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Four (4) in One (1) Concept in Project Implementation for Construction of Kahang Dam


Ir. Dr. Hasnul bin Mohamad Salleh 1 , Ir. Lim Soon Guan, 2 and Ir. Hasnizal Hashim 3

Keywords: Feasibility Study, Value Management, Design, Tender, Project Construction, fast track and Kahang Dam


This paper is intended to look at the Kahang Dam project realization through four (4) in one (1)

implementation concept perspective. The four (4) elementary implementation components of concern are

the Feasibility Study, the Value Management, the Design & Tender and the Project Construction. This

paper is directed to outline the project implementation in a matter of fact manner, and is not directed to

justify the righteousness for such method of implementation. The judgment would be upon the reader, as

the consideration of the matter, while being relates to different project implementation nature, would

bring about different scenarios on the merits and demerits of the approach. It is of common practice in

Malaysia that the process for every each of the four elementary stage components is executed in isolated

timeframes. This type of implementation should be ideal as the process would bring about a comfortable

amount of time to weight the elements that are of concerns for a particular project. However, where time

to get the project to materialize and to function become pressing due to the criticality of a situation, then

the requirements for extensive meticulous planning, administrative and bureaucratic procedure would

have to be relinquished at certain stages as the urgency for implementation surpassed the priority

hierarchy. The “Fast Track” terminology is often used to reflect the situation for such implementation

stage of a project. Kahang Dam project, by mid of 2011, has been viewed by many of those who have

direct and indirect interest on the project to fall under the category that requires a “Fast Track”

implementation method. The urgency is led by the need to overcome the water supply shortage for the

Kluang district. There is a definitive drive from all quarters to get the Kahang Dam to physically

materialize and to be able to provide adequate yield to meet the water demand especially from those who

are dealing with the public directly, such as the local politicians, Badan Kawal Selia Air Johor (BAKAJ)

and Syarikat Air Johor Holdings (SAJH). In order to facilitate the process to deliver the project in short

time frame the Government through its ministry, Kementerian Tenaga, Teknologi Hijau dan Air Malaysia

(KeTTHA) and its implementation agency of Jabatan Bekalan Air (JBA) has took the approach to launch

the project implementation in “Fast Track” manner thus adopting the 4 in 1 implementation approach.

1 Director General, Water Supply Department, Ministry of Energy, Green technology and Water.,

2 HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd

3 HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd




The Kahang Dam project (the Project) is located in the Kluang District, Johor. The potential of Kahang Dam as a water supply resource area has been identified in two sets of studies:

The Feasibility Study for Kluang Water Supply Johor dated 1984 (FSKWS 1984); and

The National Water Resource Study 2000 (NWRS 2000)

The latest water crisis that has led to the urgency to implement the dam project has occurred within the period between mid 2009 to mid 2010. The STAR news dated 17th

February 2010, reported that the water crisis was caused by the prolonged drought that have started since May 2009. In order to avoid the recurrence of the crisis, all parties concerned have made it the objective to get the Project to materialize soonest possible. Taking into account all the required process components and its related flows, KeTTHA/ JBA has realistically settle on the construction of the project to commence by midyear


In order to achieve the objective, KeTTHA/ JBA has justifiably hypothesized that, there would be of limited other choices to embark on the Project except to carry out the implementation by “Fast Track” approach.

There are essentially a few alternatives in order to take the project through “Fast Track” approach such as the joint venture, design and build and the built-operate-transfer methods. The Kahang Dam project implementation is adopting the “Contracts with Government Agencies” method [3]. This type of approach requires JBA to produce a project’s tender document, of which later to be offered to qualified bidders for the physical execution of the project. In view of this approach, JBA would require the service of a civil & structure consultant to undertake the task.

The 4 stages of implementation to be attended against the complete project life cycle are as markedly bolded and shaded as in Figure 1.


Figure 1 : The Project Life Cycle of a Constructed Facility [1] 2 STRATEGY TO

Figure 1 : The Project Life Cycle of a Constructed Facility [1]


In today's demanding society we must be able to react to the changing market needs rapidly, effectively, and responsively. We must be able to reduce the time to adapt to the changing environments. Decisions must be made quickly and must be done right at the first time. We can no longer afford to go through unnecessary procurement procedures and to prolong the time to deliver project. Therefore, completing a project faster than the normal duration is always a challenge to the management of any project, as it often requires changes in the ways that we are used to doing things.


