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18 просмотров23 страницыBehaviour and Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members

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Behaviour and Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members

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18 просмотров23 страницыBehaviour and Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members

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of cold-formed thin-walled tubular steel

columns at uniform elevated temperatures

M. Feng, Y.C. Wang , J.M. Davies

Manchester Centre for Civil and Construction Engineering, University of Manchester and UMIST,

P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK

Received 14 February 2003; accepted 7 November 2003

Abstract

evaluate the sensitivity of column failure strength to initial imperfections, stressstrain rela-

tionships and to assess the existing design methods. It is shown that the magnitude of initial

local buckling imperfection has a signicant eect on the ultimate strength of short columns

where failure is predominantly local buckling. Its eect on long columns is relatively small.

Similarly the magnitude of initial global imperfection has more inuence on the ultimate

strength of a long column, whose failure is governed by global buckling, than on short col-

umns, where local buckling controls. The shape of the stressstrain relationship of cold-

formed steel will have noticeable eect on the column failure load. Current design methods,

for high temperatures in ENV1993-1-2 and for ambient temperature in ENV1993-1-3, can

provide a valid basis of calculation but modication will be necessary, depending on the

exact model of stressstrain relationship of cold-formed steel at elevated temperatures.

# 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Cold-formed structures; Axial strength; Design method; Initial imperfection; Local buckling;

Flexural buckling; Fire resistance

1. Introduction

Cold-formed thin-walled steel sections are commonly used as primary load bear-

ing members in buildings, including as beams in light weight oors, as studs in

Corresponding author. Tel.: +44-161200-8968; fax: +44-161200-4646.

E-mail address: yong.wang@man.ac.uk (Y.C. Wang).

0263-8231/$ - see front matter # 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.tws.2003.12.005

534 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

being studied by researchers. Therefore, there does not exist an extensive set of re

test data to form a valid statistical basis to allow design calculation methods to be

rigorously checked and validated. To speed up the development of suitable design

rules, it is useful to employ advanced numerical methods to perform sensitivity stu-

dies to help identify the main inuencing factors on the behaviour of cold-formed

thin-walled steel structures in re.

Initial imperfection is an important factor that causes uncertainty in the predic-

tions of structural behaviour. Thin-walled sections are characterised by their thin-

ness. They can easily be deformed during handling and thus have high geometrical

initial imperfections. This paper focuses on the eects of imperfections on thin-

walled steel tubes under compression at high temperatures. The results of previous

studies by the authors [5,6] indicate that for thin-walled steel studs in walls where

the re exposure on one side causes temperature gradients, the eect of initial

imperfections is relatively small. This is understandable since any eect of initial

geometrical imperfections will be overwhelmed by the eect of thermal bowing

caused by temperature gradients. Thus this paper will only consider uniformly

heated members.

Kaitila reported the results of a similar study [9,10]. He examined the eects of

initial local and global imperfections and their combinations on a uniformly heated

lipped channel column bending about its major axis. He found that with a realistic

level of initial imperfection and using the stressstrain relationships of Outinen

[1214], column buckling curve b would give a better prediction of the column

strength than column buckling curve c, as recommended by the 1995 version of

ENV1993-1-2. This study is seen to complement that of Kaitila. In addition to

investigating the eects of initial local and global imperfections, this paper will also

examine the eects of using dierent stressstrain relationships of cold-formed steel

at elevated temperatures. Instead of considering a simple column length as in the

study of Kaitila, this paper uses a range of column lengths to evaluate these eects

on columns with dierent modes of behaviour.

This study uses ABAQUS [8] to conduct numerical simulations. In these analy-

ses, the steel column uniform temperature is raised to the target level and then kept

unchanged. Afterwards, load is applied until column failure.

