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DEAD END HOOK: it is used at the end pole.

BUSBAR: For three phase connection, busbar is installed in building

premises which consist of four strip 3-phase, 1 neutral.


Rural and industrial network which use LT distribution system fed from 11KV
transformer faces lot of problem due to unsatisfactory result even after
expanding lot on maintenance. Factor do to which HVDS come in picture:

1. Unauthorized connection
2. High technical losses due to high LT current on the network.
3. High peak time losses due to unauthorized load.
4. Unsatisfactory voltage condition at consumer installation (370V).
In HVDS system, HV line is extended to load point and then distribution
transformer is connected with HV system, and distributes supply from
transformer directly or via LT ABC. Both three phase and single phase
Transformer is used according to need.

By using HVDS system, it is possible to provide 220V to each consumer. In

LT system number of consumer is large and at end voltage is low. But in
HVDS no. of consumer connected with one transformer is limited, so better
quality of electric is received. If fault occur in any transformer than no of
consumer affected is less. And theft of electric is less.

1. TRANSFORMER: Both single phase and three phase transformer of

low KVA rating is used. For single phase transformer KVA rating is
generally 10KVA for single phase pole mounted transformer. For three
phase, KVA rating is generally 315KVA.
2. GO SWITCH: Between primary of transformer and HT line GO switch
is installed. GO switch is gang operated switch, which is used to
disconnect the transformer from HT line manually. A lever mechanism
is used to operate this switch.
3. DO FUSE: Droop-Out expulsion type fuse is suitable for 50 Hz 11KV
distribution system. The DO fuse is intended for use on distribution
transformer for protection during overload or fault conditions of lines.
Rating of DO switch is decided according to the KVA of transformer.i.e
10KA, 5KA.
4. MCCB: MCCB (Moulded Case Circuit Breaker) is used for protecting the
low voltage electrical wire and equipment, against overload and short
circuit. It is generally stalled on secondary side of transformer. Two
type of mechanism is use, one is thermal magnetic and other is
microprocessor based.
PRECAUTION AND SAFETY: Before, starting any maintenance work, GO
switch must be open. For discharging residual current present in circuit, each
phase is grounded for a moment. For safety purpose, all the three phase
short using chain and ground. After compilation of work this chain is remove
otherwise three phase fault is occur.


Lot of complain regarding tripping and electroshock receive by NDPL from JJ

Cluster (jhuggi). Also revenue loss from this area is much higher as most of
the connection in this area is unauthorized. So, NDPL planned to improve the
distribution system in this area. Street in this area is narrow, it is not
possible to install pole in each street and water logging in each street is
common. It is found that load in each house is not more than 1KVA. Wooden
pole is use to provide better insulation.LT ABC is carry up to main street.
Tyco is installed on each pole. Single phase supply is taken to inner area and
connects to Tyco main. Now connection to each consumer is from Tyco. One
Tyco provide 6 connections and one to provide supply to next Tyco. As every
part of system is covered, so illegal connection is not possible. Meter is
installed for each connection.

Area in Sq Kms 4.83

Total No of Consumers 43512
Total No of Domestic Consumers 38542
Total No of Commercial Consumers 4961
Total No of Agriculture Consumers NIL
Total No of KCG Consumers 8
Installed capacity in MVA 93.2
No. of Distribution Transformers 456
No. of HVDS Transformers 251
Length of LT ABC Circuit in Kms 70
No. of Tyco Boxes Installed 1200


1. The LT network was highly unsafe.

2. Bulk Service Line Burnt Complaint

3. Bulk Balli (wooden Pole )Broken Complaints

4. Several Current leakage Complaints

5. 11KV Interruptions on DT due to cable burnt (Leads used as the

Service Cable)

6. The connections were provided by tapping from 95 Sq mm cable,

which had many open joints and frequent burnt complaints.

7. It was very difficult to install LT Pole due to space constraint in JJ

Cluster Badli.

8. The Ballis installed were damaged and broken.

1. Conduct meeting and assigning of work to the members of Quality
2. Survey of J J Cluster for replacement of Old /Burnt out cables installed
during Franchises Scheme, possible locations to installed Pole,
Damaged wooden poles.
3. Replacement of Old /Burnt out Cables.
4. Providing additional Pole in J J Cluster.
5. To connect the service line in Tyco Boxes.
6. New wooden poles are installed by using 100 mm dia Pipe.
Ensure 100% closure/sealing of TYCO Box.
7. Measurement of task through reduction in complaints.
8. Now the Wooden ballis installed in 100MM GI pipe to save ballis from
water logging.
9. Measurement of task through reduction in complaints.


