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Vol. 11 No.

3 June 2003 ISSN : 0971-4413

Technology
Focus

ground in the normal free state mode and has the facility to
mechanically lock at different elevated positions. The BULLETIN OF DEFENCE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION
platform also has provision for anchoring radar vehicle
(wheeled/tracked).
Four columns made of large diameter hollow cylindrical
tubes with natural ventilation and staircase for periodical
maintenance supports the platform. The landing at the top of
the platform is fenced in addition to the fencing of the
platform. Lightning arrestors have been provided for entire
platform and radar mounted vehicle. An external staircase
and lift have been provided for smooth movement of
equipment, materials and men. A power/manually operated
hoist has also been provided at the top of the platform to
position the test systems. Power and water required for the

RADAR
test facility have been provided at the top of the platform
itself. A standby power supply ensures 100 per cent power
availability to the test platform.
This platform is first of its kind in the country and Asia.

Radar test platform

Technology Focus highlights the technological developments in DRDO, and also covers the products, processes and
TECHNOLOGY
technologies.
Editorial Committee
Coordinator
Dr Mohinder Singh, Director, DESIDOC, Metcalfe House, Delhi
Members
Shri Ajai Kumar, Director of Aeronautics, Sena Bhavan, New Delhi
Dr Harihar Singh, Director of Armaments, Sena Bhavan, New Delhi
Dr JP Agrawal, Director of Materials, Sena Bhavan, New Delhi
Shri A Bhagavathi Rao, Director of Electronics, Sena Bhavan, New Delhi
Shri Gopal Bhushan, SO to SA to RM, South Block, New Delhi

Editorial Staff
Editors Assistant Editor Design & Pre-press Printing
Ashok Kumar, Vinod Kumari Manoj Kumar Rajesh Kumar JV Ramakrishna, SK Tyagi

Readers of Technology Focus are invited to send their communications to the Editor, Technology Focus
DESIDOC, Metcalfe House, Delhi - 110 054. India
Telephone: 011-23819975; Fax: 011-23819151; Drona-mail: publication@desidoc.deldom
E-mail: dirdesidoc@vsnl.net, dirdesidoc@drdo.org
Internet: http://www.drdo.org/pub/index.shtml; http://www.drdo.com/pub/index.shtml

Printed & published by Dr Mohinder Singh, Director, DESIDOC, on behalf of DRDO.


RNI No. 55787/93
Technology Technology
Focus Radar Technology Radar Technology Focus

E lectronic sensors play a vital part in


enabling armed forces to gather the
information about the enemy. Of all these
accurate altitude readings. The radar-assisted
ground-controlled approach systems at airports
help planes to land in fog. It is also being used
forces because of their rugged and compact structure,
high radiation efficiency, and high power handling
capabilities.
sensors, radar is the most important. Radar is in by police to measure the speed of automobiles.
use since the start of the Second World War, DRDO has achieved expertise and core
The key to the successful development
when the continuous watch over the air and sea competence in design, development and fabrication of
of radar systems for many of the applications
approaches to Britain helped the Royal Air slotted waveguide array antenna, which offers ultra
lies in harnessing the basic technologies
Force to defeat the Luftwaffe in the Battle of involved in the modern radar system designs. low side lobes for any frequency band. The
Britain. Since then the military uses of radar Component technologies such as microwave electromagnetic modelling technique has been used
have increased manifold. It is now being used tubes, VLSI (very large scale integration)- to overcome the complex design problems. Several
for such diverse military applications as based ASIC (application specific integrated software packages, viz., COBRAS, COBRAS DC,
surveillance of large regions and early warning circuit) chips, electronically controlled phase COBICS, COBICSNO, LADSOFF, and ANSA with
of approaching ships, aircraft, and missiles; fire shifters, dedicated signal processing (DSP) copyright have been developed for slot characterisation,
control for automatically directing gunfire, chips display, and a host of microwave linear array design, and array analysis. CAD-based slots
guiding missiles against air or surface targets; components form the crucial technologies machining and specialised manufacturing technologies
artillery location of enemy, directing gunfire at needed for the sophisticated modern radar
enemy aircraft from aboard radar-equipped have also been developed. Tejas antennafront view
system development.
interceptor aircraft; radar bombsights; and The antenna has built-in IFF (identification, friend or
detection of submarines from aircraft. DRDO has acquired the expertise of
foe) facility that uses array of dipoles fed with stripline monopulse comparator and guard channel. It
designing, testing and evaluation of radar
Besides military applications, the radar is systems using these crux technologies and has is being used in major DRDO projects like Tejas (LCA) multimode radar, multibeam surveillance
used to measure distances and map translated them into major state-of-the-art radar radar, maritime patrol radar for Naval advanced light helicopter, and battlefield surveillance radar.
geographical areas and to navigate and fix systems. A number of subsystem level
positions at sea. Meteorologist use radar for technologies needed for building the most Microstrip Antenna
short-term weather forecasting and to watch for modern state-of-the-art radar systems for Microstrip antennaa printed dipole antennafor active phased array radiating elements
severe weather such as thunderstorms and military applications have been successfully and man-portable BFSRSR (battlefield surveillance radarshort range), has been successfully
tornado. Commercial airlines are equipped with developed. Some of these key technologies are
developed and integrated. The antenna has wide band and wide scan features. The printed dipole
radar devices that warn of obstacles and give described in this issue.
structure has been designed with bent arms, an integrated balun, and a wide band microstrip
matching circuitry. The optimised structure, developed with extensive EM simulation, offers a wide
Microwave Antenna Systems bandwidth in H plane, and good pattern characteristics with low cross-polarisation levels.

