Solutions to Taylor's Foundations of Analysis

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Solutions to Taylor's Foundations of Analysis

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Foundations of Analysis

Michael Senter

2

Part I

3

Chapter 1

Exercise 1.1.1. If a, b R and a < b, give a description in set theory notation for each of

the intervals (a, b), [a, b], [a, b), and (a, b] (see Example 1.1.1).

[a, b] = {x R : a x b}

[a, b) = {x R : a x < b}

(a, b] = {x R : a < x b}.

x A B or in x A C. Thus, if x A (B C), then x (A B) (A C).

If an x (A B) (A C), then either x (A B) or x (A C). This means that surely

x A, and also that x B C. Hence, if x (A B) (A C), then x A (B C).

Therefore, A (B C) = (A B) (A C).

Question 1.1.5. What is the intersection of all the closed intervals containing the open

interval (0, 1)? Justify your answer.

Let A denote the set of all sets such that (0, 1) A . The intersection of all closed

intervals is denoted A. It is defined as

A = {x : x A A A}.

In other words, we are looking for some set A such that A is a subset of every other set in

A. This set is A = {x : 0 < x < 1}. Consider any other subset C of A. If C = A, then

necessarily there must exist an element x such that x C and x / A, showing that A C

but C * A. Since x is not in every subset of A, x

/ A.

5

6 CHAPTER 1. THE REAL NUMBERS

Question 1.1.6. What is the union of all of the closed intervals contained in the open in-

terval (0, 1)? Justify your answer.

Let A be the setcontaining all sets containing (0, 1)as a subset. The union of all these

sets is denoted by A. An object x is an element of A if there exists some set C A

such that x C. We need to consider two cases: either the object x 0 or 1 x. The

case of 0 < x < 1 is trivial. For any x such that 1 x we can create a set C such that

C = {y : 0 < y < x}.

This since 1 x, it is guaranteed that C A. The case of x 0 is

analogous. Hence, A = (, ).

Problem 1.1.7. If A is a collection of subsets of a set X, formulate and prove a theorem

like Theorem 1.1.5 (from book numbering) for the intersection and union of A.

Theorem

c 1.1.7. Let A be a collection

c ofc subsets A1 , A2 , ..., An of some set X. Then

( A) = A1 A2 ... An and ( A) = A1 A2 ... Acn .

c c c c

Proof. Thisis a generalization of DeMorgans law, proved in the book. We begin with the

statement ( A)c = Ac1 Ac2 ... Acn . We can rewrite ( A)c as (A1 A2 ... An )c . We

can then sub-partition this collection of unions into a collection of two unions, as such:

( A)c = [A1 (A2 ... An )]c

Then we will refer to A2 ... An as B. We can then rewrite the above as (A1 B)c , for

which DeMorgans laws apply. Thus, we write (A1 B)c = Ac1 B c = Ac1 (A2 ... An )c .

As next step, we sub partition B into two sets, as such

(A2 ... An )c = [A2 (A3 .... An )]c

Then DeMorgans laws apply again as above, and we can write [A2 (A3 .... An )]c =

Ac2 (A3 ... An )c . Since intersections and unions are associative, we can then write

( A)c = (Ac1 (Ac2 (A3 ... An )c )) = Ac1 Ac2 (A3 ... An )c

We continue

an inductive application of DeMorgans laws as outlined above, until we see

that ( A)c = Ac1 Ac2 ... Acn

The other proof is analogous, requiring a sub-partition of the collection of intersections and

rewriting them into series of intersections of two sets to which DeMorgans laws apply.

Problem 1.1.8. Which of the following functions f : R R are one to one and which ones

are onto. Justify your answer.

(a) f (x) = x2 ; This function is neither onto, nor one-to-one. It is not onto, since there is

no x such that f (x) < 0. It is not one-to-one since f (x) = f (x) for all x R.

(b) f (x) = x3 ; This function is both one-to-one and onto. It is one-to-one since there

f (x) = f (y) for all x, y such that x = y. It is onto, as for any y R, there exists an x R

such that f (x) = y.

(c) f (x) = ex This function is one-to-one, but not onto. It is one-to-one, for f (x) = f (y) for

all x, y R such that x = y. It fails to be onto since there exists no x such that f (x) < 0

for any x R.

1.1. SETS AND FUNCTIONS 7

F ) = f 1 (E) f 1 (F ).

in F . If f (x) E, then x f 1 (E). If f (x) F , then x f 1 (F ). Since f (x) is in both E

and F , x is in f 1 (E F ).

Assume x is in f 1 (E) f 1 (F ). Then, x f 1 (E) as well as x f 1 (F ). If x f 1 (E),

then f (x) E. If x f 1 (F ), then f (x) F . Since x is both in f 1 (E) as well as f 1 (F ),

we know that f (x) E F . This implies that x f 1 (E F ).

