, or buy any act expressing an intention to revoke it and accompanied by
such formalities as would be sufficient to give validity to a privileged Will, or by the
burning, tearing or otherwise destroying the same by the testator or by some
person in his p[resence and by his direction with the intention of revoking the same.
In such cases, it is not necessary that the testator should, at the it time of doing the
act which has the effect of revocation of the Will or Codicil, be in a situation which
entitles him to make a privileged Will.

Every Will is revoked by the marriage of the maker, except a Will made in exercise
of a power of appointment, when the property over which the power of appointment
is exercised, would not, in default of such appointment, pass to his or her executor
or administrator, or to the person entitled in case of intestacy.

This rule as to revocation of a Will by marriage, does not, however, apply to Wills
and codicils executed by Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs or Jains.
An unprivileged Will which has once been validly revoked cannot be received
otherwise than by the re execution thereon with the prescribed formalities, or by a
codicil executed with such formalities and showing an intention to revive the same.
When a Will or a codicil, which has been partly revoked and afterwards wholly
revoked, such revival cannot extend to so much thereof as has been revoked before
the revocation of the whole thereof, unless and intention to the contrary is shown by
the Will or codicil.

It has already been stated that in the case of Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains a
Will could validly be made orally and no formalities for the execution of a Will are
required. This rule, however, did not apply to Wills made by Hindu, Buddhists, Sikhs
or Jains, on or after the 1 st of September, 1870, within the territories which were
subject to the Provincial Government of Bengal or in the local limits of the ordinary
civil jurisdiction of the High Courts of Judicature at Madras and Bombay, and also, to
all such Wills and codicils made outside those territories or limits so far as they
related to immovable property situated within these territoes or limits. The
execution of such Wills was previously regulated by the Hindu Wills Act (XXI of
1870). Except in the cases mentioned in that Act, oral Wills could be made by
persons professing the Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh and Jain religions. A question,
however, arises whether the Indian Succession Act, 1925 has the effect of depriving
such persons of the privilege of making oral Wills, or whether the previsions of
section 63 of the Act do not merely provide for the formalities which must be
observed, if any of such persons chooses to execute a Will, i.e., chooses to reduce
his testamentary dispositions to writing. It will be observe that section 63 of the Act
provides for the manner of execution of unprivileged Wills, it does not deal with
the question of the making of such Wills.

That the Act seems to make a distinction between the execution and the making
of Wills, will appear from a comparison of the phraseology of sections 63 and 66 of
the Indian Succession Act, 1925. While section 63 refers to the execution of
unprivileged Wills, section 63 refers to the execution of unprivileged Wills, section
66 prescribes the mode of making and rules for executing Privileged Wills. A
distinction, therefore, seems to be contemplate between the execution and the
making of a Will. The former expression apparently applies to cases where the Will
is to be reduced to writing, and the expression making of a Will includes the
execution of a Will and also an oral declaration by the testator of his testamentary
disposition of his estate, if such declaration legally amounts to a Will. The matter is
a debatable one, and no definite opinion, therefore, need be expressed on it at this
stage.
Conditional or Contingent Wills A Will may be expressed to take effect only in the
event of the happening of some contingency or condition, and if the contingency
does not happen or the condition fails, the Will is not be legally enforceable.
Accordingly, where A executes a Will to be operative for a particular year, i.e.,. if he
dies within that year. A lives for more years, after that years. Since A does not
express an intention that the Will be subsisting even intestate. A Conditional Will is
invalid if the condition imposed is invalid or contrary to law.

Joint Wills A Joint Will is a testamentary instrument whereby two or more persons
agree to make a conjoint Will. Where a Will is joint and is intended to take effect
after the death of both, it will not be enforceable during the life time of either. Joint
Wills are revocable at anytime by either of the testators during their joint lives, or
aster the death of one, by the survivor.

A Will executed by two or more testators as a single document duly executed by


each testator disposing of his separate properties or his joint properties is not a
single Will. It operates on the death of each and is in effect for tow or more Wills. On
the death of each testator, the legatee would become entitled to the properties of
the testator who dies.

Mutual Wills A Will is mutual when two testators confer upon each other reciprocal
benefits by either of them constituting the other his legatee. But when the legatees
are distinct form the testators, there can be no position for Mutual Wills.

Duplicate Wills A testator, for the sake of safety, may make a Will in duplicate, one
to be kept by him and the other to be deposited in the safe custody with a bank or
executor or trustee. If the testator mutilates or destroys the one which is in his
custody it is revocation of both.