Slotted Waveguide Array Antenna DRDO has developed a 64-element


(16 x 4) active phased array, using printed
The slotted waveguide array antennas
dipole-radiating elements, which has
are used in high-speed aircraft and
excellent radiation performance
missile seeker-head where low
characteristics with low side lobe patterns,
profile or lightweight installations o
and + 60 wide scan angle capability from
are required. High gain,
the broadside of the array.
broadband operation, two-plane
monopulse and lightweight A 512-element microstrip antenna
features have made these array in X band that meets the high
Slotted waveguide array antenna
antennas very useful for airborne performance requirements of a BFSRSR
applications. The mechanically scanned slotted waveguide array antennas are the workhorse search radar, has also been developed. The
radiators for tactical aircraft radar and missile systems in most of the modern defence array uses inset fed square patch elements Microstrip antenna for BFSRSR

26 June 2003 June 2003 7


3
Technology Technology
Focus Radar Technology Radar Technology Focus

distributed on a small size aperture, and low-loss corporate feed networkthe network designed Multifunction Phased Array Radar
for a low side lobe Taylor's amplitude distribution. The antenna with backup structure weighs only
Multifunction radar is the main
1.2 kg.
sensor for modern weapon control
Active Phased Array systems. The radar consists of
electronic beam steering phased array
The active phased antennas and performs surveillance,
array radar is being used designation and tracking of multiple
in ground-based, ship- targets, and simultaneous tracking and
borne and airborne guiding of multiple missiles. It provides a
platforms for long cost effective sensor solution for
range surveillance integrated weapons control.
and tracking. The active
phased array technology T/R module. 64-element array (below left) DRDO has developed a multi-
overcomes inefficiencies like losses in power dividing/combing field network of conventional function radar Rajendra using
passive phased array, and improves reliability using indigenous phased array technology for Rajendra phased array assembly
transmitter/receiver (T/R) microwave modules. The 3-D target detection, multitarget tracking
technology also significantly improves power efficiency, and multiple missile guidance under extreme hostile EW environment. A main phased array
low side lobes, and adaptive null placement to counter consisting of 4000 phase control modules (PCMs), and a command phased array consisting of
jamming. 1000 PCMs have been built to achieve the multi-functionality. A powerful high-end computer
computes phases for all the elements of the array.
DRDO has developed the microwave T/R module
element for active phased array using indigenous Rajendra is packaged in two tracked vehicles: one for complete electronics and the other for
technology. The T/R module uses a hybrid microwave the command centre and the radar data utilisation station. A dedicated beam 'dwells' is used for
in te gr at ed circuit (MIC) and monolithic microwave integrated circuit maintenance of tracks. The radar has the capability to maintain 20 automatically selected tracks
(MMIC) for transmit and receive chains. Both transmit and receive chains are super- during pre-engagement phase, and multiple missiles and the assigned multiple aircraft tracks
components on two soft ceramic microwave laminates packaged compactly in a during engagement phase with higher rate of updates for high accuracy for better target
single housing. neutralisation. The radar is highly mobile with fast deploying ability and automated operations. The
major functions of the radar are:
Salient Features
Surveillance of the assigned volume of space
High peak power output with a large pulse width and duty over a large RF bandwidth
Acquisition of aircraft targets either independently or handed over from group control
500 W peak transmit power output in L band
centre and battery surveillance radar
4.5 dB low noise figure over the frequency band
Tracking of targets
Receive gain : 35 dB
Tracking of assigned targets and missiles during engagement
Receive attenuation : 6-bit
Command guidance of missiles
Shared phase shifter : 6-bit
Integrated IFF functions
Wide band printed dipole radiator
Distributed beam steering controller Phase Control Modules
Low loss RF manifold
Thermal management by cold plate technique Microwave phase shifter is the vital component for electronic beam steerable phased array
antenna. The antenna provides the radar excellent beam agility due to its inertia-less scanning at
Distributed high efficiency flat profile power supplies
adaptable and high scan rates. Among the phase shifters, the ferrite phase shifters are the most
Modular concept, extendable to large aperture active arrays

