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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.

1 (January 2013)
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm ISSN 2249-6149

EFFECT OF SUB COOLING AND SUPERHEATING ON


VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
USING R-22 ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS
Ashish Kumar Paharia1, R.C.Gupta2
1
PG Student (Heat Power Engg.), Mechanical Engineering Department
Jabalpur Engineering College, India.
2
Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department
Jabalpur Engineering College, India.
________________________________________________________________
ABSTRACT
This paper present performance of three hydrofrulocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-410A, R -
507A, R-407C) selected to replace R-22 in a vapour compression refrigeration system using
thermodynamic simulation. The effects of the main parameters of performance analysis such
as refrigerant type, degree of sub cooling and super heating on the refrigerating effect,
coefficient of performance and volumetric refrigeration capacity were also investigated for
various evaporating temperature. The result showed that R410A and R407C have
thermodynamic performance similar to R-22.
Keywords: Vapour compression refrigeration cycle ,COP , theoreitical analysisR-410a,R-
407c etc.
________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION
During the last decade, the number of refrigerants likely to be used in refrigerating machines
has dramatically increased as a consequence of the elimination of the.CFCs and HCFCs.
Recently, the ozone depleting potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP) have
become the most important criteria in the development of new refrigerants apart from the
refrigerant CFCs and HCFCs, both of which have high ODP and GWP, due to the their
contribution to ozone layer depletion and global warming. In spite of their high GWP
alternatives to refrigerant CFCs and HCFCs such as hydrouorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants
with their zero ODP have been preferred for use in many industrial and domestic
applications intensively for decade. HFC refrigerants also have suitable specications such as
non-ammability, stability, and similar vapour pressure to the refrigerant CFCs and HCFCs.
R22 is one of the important refrigerant used in air conditioning all over the world. R22 is
controlled substance under the Montreal Protocol. It has to be totally phased out by 2017. In
Europe, HCFCs have already been phased out in new equipment in 2002, and the total phase
out of HCFCs is scheduled in 2015.HCF 22 replacements options for A/C, heat pumps and
refrigeration systems can be grouped in three categories, Fluorocarbons that are used in
conventional vapor compression cycles such as R134a, R410a, R407C, alternatives fluids
which include propane R290 and R717 and are also used in vapor compression cycles, and
finally alternatives cycles that include absorption systems, and use Tran critical fluids (CO2
)and air cycle. In general these alternative technologies do not currently offer the same
energy efficiency as the vapor compression cycle.
Several investigations have been carried out in order to determine the efficiency of potential
substitutes to R22.

In this paper, a vapour compression refrigeration cycle for three HFC refrigerants is used to
obtain better performance. The present study mostly concentrates on therotical investigation

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm ISSN 2249-6149

of vapour compression refrigeration cycle. The three HFC refrigerants


(R410A,R507C,R407C) are used as working fluid for comparison with conventional
fluid R22. The effect of main parameters of performance analysis such as refrigerant
type on refrigerating effect (RE) ,volumetric refrigerating capacity(VRC) are investigated
for various evaporating temperature ranging -150 C to 150 C and constant condensation
temperature 40 0C.

REFRIGERATION CYCLE
The refrigeration cycle studied is a standard vapor compression cycle composed mainly of
four main equipments: Evaporator, Compressor, Condenser and a throttling valve as
illustrated in figure1. The following assumptions are made
-An evaporation at constant pressure, in the evaporator with an evaporator temperature, Tev,
from point 4 to point 1 (h4 to h1)

-An adiabatic isentropic compression process in the compressor, corresponding from point 1
to point 2 (h1 to h2).
-A de superheating at constant pressure followed by a condensation at constant temperature
(Tc) and pressure in the condenser, from point 2 to point 3. (h2 to h 3).
-An expansion at constant enthalpy in the throttling valve, corresponding from point 3 to
Point 4 (h3= h4).

The vapour leaving the evaporator as well as the liquid leaving the condenser are supposed to
be at saturated states, and therefore neither superheating of the vapour nor sub cooling of the
liquid are required.
.

Fig. 1. Traditional vapour-compression refrigeration cycle used in the analysis.

