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CHAPTER 3

ELIMINATION IN INVERTER

3.1 INTRODUCTION

washing machines, video cameras, rice cookers, as well as industrial

processes, such as cement kilns, underground trains, and robots. Fuzzy

control is a control method based on fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic can be

described simply as computing with words rather than numbers, fuzzy control

can be described simply as control with sentences rather than equations. A

fuzzy controller can include empirical rules, and that is especially useful in

operator controlled plants. In a rule based controller the control strategy is

stored in a more or less natural language.The control strategy is isolated in a

rule base opposed to an equation based description. A rule based controller is

easy to understand and easy to maintain for a non-specialist end user. A

measurable disturbance is being compensated. It requires a good model, but if

a mathematical model is difficult or expensive to obtain, a fuzzy model may

be useful.

controller are that they do not need an accurate mathematical model; they can

work with imprecise inputs, can handle nonlinearity, and may be more robust

than the conventional PI controller. Use of fuzzy logic for minimization of

harmonics and improvement of power quality is not a new issue rather

41

tools (Suresh Kumar et al 2011).

as FL, that is, fuzzy logic in its wide sense. The basic ideas underlying FL are

explained very clearly and insightfully in Foundations of Fuzzy Logic. What

might be added is that the basic concept underlying FL is that of a linguistic

variable, that is, a variable whose values are words rather than numbers. In

effect, much of FL may be viewed as a methodology for computing with

words rather than numbers. Although words are inherently less precise than

numbers, their use is closer to human intuition. Furthermore, computing with

words exploits the tolerance for imprecision and thereby lowers the cost of

solution.Another basic concept in FL, which plays a central role inmost of its

applications, is that of a fuzzy if-then rule or,simply, fuzzy rule. Although

rule-based systems have a long history of use in Artificial Intelligence (AI),

what is missing in such systems is a mechanism for dealing with fuzzy

consequents and fuzzy antecedents. In fuzzy logic,this mechanism is provided

by the calculus of fuzzy rules.The calculus of fuzzy rules serves as a basis for

what mightbe called the Fuzzy Dependency and Command Language(FDCL).

Although FDCL is not used explicitly in the toolbox, it is effectively one of

its principal constituents. In most of the applications of fuzzy logic, a fuzzy

logic solution is, in reality, a translation of a human solution intoFDCL.A

trend that is growing in visibility relates to the use of fuzzy logic in

combination with neuron computing and genetic algorithms. More generally,

fuzzy logic, neurocomputing, and genetic algorithms may be viewed as the

principal constituents of what might be called softcomputing. Unlike the

traditional, hard computing, softcomputing accommodates the imprecision of

the real world.

42

converter. By increasing the number of levels in a given topology, the output

voltages have more steps generating a staircase waveform, which approaches

closely the desired sinusoidal waveform and also offers reduced harmonic

distortion. One promising technology to interface battery packs in electric and

hybrid electric vehicles are multilevel converters because of the possibility of

high VA rating and low harmonic distortion without the use of a

transformer(Mohemad et al 2008). There are three main topologies for

multilevel inverters. These topologies are diode clamped multi-level inverters

(DCMI), flying-capacitor multi-level inverters (FCMI) and cascaded multi-

level inverters with separate DC sources.

topologies in the family of multilevel and multipulse inverters. It requires

least number of components with compare to diode-clamped and flying

capacitors type multilevel inverters and no specially designed transformer is

needed as compared to multipulse inverter. It has modular structure with

simple switching strategy and occupies less space(Jagdish Kumar et al 2008).

The CMLI consists of a number of H-bridge inverter units with separate dc

source for each unit and is connected in cascade or series as shown in

Figure3.1.

and Vdc by connecting the dc source to ac output side by different

combinations of the four switches T1,T2,T3 and T4. The ac output of each H-

bridge is connected in series such that the synthesized output voltage

waveform is the sum of all of the individual H-bridge outputs. By connecting

the sufficient number of H-bridges in cascade and using proper modulation

scheme, a nearly sinusoidal output voltage waveform can be synthesized. The

43

number of levels in the output phase voltage is 2s+1, where s is the number of

H-bridges used per phase(Mitali et al 2012).

