Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

TECHNICAL STANDARDS COMMITTEE

SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS


OF MOBILE OFFSHORE UNITS (MOU)

0016/ND

This document has been replaced by the standard


DNVGL-ST-N002
which may be accessed through https://my.dnvgl.com/
This document may still be valid for some existing projects.
This Guideline was updated as part of the first stage of the harmonisation between the
GL Noble Denton and DNV heritage marine services requirements.
Refer also to DNVGL-SE-0080 Noble Denton marine services Marine Warranty Survey
for further details.
All references to GL Noble Denton apply to the legal entity trading under the DNV GL or GL Noble Denton
name which is contracted to carry out the scope of work and issues a Certificate of Approval, or provides a
marine related advisory or assurance service.

Once downloaded this document becomes UNCONTROLLED.

23 Oct 16 8.1 MJRH Replaced by DNVGL-ST-N002


14 Dec 15 8 MJRH Technical Standards Committee
22 Jun 13 7 MJRH Technical Policy Board
6 Dec 10 6 MJRH Technical Policy Board
31 Mar 10 5 MJRH Technical Policy Board
16 Dec 08 4 MJRH Technical Policy Board
7 Dec 07 3 MJRH Technical Policy Board
1 Mar 03 2 VMM Technical Policy Board
Jan 02 1 VMM Technical Policy Board
Jan 87 0 MJR Technical Policy Board
Date Revision Prepared by Authorised by

http://www.dnvgl.com/
SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

PREFACE

This document has been drawn with care to address what are considered to be the primary issues in relation to the
contents based on the experience of the GL Noble Denton Group of Companies (the Group). This should not,
however, be taken to mean that this document deals comprehensively with all of the issues which will need to be
addressed or even, where a particular matter is addressed, that this document sets out a definitive view for all
situations. In using this document, it should be treated as giving guidelines for sound and prudent practice, but
guidelines must be reviewed in each particular case by the responsible organisation in each project to ensure that
the particular circumstances of that project are addressed in a way which is adequate and appropriate to ensure that
the overall guidance given is sound and comprehensive.
Reasonable precaution has been taken in the preparation of this document to seek to ensure that the content is
correct and error free. However, no company in the Group
shall be liable for any loss or damage incurred resulting from the use of the information contained herein or
shall voluntarily assume a responsibility in tort to any party or
shall owe a duty of care to any party other than to its contracting customer entity (subject always to the terms
of contract between such Group company and subcontracting customer entity).

This document must be read in its entirety and is subject to any assumptions and qualifications expressed therein as
well as in any other relevant communications by the Group in connection with it. Elements of this document contain
detailed technical data which is intended for analysis only by persons possessing requisite expertise in its subject
matter.

2015 Noble Denton Group Limited. The content of this document is the copyright of Noble Denton Group Limited.
All rights reserved. Any reproduction in other material must have written permission. Extracts may be reproduced
provided that their origin is clearly referenced.

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 2 of 16


SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

CONTENTS
SECTION PAGE NO.
1 INTRODUCTION 4
2 DATA REQUIREMENTS 6
2.1 General Requirements 6
2.2 Geophysical Investigations 6
2.3 Geotechnical Investigations 8
REFERENCES 16

TABLES
Table 2-1 Foundation Risks, Methods for Evaluation and Prevention 11
Table 2-2 Details of Resolution and Approximate Penetrations of Different Geophysical Data Acquisition
Methods 12
Table 2-3 In-Situ and Laboratory Soil Testing 13

FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Site Investigation Requirements for Mobile Offshore Units (MOUs) 10
Figure 2.2 Jack-Up Site Survey Line Pattern 14
Figure 2.3 Moored Vessel Site Survey Line Pattern 15

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 3 of 16


SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 These guidelines describe the seabed and sub-seabed data required by GL Noble Denton to assess
the suitability of locations for independent leg and mat-supported jack-up units, other mobile units
operating on the seabed, and anchor installation and performance assessments for floating units.
1.2 Good knowledge of the soil conditions is required for the design and assessment of the following types
of mobile unit and drilling operations:
Jack-up (independent leg and mat) units
Submersible units and barges on the seabed
Anchoring of moored units (or jack-ups moving near platforms or for stand-off locations)
Conductor / casing setting for any MOU type
Initial spudding of drilling equipment, including guidebase stability, from any MOU type
Top-hole drilling.