4 June 2003 June 2003 5


Technology Technology
Focus Radar Technology Radar Technology Focus

rugged and are being used in indigenous radar systems. DRDO has power supplies were evolved over long years of working on high voltage power supplies of various
developed the phase control modules (PCM) in C and X band in voltage and power levels.
collaboration with IIT, Delhi and CEL, Sahibabad. The PCM
DRDO has developed a technology to build high average power transmitter and expertise in
comprises radiating and pickup element, and the phase
the weight reduction techniques for minimising the weight and volume of transmitters essential for
shifter with digital driver. It is basically a non-reciprocal
airborne application. Indigenous development of transmitters and their integration in the radar have
analog phase shifter, but ingeniously converted to a
been completed successfully for Indra I and Indra PC. Both have been inducted into the Services.
reciprocal digital phase shifter. Phase control module X band Transmitters for Rajendra phased array radar both for search and track, command guidance and
3-D central acquisition radar (CAR) are other major successful developments. The S band 7 kW
Salient Features
transmitter for airborne surveillance platform is another milestone representing a quantum jump in
Specifications C band X band average power.
Power 12 W average, 200 W peak 7 W average, 140 W peak
Insertion loss < 1 dB < 1 dB Radar Sources & Receivers
o o
RMS phase setting error 6 <6
DRDO has developed radar sources for stable
VSWR 1:1.5 1:1.5
and coherent ultra low phase noise exciter signals for
Number of bits 5 bits serial data 5 bits serial data
o o o o the radar transmitter, local oscillator signals for the
Operating temperature 0 C to +55 C 0 C to +55 C
radar receiver, a large agility bandwidth (>10 per
Weight < 100 g < 24 g cent), fast multiple channel switching capability for
Type Dual mode ferrite reciprocal Dual mode ferrite reciprocal effective ECCM, wide band radar waveform
Digital driver logic CMOS CMOS generation (linear FM or digital long length phase
codes), and a high order of spurious/harmonic
rejection. High spectral purity outputs and
High Power Radar Transmitter improvement in vibration isolation for airborne radar
have been achieved using direct and indirect
DRDO has designed and developed several radar transmitters
frequency synthesis (utilising low noise phased locked
using master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration and the
loop schemes), and SC-cut crystal resonators (in lieu Radar source for Indra
microwave power tubes such as klystrons, travelling wave tubes and
of AT cut type) as the basic reference sources in the frequency synthesisers.
cross-field amplifiers. The technology to realise the peak power levels
in excess of 150 kW at an average power level of the order of 400 W to The modern radar receivers are designed to generate ultra low internal noise, achieve
7000 W has been well established and proven. The microwave required front-end gain, phase and amplitude stability, high dynamic range, wide band tuning
frequency bands involved are spanning L band to X band. The capability, and protection against saturation
technology to build a high average power transmitter for an airborne and burnout from nearby interfering radar
application has also been achieved. transmitters. In addition, multichannel receivers
C band Rajendra transmitter
are required for monopulse tracking and height-
The key technology areas of design and development include high voltage power supplies (up
finding 3-D surveillance radar. DRDO has
to 45 kV/10 kW) having pulse to pulse regulation of the order of 10 parts in a million, hard tube
developed radar receiver technology using
modulators (high current pulses), floating deck grid modulators, HV engineering, crowbar
state-of-the-art double superheterodyne
protection systems, and a reliable and intelligent control and monitoring mechanism for the
techniques offering features like pulse
transmitter.
compression (digital as well as analog), wide
In addition, indigenous capability in respect of critical components like high voltage high front-end radar bandwidth with ultra low noise
frequency transformers, high voltage capacitors and high voltage spark gaps have been figures, dual channel monopulse, large
Dual channel radar receiver for Rajendra
established within the country. Technologies for improving the reliability of compact high voltage