Since every x f 1 (E F ) implies that x f 1 (E) f 1 (F ) and vice versa, it is true that

f 1 (E F ) = f 1 (E) f 1 (F ).

f 1 (E\F ) = f 1 (E)\f 1 (F ) if F E.

/ F . This means that

1 1 1 1

x f (E) and but also x / f (F ). In other words, x f (E)\f (F ).

Assume now that x f (E)\f 1 (F ). Then x f 1 (E) but x

1

/ f 1 (F ). This means that

1

f (x) E\F , and hence x f (E\F ).

It follows that f 1 (E)\f 1 (F ) = f 1 (E\F ).

f (E) f (F ).

If x F , then y f (F ). Since x is in either one of these, we know that y f (E) f (F ).

Assume now that y f (E) f (F ). This implies that y = f (x) for some x E or x F .

Thus we can write x E F . Then y f (E F ).

Since any element of f (E F ) is in f (E) f (F ) and vice versa, we conclude that f (E F ) =

f (E) f (F ).

f (E) f (F ).

that both x E as well as x F . Then, f (x) f (E) and f (x) f (F ), showing that

f (x) f (E) f (F ), or - equivalently - that y f (E) f (F ). This proves that f (E F )

f (E) f (F ).

which f (E)\f (F ) = f (E\F ).

The above conditions are fulfilled for a function f (x) = x with A = B = [0, 10], and the

subsets E = [1, 6] and F = [1, 2] E.

8 CHAPTER 1. THE REAL NUMBERS

1.3 Integers and Rational Numbers

Exercise 1.3.1. Given that N has an operation of addition which is commutative and as-

sociative, how would you define such an addition operation in Z?

a) Both a, b N. In this case, proceed as in N.

b) Both a, b < 0. In this case a + b = (c + d) where c = a and d = b. As such, we may

proceed as in the case of natural numbers.

c) assume a > 0, b < 0. We now distinguish two cases. Provided a > b, we may reduce a

to a sum of two integers m, n N such that n = b. We then define a + b = m + n + b = m,

since n + b = 0 by definition of the additive inverse. Assume now instead that a < b. In

this case, we can split b into an addition problem, with two integers m, n N such that

m + n = b and a = m. Then

Exercise 1.4.1. For each of the following sets, describe the set of all upper bounds for the

set:

(a) the set of odd integers; The integers are unbounded.

(b) {1 1/n : n N}; The set of all upper bounds for this set is {x N : x 1}.

(c) {r Q : r3 < 8}; The set of all upper bounds for this set is {x Q : x 2}.

(d) {sin x : x R}; The set of all upper bounds for this set is {x R : x 1}.

Exercise 1.4.2. For each of the sets in (a), (b), (c) of the preceding exercise, find the least

upper bound of the set, if it exists.

(b) The least upper bound is 1.

(c) The least upper bound is 2.

Theorem 1.4.3. If a subset A of R is bounded above, then the set of all upper bounds for

A is a set of the form [x, ). What is x?

Proof. Let B denote the set of all upper bounds of A. By definition, a number m R is

considered an upper bound for the set A if z m for all z A. If the set A has a largest

number, then this largest number - y - will be in the set B. In that case, it is obvious that

all numbers m > y will also be upper bounds, since we assumed that x y for all x A,

and that m > y , it follows that x y < m. Therefore, the set [y , ) would be the set of

1.5. SUP AND INF 9

Assume now that A does not have a largest number. By the completeness theorem we know

that any subset A of an ordered field - such as R - is indeed bounded above. Specifically,

according to theorem 1.4.4 of the book we know that any subset of R not only is bounded

above, but has a least upper bound. By definition, a number c is a least upper bound if and

only if it is a number such that x c for all x A, and for every k R, if k is an upper

bound of A, then k c. It is obvious then that the set of all upper bounds of A will be the

set [c, ) where c is the least upper bound of A.

Exercise 1.4.4. If x2 < 1 x, then x2 + x 1 < 0, hence

( )( )

1 + 5 1 5

x x < 0,

2 2

( )

1 5 1 + 5 1 + 5

so x , , hence A is bounded above by , which is its least

2 2 2

upper bound.

Exercise 1.4.6. For the forward direction, observe that for each pair x, y F with x > 0,

y/x in F and since F is archimedean, we have that for some integral n, n > y/x so nx > y

as desired.

For the reverse direction, we have for each pair x, y F, x > 0, there exists integral n

with nx > y. In particular, let x = 1 > 0, so n > y. Hence F is archimedean.

Exercise 1.4.7. By the archimedean property, there exists natural n with y x > 1/n.