1.3 It is not feasible to produce a rigorous procedure applicable to all current and future operating areas;
and, for this reason, these guidelines are not intended to overrule or contradict local experience or
knowledge. Additionally, there are from time to time likely to be exceptional cases in which the stated
guidelines would be inappropriate.
1.4 The purpose of the site survey is to provide data with which to evaluate potential foundation hazards.
1.5 These guidelines are intended to lead, in part, to an approval by GL Noble Denton. Such approval
does not imply that approval by designers, regulatory bodies, harbour authorities and/or any other
party would be given.
1.6 Geophysical data alone are insufficient to perform a site specific assessment of the foundation
conditions and should be complimented by geotechnical data.
1.7 These guidelines should be read in conjunction with current versions of the following:
a. 0001/ND General Guidelines for Marine Projects, Ref. [1]
b. 0009/ND Guidelines for Site Specific Assessments of Jack-Ups, Ref. [2]
c. 0032/ND Guidelines for Moorings, Ref. [3].

1.8 Electronic versions of GL Noble Denton Guidelines are available on:


https://www.dnvgl.com/rules-standards/noble-denton-maa-rules-and-guidelines.html 8

Care should be taken when referring to any GL Noble Denton Guideline document that the latest
revision is being consulted.
1.9 This guideline does not provide specific guidance on the seabed and sub-seabed data required for
fixed offshore structures. However, it is noted that most of the requirements detailed herein are
applicable for assessing the suitability of locations for the initial emplacement of fixed (non-piled)
seabed structures.
1.10 Revision 2 incorporated minor changes to the text.
1.11 Revision 3 superseded and replaced Revision 2 dated March 2003 and incorporated minor changes to
the text.
1.12 Revision 4 superseded and replaced Revision 3 dated December 2007. This Revision included
reformatting and removal of references to NDI (Noble Denton International).
1.13 Revision 5 superseded and replaced Revision 4. The only change was rebranding as GL Noble
Denton.
1.14 Revision 6 superseded and replaced Revision 5. The changes were:
Further details provided on the investigation and requirements in Section 2.3.1.
Modifications to Table 2-1 and Table 2-3.

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 4 of 16


SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

1.15 Revision 7 superseded and replaced Revision 6. The main changes, were the adding of:
the reference to OGP Geomatics Guidance note 18-1 Guidelines for the conduct of offshore
drilling hazard site surveys, Ref. [4], in Section 2.1
guidance on validity of seabed surface surveys for moored units in Section 2.2.4.2.
soil sampling depths for anchors in Section 2.3.1.5.
foundation inspections after storms or settlement in Table 2-1.

1.16 This Revision 8 supersedes and replaces Revision 7. The main changes, marked with a vertical line in
the right hand margin, are:
New Section 2.2.1 on Geophysical Investigations
Additional giuidance for shallow seismic surveys / sub-bottom profiling in Section 2.2.5.
More guidance on survey line spacing in Section 2.3
New Ref. [7], ISO 19901-7:2013 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Specific requirements
8
for offshore structures Part 7: Stationkeeping systems for floating offshore structures and
mobile offshore units in Sections 2.3.1.2 and 2.3.1.8
New Ref. [8] ISO 19901-8:2014 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Specific requirements
for offshore structures Part 8: Marine soil investigations, in Section 2.3.1.8;
Additional risks in Table 2-1.
Removal of the old Table 2-3 Details of Possible Soil Surveys for a Jack-up installation