6 June 2003 June 2003 7


Technology Technology
Focus Radar Technology Radar Technology Focus

The digital approach also helps in managing the RF power utilisation and consequently DC
spurious free dynamic range, high order image rejection, and better performance in
power optimisation. Depending on the depth of surveillance, an appropriate waveform with
offensive electromagnetic environment.
sufficient energy (optimum pulse width) can be automatically programmed, and the waveform duty
High spectral pure radar source and large dynamic range multichannel receivers is adjusted through the code length to cater for the maximum range selected. Battery powered
use compact hybrid MIC. DRDO has also developed receivers for different class of systems in use in remote and inaccessible areas have immensely benefitted by this feature that
indigenous radar, viz., digital pulse compression radar in L band, airborne surveillance extends battery life.
radar in S band, multifunction phased array radar in C band, CAR in S band, and
DRDO has successfully incorporated digital pulse compression (DPC) technology in two
BFSRSR in X band.
major radar programs: Indra II (pulse compression version) for the Indian Air Force and BFSR-SR
The radar sources and receivers technology can be adapted to develop modern for the Indian Army.
radar systems for defence and civilian use in a short period of time. The technology is
being upgraded using MMICs in radar receivers and direct digital synthesised (DDS) Digital Signal Processing
output driven phase locked loop in radar sources. The new approach will help develop
more compact, lightweight, economical, and reliable sources and receivers. Dedicated Signal Processing (DSP)-based Radar Signal Processor
Radar source and multichannel receiver DRDO has developed programmable-radar-signal processor for
the real-time radar signal processing using high-speed DSPs, and the
Digital Pulse Compression software development tool for 3-D Central Acquisition Radar (CAR).

The pulse compression technique is used in most radar systems as it permits the use of low The signal processor for 3-D CAR is a programmable processor
peak power waveforms while increasing the energy through wider transmitter pulse widths in order which accepts digitised I/Q radar video signals and processes the data
to realise the desired detection range and to deny the detection by enemy ESM systems. The wide using complex algorithms for detection and post processing to extract
RF pulse is further modulated in accordance to a code in order to increase bandwidth. The received elevation and plots. All these functions are computation intensive and
echo is processed in a matched filter matched to the characteristics of the code. The fine range are realised in real-time by maintaining the throughput requirement.
resolution output of the matched filter is a narrow compressed pulse of high instantaneous signal The design supports throughput requirement up to 10 MHz. The
energy whose width is inversely proportional to the bandwidth. Digital implementation of the architecture of the processor is based on the analog device ADSP-
matched filter is now becoming increasingly feasible due to rapid strides in VLSI technology. Digital 21060/62 SHARC, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) DSP boards as
realisation provides total flexibility and perfect reproducibility. The matched filter can be dynamically also on DSP boards designed and developed in-house on multilayer
reconfigured to adapt online to multiplicity of waveforms, code lengths, code patterns and widths of PCBs (up to 12 layers). Besides, the SHARC-based DSP boards and
the transmitted and compressed pulse. A new high-speed data acquisition modules have also been designed and
dimension of code agility becomes feasible wherein it developed in-house.
is possible to transmit different code patterns on a The signal processor technology is a major departure from
packet-to-packet or even pulse-to-pulse basis. This conventional approach
has an important ECCM advantage as it reduces and has firmly established
vulnerability to smart jammers that use deceptive the programmable radar
techniques to create false targets on the radar screen. s i g n a l p r o c e s s i n g CAR SP rack
Further, random selection of codes provides for technology for the first time in the country.
code diversity, which is an advantage from the EMC Digital IF (intermediate frequency) processing
angle. Thus, co-located radar sharing the same and pulse compression techniques is being
frequency band can still operate with reduced mutual incorporated in the next generation signal processing
interference by use of orthogonal code pairs, i.e., those systems which involves digitisation of IF signals at a
with lowest cross-correlation. very high sampling rate.
COTS DSP card
Digital pulse compression in BFSR signal processor

