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Since a horizontal line never moves up or down, its y-coordinates never change.

That means the "change in y-coordinates" is 0. When we divide by the change in x-

coordinates to find slope, our final answer will be 0. Vertical lines go straight up

and down.

ILLUSTRATE/SOLVE.

Horizontal Lines

equation y = mx + b , m = 0 . The equation becomes y = b , where b is the y -

coordinate of the y -intercept.

Graph of a Line

Since y always takes the value -1 , an equation for the line is y = - 1 .

Example 2: Write an equation for the horizontal line that passes through (6, 2) .

Since the line is horizontal, y is constant--that is, y always takes the same value.

Since y takes a value of 2 at the point (6, 2) , y always takes the value 2 . Thus, the

equation is y = 2 .

Vertical Lines

Similarly, in the graph of a vertical line, x only takes one value. Thus, the equation

for a vertical line is x = a , where a is the value that xtakes.

Graph of a Line

Since x always takes the value 2 = , the equation for the line is x = .

Example 4: Write an equation for the vertical line that passes through(6, 2) .

Since the line is vertical, x is constant--that is, x always takes the same value.

Since x takes a value of 6 at the point (6, 2) , x always takes the value 6 . Thus, the

equation is x = 6 .

Incidentally, the lines y = 2 and x = 6 are perpendicular to each other. In fact, all

horizontal lines y = b are perpendicular to all vertical lines x = a . The usual

relationship between the slopes of perpendicular lines does not work here, as we

might expect, because the slope of a horizontal line is 0 which has no reciprocal.

5 EXAMPLES

Graph x = -3.

the x-value will always be -3.

Question: Find the equation of the horizontal line, where the required horizontal

line is having the y intercept value (0, 1).

Solution:

Question: Find the equation of the following horizontal line, where the required

horizontal line is having the y intercept value (0, 3).

Solution:

Question: Draw the vertical line for the equations x - 3 = 0 and x + 4 = 0 in the

graph and draw line for the points (1, 3) and (1, -2).

Solution:

Graph of the equations x - 3 = 0, x + 4 = 0 and line passes through points (1, 3) and

(1, -2) are parallel to y-axis.

5 TEST QUESTIONS

Problem : Write an equation for the vertical line that passes through(2, 4) .

x=2

y=-4

Problem : Write an equation for the horizontal line that passes through (- 12, 18) .

y = 18

Problem : Write an equation for the graph of the following line:

x=1

Problem : Match each equation with its corresponding graph.

a) y = 3

b) y = 3x

c) x = 3

d) x = 3y

a) D

b) A

c) C

d) B

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