1.17 Please contact the Technical Standards Committee Secretary at TSC@dnvgl.com with any queries or
feedback.

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 5 of 16


SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

2 DATA REQUIREMENTS
2.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Figure 2.1 presents the general site investigation requirements for MOUs. Table 2-1 summarises
various foundation risks relevant to MOUs that require investigation during a location assessment.
Further hazard impacts are listed in OGP Geomatics Guidance Note 18-1 Guidelines for the conduct
of offshore drilling hazard site surveys, Ref. [4]. Methods for evaluating these risks and procedures
for minimising and/or preventing these risks from occurring are also summarised in Table 2-1.
2.1.1 LOCATION CO-ORDINATES
The co-ordinates of the location expressed in terms of degrees, minutes and seconds of latitude and
longitude are required. Latitude and longitude co-ordinates should be given to at least two, or
preferably three, decimal places of precision and should also include details of the Datum and
Projection used (e.g. International Spheroid, European Datum 1950 (ED50), WGS84, etc.).
2.1.2 LOCATION WATER DEPTH
The water depth at the location, referred to Chart Datum (CD) or Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT), is
required.
2.2 GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS
2.2.1 REQUIREMENT 8
2.2.1.1 Geophysical site surveys are necessary for the reliable prediction of anchoring / foundation conditions
and the identification of potential geohazards and seabed obstructions (such as wrecks, anchor scars,
shallow gas pockmarks, mud volcanoes, etc.).
2.2.2 SURVEY LINE SPACING
2.2.2.1 The survey line spacing is a function of the water depth, key objectives of the site survey and the
nature of the intended MOU. Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3 show typical survey line plans for a jack-up
and a moored vessel. These line plans are for guidance only and should be modified to meet the
survey needs and the local foundation conditions. Guidance on appropriate survey line spacing is
provided in Table 3 of the OGPs Guidelines for the conduct of offshore drilling hazard site surveys 8
(Ref. [4]).
2.2.2.2 For units where the seabed topography and/or shallow soils are complex then additional survey lines
at a narrower spacing may be necessary in the immediate vicinity of the proposed mat or spudcan or
anchor positions.
2.2.2.3 For floating units, where anchors are to be deployed, the survey area should encompass the expected
limit of any anchor position plus 1 km.
2.2.3 BATHYMETRIC SURVEY
2.2.3.1 An appropriate bathymetric survey should be supplied for an area of approximately 1 km squared
centred on the proposed location. Line spacing of the survey should be typically not greater than 100
metres x 250 metres over the survey area. For independent leg units with large foundations and mat
units, interlining is to be performed within an area 200 metres x 200 metres centred on the location.
This should be complemented by at least two orthogonal lines running 1 km in each direction from the
proposed location. Interlining should have spacing not exceeding 25 metres x 50 metres.
2.2.3.2 Interlining should be performed if any irregularities are detected.
2.2.4 SEABED SURFACE SURVEYS
2.2.4.1 Seabed surface survey shall be completed utilising side scan sonar, swathe bathymetry and high
resolution echosounder techniques1. The survey should be of sufficient competency to identify
obstructions and seabed features and should cover the immediate area of the intended location
(normally a 1 km square). The slant range selection shall give a minimum of 100% overlap between
adjacent lines. Each site survey for a jack-up should include a magnetometer survey to identify any
buried pipelines, cables or other metallic debris located below the mudline. A magnetometer survey is
considered less crucial for anchored floating MOU installations, however should the presence of any

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 6 of 16


SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

pipelines, cables or other metallic debris be anticipated at a location, a magnetometer survey should
be performed in the areas where the mooring system is in, on, or adjacent to, the seabed.
1 Swathe bathymetry is now available in portable units and is installed on most survey vessels so should be used
as standard on all survey projects. Due to constraints imposed by calibration and processing requirements
(single point obstructions may be removed in processing), conventional high-resolution bathymetry and side scan
sonar should be run in conjunction.
2.2.4.2 Seabed surface surveys can become out-of-date, particularly in areas of construction/drilling activity or
areas with mobile sediments. As a general rule, most site surveys will become out-of-date after six
months and will require the sidescan sonar and swathe bathymetry to be re-run. For moored units in
areas without seabed mobility and where there has been no known activity that could result in seabed
hazards in the areas of interest a longer validity period may be considered, but not normally longer
than two years.
2.2.4.3 At locations where a jack-up will be operating in close proximity to existing installations, an additional
seabed survey should be carried out immediately prior to the jack-up installation.
2.2.5 SHALLOW SEISMIC SURVEYS / SUB-BOTTOM PROFILING
2.2.5.1 The principal aim of the seismic survey is to reveal the general near-surface geological structure and
indicate reflectors which may represent a change in soil characteristics and/or stratigraphy. This
requires the correlation of the seismic data with soil boring(s) (existing) in the vicinity. Shallow seismic
data may also reveal any shallow gas that may be present at a particular location.
2.2.5.2 The seismic acquisition equipment should be capable of identifying reflectors that are 0.5m thick and
thicker to a depth greater than or equal to 30m below mudline or the anticipated footing penetration 8
plus 1.5 times the footing diameter. Drop cores / grab samples are also required to assist in
geophysical interpretation.
2.2.5.3 The report should include, but not be limited to, at least two vertical cross-sections passing through the
drilling location showing all relevant reflectors and allied information. Due to the qualitative nature of
seismic surveys it is rarely possible to conduct analytical foundation appraisals (jack-up leg penetration
analyses or well conductor / casing design) based purely on the data obtained (see ISO 19905-1, Ref.
[6]).
2.2.5.4 Line spacing of the survey should, typically, not be greater than 100 metres x 250 metres over the
survey area.
2.2.5.5 The shallow seismic survey shall be interpreted by the competent persons who were responsible for
performing the work. In the interpretation every effort should be made to comment on the soil type(s)
and strength(s); this will require correlation with a borehole in the vicinity of the survey and some
degree of local experience.
2.2.5.6 If any signs of gas seepage or new pockmarks are identified on the seabed, or if the location is in an
area where a previous survey has indicated the presence of shallow gas, it is recommended that a 8
new shallow seismic survey is performed if the existing shallow seismic survey is more than six months
old.
2.2.5.7 It should be noted that a high-resolution geophysical survey alone would not provide adequate
information to assess jack-up mat or leg penetration and the potential for punch-through.
2.2.5.8 Furthermore, exploration 3D seismic data is not a substitute for sub bottom profiler data for the
identification and mapping of shallow geology and hazards in the top 100m of the seabed and should 8
not be considered as a replacement for a site survey for bottom-founded units, e.g. jack-ups (Ref. [4]).
2.2.6 GEOPHYSICAL DATA ACQUISITION
Details of resolution and approximate penetrations of different geophysical data acquisition techniques
are provided in Table 2-2.