8 June 2003 June 2003 9


Technology Technology
Focus Radar Technology Radar Technology Focus

VLSI-Based Programmable Radar Signal Processor The RDP performs clutter suppression, target classification,
data association, filtering, state prediction, and track management. It
DRDO has achieved a major breakthrough in the area of low power VLSI-based digital signal recursively estimates the target attributes like position, and velocity.
processing. A state-of-the-art FPGA-based single board radar signal processor with very low To handle the track manoeuvers, methods like variable dimension
power consumption has been realised in-house and successfully incorporated in the BFSR-SR filter and interactive multiple model (IMM) filter have been evolved
system. The total signal processing function right from I/Q channel A to D, conversion, up to and optimised. False alarm and clutter are suppressed using
detection and report formatting, has been realised in a single 20 cm x 20 cm multilayer PCB with a intelligent algorithms, which use escape gate checks and track
power consumption of just 3.6 W. The complete design is partitioned into three high-density FPGA confirmation process. The optimum data association logic is used to
chips of 600 K capacity each. These include, digital pulse compression matched filter with a library resolve the ambiguities in dense target environment. DRDO has
of codes, high resolution doppler filter bank, window function for low spectral side lobes, magnitude developed RDP for the following radars:
RDP hardware
estimation, CFAR, maximum filter seeker, report formatting, configuration register bank, FIFO Short and Medium Range Surveillance Radar: The RDP for Air
interface to radar controller via ISA bus, clutter map generation, electronic countermeasure Force version of Indra radar tracks hundreds of simultaneous aerial
environment monitoring, BIST feature, audio doppler extraction, etc. targets and helps perform interception and engagement of enemy targets in autonomous and
netted environment. In the Army version, it provides selected target data to multiple gun control
The VLSI approach has provided a well-established methodology for multimillion-gate
units. The RDP for CAR performs tracking and sends the 3-D track data to group control centre.
design using matured development tools. This technology has made feasible rapid prototyping of
massive and complex digital systems targeted to just one or more high-density devices thus making Maritime Surveillance Radar RAWS 03: The RDP for the ship mounted, mobile, Naval radar
system-on-chip a reality. The biggest advantage of FPGA is the ability to program or reprogram the RAWS 03 tracks the aerial and sea surface targets. It performs platform motion corrections and
chip any number of times. This helps to correct errors and upgrade functions, even when the end handles the platform motion uncertainty and lags.
system is in the users hand, in the simplest and easiest manner possible provided the external Phased Array Radar Rajendra: Rajendra controls the beam positioning sequence through beam
hardware interfaces and connections are catered for. The use of programmable logic to implement requests for each track at adaptive data rates and performs multifunctional roles like search/
the signal processor for this class of application is found to be the best choice as it provides a very confirm/track/interrogate targets, assign and lock on launchers, and launch/acquire/ track/guide
high level of integration, extremely low power consumption and flexibility to accommodate missiles. The RDP supplies track data to remote group control centre.
changes, modifications and enhancements.
SV 2000 Airborne Surveillance Radar: The radar is fitted on a helicopter and tracks aerial/sea
targets in maritime surveillance role. Scanning can be either rotating or sector scan.
Radar Data Processor
Battlefield Surveillance Radar: The land-based targets can have extremely small or no inter scan
The radar data processor (RDP) displacements. The RDP for BFSR automatically tracks slow and very slow moving targets like
performs automatic detection and man, motor vehicles and helicopters. The radar antenna performs sector scan with controllable
tracking (ADT) of multiple targets by sweep rates.
processing radar detection plots in real-
time using estimation techniques and Multisensor Tracking & Data Fusion
algorithms. The RDP uses the plots Multisensor tracking (MST) and multisensor data fusion (MSDF) are the processes to
from primary and secondary sensors, to integrate the multiple target detection information received from network of heterogeneous sensors
create and update the tracks, and like radar, which may be either co-located or spatially distributed over a large area. The process
provides track-while-scan capability to produces a unified track database and provides the authentic air space scenario. Such netted
search radar. The track information is sensor system provides several benefits like synthesised information for higher accuracy,
then sent to data utilisation centres like generation of more specific threat inference, integrated air defense resource management, and
radar consoles for air situation display, helps in real-time decision making. DRDO has implemented radar-netting solutions for Indian Air
remote data handling centre, target Force and Akash weapon system.
RDP display
interception and missile control centre.