Each analysis is carried out in two steps. The rst step is an elastic eigenvalue

buckling analysis, in which the buckling modes are obtained and the deection

prole of the lowest buckling mode is used to determine the column initial imper-

fection. In the second step, loads are applied. In the analysis of Kaitila [9,10],

higher buckling modes were used in determining column initial imperfections. Also

dierent modes were combined in the same analysis. This approach is not pursued

in this study since it is considered dicult to know a prior the correct buckling

mode or modes to be used. On the contrary, using the lowest buckling mode is

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555 535

initial imperfections.

ABAQUS has been used extensively by the authors to simulate the behaviour of

cold-formed thin-walled short steel columns in re [5], where some examples of

validation of the numerical results are given. This section provides examples to

demonstrate the authors condence in using ABAQUS to model long column

behaviour.

Ala-Outinen and Myllymaki [1] reported some transient-state re tests on

900mm long columns of rectangular hollow section (RHS) 200 200 5 under

both concentric and eccentric compression loading. The top of the test columns

was free to rotate about two horizontal axes and expand axially. The bottom of

the columns was xed. Because Ala-Outinen and Myllymaki [1] did not give

detailed material properties at elevated temperatures, this study will only compare

numerical and test results at ambient temperature. The 0.2% proof stress and

elastic modulus of 471 N/mm2 and 210,000 N/mm2 have been reported from their

tensile coupon tests.

Element type S4R is used in this study. Figs. 1 and 2 show comparisons of

various simulated load-axial displacement relationships with the test results of

Ala-Outinen and Myllymaki [1] under concentric load and eccentric load respect-

ively, at ambient temperature. The simulation results are for the dierent

maximum initial imperfections of the same mode, which is shown in Fig. 3. In

Figs. 1 and 2, h is the width of the cross-section (200 mm), t is the steel web thick-

ness (5 mm) and L is the column length (900 mm). Ala-Outinen and Myllymaki [1]

reported a maximum initial imperfection of about h/200. It can be seen from

results in Figs. 1 and 2 that the simulation results, especially the predicted column

strengths, are in very good agreement with the test results. In fact the simulated

Fig. 1. Load-displacement relationships for RHS 200 200 5 under concentric compression.

536 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

Fig. 2. Load-displacement relationships for RHS 200 200 5 under eccentric compression

(e 28 mm).

column strength is not very sensitive to initial imperfections less than the realistic

value of h/200. For initial imperfections much greater than h/200, the simulated

column strengths are noticeably lower.

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555 537

Fig. 4. Load-axial displacement curves for RHS 200 200 5 under concentric load using dierent

nite element mesh sizes.

Fig. 4 further compares the test and simulation results by using dierent nite

element sizes. It is seen that the dierence in simulation results by using nite

element meshes of 20 20 mm or 10 10 mm is hardly noticeable. To save

computational time, nite element mesh of 20 20 mm will be used in the para-

metric study.

3. Parametric studies

The present study uses a rectangular hollow section (RHS) 200 200 5, whose

dimensions are given in Fig. 5. Since it is considered that uniform heating is

usually associated with columns in isolation, using a tube section is more realistic

than using a channel, as done by Kaitila [9,10]. S4R shell elements in ABAQUS

are used. A rigid plate is attached to each end of the column. The rigid plate can

deform in the axial direction, but twisting about it is prevented. Two horizontal

restraints are applied at the centroid of the hollow section at each end to prevent

lateral deformations. Rotational restraint about the vertical axis has also been

applied to form a standard simple support boundary condition, as shown in Fig. 5.

The column length varies from 2 to 8 m.