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm ISSN 2249-6149

II.THEORETICAL COMPUTATIONAL MODEL

The pressureenthalpy diagram prepared for theoretical data for two different cases is shown
in Fig. 1. The ideal refrigeration cycle in Fig. 1 is considered for the working substances that
change phase during the cycle. It is known that the actual refrigeration cycle systems have
some deviations from the ideal one due to pressure losses of fluid flow and heat transfer
exchange between the surroundings. The superheated state of vapour exists at the inlet part of
the compressor as shown in Fig. 1b, the pressure of the liquid at the exit part of the condenser
is lower than the pressure at the inlet part of it, there is a pressure drop greater than the ideal
one between the condenser and expansion valve, and also a larger pressure drop occurs on the
evaporation line.
The equations for the cycle analysis can be obtained by means of mass and energy
conservation. The data reduction of the theoretical results can be analysed below. The
pressure ratio of the cycle can be seen below as follows:
The pressure ratio = Pcod /Pevap:
(1)

The refrigerating effect (RE), in other words, the heat transfer rate of the evaporator (Qevap),
is calculated as follows:
RE = Qevap = h1h4 kJ/kg
(2)
Isentropic compression work of the compressor (Wcomp) is expressed as follows

Wcomp = h2h1 kJ/kg

(3)
The coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigeration system's cycle can be determined
by:
COP = RE /Wcomp:
(4)
In the vapour-compression system in Fig. 1, volumetric refrigerating capacity (VRC) is
given as:

VRC = 1RE kJm-3


(5)

Power per ton of refrigeration is calculated as follows:

Power per ton of refrigeration (P /TR) = 3.5Wcomp / RE


kWTR-1
(6)
Suction vapour flow per KW of refrigeration can be determined as:
SVFR = 1/ 1 RE L/S (7)

III.FLOW CHART FOR COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS


A Simulation model was developed in order to investigate the effect of the evaporator and
condenser temperatures on the physical properties of refrigerants such as evaporation
pressure (Pevap), pressure ratio, refrigerating effect (RE), isentropic compression work (W),
coefficient of performance (COP), refrigeration power, volumetric refrigeration capacity
(VRC) and suction vapour flow rate (SVFR) is investigated in this theoretical study. They are

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm ISSN 2249-6149

plotted against the evaporating temperature (T evap) . The ideal refrigeration cycle is
considered with the following conditions.

System cooling capacity (kW) = 1.00


Compressor isentropic efficiency = 1.00
Compressor volumetric efficiency = 1.00
Electric motor efficiency = 1.00
Pressure drop in the suction line = 0.0
Pressure drop in the discharge line = 0.0
Evaporator: Average sat.Temp = -150C to +150C
Condenser: Average sat. Temp = 400C
Super heat = 10 0C
Sub cooling = 50C

Fig 2 flow chart for simulation


IV.RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The analysis of the variation of physical properties of refrigerants such as evaporation
pressure (Pevap), pressure ratio, refrigerating effect (RE), isentropic compression work (W),
coefficient of performance (COP), refrigeration power, volumetric refrigeration capacity
(VRC) and suction vapor flow rate (SVFR) is investigated in this theoretical study, and they
are plotted against the evaporating temperature (Tevap) as shown in Figs. 3to10
The changes in evaporation pressure (Pevap) and pressure ratio with the evaporation
temperature (Tevap) are shown in Fig. 3 and fig. 4 for listed refrigerant. Evaporation pressure

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm ISSN 2249-6149

for R-410a is higher in comparison with other refrigerants. pressure ratio for all
refrigerants are having almost same value in all evaporating temperature.

Fig. 5 and fig.6 shows that the refrigerating effect (RE) increases with increasing evaporation
temperature (Tevap) while the compressor power (Wcomp) decreases with increasing T evap for
the constant condensation temperature of 40 C and the evaporation temperatures ranging
from 15 C to 15 C. Refrigerant R-410A have higher refrigerating effect and compressor
work than other refrigerants as shown in fig. 5 and fig.6.

The variation of performance coefficient (COP) with evaporation temperature (T evap) is


illustrated in Fig. 7 From this figure, the coefficient of performance (COP) increases as the
evaporation temperature (Tevap) increases for the constant condensation temperature of 40 C
and evaporation temperatures ranging from 15C to15 C. COP of R-22 is higher than all
other refrigerants.

The changes in power needed for refrigeration with evaporation temperature (T evap) in Fig. 8
volumetric refrigeration capacity (VRC) with evaporation temperature (Tev) in Fig. 9 and
suction vapour flow needed for refrigeration (SVFR) with evaporation temperature (T evap) in
Fig. 10 are shown. The power needed for refrigeration is higher for refrigerant R-507A.
Volumetric refrigeration capacity is higher for refrigerant R 410A. Suction vapour flow rate
per kW of refrigeration is higher for R407C.

