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BERNOULLIS THEOREM

APPARATUS
Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

NOTE:

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this manual is accurate;
however no labiality is accepted for errors. Should an error be discovered please inform the
company in writing, giving full details. Any experimental results given are for guidance only and
are not guaranteed as exact answers that can be obtained for a given apparatus; due to the
complex variables applicable to most experiments.

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Table of Contents
Page
1. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 1

2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................... 2


2.1 Unit assembly.............................................................................................................. 4

3. SUMMARY OF THEORY ............................................................................................ 5


3.1 Derivation using streamline coordinates ..................................................................... 5
3.2 Bernoullis law ............................................................................................................ 6
3.3 Static, Stagnation, and Dynamic pressures ................................................................. 6
3.4 Pressure varies along pipe ........................................................................................... 10
3.5 Venturi meter .............................................................................................................. 10

4. GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES ................................................................ 12


4.1 General startup procedure ........................................................................................... 12
4.2 General shutdown procedure ...................................................................................... 13

5. EXPERIMENTS ............................................................................................................. 14
5.1 Experiment 1; Discharge coefficient determination ................................................... 14
5.2 Experiment 2; flow rate measurement with venturi meter.......................................... 15
5.3 Experiment 3; Bernoullis theorem demonstration ..................................................... 16

6. MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ................................................... 17

APPENDIX A Experiment Data Sheets


APPENDIX B Typical Experimental Result
APPENDIX C Venturi Meter Drawing

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

1 INTRODUCTION:

The EES Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus consists of a classical Venturi made of


clear acrylic. A series of wall tappings allow measurement of the static pressure
distribution along the converging duct, while a total head tube is provided to traverse
along the centre line of the test section. These tappings are connected to a manometer
bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. Pressurization of the manometers is
facilitated by a hand pump.

This unit has been designed to be used with a Hydraulics Bench for students to study the
characteristics of flow through both converging and diverging sections. During the
experiment, water is fed through a hose connector and students may control the flow rate
of the water by adjusting a flow regulator valve at the outlet of the test section.

The venturi can be demonstrated as a means of flow measurement and the discharge
coefficient can be determined. This test section can be used to demonstrate those
circumstances to which Bernoullis Theorem may be applied as well as in other
circumstances where the theorem is not sufficient to describe the fluid behavior.

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION:

The unit is mounted on a base board which is to be placed on top of the Hydraulic Bench.
This base board has four adjustable feet to level the apparatus.

The main test section is an accurately machined acrylic venturi of varying circular cross
section. It is provided with a number of side hole pressure tappings, which are connected
to the manometer tubes on the rig. These tappings allow the measurement of static
pressure head simultaneously at each of 6 sections. The tapping positions and the test
section diameters are shown in Appendix A. The test section incorporates two unions,
one at either end, to facilitate reversal for convergent or divergent testing as illustrated in
Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Air bleed screw

Manometer tubes

Unions

Gland Nut

Hypodermic probe

Water inlet Test section Adjustable feet

Figure 1: Front View of Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Unit

Water outlet

Flow control valve

Additional tapping

Figure 2: Top View of Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Unit

A hypodermic tube, the total pressure head probe, is provided which may be positioned to
read the total pressure head at any section of the duct. This total pressure head probe may
be moved after slacking the gland nut; this nut should be re-tightened by hand after
adjustment. An additional tapping is provided to facilitate setting up. All eight pressure
tapings are connected to a bank of pressurized manometer tubes. Pressurization of the

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

manometers is facilitated by connecting any hand pump to the inlet valve on the
manometer manifold.

The unit is connected to the hydraulic bench using flexible hoses. The hoses and the
connections are equipped with rapid action couplings. The flexible hose attached to the
outlet pipe which should be directed to the volumetric measuring tank on the hydraulics
bench. A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test section. Flow rate and
pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by adjustment of the flow control
valve and the bench supply control valve.