In addition to the ambient temperature, the two elevated temperatures are

v v

400 C and 600 C, respectively.

538 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

Fig. 5. Cross-section dimensions and boundary conditions of the column used in parametric study. (a)

Cross-section dimensions; (b) boundary condition.

are based on the models in Outinen [1214] or in ENV1993-1-2 (2001) or an elastic

perfectly plastic stressstrain representation. When using the Outinen model, the

directly measured stressstrain relationships for S355 of Outinen at dierent high

temperatures are used, as shown in Fig. 6(a). In the elastic perfectly plastic stress

strain relationship shown in Fig. 6(b), the 0.2% proof stresses from ENV1993-1-2

at dierent high temperatures are used as yield stresses. Fig. 6(b) also shows the

ENV1993-1-2 stressstrain relationships. In ENV 1993-1-2, mathematical equations

are given for the stressstrain relationships of steel at elevated temperatures. These

equations are based on the stress at 2% total strain. However, for cold-formed

steel, ENV1993-1-2 only gives the retention factors for the 0.2% proof stress.

Therefore, a suitable modication has been done in order that the mathematical

equations for the stressstrain relationships at elevated temperatures in ENV1993-

1-2 can be used directly. The modication is to select a value for the stress reten-

tion factor at 2% total strain by trial and error so that the retention factors for the

0.2% proof stress equals to the ENV1993-1-2 value for the 0.2% proof stress.

At ambient temperature, because there is no detailed stressstrain relationship in

Outinen [1214], the same model as Feng et al. [5] has been used in this study. In

this model, the elastic stressstrain behaviour is represented by a linear segment up

to a limit stress f p 0:75 f y , where fy is the 0.2% proof stress. The slope of this

linear segment equals to the measured elastic modulus. The gradual yield behav-

iour is idealised by using a bi-linear representation with tangent modulus E1 and

E2 between the proportional limit fp and the yield strength fy with an intermediate

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555 539

Fig. 6. Input stressstrain relationships at high temperatures. (a) Outinen [1214] model at high tempera-

tures; (b) ENV 1993-1-2 model and perfectly elasticplastic (EP) representation.

ear segment with a modulus E3 E=200, where the stress is equal to the yield

stress fy, as shown in Fig. 7.

From the results of eigenvalue buckling analyses, it can be found that the lowest

buckling mode changes from local buckling to exural buckling as the eective

length changes, as shown in Table 1.

540 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

Table 1

Initial imperfection shapes

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555 541

thickness and size of the cross-section, and the maximum initial imperfection for

global buckling is in proportion to the column length. According to Kaitila [9], the

maximum initial imperfection for local and global buckling is about h/200 and

L/500 respectively, where h is the cross-section width and L is the column length.

To study the eect of initial local imperfections, the maximum imperfection values

of h/200, t (the thickness of the cross-section), 10%t, 50%t will be used. For global

buckling, values of L/1000 and L/500 will be used.

The simulated column strengths are summarised in Table 2. It should be pointed

that the Outinen [1214] material model has been used for these simulations. It can

be seen that initial imperfections have a large inuence on predicted column

strengths, the higher the initial imperfection, the lower the predicted column

strength. However, a close examination of results in Table 2 suggests that the pre-

dicted column strength is less sensitive to initial local imperfection under local

buckling mode than to initial global imperfections under global buckling mode.

For example, for the 2000 mm column whose failure is clearly local buckling, an

initial local buckling imperfection of half or twice the reported value of h/200

(1 mm) produces a dierence of much less than 10%. On the other hand, for the

8000 mm column whose failure mode is global buckling, reducing the initial imper-

fection from the reported value of around L/500 to half this value (L/1000) gives a

dierence approaching 15%. It is thus clearly more eective in spending eorts to

measure initial global deections than local deections, especially when it is very

dicult to measure local deections.

As expected, the lower the initial imperfection, the higher the predicted column

failure load, but the more rapidly the column reduces its load after reading the

peak. This is observed in both local and global buckling cases, as can be seen from

the two examples in Figs. 8 and 9.