Projects are required to be completed in shorter duration compared to normal schedules so that faster return on investment and higher return with longer project life could be obtained. Should the project implementation is subject to unnecessary procurement procedures, applying obsolete conventional tools and techniques of project management it is impossible to solve the problem of reducing the project duration from a normal period.

4 in 1 approach can be applied to the project implementation as one of the procurement procedure for the client and project implementer to complete a project successfully with a shorter duration especially major contracts which usually have a lengthy procurement process requiring various approvals from the Government Agencies.

The 4 in 1 approach radically will reduce project duration. The seamless inter phasing of the project are accomplished simultaneously instead of in series. The requirement for series of procurement procedure will not make it much quicker.

The complexities from project management can be tackled through management of approval process, management of subcontractors and improving management commitment, strengthening project-planning activities, ensuring project quality, managing project risk objectively and integrating project activities through information management systems and establishment of project interaction diagrams. These would help to improve project effectiveness in terms of quality and cost

To ensure a successful implementation of 4 in 1 concept, the project implementer must have full support from various stakeholders during project implementation, a strong leadership and commitment from the project implementer and consultants, the availability and competency of the Project Management core team and the current procurement procedure which does not encourage this concept shall also be reviewed.


The “Fast Track” is defined as the quickest and most direct route to achievement of an objective. The process of developing and achieve an objective requires certain orderly sequence of relevant process flows to be intertwined in a coordinated manner. Each of the process flow is understandably will demand time to complete the process. In project


implementation context, almost all process flows are imposed with certain governance procedure directed to serve the interest of the stakeholders. Coupled with the requirements to adhere to these imposed procedures, the time taken to achieve an objective will be stretched further. It would be of the interest of “Fast Track” project implementation to find ways to shorten the duration whenever possible. Therefore it would be synonymous in “Fast Track” project implementation to analyze the complete chain of process flows in the following sense, amongst others:

To identify the potential options for mandatory process components and its expected level of achievement of the final target.

To identify the process component that could have the potential to be omitted

To identify the repetitive process components that could have the potential to be combined

To identify the areas where requirement for governance procedure could be relaxed or even to the extent of relinquishing the process from its requirements.

To identify area where processes could be performed in overlapping manner

To identify areas where human resource handling and utilization could have the potential bearing to shorten the duration.

Aligned with the goal to launch the project undertaking through a “Fast Track” approach, all implementation areas that could have the potential to be manipulated, amid tolerable governing regulations, will be scrutinized and executed with the prime objective of expediting the whole processes, gearing the Project toward targeted materialization.








One area that have been identified by KeTTHA/ JBA in Kahang Dam “Fast Track” approach, is by combining the undertaking of all the four (4) elementary components that is the feasibility study, value management, engineering design & tender and construction of the project to be carried out under one (1) appointed principal consultant specialized in the field of civil and structural engineering. This is justifiably reasonable as this step would gain the time that would otherwise has to be spend to carry out the engagement, selection and appointment exercises for the separate parties respective to the four different stage of works. The undertaking of this approach is meant to carry the project through the


“Fast Track” implementation of which certainly will have the impact to shorten the duration in tackling this part of the process and subsequently will enable the other sequential processes to be implemented at an earlier time.

Aligned with the intended approach, KeTTHA/ JBA has produced a set of Terms of Reference (TOR) directed for the appointment of a principal consultant that serves to spell out the services to be delivered to cover all the four elementary aspects. Subsequently, the project’s requirement for other engagement, in other areas such as the specialist works by qualified parties recognized by regulatory agencies or the tendering process to carry out investigation works and the main works will be tasked under the Principal Consultant. Although the task is under the administer of Principal Consultant, all the maneuverings to administer the engagement processes of the parties that are intended to execute parts of the works are to be in accordance with the procedure as outlined in the Manual Perolehan Perkhidmatan Perunding (MPP).