44

from the operator is more important than the dynamic mathematical model of

the system. The real problem in a control system is the output signal or error

signal in the physical environment. This information plays an important role

in the processes of closed loop systems because the closed loop systems are

commanded according to this information. The aim of fuzzy logic control is

to reduce the error of the system to a minimum. The size of the controller

input is associated with the size of error. The rate of change of error affects

the determination of the controller input. Therefore, as the linguistic changes,

the error and the change of error are used to give the decision according to the

controller rules. The most important state for solving a problem by using

fuzzy logic theories is the determination of the membership functions. In

many studies, it has been shown that the degree of membership of a fuzzy

logic set is directly related to the senses obtained from samples in some

applications. In other applications, it is related to statistical or mathematical

estimations under specific assumptions (Abdelkhalek et al 2008).

systems for adjustable motor drives and active power filter applications.

FLCs are widely used because of the following reasons (Altas et al 2007).

45

steps in designing a fuzzy logic control system are as follows.

by each variable into a number of fuzzy subsets, assigning

each a linguistic label (subset include all the elements in the

universe).

subset.

fuzzy subsets on the one hand and the outputs fuzzy subsets

on the other hand, thus forming the rule base.

output variables in order to normalize the variables to the

[0,1] or the [-1,1] interval(optional).

contributed to each rule.

46

the results of the nine steps mentioned above are fixed, whereas in an

adaptive fuzzy logic controller, they are adaptively modified based on some

adaption law in order to optimize the controller.

improvements of both transient and steadystate performances. The function of

fuzzy logic controller is very useful since exact mathematical model of it

isnot required. The schematic diagram of fuzzy logic control system is shown

in Figure 3.2.

Knowledge Base

Data | Rule

Base | Base

Mechanism

Knowledge base, Fuzzification, Inference mechanism and Defuzzification.

The knowledge base is composed of data-base and rule-base. The data-base,

consisting of input and output membership functions, provides information

for appropriate fuzzification operations, the inference mechanism and

defuzzification. The rule-base consists of a set of linguistic rules relating the

fuzzy input variables to the desired control actions. Fuzzification converts a

crisp input signal, into fuzzified signals that can be identified by level of

47

membership in the fuzzy sets. The inference mechanism uses the collection of

linguistic rules to convert the input conditions to fuzzified output. Finally, the

defuzzification converts the fuzzy outputs to crisp output signals (Kerrouche

et al 2009).

3.3.3 Fuzzification

that can be identified by level of membership in the fuzzy sets. Fuzzy logic

uses linguistic variables instead of numerical variables. In a control system,

error between reference and output can be labeled as very small (VS),

Small(S), Medium(M), Large(L),Very Large(VL). The process of converting

a numerical variable (real number) convert to a linguistic variable (fuzzy

number) is called fuzzification.

It has a fruitful outcome in many fields such as automatic control, data

classification, decision analysis, expert systems, robotics etc. It implements a

nonlinear mapping from its input space to output space. The control rules are

evaluated by inference mechanism. There are mainly two forms of inference

mechanism available(Nagewara Rao et al 2010).

consequent of fuzzy rules. Mamdani FIS uses fuzzy sets for the rule

consequents and Sugeno FIS uses linear functions of input variables.

Mamdani FIS is universally accepted.

48

inference system. If the rule is compound in nature, it is converted into a

simple canonical rule form. There should be more than one rule available in

the rule base system. In aggregation, the overall consequents from the

individual consequents are obtained.

data-base, consisting of input and output membership functions, provides

information for appropriate fuzzification operations. Rule base involves

defining the rules represented as a set of if then rules, for example if (alpha0

is very small VS) and (alpha1 is very small VS) and (alpha2 is very small

VS) then (V1 is very large VL) (V3 is large L) (V5 is medium M).

3.3.5.1 Database

required by fuzzifier and defuzzifier. The membership to accommodate

various degrees of membership on the real continuous interval is [-1, 1].