Please familiarize with the unit before operating the unit. The unit consists of the
followings:

a) Venturi
The venturi meter is made of transparent acrylic with the following
specifications:
Throat diameter : 16 mm
Upstream Diameter : 26 mm
Designed Flow Rate : 20 LPM

b) Manometer
There are eight manometer tubes; each length 320 mm, for static pressure and
total head measuring along the venturi meter.
The manometer tubes are connected to an air bleed screw for air release as
well as tubes pressurization.

c) Baseboard
The baseboard is epoxy coated and designed with 4 height adjustable stands to
level the venturi meter.

d) Discharge valve
One discharge valve is installed at the venturi discharge section for flow rate
control.

e) Connections
Hose Connections are installed at both inlet and outlet.

f) Hydraulic Bench
Sump tank : 120 litres
Volumetric tank : 100 litres
Centrifugal pump : 0.37 kW, 50 LPM

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2.1 Unit Assembly:

Figure 3: Parts Identification Diagram

1. Manometer Tubes 6. Discharge Valve


2. Test Section 7. Gland Pipe
3. Water Inlet 8. Hypodermic Probe
4. Unions 9. Adjustable Feet
5. Air Bleed Screw

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3 SUMMARY OF THEORY:

3.1 Derivation using streamline coordinates:

Eulers equation for steady flow along a streamline is

1p z v
g V (3.1)
s s s

If a fluid particle moves a distance, ds, along a streamline,

p
ds dp (the change in pressure) (3.2)
s

z
ds dz (the change in elev ation) (3.3)
s

V
ds dV (the change in speed) (3.4)
s

Thus, after multiplying Equation 3.1 by ds,

dp dp
gdz VdV or VdV gdz 0 (3.5)

Integration of this equation gives:

dp V 2

2
gz constant (3.6)

The relation between pressure and density must be applied in this equation. For
the special case of incompressible flow, = constant, and Equation 3.6 becomes
the Bernoullis Equation.

p V2
gz constant (3.7)
2

Restrictions:
1. Steady flow
2. Incompressible flow
3. Frictionless flow
4. Flow along a streamline

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3.2 Bernoullis Law:

Bernoulli's law states that if a non-viscous fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying
cross section, then the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is
higher, and the pressure is higher where the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate.
Many people find this situation paradoxical when they first encounter it (higher
velocity, lower pressure). This is expressed with the following equation:

p v2
z h * Constant (3.8)
g 2g

Where,

p = Fluid static pressure at the cross section


= Density of the flowing fluid
g = Acceleration due to gravity
v = Mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section
z = Elevation head of the center at the cross section with respect to a datum
h* = Total (stagnation) head

The terms on the left-hand-side of the above equation represent the pressure head
(h), velocity head (hv ), and elevation head (z), respectively. The sum of these
terms is known as the total head (h*). According to the Bernoullis theorem of
fluid flow through a pipe, the total head h* at any cross section is constant. In a
real flow due to friction and other imperfections, as well as measurement
uncertainties, the results will deviate from the theoretical ones.
In our experimental setup, the centerline of all the cross sections we are
considering lie on the same horizontal plane (which we may choose as the datum,
z = 0, and thus, all the z values are zeros so that the above equation reduces to:

p v2
h * Constant (3.9)
g 2g

This represents the total head at a cross section.

For the experiments, the pressure head is denoted as hi and the total head as h*i,
where i represents the cross sections at different tapping points.

3.3 Static, Stagnation, and Dynamic Pressures:

The pressure, p, which we have used in deriving the Bernoullis equation,


Equation 3.7, is the thermodynamic pressure; it is commonly called the static
pressure. The static pressure is that pressure which would be measured by an
instrument moving with the flow. However, such a measurement is rather difficult
to make in a practical situation.

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As we know, there was no pressure variation normal to straight streamlines. This


fact makes it possible to measure the static pressure in a flowing fluid using a wall
pressure tapping, placed in a region where the flow streamlines are straight, as
shown in Figure 4 (a). The pressure tap is a small hole, drilled carefully in the
wall, with its axis perpendicular to the surface. If the hole is perpendicular to the
duct wall and free from burrs, accurate measurements of static pressure can be
made by connecting the tap to a suitable pressure measuring instrument.