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 7 of 16


SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

2.3 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS


2.3.1 REQUIREMENTS
2.3.1.1 Site-specific geotechnical data acquisition is recommended at locations where:
no relevant geotechnical data is available, or
the foundation conditions are known to be potentially hazardous (possible layered
strata), or
the shallow seismic data cannot be interpreted with certainty.

2.3.1.2 The number of boreholes required at a site should take account of the potential lateral variability of the
soil conditions, regional experience and the geophysical investigation. The number, depth and location
of the boreholes required at a jack-up location should follow the recommendations provided in Clause
A.6.5.1.5 and Annex D of ISO 19905-1:2012 (Ref. [6]). Guidance is provided in Clause A.7.2.3 of ISO
19901-7:2013 (Ref. [7]) for floating units.
8
2.3.1.3 In certain limited circumstances a borehole may not be required if no potential hazards exist and there
is sufficient relevant historical data and/or geophysical tie lines linking the proposed location to existing
nearby geotechnical borehole locations. It is noted that such information is only be acceptable where
the soil strata can be reliably correlated between the two locations. Where soil layer characteristics
vary appreciably along the tie-line, or layers exist at the proposed location that were not encountered
at the existing borehole, site-specific geotechnical information should be acquired.
2.3.1.4 For jack-ups, the geotechnical investigation should comprise a minimum of one borehole to a depth of
30 metres below the seafloor or the anticipated penetration depth plus 1.5 times the spudcan diameter,
whichever is greater (Ref. [6]). The site investigation contractor or the client representative should
ensure that the borehole depth satisfies this requirement prior to termination of the borehole. GL
Noble Denton can provide this assurance by performing a "real time" spudcan penetration analysis
during the site investigations. Conservative assumptions must be made if the data obtained is limited
at the time of the penetration analysis (i.e. limited laboratory test data) in order to ensure that the
borehole is sufficiently deep and in case further data obtained from the soil samples indicate lower
strengths or subsequent analysis indicate deeper predicted penetrations.
Note that GL Noble Denton will only confirm that a borehole has been progressed to sufficient
depth on the basis of calculations performed by one of GL Noble Dentons geotechnical
engineers for the particular jack-up unit(s) being assessed. The final borehole depth may,
however, be inadequate for subsequent assessments of units that apply higher preload bearing
pressures.
2.3.1.5 If anchor holding is critical then consideration should be given to obtaining and testing soil samples at
specific anchor locations. For drag embedment anchors the minimum survey depth should be:
2 x fluke length in sand (typically up to 8 to 10 metres)
8 x fluke length in very soft clay (typically up to 20 to 30 metres).
Deeper and more comprehensive sampling may be needed for anchor piles or suction anchors.
2.3.1.6 All layers shall be adequately investigated, including any transition zones between strata, such that the
geotechnical properties of all layers are known with confidence and that there are no significant gaps
(usually not more than 0.5m) in the site investigation record.
2.3.1.7 The site investigation report should include borehole logs, results of laboratory tests and piezocone
penetrometer test (PCPT) records (when acquired), together with interpreted geotechnical soil
parameters.
2.3.1.8 Recommendations on the reporting of sampling, in-situ tests and laboratory tests can be found in
8
Annex G of ISO 19901-8 (Ref. [8]).
2.3.1.9 The borehole logs should include, as a minimum, the soil stratigraphy, all laboratory shear strength
measurements (clays), undrained shear strength (clays) or relative density (sands) profiles inferred
from PCPT, moisture content, unit weight and Atterberg Limits. Additionally the cone tip resistance
corrected for pore pressure effects shall be presented on the borehole log. These should be plotted on
the same page and on appropriate scales.