4.2. Eects of combined initial imperfections

Ideally, numerical simulations should include the exact measured initial imper-

fections of a cold-formed section. However, this will not be realistic since there will

not be measured data available. Even if data were available, there would be great

diculty in preparing the simulation data le. It is reasonable to assume that the

predominant mode of initial imperfection will be that associated with the lowest

buckling mode. This has been adopted in the simulation study of the previous sec-

tion. This section will investigate the eect of combining the initial imperfection of

the lowest buckling mode with anther one. It was intended to combine the lowest

local buckling mode with the lowest global buckling mode. However, in ABAQUS

simulations of columns of 2, 4 and 8 m, due to limitations of the eigenvalue solver,

only the 8 m column can display both local and global modes of buckling. For the

2 and 4 m column, the global buckling load is very high and only the local buck-

ling mode can be displayed. Therefore, for the 2 and 4 m columns, the initial glo-

bal imperfection will be represented by an eccentricity. Thus, in this study, initial

542 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

Table 2

Simulated column ultimate loads at dierent temperatures with dierent initial imperfections

v

Column Temperature ( C) Initial imperfection Ultimate load (kN)

length (mm)

Shape Magnitude

h=200 1 mm 1204.6

10%t 0:5 mm 1276.2

50%t 2:5 mm 1074.1

Ambient Local buckling t 5 mm 960.1

L=1000 2 mm 1108.1

L=500 4 mm 1000.1

h=200 1 mm 798

10%t 0:5 mm 848.3

50%t 2:5 mm 719.3

2000 400 Local buckling t 5 mm 689.6

L=1000 2 mm 736.9

L=500 4 mm 699.1

h=200 1 mm 451.9

10%t 0:5 mm 482.7

50%t 2:5 mm 421.3

600 Local buckling t 5 mm 403.3

L=1000 2 mm 426.2

L=500 4 mm 409.6

h=200 1 mm 1195

10%t 0:5 mm 1275

50%t 2:5 mm 1057

Ambient Local buckling t 5 mm 947.4

L=1000 4 mm 986

L=500 8 mm 860.3

h=200 1 mm 782.3

10%t 0:5 mm 824.6

50%t 2:5 mm 704.7

4000 400 Local buckling t 5 mm 688.3

L=1000 4 mm 695.9

L=500 8 mm 665.6

h=200 1 mm 452.3

10%t 0:5 mm 482.9

50%t 2:5 mm 421.2

600 Local buckling t 5 mm 403.8

L=1000 4 mm 410.0

L=500 8 mm 385.3

h=200 1 mm 817.5

10%t 0:5 mm 833.9

8000 50%t 2:5 mm 769.3

Ambient Flexural buckling t 5 mm 720.4

8000

L=1000 8 mm 681.7

L=500 16 mm 604.3

(continued on next page)

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555 543

Table 2

(continued)

v

Column Temperature ( C) Initial imperfection Ultimate load (kN)

length (mm)

Shape Magnitude

h=200 1 mm 575.6

10%t 0:5 mm 522.9

50%t 2:5 mm 495.6

400 Flexural buckling t 5 mm 504.4

L=1000 8 mm 474.1

L=500 16 mm 414.1

h=200 1 mm 265.7

10%t 0:5 mm 268.1

50%t 2:5 mm 257.0

600 Flexural buckling t 5 mm 243.8

L=1000 8 mm 232.9

L=500 16 mm 208.4

local imperfections of the magnitude of 0, h/200 and h/100 are combined with

initial global imperfections or eccentricities of 0, L/1000 and L/500.

As in Section 3.1, the Outinen [1214] stressstrain relationships have been used.

Table 3 presents the simulation results. It can be seen that for the short column of

2 m where local buckling failure is predominant, there is very little dierence in

simulated results regardless of whether global imperfection (in the form of an

eccentricity) is present or not. For the 8 m column, comparison of the column fail-

ure loads for the same initial global imperfection, but without initial local imper-

fection and with a realistic initial local imperfection of h/200, show that a realistic

v

Fig. 8. Load-axial displacement relationships for the 2000 mm column at 600 C with dierent magni-

tudes of initial imperfection.