Flow
streamlines

Pressure
tap

(a) Wall Pressure Tapping

Small holes

Flow

Stem

To manometer or
pressure gage

(b) Wall Pressure Tapping

Figure 4: Measurement of Static Pressure

In a fluid stream far from a wall, or where streamlines are curved, accurate static
pressure measurements can be made by careful use of a static pressure probe,
shown in Figure 4 (b). Such probes must be designed so that the measuring holes
are place correctly with respect to the probe tip and stem to avoid erroneous
results. In use, the measuring section must be aligned with the local flow
direction.

Static pressure probes or any variety of forms are available commercially in sizes
as small as 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) in diameter. The stagnation pressure is obtained
when a flowing fluid is decelerated to zero speed by a frictionless process. In
incompressible flow, the Bernoulli Equation can be used to relate changes in
speed and pressure along a streamline for such a process. Neglecting elevation
differences, Equation 3.7 becomes

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

p v2
constant (3.10)
2
If the static pressure is p at a point in the flow where the speed is v, then the
stagnation pressure, Po, where the stagnation speed, Vo, is zero, may be computed
from
0
po Vo2 p V 2
(3.11)
2 2

Therefore,

1
po p V 2 (3.12)
2

Equation 3.12 is a mathematical statement of stagnation pressure, valid for


incompressible flow. The term V generally is the dynamic pressure. Solving
the dynamic pressure gives:

1 2
V po p (3.13)
2

Or

2 po p
V (3.14)

Thus, if the stagnation pressure and the static pressure could be measured at a
point, Equation 3.14 would give the local flow speed.

Flow

Small hole

To manometer or
pressure gage

Figure 5: Measurement of Stagnation Pressure

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Total
Flow A head
tube

p po
(a) Total Head Tube Used with Wall Static Tap

Small holes

Flow
B
C
Stem p
po

(a) Pitot-Static Tube

Figure 6: Simultaneous Measurement of Stagnation and Static Pressures

Stagnation pressure is measured in the laboratory using a probe with a hole that
faces directly upstream as shown in Figure 5. Such a probe is called a stagnation
pressure probe (hypodermic probe) or Pitot (pronounced pea-toe) tube. Again, the
measuring section must be aligned with the local flow direction.

We have seen that static pressure at a point can be measured with a static pressure
tap or probe (Figure 4). If we know the stagnation pressure at the same point, then
the flow speed could be computed from Equation 3.14. Two possible
experimental setups are shown in Figure 6.

In Figure 6(a), the static pressure corresponding to point A is read from the wall
static pressure tap. The stagnation pressure is measured directly at A by the total
head tube, as shown. (The stem of the total head tube is placed downstream from
the measurement location to minimize disturbance of the local flow)

Two probes often are combined, as in the Pitot-static tube shown in Figure 6(b).
The inner tube is used to measure the stagnation pressure at point B, while the
static pressure at C is sensed using the tapping on the wall. In flow fields where
the static pressure variation in the streamwise direction is small, the Pitot-static
tube may be used to infer the speed at point B in the flow by assuming pB =pC and
using Equation 3.14. (Note that when pB pC, this procedure will give erroneous
results)

Remember that the Bernoulli equation applies only for incompressible flow
(Mach number, M 0.3).

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Note:
u
Ma (3.15)
c

Where,
u = fluid velocity
c = sonic velocity

3.4 Pressure Varies along Pipe:


A number of factors can cause for pressure to vary along the pipe such as:

1. Friction from the pipes inner surface,


2. The diameter of the pipe; if it is small the pressure is lower because the
velocity is increased (Bernoullis Theory),
3. Density of the fluid in the pipe,
4. The height of the pipe at which the pipe stands or the height at which the flow
through i.e. gravity,
5. Turbulence of the fluid

3.5 Venturi Meter:


The venturi meter consists of a venturi tube and differential pressure gauge. The
venturi tube has a converging portion, a throat and a diverging portion as shown
in the figure below. The function of the converging portion is to increase the
velocity of the fluid and lower its static pressure. A pressure difference between
inlet and throat is thus developed, which pressure difference is correlated with the
rate of discharge. The diverging cone serves to change the area of the stream back
to the entrance area and convert velocity head into pressure head.