Concurrent Wills Generally, a man should leave only one Will at the time of his
death. However, for the sake of convenience a testator may dispose of some
properties in one country by one Will and the other properties in another country by
a separate will.
Sham Wills If a document is deliberately executed with all due formalities purporting
to be a Will, it will still be nullity if it can be shown that the testator did not intend it
to have nay testamentary operation, but was to have only some collaterally object.
one thing must be born e in mind that the intention to make the Will is essential to
the validity of a Will.

Holograph Wills Such Wills are written entirely in the handwriting of the testator

LAW OF DOMICILE IN INDIA


By PRAVEEN DALAL 27/04/2005 At 03:59

The aim of this article is to provide an insight into the law-governing domicile in
India. An effort has also been made to reconcile the conflict of laws as prevailing in
the international community vis--vis domicile and matrimonial rights associated with
it.

PRAVEEN DALAL, CONSULTANT AND ADVOCATE, DELHI HIGH COURT,


INDIA

I. INTRODUCTION

Domicile which is a private international law or conflict of laws concept identifies a


person, in cases having a foreign element, with a territory subject to a single system of
law, which is regarded as his personal law. A person is domiciled in the country in
which he is considered to have his permanent home. His domicile is of the whole
country, being governed by common rules of law, and not confined to a part of it. No
one can be without a domicile and no one can have two domiciles. A domicile of
origin is attributed to every person at birth by operation of law. This domicile is not
decided by his place of birth or by the place of residence of his father or mother, but
by the domicile of the appropriate parent at the time of his birth, according as he is
legitimate or illegitimate. It is possible for the domicile of origin to be transmitted
through several generations no member of which has ever resided for any length of
time in the country of the domicile of origin. When a person is referred to as
domiciled in a country, the expression 'country' is used in private international law as
a term of art denoting, in the words of dicey, the whole of a territory subject under one
sovereign to one body of law. But in a federation like the United States, Australia, or
Canada, or in a composite State like the United Kingdom, different systems of law
may prevail in different regions in respect of certain matters. In such cases, each of the
territories governed by a separate system of law is treated, for the purpose of private
international law, as a 'country', though in public international law or constitutional
law it is not a separate sovereign State. This is, however, not the position in India.
Though a Union of States, and a federation in that sense, the whole country is
governed by a single unified system of law, with a unified system of judicial
administration, notwithstanding the constitutional distribution of legislative powers
between the Centre and the States. There is no State-wise domicile within the territory
of India. A man who is domiciled in India is domiciled in every State in India and
identified with a territorial system of legal rules pervading throughout the country. He
is 'domiciled' in the whole of this country, even though his permanent home may be
located in a particular spot within it . Thus, the concept of domicile varies from
country to country and from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

II. DOMICILE V RESIDENCE

The word domicile should not be confused with a simple residence. The residence
is a physical fact and no volition is needed to establish it. The animus manendi is not
an essential requirement of residence, unlike in the case of a domicile of choice. Thus,
any period of physical presence, however short, may constitute residence provided it
is not transitory, fleeting or casual. The intention is not relevant to prove the physical
fact of residence except to the extent of showing that it is not a mere fleeting or
transitory existence To insist on an element of volition is to confuse the features of
residence with those of 'domicile'. A person is ordinarily resident in a country if his
residence there is not casual or uncertain, but is in the ordinary course of his life. A
man may be ordinarily resident or habitually resident in more than one place. While
'ordinary residence' is the physical residence in regard to which intention is irrelevant,
except to show that the residence is not merely fleeting, 'habitual residence' may
denote a quality of endurance longer than ordinary residence, although duration, past
or prospective, is only one of the many relevant factors, and there is no requirement of
any particular minimum period. If a person resided there for the specific and limited
purpose of education, he was ordinarily resident in that country, even if his permanent
residence or real home was outside that country or his future intention or expectation
was to live outside that country. The education, business, profession, employment,
health, family, or merely love of the place are some of the reasons commonly regarded
as sufficient for a choice of regular abode. It is only lawful residence that can be taken
into account. If a man stays in a country in breach of immigration laws, his presence
there does not constitute ordinary residence. While residence and intention are the two
essential elements constituting the 'domicile of choice' residence in its own right is a
connecting factor in a national legal system for purposes of taxation, jurisdiction,
service of summons, voting etc .