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 8 of 16


SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

2.3.1.10 The results of the cone penetration tests shall also be presented separately in terms of graphs giving
the cone tip resistance (both measured values and values corrected for pore pressure effects), local
sleeve friction and pore pressure versus depth. Additionally the friction ratio and the pore pressure
8
ratio shall be presented. The electronic data should also be provided in ASCII, or similar, format.
2.3.1.11 A geotechnically competent person shall be responsible for determining the appropriate geotechnical
soil parameters. For spudcan penetration analyses and anchor holding assessments the site
investigation report should include as a minimum:
a. profiles of undrained shear strength (su) versus depth for cohesive soils (clays) and the
corresponding stress-strain curve and cell pressure of the triaxial compression test;
b. effective stress strength parameters () for cohesionless soils (sands);
c. both measured and interpreted piezocone penetration test (PCPT) records (when acquired);
d. appropriate soil classification tests including Atterberg limits (clays), water contents, particle
size distributions, unit weights, relative densities (sands), sensitivity (clays), carbonate contents
(carbonate soil), etc.;
e. The overconsolidation ratio (OCR) for cohesive soils should be determined, particularly where
foundation fixity is an issue.

2.3.1.12 Where more comprehensive analyses are required, additional laboratory testing to determine the
cyclic/dynamic behaviour and shear moduli of the soils may be required. Such analyses are more
likely for suction piles and gravity base structures or for sensitive soils where the soil strength is
anticipated to reduce significantly during cyclic loading.
2.3.2 SAMPLING / TESTING
2.3.2.1 The site investigation should comprise undisturbed soil sampling and/or piezocone penetrometer
testing or a combination of the two methods. Table 2-3 presents general guidelines on soil surveying,
sampling, and testing.

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 9 of 16


SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

ESTABLISH STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS

ASSIMILATE AVAILABLE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL FIELD


DATA AND COMPARE WITH HISTORICAL MOU PERFORMANCE
DESK STUDY

GEOPHYSICAL SITE SURVEY REQUIREMENTS

JACK-UPS MOORED VESSELS


ESSENTIAL 1 km x 1 km SURVEY (CENTRED ON ESSENTIAL SURVEY OVER MOORING LINE
PROSPECT) INCLUDING: SPREAD AREA, INCLUDING:
BATHYMETRY (echo sounder, tuned transducer BATHYMETRY (echo sounder, tuned transducer
and swathe techniques) and swathe techniques)
SITE CLEARANCE / SIDE SCAN SONAR SIDESCAN SONAR SURVEY (conventional or
SURVEY (conventional or swath, ROV survey, swathe)
scanning radar imagery or divers walk SUB-BOTTOM PROFILING & SHALLOW GAS
depending on field experience) SURVEY (pinger, boomer, sparker, airgun etc.)
MAGNETOMETER SURVEY (buried metallic MAGNETOMETER SURVEY (buried metallic
objects) objects) if considered necessary in the areas
SUB-BOTTOM PROFILING & SHALLOW GAS where the mooring system is in, on, or adjacent
SURVEY (pinger, boomer, sparker, airgun etc.) to, the seabed.
DROP CORES / GRAB SAMPLES (to assist in DROP CORES / GRAB SAMPLES (to assist in
geophysical interpretation) geophysical interpretation)

OPTIONAL SURVEY REQUIREMENTS


3D SUB-BOTTOM PROFILING (reduction in resolution but increased geological interpretation)
SHALLOW GAS SURVEY DIGITAL PROCESSING (AVO / attribute analyses techniques)