Figure 4: The Venturi Tube

Use of the continuity Equation Q = A1V1 = A2V2, in Equation (3.5) becomes


p1 p2 22 A2
2

Z1 Z 2 1 (3.9)
2 g A1

Ideally,
1/2
A 2 p p
1/2

Qi A2V2 A2 1 2 2 g 1 2
Z1 Z 2 (3.10)
A1

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However, in the case of real fluid flow, the flow rate will be expected to be less
than that given by Equation 3.10 because of frictional effects and consequent head
loss between inlet and throat. Therefore,

1 2
A 2 p p
12

Qa Cd A2 1 2 2 g 1 2
Z1 Z 2 (3.11)
A1

In metering practice, this non-ideality is accounted by insertion of an
experimentally determined discharge coefficient, Cd that is termed as the
coefficient of discharge. With Z1 = Z2 in this apparatus, the discharge coefficient
is determined as follow:
Qa
Cd (3.12)
Qi
Discharge coefficient, Cd usually lies in the range between 0.9 and 0.99.

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

4 GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES:

4.1 General startup procedures:


The Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Apparatus supplied ready for use and
only requires connection to the Hydraulic Bench as follows:

1. Ensure that the clear acrylic test section is installed with the converging
section upstream. Also check that the unions are tighten (hand tight only). If
necessary to dismantle the test section then the total pressure probe must be
withdrawn fully (but not pulled out of its guide in the downstream coupling)
before releasing the couplings.
2. Locate the apparatus on the flat top of the bench.
3. Attach a spirit level to baseboard and level the unit on top of the bench by
adjusting the feet.
4. Fill water into the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench until approximately
90% full.
5. Connect the flexible inlet tube using the quick release coupling in the bed of
the channel.
6. Connect a flexible hose to the outlet and make sure that it is directed into the
channel.
7. Partially open the outlet flow control valve at the Bernoullis Theorem
Demonstration Apparatus.
8. Fully close the bench flow control valve, V1 then switch on the pump.
9. Gradually open V1 and allow the piping to fill with water until all air has been
expelled from the system.
10. Also check for Trapped Bubbles in the glass tube or plastic transfer tube.
You would need to remove them from the system for better accuracy.

Note:
To remove air bubbles, you will have to bleed the air out as follow:
i. Get a pen or screw driver to press the air bleed valve at the top right side
of manometer board.
ii. Press air bleed valve lightly to allow fluid and trapped air to escape out.
(Take care or you will wet yourself or the premise).
Allow sufficient time for bleeding until all bubbles escape.

11. At this point, you will see water flowing into the venturi and discharge into
the collection tank of hydraulic bench.
12. Proceed to increase the water flow rate. When the flow in the pipe is steady
and there is no trapped bubble, start to close the discharge valve to reduce the
flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.
13. You will see that water level in the manometer tubes will begin to display
different level of water heights. If the water level in the manometer board is
too low where it is out of visible point, open V1 to increase the static pressure.
If the water level is too high, open the outlet control valve to lower the static
pressure.

Note: The water level can be adjusted facilitate by the air bleed valve.

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

14. Adjust V1 and outlet control valve to obtain a flow through the test section and
observe that the static pressure profile along the converging and diverging
sections is indicated on its respective manometers. The total head pressure
along the venture tube can be measured by traversing the hypodermic tube.

Note: The manometer tube connected to the tapping adjacent to the outlet
flow control valve is used as a datum when setting up equivalent conditions
for flow through test section.

15. The actual flow of water can be measured using the volumetric tank with a
stop watch.

4.2 General shutdown procedures:

1. Switch off the water supply pump.


2. Close water supply valve and venturi discharge valve.
3. Turn off the water supply pump.
4. Drain off water from the unit when not in use.

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

5 EXPERIMENTS:

5.1 Experiment 1; Discharge Coefficient determination:

Objective To determine the discharge coefficient of the venturi meter

Procedures:

1. Perform the General Start-up Procedures in Section 4.1.


2. Withdraw the hypodermic tube from the test section.
3. Adjust the discharge valve to the maximum measurable flow rate of the
venturi. This is achieved when tube 1 and 3 give the maximum observable
water head difference.

