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2.

: . . , ..-. (
,
)

: . . , - .-. , (
,
)

1. ...
2
2. 12
3.
14
4. 17
5. 17
1 19
2 22
3 24
2.5


( )
.

,
-4, ,
, .

1. .

,
, 1 ,
:

Q = C , (1)

Q , ;
T ,
C .
, ,

. Q
T
( v, P . .) .
,
.
Cv Cp
(v = const) (P = const),
(U

2
; H ; S )
:

Cv = T(S/T)v = (U/T)v, Cp = T(S/T)p = (H/T)p.


[/()].

[/()], . . ,
(). 1 N = 6,0221023
/ ( ),
/.
[/()]
[/()]
.
,
, Cp. Cv
.
. -

,
, . .
v = const . ,


, .
: (P
v) . Cp
v .
, v Cp

2
C p Cv = vT > 0, (2)
T

3
1 dv

= ,
v dT
1 dv
= .
T v dP
1 , ,
2

vT = R = 8.314... /( ) .

T

.
( )
D ( ), Cv
: CvD = 3R = const.
. D
.

D , C p , ( ) , ( )
=273 = =273 =
Li 352 24,9 29,8 86,7 75,2

Be 1160 16,5 30,0 199,8 69,8(1400 K)

Al 423 24,4 33,9 237 208

Ti 426 25,4 40,9 22,3 33,1

Fe 457 25,1 45,0 79,9 35,0

Ni 476 26,0 36,7 90,4 69,0

4
Cu 342 24,5 33,4 401 317

Mo 259 23,9 55,1 139,8 89,7

W 388 24,3 49,8 162,8 99,0

Ta 247 25,3 46,0 55,2 87,0

Ag 228 25,4 32,0 430,0 361,0(1200 K)

Au 165 25,3 33,3 317,7 257,0

Pt 234 25,9 35,0 71,7 81,5(2000 K)

Pb 102 26,4 29,5 35,1 31,6

Sn 236 27,1 26,9 66,6 60,3

5
D (
,
(. ) Cp Cv, . ( ,

,
)
Cp Cv , ,
, ,
(2). ,


Cp(T),

.
Ce eT. e
/(2) Ce v
(
, Cv ~ T3 Cv < Ce ).

.
, /( )

1500
Tc

T
1000 D T T

500

500 1000 1500 2000


,

.1. :
D ;
;
;

6
,

. C p (T )
.
. 1 C p (T )
.
,
-

, ,

.
, ()
() .
.
T0
() ,
,
, 0C (
,
0C).
(
0C T0)
(
333.7 /),
.
, ,
. (,

.) , ,
,

.

7
,
, , . .
.
,
. (
)
Rt = Rt(T). ,

, . .
.
( 2.6 2.7)
.

(
),
(~0.1 %), (
10-3 ). ,
,

. .

, ,
, ,
. .

.

.


(
).
:
( ), (
) ( ).
,
,

8
.
,

.

, (, )
.
()
(),
(
):

dq = (Tw T)ds, (3)

[/(2)],
, (
), ,
, ,
(); Tw ; T
() (

()
T); ds ;
dq ds.

( ,
).

r r
q = T , (4)
r
q [/2];
[/()]; T = T(x ,y, z)
. ( ,
).

9
T = T(x):

dT
q = . (5)
dx

(5) ,
(x = x0) T(x0) = T0,
(x = x1 > x0) T(x1) = T1 > T0,
:

T1 T0
T ( x ) = T0 + ( x x0 ) ,
x1 x0

T1 T0 T
q = = .
x1 x0 x

,
, .

,
,
.
.
, ,
.
,
, ,

. .

10
( )

( -):

IT = n2T4 (6)

= 5.6710-8 /(2) -;
n ;
n 1.

( )
:

IT = n2T4 (7)

(7) (6)
0 < < 1,
, ,
(7) .
, .
,
, .
.


T = T. ,
Tw, ,
() S
:
P = n2S(Tw4 T4). (8)

11
2.

, T0,
( )
T < T0, ,
(.
).
(
) ,
mCp (.
). ,
,
.
,
, . . .
. -
, ,
, . .
. -,

,

.

:
(qc = ST) -
(qw = S(Tw T) + S(T4w
T4)).

ST = S(Tw T) + S(T4w T4) (1.1)

S .
T~ 1000 K
,
1 . ,

12
= 10 /(2) (, , .470).

T l0 (
l0 = ). ,
Tw 1000 K, T 300 , l0 2 : T ~ 1.3103/.
,
T ~ 3 K, T ~ 20 K,
T ~ 40 K.

(~3-5% 100 ).

, .
, Cp = const
12 %. 4-
. ,

(
), 18% (
8%). T0 800 K
.

<10 %
( ). ,

,
:

dT
mC p = q, (1.2)
d

q ,
(1.1).

13
dT
m C =q

(1.3)
d

,

, q = q. ,
(1.2) (1.3),

m dT dT
p = C p (1.4)
m d d

3.

4-
(
) 12-
-4.
.
.
( ). ,

.
( )

. ,
15
30 ().
.
: 4
4 .
.
( ).
(), ,

14
.
.

.
.
,
.
700 0.
(
- ).
,

23 (
) ,
.
.

,

.

.
,
.
( ,
) .
, , .


Cp(T).
(1.4)
(. .).