WHERE SURVEYS CANNOT BE INTERPRETED WITH CERTAINTY & USED TO CONFIRM THE
SAFETY OF THE SITE, OR IN GEOTECHNICALLY PROBLEMATIC OR NEW OPERATING AREAS, THE
FOLLOWING IS REQUIRED

JACK-UPS
SITE INVESTIGATION (SI) PROGRAMME IN
ADVANCE OF FIELD DEVELOPMENT FOR MOORED VESSELS
JACK-UP OPERATIONS AND DESIGN OF
OFFSHORE FACILITIES SITE INVESTIGATION (SI) PROGRAMMED
SINGLE OR MULTIPLE BOREHOLE IN ADVANCE OF FIELD DEVELOPMENT
INVESTIGATION USING A DEDICATED FOR MOORED VESSELS OPERATIONS
GEOTECHNICAL VESSEL AND DESIGN OF OFFSHORE FACILITIES
BOREHOLE SI FROM THE JACK-UP WHILE BOREHOLE / PCPT / VIBROCORE
ON LOCATION (at reduced draft in benign INVESTIGATION USING SPECIALIST
VESSEL
conditions; if it is necessary to skid the
cantilever, then some initial preload is required) NOTES:
NOTES: ADEQUATE GEOTECHNICAL DATA WILL BE
THE BOREHOLE SHOULD BE ADVANCED TO REQUIRED FOR ANCHOR INSTALLATION AND
THE GREATER OF 30M AND THE ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS
SPUDCAN PENETRATION DEPTH PLUS 1.5 x
THE SPUDCAN DIAMETER.
THE INVESTIGATION MAY REQUIRE VANE
TESTS (gas-charged materials) AND / OR
PIEZOCONE TESTS (PCPTs) (layered, sensitive or
cemented materials)

APPROPRIATE AND ADEQUATE SITE DATA SHOULD BE ACQUIRED TO ENSURE SAFE MOU
INSTALLATION AND OPERATION

Figure 2.1 Site Investigation Requirements for Mobile Offshore Units (MOUs)

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 10 of 16


SEABED AND SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

Table 2-1 Foundation Risks, Methods for Evaluation and Prevention


Risk Methods for Evaluation and Prevention
Installation problems Bathymetric survey / Seabed surface survey
Punch-through Shallow seismic survey
Geotechnical site investigation and soil testing
Bearing capacity analyses to assess risk of punch-through
Adopt a cautious approach to preloading at the site
Adopt a reduced preload, if appropriate.
Settlement under storm loading / Shallow seismic survey, geotechnical site investigation and soil testing
bearing failure Bearing capacity analyses to assess risk of settlement / bearing failure
Ensure adequate jack-up preload capacity
Sliding failure Shallow seismic survey
Geotechnical site investigation and soil testing
Increase vertical footing reaction (sand foundation)
Modify the geometry of the footing(s)
Scour Bathymetric survey (identify sand waves)
Sample surficial seabed soils (particle size distributions)
Assess seabed currents
Analysis to assess potential for scour
Inspect foundations regularly and immediately after storm events or the
detection of settlement
Install scour protection (gravel bag/artificial seaweed)
Increase spudcan penetration
Geohazards Seabed surface survey
(turbidite flows and mud volcanoes) Shallow seismic survey
Soil sampling and other geotechnical testing and analysis
Gas pockets / shallow gas Geophysical survey
Faults Geophysical survey
Metal or other object, sunken wreck, Magnetometer and seabed survey
anchors, pipelines, etc. Diver/ROV inspection
Local holes (depressions) in seabed, Side scan sonar
reefs, pinnacle rocks or wooden wreck Diver/ROV inspection
Legs extraction problems Geotechnical site investigation and soil testing
Consider change in footing geometry
Jetting / eductor pipe / airlifting
Adverse spudcan-seabed interactions Seabed surface survey (footprints, disturbance)
Shallow seismic survey (buried channels)
Seabed modification 8
Seabed gradient Seabed surface survey
Seabed modification
Footprints of previous jack-ups Evaluate location records
Consider orientating jack-up to minimise spudcan-footprint interaction
Consider seabed remediation:
Stomping
Dredging
Dredging and infilling
Subsea podium

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 11 of 16


SEABED & SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

Table 2-2 Details of Resolution and Approximate Penetrations of Different Geophysical Data Acquisition Methods
Instrument
Survey Required Instruments Scale of Survey Mesh (m) Transmission Penetration (m) Resolution
Frequency