Note: Refer to the venturi specification for the designed flow rate.

4. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric
method and record the manometers reading.
5. Repeat step 4 with at least three decreasing flow rates by regulating the
venturi discharge valve.
6. Obtain the actual flow rate, Qa from the volumetric flow measurement
method.
7. Calculate the ideal flow rate, Qi from the head difference between h1 and h3
using Equation 3.18.
8. Plot Qa Vs Qi and finally obtain the discharge coefficient, Cd which is the
slope.

Observations:

Volume Time Qa Water Head (mm)


(L) (s) (LPM) hA hB hC hD hE hF

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5.2 Experiment 2; Flow rate measurement with Venturi Meter:

Objective: To measure flow rate with venturi meter

Procedures:

1. Perform the General Start-up Procedures in Section 4.1.


2. Withdraw the hypodermic tube from the test section.
3. Adjust the discharge valve to a high measurable flow rate.
4. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric
method and record the manometers reading.
5. Repeat step 4 with three other decreasing flow rates by regulating the venturi
discharge valve.
6. Calculate the venturi meter flow rate of each data by applying the discharge
coefficient obtained.
7. Compare the volumetric flow rate with venturi meter flow rate.

Observations:

Volume Time Qa Water Head (mm)


(L) (s) (LPM) hA hB hC hD hE hF

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

5.3 Experiment 3; Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration:

Objective: To demonstrate Bernoullis Theorem

Procedures:

1. Perform the General Start-up Procedures in Section 4.1.


2. Check that all manometer tubings are properly connected to the corresponding
pressure taps and are air-bubble free.
3. Adjust the discharge valve to a high measurable flow rate.
4. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric
method.
5. Gently slide the hypodermic tube (total head measuring) connected to
manometer #H, so that its end reaches the cross section of the Venturi tube at
#A. Wait for some time and note down the readings from manometer #H and
#A. The reading shown by manometer #H is the sum of the static head and
velocity heads, i.e. the total (or stagnation) head (h*), because the hypodermic
tube is held against the flow of fluid forcing it to a stop (zero velocity). The
reading in manometer #A measures just the pressure head (hi) because it is
connected to the Venturi tube pressure tap, which does not obstruct the flow,
thus measuring the flow static pressure.
6. Repeat step 5 for other cross sections (#B, #C, #D, #E and #F).
7. Repeat step 3 to 6 with three other decreasing flow rates by regulating the
venturi discharge valve.
8. Calculate the velocity, ViB using the Bernoullis equation where;

ViB 2 g (h8 h i )

9. Calculate the velocity, ViC using the continuity equation where

ViC = Qav / Ai

10. Determined the difference between two calculated velocities.


Observations:

Cross Using Continuity


Using Bernoulli equation Difference
Section equation
ViC =
h* = hH hi = hA ViB =[2*g*(h* - hi )] Ai = Di2 /4 ViB-ViC
i 2 Qav/Ai
(mm) (mm) (m/s) (m ) (m/s)
(m/s)
A
B
C
D
E
F

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

6 MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:

1. It is important to drain all water from the apparatus when not in use. The apparatus
should be stored properly to prevent damage.
2. Any manometer tube, which does not fill with water or slow fill, indicates that
tapping or connection of the manometer is blocked. To remove the obstacle,
disconnect the flexible connection tube and blow through.
3. The apparatus should not be exposed to any shock and stresses.
4. Always wear protective clothing, shoes, helmet and goggles throughout the
laboratory session.
5. Always run the experiment after fully understand the unit and procedures.