The scopes of the Project, as outlined in the TOR, exerted the expectancy of the Government from the civil and structural consultancy services according to the four elementary components that could be summarized as below:

a. Feasibility study

Water demand study and reaffirm the demand value against the value established in National Water Resource Study 2000 (NWRS 2000)

Survey data and terrain study

Hydrological study

Water quality and treatment requirements

Potential yield study

Sedimentation study

Dam operating and rule curve study

Geological and geotechnical study

Environmental screening and establishment of framework environmental impact assessment

Potential conceptual design arrangement


b. Value Management

Value management study

c. Engineering Design & Tender Documentation

Environmental Impact Assessment

Survey works and land acquisition

Geology and geotechnical investigation

Design criteria

Detailed engineering design

Geological and geotechnical design

Dam ancillaries works

Intake and raw water pumping station

Raw water pipeline

Reservoir management plan

Tendering, tender evaluation and award


Project Implementation

Construction supervision

Administration of contract during and after the construction

Looking at the scopes covered under the respective four stages of implementation, in the context of the “Fast Track” implementation, it would be a sensible maneuvering to have a common entity which is tasked with performing the core area of work, that extent to cover all the stages, to be involved throughout the implementation cycle. It could be deduced that the core area of work for this project is the civil and structural engineering parts, thus under this understanding, the most appropriate party that could be tasked to oversee all the 4 implementation cycles would be the C&S consultant, appropriately identified as the Principal Consultant.











The engagement for the project’s engineering consultancy services has been carried out through an open tender exercise. Invitations were made public, through printed media, for all consultants that would have the interest to offer their expertise in the engineering consultancy services. The submission was required to be made in two (2) parts comprising the technical and financial aspect of the bid proposal. All submissions were subjected to a series of evaluation processes by the tender board and Jawatankuasa Penilaian Perunding (JPP). The assessment processes were directed:

to ensure the transparency of the selection and award of the Project.

to ensure that the most technically and financially qualified Consultant will be awarded to undertake the scope of the project in line with the requirement as outlined in the TOR.












implementation stages as outlined in the TOR.

a. Stage 1 - Feasibility study



In the context of the feasibility study, there are two (2) earlier studies where the Kahang Dam project is mentioned to certain extent of details, which is the Feasibility Study for Kluang Water Supply Johor 1984 and the National Water Resource Study 2000. The part of content where the Kahang Dam project were involved and engaged, bring indication that a study process, to certain extent, has been carried out in the past. The previous data, as contained in those earlier studies could be construed as pre-feasibility study, a form of prelude to the present feasibility study. Thus, the appointed Consultant requirement in this part of scope is to reaffirm earlier findings as established in those studies by carrying out a more extensive investigation and by obtaining additional and the most up to date field data. By the end of the feasibility study stage, the project design scheme could be of similar concept against the earlier study or it could be a different concept scheme that do not have any similarity or continuity against the data established earlier. However, the data from earlier studies could serve to expedite the present works as


it could also be used as guides and reference materials against the present study exercise. Through the approach of executing the project adopting the 4 in 1 implementation concept, the Principal Consultant would definitely be in the position to better understand the project and some of the data collected during the study could be readily utilized for other sequential stages of implementation. The approach could have the potential to eliminate double process works such as repeated search of data and repeated process of study and interpreting the data. The 4 in 1 implementation could ensure that there is a continuity of data handling and comprehending the data, thus save time and cost that would otherwise has to be spent under the repeated element of works.

The undertaking of 4 process flows under one Principal Consultant could ensure the continuum of sense of awareness and appreciation of the project, thus could potentially maximize the return, gaining through the principal areas such as the value and the sustainability of the project as shown in Figure 2.

and the sustainability of the project as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 : Requirements for

Figure 2 : Requirements for Sustainable Infrastructure [2]

b. Value Management

The Kahang Dam project component of works, though have been outlined in detail in the TOR, would still open to options and alternatives that would deemed to have the potential to drive the project toward a better value against the cost to be invested. These potential options would be integrally evaluated in terms of the technical performance, the elements of time and schedule in the implementation process and the cost and resources to be associated with each approach, all the while taking into account the level of risk against


the targeted objective as intended by the stakeholders. It is of common adopted approach in a particular project implementation, that the elements of cost and the time to be invested are driven toward the minimal direction while the technical performance is driven towards maximal direction as shown in Figure 3.