544 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

v

Fig. 9. Load-axial displacement relationships for the 8000 mm column at 600 C with dierent magni-

tudes of initial imperfection.

initial local imperfection has a small eect, reducing the column strength by about

4% compared to neglecting the initial local imperfection. It can be concluded that

the eect of initial global imperfections is greater than local imperfection for the

column where global buckling failure is predominant.

For the 4 m column, even though numerical eigenvalue analysis could only dis-

play local buckling modes, it is very likely that the eect of local and global buck-

ling modes are similar. As a result, the eects of both types of initial imperfections

are noticeable. Even in this case, using initial imperfections from the predominant

local buckling mode only will still give a good predication of column failure loads.

This is demonstrated by comparing the simulated column strength using a realistic

initial local imperfection of h/200 only with that using this initial local imperfec-

tion combined with an eccentricity of L/500, which gives a dierence being less

than 8%.

As a summary, it may be concluded that using initial imperfections from the

lowest buckling mode only is easy to incorporate in numerical simulations. It will

also give a very good prediction of the column strength compared to using combi-

nations of local and global imperfections.

cold-formed steel at elevated temperatures. In ENV 1993-1-2, the same model for

hot-rolled steel is assumed to apply to cold-formed steel, even though their behav-

iour is expected to be dierent. To give some insight to the sensitivity of column

behaviour to the stressstrain relationships of cold-formed steel, numerical simula-

tions are carried out for the three models described in Section 3.2. The initial

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555 545

Table 3

The ultimate loads of 4000 mm long RHS 200 200 5 column at dierent temperatures with dierent

initial local buckling imperfections and eccentricity

Column Temp. Magnitude of local Eccentricity (e) or global Failure load (kN)

v

length (mm) ( C) initial imperfection imperfection (d) (mm)

2000 400 h=200 1 mm e0 798

e L=1000 2 785.5a

e L=500 4 792.1

h=100 2 mm e0 736.9

e L=1000 2 736.3

e L=500 4 731.9

e L=1000 4 1143.1

e L=500 8 1117.2

h=100 2 mm e0 1092.9

e L=1000 4 1033

e L=500 8 1016.3

400 h=200 1 mm e0 782.3

e L=1000 4 760.0

e L=500 8 742.7

h=100 2 mm e0 728.9

e L=1000 4 688.2

e L=500 8 680.4

600 h=200 1 mm e0 452.3

e L=1000 4 431.1

e L=500 8 418.7

h=100 2 mm e0 425.9

e L=1000 4 391.0

e L=500 8 383.5

8000 400 0 mm d L=1000 8 474.1

h=200 1 mm 453.5

h=100 2 mm 419.0

0 mm d L=500 16 414.1

h=200 1 mm 398.7

h=100 2 mm 371.2

a

Numerical convergence problem.

imperfections are h/200 for local buckling and L/500 for global buckling as repor-

ted by Kaitila [9,10].

The results are summarised in Table 4. The simulated column strengths using the

v

Outinen [1214] stressstrain model are much higher than others at 600 C. This is

because the 0.2% proof stress in the Outinen model is about 20% higher than that

given in ENV 1993-1-2, which is also used in the elastic perfectly plastic model.

Since the column behaviour is in the elasticplastic range, it can be found that the

546 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

Table 4

Comparison of predicted ultimate failure loads using dierent material models

Col- Temp Initial imperfection Ultimate load (kN) using stressstrain relationship of

v

umn ( C)

Shape Maximum Outinen ENV1993-1-2 Perfect elastic

length

magnitude plastic

(mm)

400 h=200 797.99 764.3 886.9

2000 buckling

600 1 mm 451.88 350.8 403

mode

amb Local 1197.5 1234.0 1324

400 h=200 782.3 762.2 888.2

4000 buckling

600 1 mm 452.3 348.9 409.7

mode

amb Flexural 604.3 663.4 663.4

L=500

8000 400 buckling 414.1 406.4 457.7

600 16 mm

mode 208.4 182.2 207.4

shape of the stressstrain relationship will also aect the column failure load

regardless of the column temperatures. Except at ambient temperature, the simu-

lated column strength using the elastic perfectly plastic model is always higher than

that using the ENV 1993-1-2 model, even though both have the same 0.2% proof

stress.

re are not as well developed as for hot-rolled members. It is possible to employ a

number of methods. This section will give an assessment of these methods.