III. IMPORTANCE OF DOMICILE

The determination of domicile of an individual has a great legal significance. It helps


in identifying the personal law by which an individual is governed in respect of
various matters such as the essential validity of a marriage, the effect of marriage on
the proprietary rights of husband and wife, jurisdiction in divorce and nullity of
marriage, illegitimacy, legitimation and adoption and testamentary and intestate
succession to moveables. The domicile is the legal relationship between an individual
and a territory with a distinctive legal system, which invokes that system as his
personal law. It is well settled that the domicile of a person is in that country in which
he either has or is deemed by law to have his permanent home. The notion, which lies
at the root of the concept of domicile, is that of permanent home. But it is basically a
legal concept for the purpose of determining what is the personal law applicable to an
individual and even if an individual has no permanent home, he is invested with a
domicile by law. There are two main classes of domicile: domicile of origin that is
communicated by operation of law to each person at birth, that is the domicile of his
father or his mother according as he is legitimate or illegitimate and domicile of
choice which every person or full age is free to acquire in substitution for that which
he presently possesses. The domicile of origin attaches to an individual by birth while
the domicile of choice is acquired by residence in a territory subject to a distinctive
legal system, with the intention to reside there permanently or indefinitely.

Each person who has, or whom the law deems to have, his permanent home within the
territorial limits of a single system of law is domiciled in the country over which the
system extends; and he is domiciled in the whole of that country even though his
home may be fixed at a particular spot within it. In federal states some branches of
law are within the competence of the federal authorities and for these purposes the
whole federation will be subject to a single system of law and an individual may be
spoken of as domiciled in the federation as a whole; other branches of law are within
the competence of the states or provinces of the federation and the individual will be
domiciled in one state or province only. The Constitution recognises only one
domicile, namely, domicile in India. Art. 5 of the Constitution is clear and explicit on
this point and it refers only to one domicile, namely, "domicile in the territory of
India. "The legal system, which prevails throughout the territory of India, is one single
indivisible system. It would be absurd to suggest that the Legal system varies from
State to State or that the legal system of a State is different from the legal system of
the Union of India, merely because with respect to the subjects within their legislative
competence, the States have power to make laws. The concept of domicile has no
relevance to the applicability of municipal laws, whether made by the Union of India
or by the States. It would not, therefore, be right to say that a citizen of India is
domiciled in one state or another forming part of the Union of India. The domicile,
which he has, is only one domicile, namely, domicile in the territory of India. When a
person who is permanently resident in one State goes to another State with intention to
reside there permanently or indefinitely, his domicile does not undergo any change: he
does not acquire a new domicile of choice. His domicile remains the same, namely,
Indian domicile. Moreover to think in terms of state domicile with be highly
detrimental to the concept of unity and integrity of India .

IV. TYPES OF DOMICILE

The law of domicile in India can be traced under the Indian Succession Act, 1925. The
domicile under the provisions of the Act can be classified under the following
categories:
(i) Domicile of origin,
(ii) Domicile of choice, and
(iii) Domicile by operation of law.

(i) Domicile of origin

Every person must have a personal law, and accordingly every one must have a
domicile. He receives at birth a domicile of origin, which remains his domicile,
wherever he goes, unless and until he acquires a new domicile. The new domicile,
acquired subsequently, is generally called a domicile of choice. The domicile of origin
is received by operation of law at birth and for acquisition of a domicile of choice one
of the necessary conditions is the intention to remain there permanently. The domicile
of origin is retained and cannot be divested until the acquisition of the domicile of
choice. By merely leaving his country, even permanently, one will not, in the eye of
law, lose his domicile until he acquires a new one. This proposition that the domicile
of origin is retained until the acquisition of a domicile of choice is well established
and does not admit of any exception .

(ii) Domicile of choice

The domicile of origin continues until he acquires a domicile of choice in another


country. Upon abandonment of a domicile of choice, he may acquire a new domicile
of choice, or his domicile of origin, which remained in abeyance, revives. The burden
of proving a change of domicile is on him who asserts it. The domicile of origin is
more tenacious. "Its character is more enduring, its hold stronger and less easily
shaken off. The burden of proving that a domicile of origin is abandoned is needed
much heavier than in the case of a domicile of choice. No domicile of choice can be
acquired by entering a country illegally. The domicile of choice is a combination of
residence and intention. Residence, which is a physical fact, means bodily presence as
an inhabitant. Such residence must be combined with intention to reside permanently
or for an unlimited time in a country. It is such intention coupled with residence that
acquires him a new domicile. It is immaterial for this purpose that the residence is for
a short duration, provided it is coupled with the requisite state of the mind, namely the
intention to reside there permanently. If a man intends to return to the land of his birth
upon a clearly foreseen and reasonably anticipated contingency, such as, the end of his
studies, he lacks the intention required by law. His tastes, habits, conduct, actions,
ambitions, health, hopes, and projects are keys to his intention. That place is properly
the domicile of a person in which he has voluntarily fixed the habitation of himself
and his family, not for a mere special and temporary purpose, but with a present
intention of making it his permanent home, unless and until something (which is
unexpected or the happening of which is uncertain) shall occur to induce him to adopt
some other permanent home .