Let k be an integer with k/n < x < (k + 1)/n, then adding the inequalities y x > 1/n and

x > k/n gives us y > (k + 1)/n, so (k + 1)/n is a rational between x and y.

This proves the claim if both x, y are positive. If both are negative, the proof works

essentially the same way. If one is positive and the other negative, then take 0 as the

rational number between the two.

Exercise 1.4.8. . Suppose not, so that x + r = s Q and xr = s Q, then x = s r Q

and x = s /r Q, both of which lead us to a contradiction.

Exercise 1.5.1. For each of the following sets, find the set of all extended real numbers x

that are greater than or equal to every element of the set. Then find the sup of the set. Does

the set have a maximum?

(a) (10, 10); The set of all numbers greater than this set is the set [10, +). The supremum

of the set in question is 10. The set does not have a maximum.

(b) {n2 : n N}; In the extended set of real numbers, the only element greater than or equal

to all the elements in the set in question is +, which thereby must also be its supremum.

The set does not have a maximum.

(c) { 2n+1

n+1

}; The set of all real numbers greater than the set in question is the set [2, ). The

supremum is 2 and the set does not have a maximum.

10 CHAPTER 1. THE REAL NUMBERS

Exercise 1.5.2. Find the sup and inf of the following sets. Tell whether each set has a

maximum or a minimum.

(a) (2, 8]; The infimum of the set is 2 and the supremum is 8. The has a maximum, but

not a minimum.

(b) nn+2

2 +1 ; The infimum of the set is 0, and the supremum is 2. The set has a maximum, but

no minimum.

(c) {n/m : n, m Z, n < 5m }; The infimum of the set is 5, and the maximum is 5.

2 2

Seeing that 5 is not a rational number, the set has neither a maximum nor a minimum.

Exercise 1.5.3. Prove that if sup A < , then for each n N there is an element an A

such that sup A 1/n < an sup A.

Proof. This is true since we can easily construct an element an such that this equality holds.

We assume that A is defined for all m/n with m, n Z within A. In this case, we constructs

our term to be an = sup A 1/(n + 1). It is obvious that since 1/(n + 1) < 1/n, that

sup A 1/n < sup A 1/(n + 1) sup A.

Alternatively, we may also note that sup A 1/n < sup A for all n N by definition, so the

inequality holds in the trivial case of an = sup A.

Exercise 1.5.4. Prove that if sup A = , then for each n N there is an element an A

such that an > n.

Proof. Assume some set A whose supremum is +. In that case, x A, x < . Both

from the Archimedean property and from the Peano Axioms we know that for every n N,

there is a successor element n which is also in N, such that n < n . Since there @a such

that a = , and n < , this implies that an such that an = n and an A, showing that

n < an < .

Exercise 1.5.5. Formulate and prove the analog of Theorem 1.5.4 for inf.

(a) inf A x if and only if a x for every a A;

(b) x > inf A if and only if x > a for some some a A.

Proof. By definition, a x if and only if x is a lower bound for A. If x is a lower bound for

A, then A is bounded below. This implies that its inf is its greatest lower bound, which is

necessarily greater than or equal to x. Conversely, if inf A x, then inf A is finite and is the

greatest lower bound for A. Since inf A x, x is also a lower bound for A. Thus, inf A x

if and only if a x for every a A.

If x > inf A, then x is not a lower bound for A, which means x > a for some a A.

Conversely, if x > a for some a A, then x > inf A, since a inf A. Thus, x > inf A if and

only if x > a for some a A.

1.5. SUP AND INF 11

Proof. According to the book, sup(A + B) = sup A + sup B (proof on p. 30). We can

then write sup(A + (B)) = sup A + sup(B). We then apply Theorem 1.5.7b, to rewrite

sup(B) as inf A. From this it follows that

inf B inf A.

Since sup B b for all b B, it is obvious that sup A sup B. Assume now that sup A

/ A.

In that case, sup A A for all > 0. Thus, sup A A and sup A B. By

definition, sup B is greater than or equal to all b B. This means that if sup A B

implies that sup A sup B. The proof for the infimum is analogous.

Theorem. Let f and g be functions defined on a set containing A as a subset, and let

c R be a positive constant. Then supA cf = c supA f and inf A cf = c inf A f .

surjective. Let M be an arbitrary upper bound of cx for some x B. We say that cx M

if and only if x M/c. This shows that M is an upper bound of cx if and only if M/c is an

upper bound of B. Hence, sup cB = c sup B and similarily sup cf = c sup f . The result for

the infimum follows similarily.

supI f = 1, inf I f = 0. These are the max and min respectively.

1.

3. inf I f = 0, supI f = 1. The inf of f on I is actually a minimum, but the sup is not a

maximum.