The cycle performance can be improved by the sub cooling and superheating applications.
The comparison of the super heating / sub cooling with the non-super heating / sub cooling
was illustrated in figures from 11 to15 for the refrigerant R-410a and in figures 16 to 20 for
R 407-C. The performance coefficient (COP) values of the super heating / sub cooling case
are found to be higher than those of the non super heating sub cooling case. The reason for
the improvement is the increase in the compressor inlet temperature and thus the increases in
refrigerating effect and volumetric refrigerating capacity.

1.4
Peva (Mpa) 6 PRESSURE RATIO
1.2 R22(Tc=40c
R22(Tc=40c
5 )
)
1
PRESSURE RATIO

4 R410A(Tc=
Peva(Mpa)

0.8 R410A(Tc=
40C) 40C)

0.6 3
R-
R- 407C(Tc=4
0.4 407C(Tc=4 2 0 c)
0 c)
0.2 R- R-
1
507(Tc=40 507(Tc=40
0 c) c)
0
-15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15
-15 -12 -8 -4 0 0 4 8 12 15
Teva(0C) Teva( C)
Fig 3 evaporating pressur vs. evaporating temperature Fig 4 pressure ratio vs. evaporating temperature

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm ISSN 2249-6149

200 REF EFFECT(KJ/KG) 50 ISENTROPIC


180 45 COMPRESSION WORK
160 R22(Tc=40c 40 R22(Tc=40c
) )
140 35
REF EFFECT(kJ/KG)

120 R410A(Tc= R410A(Tc=


30
40C) 40C)

W(KJ/KG)
100 25
R-
R-
80 20 407C(Tc=40
407C(Tc=4
c)
0 c)
60 15
R- R-
40 507(Tc=40 10 507(Tc=40
c) c)
20 5

0 0
-15 -12 -8 -4 00 4 8 12 15 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 0 4 8 12 15
Teva( c) Teva( C)
Fig. 6 Isentropic compression work vs evaporating temperature
Fig.5.refrigerating effect vs. evaporating temperature.

12
COP 1.2 POWER PER TON OF
REFRIGERATION
POWER PER TON OF REFRIGERATION(KW/TR)

10
1
R22(Tc=40 R22(Tc=40
c) c)
8
0.8
R410A(Tc= R410A(Tc=
40C) 40C)
COP

6 0.6
R- R-
407C(Tc=4 407C(Tc=4
0 c) 0.4
4 0 c)
R- R-
507(Tc=40 0.2 507(Tc=40
2 c) c)

0
0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15
-15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15 Teva(0C)
Teva(0c)
Fig. 8Power per ton of refrigeration vs evaporating temperature
Fig. 7 coefficient of performance vs evaporating temperature

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm ISSN 2249-6149

8000
VRC(KJ/m3) SVFR(L/S)
0.7
7000
R22(Tc=40 0.6 R22(Tc=40c
6000 c) )
0.5
5000 R410A(Tc= R410A(Tc=4

SVFR(L/S)
0.4
VRC(KJ/m3)

40C) 0C)
4000
0.3 R-
R-
407C(Tc=40
3000 407C(Tc=4
0.2 c)
0 c)

2000 R- R-
0.1
507(Tc=40 507(Tc=40
c) c)
1000 0
-15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15
0
Teva(0C)
-15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15
Teva(0C)
fig 9volumetric refrigeration capacity vs.evaporation temperature Fig.10 Suction vapour flow rate vs evaporating temperature

12 182
COP(R410A) REF EFFECT(KJ/KG)
180
Ns
10
N h/
178
s Ns
h c
8 176
/
N
C 174
RE(KJ/KG)

O 6
172
P
170
4
168

2 166

164
0
-15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15 162

Teva(oC) -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15


Teva(oc)
Fig. 11 coefficient of performance vs evaporating temperature (R-
410A) Fig.12.refrigerating effect vs evaporating temperature(R-410A)

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm ISSN 2249-6149

1.2
60
compression POWER PER TON
REFRIGERATION(KW/TR)
work(KJ/KG) Nsh
1
50 /Ns

power per ton of refrigeration(KW/TR)


Ns
h/ c
Ns sh/s
c 0.8 c
40
W(KJ/KG)

0.6
30

0.4
20

0.2
10

0
0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15
-15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15
Teva(oc)
Teva(oC)
Fig.14 Power per ton of refrigeration vs evaporating temperature
Fig. 13 Isentropic compression work vs evaporating temperature
9000 10
VRC (KJ/m3) COP
8000 9

8
7000

7
6000
6
VRC(KJ/m3)