is driven towards maximal direction as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 : Value Management Elements

Figure 3 : Value Management Elements

The value management exercise to be undertaken by the Principal Consultant under the 4 in 1 implementation concept could ensure that there is a better understanding on the project basis, in view that it is the Principal Consultant himself that has carried out the feasibility study stage. The Principal Consultant will not have to repeat the process that have been put through under stage 1, thus in return will shorten the duration to carry out the value management exercise. It will enable the principal consultant to direct the project more effectively toward achieving its objective with justified conviction against the cost that is about to be spent on the project.

c. Engineering Design and Tender Documentation

Upon the consensus agreement on the value of the project to be gained during the Stage 2 process between the Stakeholders (i.e. the Government, BAKAJ, SAJH, etc.) the Principal Consultant shall undertake to develop the project concept further into the next stage. The Stage 3 process would involve the undertaking of the detailed engineering process and subsequently upon acceptance of the detailed elements, the undertaking of the tender documentation


The 4 in 1 implementation would bring the advantage in the same significance as subjected to earlier stage of implementation, which is the potential avoidance of repeated element of works, thus gaining time and expediting the project implementation. Directly and indirectly, elimination of repeated works elements, would theoretically bring cost saving into the project implementation. Every aspects of the engineering design will take into consideration, with a full awareness on the value management elements, the level of technical performance, sustainability, time, cost and risk being targeted or intended to be achieved by the stakeholders.

The involvement of the Principal Consultant from the beginning will definitely carry more weight onto the level of awareness of the Principal Consultant in the course of executing the detailed design process, thus improve the performance in undertaking the works under this stage of works.

Some of the works done under Stage 1 Feasibility Study would form parts of the works under the Stage 3 Detailed Design, more so with minimal manipulation of the earlier works. The undertaking of the works under 1 Principal Consultant could ensure the convenient of approach in areas such the accurate representation of data and eliminate unnecessary time spend to collate, arrange and manage the data.

d. Project Construction

Under the 4 in 1 implementation approach the project construction would be more effective as it is supervised and monitored by the Principal Consultant, whom should has the first hand knowledge of the project, of which gained through the involvement since Stage 1. The matters that concerned with drawings, bill of quantities and the specifications should be able to be dealt in a swift manner, since all the aspects are originated from the same Principal Consultant. The thorough understanding of the scopes of works would potentially bring about a better understanding of the contract, thus will contribute to better administration of the project. This will ease the handling of the contract and would guarantee that the stakeholders’ interests are delivered toward the utmost targeted values. Familiarities through the involvement since the beginning of the project implementation could also ensure that the construction outcomes are not deviated against the design and objective of the project.




The 4 in 1 implementation concept has brought bring benefits onto the Kahang Dam project in a number of foreseeable ways. Primarily, the benefits are due to the elimination of repetitive elements’ process thus will bring about the savings of time and cost during the implementation. This type of implementation approach could also has the potential to bring about a high degree of control over the project handling and administration, since there would be a process continuum asserted under one principal civil and structure consultant which extent to cover stage 1 until stage 4, essentially revolved around the project prime life cycle components covering the study and conception until physical materialization of the project.


The effectiveness asserted by the 4 in 1 concept implementation could be further confirmed by means of embarking on research or study on a group of actual project implementation. Comparisons of pros and cons should revolve around the values to be gained by the stakeholders in relation to different type of project implementation approach. The pros and cons could also be conditional depending on the nature of the project and the state of affairs of the project in relation to the time frame dedicated for implementation.



Chris Hendrickson, “Project Management and Construction” Fundamental Concept for Owners, Engineers, Architects and Builders


Carl D. Martland, “Toward More Sustainable Infrastructure” Project Evaluation for Planners and Engineers.


Sidney M. Levy, “Project Management in Construction”

For more information about the project and for permission to use material from this paper can submit request to http://www.jba.gov.my. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form without the written permission of the authors