The only intention required for a proof of a change of domicile is an intention of


permanent residence. What is required to be established is that the person who is
alleged to have changed his domicile of origin has voluntarily fixed the habitation of
himself and his family in, the, new country, not for a mere special or temporary
purpose, but with a present intention of making it his permanent home. On the
question of domicile at a particular time the course of his conduct and the facts and
circumstances before and after that time are relevant .

(c) Domicile by operation of law. (Married womens domicile).

The rules of Private International Law in India are not codified and are scattered in
different enactments such as the Civil Procedure Code, the Contract Act, the Indian
Succession Act, the Indian Divorce Act, and the Special Marriage Act etc. In addition,
some rules have also been evolved by judicial decisions. In matters of status or legal
capacity of natural persons, matrimonial disputes, custody of children, adoption,
testamentary and intestate succession etc. the problem in this country is complicated
by the fact that there exist different personal laws and no uniform rule can be laid
down for all citizens. The distinction between matters which concern personal and
family affairs and those which concern commercial relationships, civil wrongs etc. is
well recognised in other countries and legal systems. The law in the former area tends
to be primarily determined and influenced by social, moral and religious
considerations, and public policy plays a special and important role in shaping it.
Hence, in almost all the countries the jurisdictional, procedural and substantive rules
that are applied to disputes arising in this area are significantly different from those
applied to claims in other areas. That is as it ought to be. For, no country can afford to
sacrifice its internal unity, stability and tranquility for the sake of uniformity of rules
and comity of nations which considerations are important and appropriate to facilitate
international trade, commerce, industry, communication, transport, exchange of
services, technology, manpower etc. This glaring Tact of national life has been
recognised both by the Hague Convention of 1968 on the Recognition of Divorce and
Legal Separations as well as by the Judgments Convention of the European
Community of the same year. Article 10 of the Hague Convention expressly provides
that the contracting States may refuse to recognise a divorce or legal separation if such
recognition is manifestly incompatible with their public policy. The Judgments
Convention of the European Community expressly excludes from its scope (a) status
or legal capacity of natural persons, (b) rights in property arising out of a matrimonial
relationship, (c) wills and succession, (d) social security, and (e) bankruptcy. A
separate convention was contemplated for the last of the subjects.

We cannot also lose sight of the fact that today more than ever in the past; the need for
definitive rules for recognition of foreign judgments in personal and family matters,
and particularly in matrimonial disputes has surged to the surface. Many a man and
woman of this land with different personal laws have migrated and are migrating to
different countries either to make their permanent abode there or for temporary
residence. Likewise there is also immigration of the nationals of other countries. The
advancement in communication and transportation has also made it easier for
individuals to hop from one country to another. It is also not unusual to come across
cases where citizens of this country have been contracting marriages either in this
country or abroad with nationals of the other countries or among themselves, or
having married here, either both or one of them migrate to other countries. There are
also cases where parties having married here have been either domiciled or residing
separately in different foreign countries. This migration, temporary or permanent, has
also been giving rise to various kinds of matrimonial disputes destroying in its turn the
family and its peace. A large number of foreign decrees in matrimonial matters are
becoming the order of the day.

The jurisdiction assumed by the foreign court as well as the grounds on which the
relief is granted must be in accordance with the matrimonial law under which the
parties are married. The exceptions to this rule may be as follows: (i) where the
matrimonial action is filed in the forum where the respondent is domiciled or
habitually and permanently resides and the relief is granted on a ground available in
the matrimonial law under which the parties are married; (ii) where the respondent
voluntarily and effectively submits to the jurisdiction of the forum as discussed above
and contests the claim which is based on a ground available under the matrimonial
law under which the parties are married; (iii) where the respondent consents to the
grant of the relief although the jurisdiction of the forum is not in accordance with the
provisions of the matrimonial law of the parties.