10 June 2003 June 2003 11


Technology Technology
Focus Radar Technology Radar Technology Focus

Multisensor Tracking Automated Planar Near-Field Measurement (PNFM) Facility

The 2-D battery surve- Spherical Near-Field Measurement (SNFM) Facility


illance radar (BSR) with 3600 Outdoor Antenna Test Range
coverage and a larger
Radar Test Platform
detection range provides
track data to the multi- Near-Field Test Range (NFTR)
function, slewable, 3-D
phased array Rajendra radar. Automated Planar Near-Field Measurement Facility
The multisensor direction
The automated planar near-field measurement
finder in Rajendra processes
facility (PNFM) is an indoor antenna evaluation facility
the track data from the
that uses planar near-field measurement technique. It
phased array radar and the
has an indigenously designed and developed 18 m x
BSR to identify the targets
12 m x 10 m temperature-controlled anechoic
reported by both the sensors
chamber lined with pyramidal type microwave
and maintains a common
absorbers of various sizes on all the sides. The
track database. For those
absorbers are rearranged in a graded fashion for a
BSR tracks, which are not
quite zone level better than - 40 dB. The scanning
being reported by Rajendra RajendraBSR track data fusion
areas of the planar scanner in X, Y, and Z directions
though under it's coverage, target acquisition is initiated with elevation search in the designated
are 10 m x 6 m x 1 m, respectively. The scanner is
direction. The antenna is skewed in the direction of threat to acquire the targets, which are outside
controlled by a PLC system operating either in DOS or
the covered air space.
Windows environment.
Radar Netting for Control & Reporting Centre The facility can be used to measure antennas
The control and reporting centre (CRC) has a network of 2-D, low flying short/medium range measuring up to 7 m wide and 4 m high, and a
detection, and 3-D ST68 radar. The radar is transportable and heterogeneous surveillance radar, frequency range of 1 GHz to 18 GHz. The radar
and performs automatic target tracking locally by radar data processor and sends the track and plot mounted tracked vehicles can be driven inside for PNFM facility
data to the remotely located CRC through the satellite link. The track data also includes the measurement.
associated IFF-based transponder code matches, if available. The sensor data is subjected to time Salient Features
alignment and stereographic correction at CRC to generate common time and space reference
data. Data fusion is then done for overlapped sensor coverage and updation of centralised track Capability to measure antenna with low side lobe up to - 60 dB
database. The fusion algorithm uses decisions based on detection probability, sensor accuracy, Positioning accuracy of scanner in all 3-axis : 300 microns peak
track covariance/quality/confidence, etc. and provides fused track state with improved error
Scientific Atlanta model 1795 microwave receiver with maximum 5000 data samples output
covariance and better track maintenance, even under the adverse conditions like screening and
per second
interference/jamming experienced by individual sensor. The CRC with MST software is being used
by the IAF. Stable signal source HP 83640A with frequency range 10 MHz to 40 GHz