But there are infinite number of values in between the end points [-1, 1],

which can represent various degrees of membership for an element. A crisp

set has a unique membership function, whereas a fuzzy set can have an

infinite number of membership functions to represent it. The main power and

strength of membership function is that it employs some amount of overlap.

membership function

S membership function

L membership function

49

which are combination of numerical values. In FLC, the equivalent term is

rules and they are linguistic in nature.

output). This form of knowledge representation, characterized as shallow

knowledge, is quite appropriate in the context of linguistics because it

expresses human empirical and heuristic knowledge in ones own language of

communication. The IF-THEN rules can be made as compound rules by

adding AND in between IF-THEN. Then, the fuzzy rules become as

compound rules like IF..ANDAND..THEN.

the experts.

process.

with a learning process.

50

change of error (ce) and output respectively.

3.3.6 Defuzzification

used to control the drive unit and thus accomplished by the defuzzification

block. The rules of FLC generate required output in a linguistic variable

(Fuzzy Number), according to real world requirements, linguistic variables

have to be transformed to crisp output (Real number). The choices available

for defuzzification are numerous. So far the choice of strategy is a

compromise between accuracy and computational intensity.

average criterion, the mean-max membership, and center-of-area (centroid)

method. The defuzzification technique used here is based upon centroid

method.

could be discrete or continuous, X is called the universe. If an element in the

universe, say x, is a member of fuzzy set Athen mapping is given as

( ) [0,1]

51

= [ , ( )|

The basic fuzzy set operations needed for evaluation of fuzzy rules are AND

),OR( ) and NOT ).

OR -Union: = max [ ( ), ( )]

NOT -Complement: =1 ( )

SELECTION

switching angles for harmonic mitigation in multilevel inverter. The

following steps were involved in the design procedure.

1. The input variables are the switching angles and the output

variables are the harmonic voltage.

are portioned into five intervals. The linguistic variables

are Very Small(VS), Small(S), Medium(M), Large(L),

Very Large(VL).The range for the input is [0,90] and

is defined as VS (0,18), S(18,36), M(36,54), L(54,72),

VL(72,90); range for the control output is [-300,300] and is

defined as VS(-300,-180), S(-180,-60), M(-60,60), L(60,180),

VL(180,300).

52

and output variables and they are designed as shown in

Figures 3.3, 3.4.

rule evaluator (decision making logic).In the proposed work

three inputs (alpha0,alpha1 and alpha2) were used with each

input having five membership functions (Very Small(VS),

Small(S), Medium(M), Large(L),Very Large(VL)).So totally

125 rules were formed(Number of inputs*square of number

of membership functions).The rules used are shown in

Appendix 1.

performed on the rule outputs.

53

54

55

performed in the working platform of MATLAB (version 7.10). The

technique is implemented in a seven level three-H bridge inverter in such a

way that it can eliminate the 3rd order and 5th order harmonics and so it can

minimize the total harmonic distortion.The output voltage of each bridge is

shown in Figure3.5,3.6 and3.7. The output voltage obtained for optimal

switching angles for the multilevel inverter are given in Figure3.8.Output

voltage Vs time plot is given in Figure 3.9. FFT analysis of inverter output

voltage is shown in Figure 3.10. The Total Harmonic Distortion and the

computational time for modulation index of 0.5 are listed in the Table 3.1.

56

57

58

Figure 3.8 Output waveform of the Inverter using Fuzzy Logic Controller

59

Figure 3.9 Output Voltage Vs Time plot of the Inverter using Fuzzy

Logic Controller

60

61

Methodology

distortion (THD) time in Seconds

with the help of SHE-PWM technique on a single phase 3 level H bridge

inverter using Neural network and Fuzzy Logic. The 3rd and 5th harmonic

voltages for Fuzzy Logic controller were reported as 3% and 1%

respectively.Hence it is clear that the proposed Fuzzy Logic Controller used

in this thesis gives better result with the THD of 1.8%.

3.7 CONCLUSION

a multilevel inverter has been explained in detail. The design steps for Fuzzy

Logic Controller are given and their application in the proposed system is

clearly explained. The designed Fuzzy Logic Controller is tested in the 7 level

H bridge inverter and the simulated results are obtained.

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