For a uniformly heated column, the design calculations for elevated tempera-

tures may be considered to be equivalent to those for a dierent grade of steel at

ambient temperature. In this case, the method in Eurocode 3 Part 1.3 may be used.

In these calculations, the reduced yield stress and elastic modulus of steel at elev-

ated temperatures should be used instead of the yield stress and elastic modulus at

ambient temperature. According to Ranby [15], the yield stress may be taken as the

0.2% proof stress.

Alternatively, the re design method in ENV1993-1-2 [4] may be used. Although

ENV1993-1-2 [4] refers to ENV 1993-1-3 [3], there are two important dierences

between the two calculation methods: Firstly, ENV1993-1-2 recommends that the

eective width of a steel plate should be kept unchanged as at ambient tempera-

tures; Secondly, the column buckling curve is dierent. The column buckling curve

in ENV1993-1-2 is the same as that for hot-rolled steel columns and is adopted

Table 5

Comparison of ultimate failure loads between ABAQUS simulations and modied Eurocode predictions

Column Temp. Maximum initial Material model

v

length ( C) imperfection

(mm)

Local Global (mm) Outinen ENV1993-1-2 Perfect elastic-plastic

(mm)

ABAQUS Modied ENV1993- ABAQUS Modied ENV1993- ABAQUS Modied ENV1993-

ENV1993- 1-2 ENV1993- 1-2 ENV1993- 1-2

1-3 1-3 1-3

Amb. 1204.6 1319.8 1218.5 1330.5 1319.8 1218.5 1330.5 1319.8 1218.5

2000 400 0 797.99 886.7 800.4 764.3 883.5 795.9 886.9 883.5 795.9

600 451.86 478.0 482.9 350.8 401.2 366.4 403 401.2 366.4

Amb. 1197.5 1131.1 1029.4 1234.0 1131.1 1029.4 1324 1131.1 1029.4

400 782.3 764.4 682.6 762.2 762.0 679.3 888.2 762.0 679.3

0

600 452.3 399.3 390.4 348.9 344.8 310.9 409.7 344.8 310.9

Amb. h=200 1 1143.1 1280.7 1280.7

400 Eccentricity 756 714.9 860.5

4000 As above As above As above As above As above As above

600 e L=1000 4 431.1 322.8 395.7

Amb. 1117.2 1244.2 1244.2

400 Eccentricity 742.7 701.2 836.6

As above As above As above As above As above As above

600 e L=500 8 418.7 318.0 384.7

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

Amb. 604.3 614.2 573.0 663.4 614.2 573.0 663.4 614.2 573.0

8000 400 0 L=500 16 414.1 424.5 391.9 406.4 424 391.0 457.7 424 391.0

600 208.4 198.8 182.3 182.2 189.3 167.1 207.4 189.3 167.1

547

548 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

from the results of a numerical study by Franssen et al. [7]. Appendices I and II

present an example of using each of these two methods.

Table 5 compares the numerical simulation results with calculations using the

aforementioned two design methods. It can be seen that the re design method in

ENV 1993-1-2 predicts lower column strengths than the modied ambient tempera-

ture design method based on ENV1993-1-3. The dierence between the two

methods is principally due to the dierent column buckling curves used. For the

cross-section under consideration, it does not appear to matter whether the eect

of temperature on local buckling width is included or not. However, this needs to

be investigated in more detail by using dierent cross-sections that have higher

ratios of plate width to thickness.