5000 C
O5
Nsh/Nsc Nsh/Nsc
4000 P
sh/sc 4 sh/sc
3000
3

2000
2

1000 1

0 0
-15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15

Teva(oc) Teva(oc)
fig 15volumetric refrigeration capacity vs.evaporation temperature Fig.16 coefficient of performance vs evaporating temperature

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm ISSN 2249-6149

R407C R407C
200 60
COMPRESSION
180 REF EFFECT(KJ/KG) WORK(KJ/KG)
50
160

140
40
120

W(KJ/KG)
RE(KJ/KG)

30
100 Nsh/Nsc
Nsh/Nsc
80 sh/sc sh/sc
20
60

40 10

20
0
0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15
-15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15
Teva(oc)
Teva(oc) Fig. 18 Isentropic compression work vs evaporating temperature
Fig.17.refrigerating effect vs evaporating temperature

R407C R407C
1.2 6000
PTR(KW/TR) VRC(KJ/m3)
1 N 5000

0.8 4000
VRC(KJ/m3)
PTR(KW/TR)

3000 Nsh/Nsc
0.6
sh/sc
2000
0.4

1000
0.2

0
0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15
-15 -12 -8 -4 0 o 4 8 12 15 Teva(oc)
Teva( c)
Fig.19 Power per ton of refrigeration vs evaporating temperature
fig 20 volumetric refrigeration capacity vs.evaporation temperature

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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
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V. CONCLUSION

R22 that is commonly used as working fluid in vapour compression refrigeration system all
over the world is being phased out due to their environmental hazard of ozone depletion. In
this work, the performance of three HFC refrigerants (,R-410a, R-407cand R-507) regarded
as R22 alternative in vapour compression refrigeration system were investigated using
simulation model. The model was developed to predict the performance of the refrigerants
based on their coefficient of performance, refrigerating capacity and the compressor work etc.

The result obtained showed that R410a and R407c have physical properties and
thermodynamic Performance similar to R22. R410a has slightly lower coefficient of
performance (COP), higher refrigerating capacity than R22. Considering the comparison of
performance coefficients (COP) and pressure ratios of the tested refrigerants and also the
main Environmental impacts of ozone layer depletion and global warming, refrigerant R410A
and R407Care found to be the most suitable alternatives refrigerants to refrigerant R22.

All systems including various refrigerants were improved by analyzing the effect of the super
heating / sub cooling case. Better performance coefficient values (COP) than those of non-
super heating /sub cooling case are obtained as a result of this optimization.

REFERENCES
[1] Arora, C.P. (2010), Refrigeration and Air conditioning, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw
Hill, New Delhi

[2] K.J. Park, T. Seo, D. Jung, Performance of alternative refrigerants for residential air
conditioning applications, Applied Energy 84 (2007) 985991.
[ 3] J. Chen, J. Yu, Performance of new refrigerant cycle using refrigerant mixture R32/
R134a for residential air-conditioner applications, Energy and Buildings 40 (2008) 2022
2027.
[4] M.A. Hammad, M.A. Alsaad, The use of hydrocarbon mixtures as refrigerants in
domestic refrigerators, Applied Thermal Engineering 19 (1999) 11811189.

[5] S. Wongwises, N. Chimres, Experimental study of hydrocarbon mixtures to replace


HFC-134a in a domestic refrigerator, Energy Conversion and Management 46 (2005) 85
100.

[6] X.H. Han, Q. Wang, Z.W. Zhu, G.M. Chen, Cycle performance study on R-32/R-125/ R-
161 as alternative refrigerant to R-407C, Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2559
2565.

[7] A.S. Dalkilic , S. Wongwises,a performance comparison of vapour compression


refrigeration system using various alternative refrigerants Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf.
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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
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Nomenclature
atm atmosphere
CFCs chlorofluorocarbons
COP coefficient of performance
GWP global warming potential
h enthalpy, kg kJ1
hfg latent heat of condensation, kJ kg1
HCFCs hydro chlorofluorocarbons
HCs hydrocarbons
HFCs hydro fluorocarbons
ODP ozone depletion potential
P pressure, MPa
P/TR power per ton of refrigeration, kW TR1
RE refrigerating effect, kJ kg1
SVFR uction vapour flow per kW of
refrigeration, L s1
T temperature, C or K
W isentropic compression work, kNm kg1
VRC volumetric refrigeration capacity, kJ m3
sh/sc super heating/sub cooling
Nsh/Nsc Non super heating/Non sub cooling
Greek symbols
density, kg m3

Subscripts
cod condensing/condenser
evap evaporating/evaporator
comp compressor
1 evaporator superheat
2 compressor superheat
3 condenser saturated liquid
4 evaporator saturated mixture

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