This is one of the oldest system of distribution and used effectively all over
India. In this four ASCR cable is used (three for phase and one for neutral
return and earthing). Cable is hanging on pole with specific distance from
each other. In this system, every third pole is earth. On each pole equal load
is distributed from each phase. Jumper is used to connect to connect the
circuit at T point. Safety is a measure issue and illegal connection is easily
connected, cause overloading in system. So this system is phase out, NDPL
work on to replace this system to LT ABC.

This type of distribution scheme is used in well develop residential area and
initial cost of system is much high. Fault detection is typical. All part of
secondary network are usually underground these includes the network
itself, service connection to customers, network unit and primary cables.
Both primary and secondary network cables are in ducts under the street. At
a fixed distance a provision to excess system.

Advanced Distribution Automation (ADA): is a term coined by

the IntelliGrid project in North America to describe the extension of
intelligent control over electrical power grid functions to the distribution level
and beyond. It is related to distribution automation that can be enabled via
the smart grid. The electrical power grid is typically separated logically into
transmission systems and distribution systems. Electric power
transmission systems typically operate above 110kV, whereas Electricity
distribution systems operate at lower voltages. Normally, electric utilities
with SCADAsystems have extensive control over transmission-level
equipment, and increasing control over distribution-level equipment via
distribution automation. However, they often are unable to control smaller
entities such as Distributed energy resources (DERs), buildings, and homes.
It may be advantageous to extend control networks to these systems for a
number of reasons:

(1) Distribution Generation

(2) Load side Management
(3) Check the real time performance of system

Purpose of Distribution Automation:

(1) To make the system reliable

(2) Prevent the theft problem (illegal use )
(3) Reduce the fault in distribution system so, continuous supply is
(4) Early fault detection (OMS)
(5) Smart meter (possibility of tempering is negligible)
(6) Load management at ground level
Distribution Management System (DMS)

Distribution Management System (DMS) is a central component to

implementing Smart Grid. DMS enables utilities to manage distributed
renewable generation, implement grid efficiency improvement measures,
and control the isolation and restoration of outages. With DMS, the utility
gets abundant real-time information about the distribution grid, including the
non-telemetered feeder circuits. Utilities rely heavily on DMS to improve
distribution grid reliability and efficiency.
Features & Benefits
Real-time Management - Advanced network management solution
that completely automates the real-time management, monitoring and
control of electrical distribution networks
Network Visualization - Allowing control room operators to view
real-time network measurements and perform remote telecontrol
operations combined with front-end data processing
Customer Status Updates Providing accurate information to
customers concerning the status of power interruptions, by integrating
customer outages with up-to-date status of the distribution network
Reduce Utility Costs Reducing total operating, maintenance, and
support costs, while maximizing access to information through seamless
interoperability with corporate customer information systems, geographic
information systems and call centers

OUTAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Principles and Integration


Major functions usually found in an OMS include:

Prediction of location of fuse or breaker that opened upon failure.

Prioritizing restoration efforts and managing resources based upon

criteria such as locations of emergency facilities, size of outages, and
duration of outages.

Providing information on extent of outages and number of customers

impacted to management, media and regulators.

Calculation of estimation of restoration times.

Management of crews assisting in restoration.

Calculation of crews required for restoration.

The utilities Geographic Information System (GIS) is usually the source of

this network model. By combining the locations of outage calls from
customers, a rules engine is used to predict the locations of outages. For
instance, since the distribution system is primarily tree-like or radial in
design, all calls in particular area downstream of a fuse could be inferred to
be caused by a single fuse or circuit breaker upstream of the calls.

More advanced Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) systems can provide outage
detection capability and thus serve as virtual calls indicating customers who
are without power. However, unique characteristics of AMR systems such as
the additional system loading and the potential for false positives requires
that additional rules and filter logic must be added to the OMS to support
this integration.

SMART METER: In USA and other developed country, smart meter is use in
which there is a option for costumer to use prepaid or postpaid plan.
Automatic meter transmitting is another feature of this meter. Overall this
makes the process of billing easier and fair. Time graded tariff is popular now
a day.

Low Power Generation: Solar or other form of renewable energy is used

to meet the residence local need. Installation of device which takes care of
this energy and proper utilize it is another aspect.