The column buckling curve used in ENV1993-1-3 is mainly applicable to stress

strain relationships close to elastic perfectly plastic. Thus, at ambient temperature,

the predictions of ENV1993-1-3 are more accurate, while being on the safe side,

than those using ENV1993-1-2. However, at elevated temperatures, stressstrain

relationships of cold-formed steel become highly non-linear. Therefore, if numeri-

cal simulations using the more realistic material methods of either Outinen or

ENV1993-1-2, using the column buckling curve in ENV1993-1-3 leads to over pre-

diction of the column strengths. On the contrast, using the column buckling curve

in ENV1993-1-2 appears to produce safe results. This suggest that at elevated tem-

peratures, the stressstrain relationships of both hot-rolled and cold-formed steels

converge so that the column buckling curve derived by Franssen et al. [7] for hot-

rolled steel becomes applicable to cold-formed steel. On the whole, the method in

ENV1993-1-2 gives acceptable results.

5.2. SCI method [11]

[11] adopted the limiting temperature method in BS5950 Part 8 [2] for hot-rolled

steel structures to cold-formed thin-walled steel structures. The limiting tempera-

ture is a function of the load ratio of the structural member. The load ratio is

dened by:

Load on member at the fire limit state

Load ratio :

Load carrying capacity of member under normal loading

1

Fig. 10 compares the numerical simulation results for using dierent stressstrain

models. In each gure, results of the 2, 4 and 8 m columns are compared. For the

2 and 4 m columns, simulations include an initial local imperfection of h/200. For

the 8 m column, an initial global imperfection of L/500 is used. It can be seen that

regardless of the material model, these does seem to exist an almost xed relation-

ship between the column failure temperature and its applied load. Thus the concept

of limiting temperature is applicable.

For columns under uniform heating, the Lawson method is very easy to use.

Fig. 11 compares the numerical simulation results and the limiting temperatures

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555 549

Fig. 10. Comparison of simulated column failure loads for dierent column lengths by using dierent

stressstrain models. (a) Outinen model; (b) ENV 1993-1-2 model; (c) elastic perfectly plastic model.

550 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

Fig. 11. Comparisons of results of numerical simulation and Lawson method. (a) 2000 mm column; (b)

4000 mm column; (c) 8000 mm column.

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555 551

according to the Lawson method. It can be found that the Lawson method gives

lower results than the simulation results using the Outinen [1214] material model

and higher results than using the ENV1993-1-2 stressstrain relationship. The best

agreement is when the elastic perfectly plastic stressstrain relationship is used.

Since the elastic perfectly plastic model is unlikely to be a realistic representation,

the column limiting temperatures will need to be adjusted, however, this will

depend on the true stressstrain relationship of cold-formed steel to be accepted.

6. Conclusions

This paper has presented the results of a numerical sensitivity study of ultimate

failure loads of a cold-formed thin-walled steel section to dierent initial local and

global imperfections and their combinations for columns of dierent slenderness at

dierent temperatures. Three stressstrain relationships were considered. The

results have been compared with design predictions by using the re design method

in ENV 1993-1-2 [4], the modied ambient temperature method based on

ENV1993-1-3 [3] and the limiting temperature method of Lawson [11]. The follow-

ing conclusions may be drawn:

cold-formed thin-walled column under uniform heating. As expected, the higher

the initial imperfection, the lower the column strength.

. Combining initial deections of dierent buckling modes, as would happen in

realistic structures, will give dierent results of predicted column strengths from

using only one mode of initial imperfection. However, combining dierent buck-

ling modes to simulate realistic initial imperfections will be dicult to

implement in numerical simulations because of a lack of measured initial imper-

fection data and complexity associated with preparation of input data les. For-

tunately, the failure load of a column in its predominant buckling mode is only

slightly aected by an additional initial imperfection of a dierent mode. There-

fore, it is acceptable to use only the initial imperfections of the lowest buckling

mode.