15

T,K Cp,/(.) T,K Cp,/(.)


300 24,465 700 27,013
400 25,272 800 27,509
500 25,927 900 28,068
600 26,492 1 000 28,685

16
4.

.

. .

.
, .
.

.
.
, .
,
.

5.

1. ?
.
2. ?
, ?

17

1. . ., . . ,
. 2-, . . . .: , 1977.
2. . ., . . . .
. 3-, . . . .: , 1975
3. . . .: , 1982.

18
1

R ,
,
, R >> R1 , R2 , Rt (
(. 2) ).
:

J1 + J 2 = J 00 ,

J1 (R1 + R ) = J 0 (R2 + Rt ) , (1)

J 0 Rt J1 R = U .

(1): J 00 - ; J1 -
R1 , R ; J 0 - R2 , Rt .
J 0 Rt :

R1 J 00 U
J0 = ; (2)
R1 + R2

R2 U (R1 + R ) (1 + R 2 R1 )
Rt = R+ . (3)
R1 R1 J 00 U

J 00 = J 00
(. . U = 0 ). (2) (3)

J 0 = J 00 (1 + R2 R1 ) ; (4)

19
R2
Rt (0) = R, (5)
R1

: Rt (0) Rt ( = 0 ) Rt (T0 )

i = J 0 J 0 .
, , Rt .
Rt ( ) Rt (0 ) << Rt (0 ) .
(3) (5)
U R1 J 00 :

U Rt ( ) Rt (0 )
= .
R1 J 00 (R1 + R ) (1 + R2 R1 ) + Rt ( ) Rt (0)

R2 R1 = 10 2 . R 100 Rt ,
,

U R ( ) Rt (0) R ( ) Rt (0 )
< t 10 2 t << 1 .

R1 J 00 R Rt (0)

, U (3)
:

R2 (R1 + R ) (1 + R2 R1 )
Rt ( ) R U (6)
R1 R1 J 00

( , (6)
(Rt ( ) Rt (0)) / Rt (0) ~ 40% .)

20
(5) (6) :

R2
Rt ( ) R = Rt ( ) Rt (0) = Rt' (T0 ) (T T0 ) .
R1

dT (R1 + R ) (1 + R2 R1 ) dU
= .
d J 00 R1 Rt' d

21
2



.
. ,
C p (T ) ,
. ,
, ,

. ,

.
N
(T1,T2TN)
(p(T1),Cp(T2)Cp(TN)).

Cp(T) = a0 + a1 (T T0),


Cp(T1).
ai
:

S = {a0 + a1 (Ti T0 ) C p (Ti )} ,


N
2

i =1

Ti , C p (Ti ) - .
S a0 = 0 S a1 = 0 .

22
ai
T0

N
1
T0 = T =
N
T .
i =1
i

1 N C pT C p T
a0 = C p =
N
C (T )
i =1
p i a1 =
T 2 T 2
,

N N
1 1
C pT =
N
C p (Ti )Ti , T 2 =
i =1 N
T
i =1
i
2
.

T0 = 0 ,

T 2 C p T C pT C pT C pT
a0 = , a1 = .
T 2 T 2 T2 T 2

23
3

(T ) = 1.907 + 30.28 103T 22.55 106 T 2 +


+ 82.48 109 T 3 ,
100 K < T < 620 K .

(T ) = 1.968 + 63.74 103 T 25.90 106 T 2 +


+ 5.41 10 9 T 3 ,
650 K < T < 1700 K .

1.3
T T T T
(T ) = 127.06 c 104.5 c ,
Tc Tc
T < Tc = 629.635 K
0.9
T Tc T Tc
(T ) = 48.41 34.61 ,
Tc Tc
T > Tc = 629.635K

(T ) 108 = 2.116 + 24.1 103 T + 3.05 106 T 2 0.22 109 T 3 ,


293K < T < 3653K

24

108 d dT 10 R (T ) d, p ,
,
/ R (300) 3

300 5,383 0,0259 1 19,26 24,34


400 7,998 0,0264 1,486 19,23 24,97
500 10,669 0,0270 1,982 19,21 25,44
600 13,394 0,0275 2,488 19,18 25,87
700 16,173 0,0280 3,004 19,15 26,27
800 19,003 0,0286 3,530 19,12 26,64
900 21,884 0,0291 4,065 19,10 27,01
1 000 24,814 0,0295 4,610 19,07 27,36
1 100 27,792 0,0300 5,163
1 200 30,816 0,0305 5,725 19,01 28,07
1 300 33,885 0,0309 6,295
1 400 36,998 0,0313 6,873 18,95 28,83
1 500 40,154 0,0318 7,459
1 600 43,351 0,0322 8,053 18,89 29,67
1 700 46,538 0,0326 8,645
1 800 49,863 0,0329 9,263 18,82 30,63
1 900 53,175 0,0333 9,878
2 000 56,524 0,0337 10,500 18,72 31,73
2 100 59,907 0,0340 11,129
2 200 63,323 0,0343 11,764 33,04
2 300 66,772 0,0346 12,404
2 400 70,251 0,0349 13,051 34,56
2 500 73,759 0,0352 13,702
2 600 77,295 0,0355 14,359 36,37
2 700 80,858 0,0358 15,021
2 800 84,447 0,0360 15,688 38,44
2 900 88,059 0,0362 16,359
- 2 0,1 2,5
, %

25