Bathymetry Echo Sounder


Side Scan Sonar 30 to 50 Hz 0 Better than 1m
(Swathe)
Morphology Side Scan Sonar
200 x 400 30 to 100 Hz Obstacles smaller than 1m
Swathe Bathymetry
Extent of Zone or
High Resolution Sparker Depending on 200 x 200 200 to 1500 Hz Approx. 100m Approx. 2m
First 50-100m Geological Structure
Boomer or 1 to 10 kHz 50 to 100 Approx. 1 to 1.5m
Pinger Probe 100 x 100 2.5 to 9 kHz 20 to 40 Approx. 1 to 1.5m
High Resolution Air Gun
500 1000m Water Gun 10 to 300 Hz Approx. 1,000 Approx. 100m
Shallow Gas Mini-Flexichoc

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 12 of 16


SEABED & SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS
Table 2-3 In-Situ and Laboratory Soil Testing
Testing Environment Soil Test Soil Property
Visual description
Soil Classification Tests Water content, w
Unit weight,
Torvane, motorvane, pocket penetrometer1 Undrained shear strength, su
Unconsolidated Undrained Triaxial Test (UU) Undrained shear strength, su
By direct measurement:
cone resistance, qc; sleeve friction, fs; and pore pressure, u
Using correlations:
In situ
Piezocone Penetration Test (PCPT), Ball Penetrometer Soil classification
Test (BPT), T-Bar Test Relative density, DR (cohesionless soils)
Undrained shear strength, su (including Nkt factors used)
Effective stress friction angle,
Others (e.g. overconsolidation ratio OCR, Elastic Modulus E)
Field Vane Shear Test Undrained shear strength, su
Effective horizontal stress and stress history
Pressuremeter
Shear strength parameters
Water content, w
Atterberg limits (cohesive soils)
Soil Classification Tests Unit weight,
Particle size distribution
Relative density, DR (cohesionless soils)
Laboratory Unconfined Compression Test Undrained shear strength, su
Torvane, motorvane, pocket penetrometer Undrained shear strength, su
Triaxial Test Shear strength parameters, su,
Stress history (OCR)
Oedometer (1-D consolidation)
Consolidation properties

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 13 of 16


SEABED & SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

3 km

1 km

50 m 100 m

100 m

50 m

N.B. Additional infill lines to 25 metre


spacing may be required around PROPOSED LOCATION
the location

Not to Scale

Figure 2.2 Jack-Up Site Survey Line Pattern


(source: UKOOA Guidelines for conduct of mobile drilling rig site surveys, Vol. 2 Issue 1, Ref. [5])

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 14 of 16


SEABED & SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

150 m

500 m

PROPOSED LOCATION
NB: Area to be surveyed is dependent upon
water depth.
Anchor Spread requirements must be
known prior to selection of area
Not to Scale

Figure 2.3 Moored Vessel Site Survey Line Pattern


(source: UKOOA Guidelines for conduct of mobile drilling rig site surveys, Vol 2 Issue 1, Ref [5])

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 15 of 16


SEABED & SUB-SEABED DATA REQUIRED FOR APPROVALS OF MOUS

REFERENCES

[1] GL Noble Denton 0001/ND General Guidelines for Marine Projects


[2] GL Noble Denton 0009/ND Guidelines for Elevated Operations of Jack-Ups
[3] GL Noble Denton 0032/ND Guidelines for Moorings.
[4] OGP Geomatics Guidance note 18-1 Guidelines for the conduct of offshore drilling hazard site surveys, April
2013, Version 1.2.
[5] UKOOA Guidelines for conduct of mobile drilling rig site surveys, Vol 2 Issue 1, April 1997 (no longer
published but the source of Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3)
[6] ISO 19905-1:2012 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Site-specific assessment of mobile offshore units -
Part 1: Jack-ups
[7] ISO 19901-7:2013 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Specific requirements for offshore structures
Part 7: Stationkeeping systems for floating offshore structures and mobile offshore units
[8] ISO 19901-8:2014 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Specific requirements for offshore structures
Part 8: Marine soil investigations 8

GL Noble Denton Guidelines are available on:


https://www.dnvgl.com/rules-standards/noble-denton-maa-rules-and-guidelines.html

0016/ND Rev 8 Page 16 of 16