. Simulation results are sensitive to the input stressstrain model of cold-formed

steel. Further fundamental experimental research will be necessary to clarify the

current uncertainty.

. The ambient temperature column buckling curve in ENV1993-1-3 is clearly not

suitable for re design since it will overestimate column strength in some cases.

The new column buckling curve in ENV1993-1-2, originally developed for hot-

rolled steel, seems to produce acceptable, safe results.

. The limiting temperatureload ratio method of Lawson may be considered

usable since the failure temperatures of columns with the same load ratio, but

dierent failure modes, do not change much. However, the column limiting tem-

peratures will be dierent from those recommended by Lawson. The revised lim-

iting temperatures will depend on the accepted stressstrain model of cold-

formed steel.

552 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

Acknowledgements

Research Council (EPSRC) under grant GR/M56319.

calculate the ultimate failure load of a 4000 mm long RHS 200 200 5

v

column at 400 C by using the ENV1993-1-2 material model

b 200 mm

t 5 mm

L 4000 mm

f 0:2 406 N=mm2 at ambient temperature

f0:2;400 C ky f0:2 0:65 406 263:9 N=mm2 at 400 C

v

v

E400 C kE E 0:7 210600 147420 N=mm2 at 400 C

v

v

1

Ix Iy b t4 b t4 2670 cm4

12 r

r

Ix Iy

ix iy 81:7 mm

A A

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555 553

Local buckling

Eective width

kr 4:0

s 0:053 w

2 1

b 121 m f

v

0:2;400 C kp

kp 0:8905 > 0:673 giving q 0:8707

t p2 E400 C kr

v kp

Effective width beff qb 174:14 mm

b1 87:07 mm

2

Effective area Aeff 4qbt 3482:909 " mm

2 # " #

1 3 3 b b b1 2

Ieff ;x Ieff ;y 4tb1 b1 t 4 b1 t 4 b1 t 2407:044 cm4

12 2 2 2

Ieff ;x

Weff ;x Weff ;y 240:704 cm3

b=2

The ultimate failure load for local buckling is :

Pcr f0:2;400 C Aeff 919139:8 N 919:1 kN

v

Flexural buckling

kx ky 49

Use buckling curve b according to ENV1993-1-3 at ambient temperature;

bA Aeff =A 0:8707 and a 0:34

!0:5

E400 C v

k1 p 74:214

f0:2;400 C v

y k b0:5 0:616

x k

k

k1 A

/ 0:51 a k 0:2 k2 0:760

1

vx vy 0:829

/ /2 k2x 0:5

The ultimate failure load of the column is : Pb vbA Af0:2;400 C v

762025:7 N 762:02 kN

554 M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555

Appendix II. An example of using the ENV 1993-1-2 method to calculate the

ultimate failure load of the column in Appendix I

Local buckling

kr 4:0

s 0:053 w

2 1

b 121 m f0:2 kp

kp 0:9242 > 0:673; giving q 0:8479

t p2 Ekr kp

b1 84:79 mm

" # " #

1 3 3 b 2 b b1 2

Ieff ;x Ieff ;y 4tb1 b1 t 4 b1 t 4 b1 t 2360:46 cm4

12 2 2 2

Ieff ;x

Weff ;x Weff ;y 236:046 cm3

b=2

Pcr f0:2;400 C Aeff 895036:6 N 895:04 kN:

v

Flexural buckling

r

ky

kx;400

C

v ky;400

C

v k 47:2

ke

bA Aeff =A 0:8707

0:5

E

k1 p 71:51

f0:2

k

kx

ky b0:5

A 0:608

k 1

r

235

a 0:65 0:376

f0:2

/ 0:51 a k k2 0:799

1

vx vy 0:759

/ /2 k2x 0:5

The ultimate failure load for exural buckling is: Pb vbA Af0:2;400 v

C

679280:7 N 679:28 kN:

M. Feng et al. / Thin-Walled Structures 42 (2004) 533555 555

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