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APPENDIX A
Experiment Data Sheets

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Experiment 1: Discharge Coefficient Determination

Objective: To determine the discharge coefficient of the venturi meter

Data Analysis:

Throat Diameter, D3 (mm) 16.0


Inlet Diameter, D3 (mm) 26.0
Throat Area, At (m2) 2.011 x 10-4
Inlet Area, Ai (m2) 5.309 x 10-4
g (m/s2) 9.81
(kg/m3) 1000

Results:

Qav hA hB hC hD hE hF hA - hC Qi
(LPM) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (m) (LPM)

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Experiment 2: Flow Rate Measurement with Venturi Meter

Objective: To measure flow rate with venturi meter

Data Analysis:

Throat Diameter, D3 (mm) 16.0


Inlet Diameter, D3 (mm) 26.0
Throat Area, At (m2) 2.011 x 10-4
Inlet Area, Ai (m2) 5.309 x 10-4
g (m/s2) 9.81
(kg/m3) 1000

Results:

Qav hA hB hC hD hE hF
(LPM) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

Qav hA - hC Qi Calculated Flow Rate Error


(LPM) (m) (LPM) (LPM) (%)

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Experiment 3: Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration

Objective: To demonstrate Bernoullis Theorem

Data Analysis:

Volume (L)
Average Time
(min)
Flow Rate (LPM)

Results:

Cross
Using Bernoulli equation Using Continuity equation Difference
Section
h* = hH hi = hA ViB = Ai = ViC =
ViB-ViC
# (mm) (mm) [2*g*(h* - hi )] Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai
(m/s)
(m/s) (m2) (m/s)
A
B
C
D
E
F

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

APPENDIX B
Typical Experimental Results

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Experiment 1: Discharge Coefficient Determination

Objective: To determine the discharge coefficient of the venturi meter

Data Analysis:

Throat Diameter, D3 (mm) 16.0


Inlet Diameter, Di (mm) 26.0
Throat Area, At (m2) 2.011 x 10-4
Inlet Area, Ai (m2) 5.309 x 10-4
g (m/s2) 9.81
(kg/m3) 1000

Results:

Qav hA hB hC hD hE hF hA - hC Qi
(LPM) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (m) (LPM)
9.4 54.0 50.0 21.0 40.0 44.0 48.0 0.0330 10.49
8.9 130.0 126.0 101.0 117.0 121.0 125.0 0.0290 9.83
8.0 185.0 182.0 161.0 175.0 178.0 182.0 0.0240 8.94
7.3 210.0 208.0 189.0 200.0 203.0 206.0 0.0210 8.37

Actual flow rate versus Ideal Flow Rate


12.0
y = 0.8942x
Actual flow rate,Qa(LPM)

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00
Ideal flow rate,Qi(LPM)

Cd = slope = 0.8942

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Sample Calculation for Experiment 1

At flow rate, Qav = 9.4 LPM

hA hC
54 21 0.0330 m
1000

1
A 2 2

x 2 g hA hC
1
Qi 60000 At 1 t 2

Ai

1
2.011 104 2 2

2 9.81 0.0330
1
4
60000 2.011 10 1 4
2

5.309 10

10.49 LPM

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Experiment 2: Flow Rate Measurement with Venturi Meter

Objective: To measure flow rate with venturi meter

Data Analysis:

Throat Diameter, D3 (mm) 16.0


Inlet Diameter, Di (mm) 26.0
Throat Area, At (m2) 2.011 x 10-4
Inlet Area, Ai (m2) 5.309 x 10-4
g (m/s2) 9.81
(kg/m3) 1000

Results:

Qav hA hB hC hD hE hF
(LPM) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
12.80 63.0 56.0 8.0 40.0 47.0 54.0
9.19 102.0 97.0 71.0 87.0 91.0 96.0
8.52 141.0 137.0 112.0 128.0 132.0 136.0
7.92 180.0 177.0 155.0 169.0 172.0 176.0

Qav (calculated) hA - hC Qi Actual Flow Rate Error


(LPM) (m) (LPM) (LPM) (%)
12.80 0.0550 13.54 12.11 5.7
9.19 0.0310 10.17 9.09 1.0
8.52 0.0290 9.83 8.79 3.2
7.92 0.0250 9.13 8.16 3.1

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Sample Calculation for Experiment 2

At flow rate, Qav = 12.80 LPM (Calculated)

hA hC
63 8 0.0550 m
1000

1
A 2 2

x 2 g hA hC
1
Qi 60000 At 1 t 2

Ai

1
2.011 104 2 2

2 9.81 0.0550
1
4
60000 2.011 10 1 4
2

5.309 10

13.54 LPM

Actual Flow Rate Qi Cd

13.54 0.8942

12.11 LPM

Error
Calculated Flow Rate Actual Flow Rate 100 %
Actual Flow Rate


12.8 12.11 100 %
12.11

5.7 %

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Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Experiment 3: Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration

Objective: To demonstrate Bernoullis Theorem

Data Analysis:

Volume (L) 5.0


Average Time
0.37
(min)
Flow Rate (LPM) 13.7

Results:

Using Bernoulli equation Using Continuity equation Difference


ViB = Ai = ViC =
Cross Section h*= hH hi = hA ViB-ViC
[2*g*(h* - hi )] Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai
(mm) (mm) (m/s)
(m/s) (m2) (m/s)
A 125.0 105.0 0.63 0.000531 0.43 0.20
B 123.0 96.0 0.73 0.000366 0.62 0.11
C 121.0 30.0 1.34 0.000201 1.13 0.20
D 115.0 71.0 0.93 0.000314 0.72 0.20
E 112.0 80.0 0.79 0.000380 0.60 0.19
F 110.0 91.0 0.61 0.000531 0.43 0.18

EES
Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Data Analysis:

Volume (L) 5.0


Average Time
0.37
(min)
Flow Rate (LPM) 13.4

Results:

Using Bernoulli equation Using Continuity equation Difference


Cross Section ViB = Ai = ViC =
h*= hH hi = hA ViB-ViC
[2*g*(h* - hi )] Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai
(mm) (mm) (m/s)
(m/s) (m2) (m/s)
A 161.0 143.0 0.59 0.000531 0.42 0.17
B 158.0 135.0 0.67 0.000366 0.61 0.06
C 157.0 72.0 1.29 0.000201 1.11 0.18
D 152.0 110.0 0.91 0.000314 0.71 0.19
E 150.0 118.0 0.79 0.000380 0.59 0.20
F 148.0 128.0 0.63 0.000531 0.42 0.20

EES
Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Data Analysis:

Volume (L) 5.0


Average Time
0.38
(min)
Flow Rate (LPM) 13.0

Results:

Using Bernoulli equation Using Continuity equation Difference


Cross Section ViB = Ai = ViC =
h*= hH hi = hA ViB-ViC
[2*g*(h* - hi )] Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai
(mm) (mm) (m/s)
(m/s) (m2) (m/s)
A 206.0 191.0 0.54 0.000531 0.41 0.13
B 205.0 183.0 0.66 0.000366 0.59 0.07
C 205.0 130.0 1.21 0.000201 1.08 0.13
D 201.0 164.0 0.85 0.000314 0.69 0.16
E 198.0 172.0 0.71 0.000380 0.57 0.14
F 196.0 182.0 0.52 0.000531 0.41 0.12

Data Analysis:

Volume (L) 5.0


Average Time
0.48
(min)
Flow Rate (LPM) 10.4

Results:

Using Bernoulli equation Using Continuity equation Difference


Cross Section ViB = Ai = ViC =
h*= hH hi = hA ViB-ViC
[2*g*(h* - hi )] Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai
(mm) (mm) (m/s)
(m/s) (m2) (m/s)
A 260.0 250.0 0.44 0.000531 0.33 0.12
B 258.0 245.0 0.51 0.000366 0.47 0.03
C 257.0 218.0 0.87 0.000201 0.86 0.01
D 254.0 234.0 0.63 0.000314 0.55 0.07
E 253.0 240.0 0.51 0.000380 0.46 0.05
F 253.0 245.0 0.40 0.000531 0.33 0.07

EES
Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

Sample Calculation for Experiment 3

At flow rate, Qav = 13.7 LPM @ Cross Section #A

ViB

2g h * h i
1000

2 9.81 125 105



1000

0.63 m / s

2
Di
Ai
4

26 2

4

1 m2
530.93 mm 2

1000000 mm 2

0.000531 m 2

Qav 1
ViC
60000 Ai

13.7 1

60000 0.000531

0.43 m / s

Difference ViB ViC

0.63 0.43

0.20 m / s

EES
Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

APPENDIX C
Venturi Meter Drawing

EES
Bernoullis Theorem Apparatus

EES