Indigenously developed software packages for near-field data acquisition, transformation


Antenna Measurement Facilities and result presentation. The output data can be presented in rectangular, 3-D and contour plot
formats
DRDO has state-of-the-art antenna evaluation facilities to establish the characterisation, and
determine the performance of the antennas of indigenous radars. Some of these are only one of Receiver frequency range : 0.01 GHz to 140 GHz
their kind in the country and are also being used by the public and private sectors. The facilities are :

12 June 2003 June 2003 13


Technology Technology
Focus Radar Technology Radar Technology Focus

Spherical Near-Field Measurement Facility Near-Field Test Range


The automated spherical near-field measurement
The near-field test range (NFTR) is a planar
facility (SNFM) uses SA Model 2022A antenna analyser,
vertical near-field antenna test facility for testing the
which can be programmed to measure diverse antennas.
near- and far-field characteristics of the antenna
A key feature of the SNFM is its capability to perform
under test. The range is suitable for testing planar,
measurements in near-field of antenna under test (AUT)
high-gain array type antennas operating in the
and direct far-field of moderate size antenna. This
L band frequency range during development,
enables user to compute near/far-field measurements for
production and maintenance stages. However,
all directions. The SNFM has a computer facility for data
many features of the system are upgradeable and
acquisition, transformation and analysis. The facility is
can be utilised for operation at other applications and
housed in a 18 m x 8 m x 6.5 m shielded microwave
frequency ranges.
anechoic chamber with all six interior surfaces lined with
pyramidal-shaped absorbing materials to create a quiet The NFTR has laser calibration facility for
SNFM facility
zone of 3 m diameter, reflectivity better than - 50 dB, and correction, MIDAS software for data acquisition and
the RF shielding better than 100 dB. analysis, a beam characterisation facility through
Salient Features external computer, and a vibration isolated test bed.
Besides, the range also has possible measurement
Measurement frequency range : 1 GHz to 18 Ghz facility for radiation patterns, back projection on
The anechoic chamber houses an optical alignment system and a source tower with antenna aperture for diagnostics, gain of the
orthomode probe antenna under test, and pulse mode operation for
L band.
o o NFTR antenna
Positional accuracy of the antenna positioner is 0.02 Az, 0.03 roll
o Salient Features
Measurement accuracy of the SNFM is + 0.5 db in gain, + 1dB at 30 dB in side lobe level, + 0.1
o
in beam width, and + 0.1 in null location Frequency range : L band for active aperture array; S band for other arrays/antennas
Outdoor Antenna Test Range Easily upgradable to other bands

The outdoor antenna test range comprises a transmitter Scan area : 19 m x 8 m in X and Y directions
and a receiver located 1.6 km apart from each other. The Side lobe level accuracy : + 3 dB at - 50 dB
transmitter has a parabolic reflector with adjustable height. The Beam pointing accuracy : + 100 micro radians
antenna weighing up to one ton mounting facility at the receiver
side on a 3-axis positioner at a height of 21 m from ground can be Radar Test Platform
tested at the range. A 3-axis positioner can hold a planar antenna
measuring more than 3 m high and 7 m long. The testing of radar and its systems call for an unhindered access to airspace free from the
intervening obstructions. The tall buildings and structures makes it difficult to obtain free access to
Salient Features airspace for systems positioned on ground level. To overcome this problem, DRDO has designed
2180SA 100 mw CW power output synthesised source and developed a 5 m x 7 m radar test platform to hoist radar and test systems weighing up to 50 ton
o o o from ground level to 30 m at a speed of one meter per minute.
Antenna rotation elevation: - 45 to 90 , upper azimuth: 360 ,
o
and lower azimuth: +180 The platform is lifted using winch arrangement powered by four 50 hp synchronised motors.
The receiving end consists of -100 dBm sensitive 1783 SA The overall size of the platform is about 11 m x 15 m. The platform rests in level of the adjoining
phase and amplitude receiver, and 1580 SA pattern recorder ATS

14 June 2003 June 2003 15