The aforesaid rule with its stated exceptions has the merit of being just and equitable.
It does no injustice to any of the parties. The parties do and ought to know their rights
and obligations when they marry under a particular law. They cannot be heard to make
a grievance about it later or allowed to bypass it by subterfuges as in the present case.
The rule also has an advantage of rescuing the institution of marriage from the
uncertain maze of the rules of the Private International Law of the different countries
with regard to jurisdiction and merits based variously on domicile, nationality,
residence -- permanent or temporary or ad hoc, forum, proper law etc. and ensuring
certainty in the most vital field of national life and conformity with public policy. The
rule further takes account of the needs of modern life and makes due allowance to
accommodate them. Above all, it gives protection to women, the most vulnerable
section of our society, whatever the strata to which they may belong. In particular it
frees them from the bondage of the tyrannical and servile rule that wife's domicile
follows that of her husband and that it is the husband's domiciliary law, which
determines the jurisdiction and judges the merits of the case .

V. JUDICIAL RESPONSE

In Dr.Pradeep Jain v U.O.I the Supreme Court observed: The entire country is taken
as one nation with one citizenship and every effort of the Constitution makers is
directed towards emphasizing, maintaining and preserving the unity and integrity of
the nation. Now if India is one nation and there is only one citizenship, namely,
citizenship of India, and every citizen has a right to move freely throughout the
territory of India and to reside and settle in any part of India, irrespective of the place
where he is born or the language which he speaks or the religion which he professes
and he is guaranteed freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse throughout the
territory of India and is entitled to equality before the law and equal protection of the
law with other citizens in every part of the territory of India, it is difficult to see how a
citizen having his permanent home in Tamil Nadu or speaking Tamil language can be
regarded as an outsider in Uttar Pradesh or a citizen having his permanent home in
Maharashtra or speaking Marathi language be regarded as an outsider in Karnataka.
He must be held entitled to the same rights as a citizen having his permanent home in
Uttar Pradesh or Karnataka, as the case may be. To regard him as an outsider would
be to deny him his constitutional rights and to derecognise the essential unity and
integrity of the country by treating it as if it were a mere conglomeration of
independent States.
In Dr.Yogesh Bhardwaj v State of U.P the Supreme Court observed: Domicile', being
a private international law concept, is inapposite to the relevant provisions, having no
foreign element, i.e., having no contact with any system of law other than Indian,
unless that expression is understood in a less technical sense. An expression, which
has acquired a special and technical connotation, and developed as a rule of choice or
connecting factor amongst the competing diverse legal systems as to the choice of law
or forum, is, when employed out of context, in situations having no contact with any
foreign system of law, apt to cloud the intended import of the statutory instrument.

In Mr. Louis De Raedt v U.O.I the Supreme Court observed: For the acquisition of a
domicile of choice, it must be shown that the person concerned had a certain State of
mind, the animus manendi. If he claims that he acquired a new domicile at a particular
time, he must prove that he had formed the intention of making his permanent home
in the country of residence and of continuing to reside there permanently. Residence
alone, unaccompanied by this state of mind, is insufficient. The burden to prove that
the petitioners had an intention to stay permanently in India lies on them. The
fundamental right of the foreigner is confined to Article 21 for life and liberty and
does not include the right to reside and settle in this country, as mentioned in Article
19(1)(e), which is applicable only to the citizens of this country. The power of the
Government in India to expel foreigners is absolute and unlimited and there is no
provision in the Constitution fettering this discretion. The legal position on this aspect
is not uniform in all the countries but so far the law that operates in India is
concerned, the Executive Government has unrestricted right to expel a foreigner.

In Y. Narasimha Rao V Y. Venkata Lakshmi the Supreme Court observed: As pointed


out above, the present decree dissolving the marriage passed by the foreign court is
without jurisdiction according to the Act as neither the marriage was celebrated nor
the parties last resided together nor the respondent resided within the jurisdiction of
that court. The decree is also passed on a ground that is not available under the Act,
which is applicable to the marriage. What is further, the decree has been obtained by
appellant 1 by stating that he was the resident of the Missouri State when the record
shows that he was only a bird of passage there and was ordinarily a resident of the
State of Louisiana. He had, if at all, only technically satisfied the requirement of
residence of 90 days with the only purpose of obtaining the divorce. He was neither
domiciled in that State nor had he an intention to make it his home. He had also no
substantial connection with the forum.

VI. CONCLUSION

The law of domicile in India is crystal clear and is free from any ambiguities. The
same is important for resolving the conflict of laws in India. There seems to be an
ignorance of the concept in its true perspective in India. There is an urgent need to
spread public awareness in this regard.