Theorem. Let f and g be functions defined on a set containing A as a subset, and let

c R be a positive constant. Then supA (f ) = inf A f .

12 CHAPTER 1. THE REAL NUMBERS

Proof. We have a function f : A B. A number x is a lower bound for f (a) for all

a A if and only if x is an upper bound for the set f (a). Let L be the set of all lower

bounds for f (a). Then L is the set of all upper bounds for f (a). Furthermore, the

largest member of L and the smallest member of L are negatives of each other. That is,

inf f (a) = sup(f (a)), or equivalently inf f = sup(f ).

Theorem. Let f and g be functions defined on a set containing A as a subset, and let

c R be a positive constant. Then supA (f + g) supA f + supA g and inf A f + inf A g

inf A (f + g).

Proof. By definition, f (a) sup f for all a A and g(a) sup g for all a A. Therefore,

f (a) + g(a) sup f + sup g. Let c denote the supremum of f + g. We know that sup f + sup g

is an upper bound for f (a) + g(a). Since the supremum is always less than or equal to an

upper bound, we find that c sup f +sup g. This implies that sup(f +g) sup f +sup g.

Theorem. Let f and g be functions defined on a set containing A as a subset, and let

c R be a positive constant. Then sup{f (x) f (y) : x, y A} = supA f inf A f .

Proof. This appears somewhat obvious. The function f is defined on A, i.e., for every a A,

f maps to some value f (a) in some set, lets call it B. The value sup f is defined as to be

the least upper bound of f (a), i.e. @x such that f (x) > sup f for some x A. The infimum

is defined as the value such that there is no value x A such that x < inf f . The value

defined by f (x) f (y) for all x, y A is a measure of the distance between these two values.

Since sup f and inf f are defined as above, we can see that there cannot be a greater distance

between any other two points in B than the distance between sup f and inf f . Therefore,

for any collection of distances between points in B reached by f (x) for all points x A, the

supremum of this collection - namely, the largest value of this set such that no other value

is larger - cannot be any other than the distance between the supremum and the infimum of

the function itself.

Chapter 2

Sequences

Exercise 2.1.1. Show that

(a) if |x 5| < 1, then x is a number greater than 4 and less than 6.; This is

equivalent to saying 1 < x 5 < 1. We add 5 to the inequality, and we get 4 < x < 6.

(b) if |x 3| < 1/2 and |y 3| < 1/2, then |x y| < 1; We add the inequalities, such that

we see |x 3| + |y 3| < 1/2 + 1/2 = 1. We notice that |y 3| = |3 y|. We rewrite using

the triangle inequality:

|x y| |x 3| + |3 y| < 1.

(c) if |x a| < 1/2 and |y b| < 1/2, then |x + y (a + b)| < 1. We add the inequalities

and get |x a| + |y b| < 1/2 + 1/2 = 1. We can then rewrite using the triangle inequality

as above

|x + y a b| |x a| + |y b| <1

|x + y (a b)| |x a| + |y b| < 1.

|x 1| + |x 2| < 1,

x (1, 2). Combining this with |x 1| < 1/2 and |x 2| < 1/2 we have x (1, 23 ) and

x ( 32 , 2), a contradiction.

Exercise 2.1.3. Put each of the following sequences in the form a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , an . This

requires that you compute the first 3 terms and find an expression for the nth term.

(a) the sequence of positive odd integers; This is a sequence of the form 1, 3, 5, . . .. To

find the n th term, we express this sequence as an = 2n 1, with n N.

(b) the sequence defined inductively by a1 = 1 and an+1 = a2n ; The sequence begins

13

14 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES

with 1, 1/2, 1/4, . . .. The nth term will be something like an = ((1)n1 )/(2n1 ) for n N.

an

(c) the sequence defined inductively by a1 = 1 and an+1 = n+1 . This is the series

2

1, 1/3, 1/12, 1/60, . . .. The nth term is: an = (n+1)! .

Exercise 2.1.4. Find lim 1/n2 .

The larger n become, the smaller 1/n2 will become. We guess the limit to be 0. For

2

any > 0, we need an N such that whenever n > N , 1/n < . We find that this is true

2

whenever 1/ < n , or in other words - whenever 1/ < n.

Exercise 2.1.5. Find lim 2n1

3n+1

.

2n 1 2 3(2n 1) 2(3n + 1) 6n 3 6n 2

| |=| |=| |

3n + 1 3 3(3n + 1) 9n + 3

5 5 5

=| <| |<| |

9n + 3 9n n

5

We must choose an n > N such that N >

so that this will be true.

Exercise 2.1.6. Find lim(1)n /n

n

We guess the limit to be 0. We see | (1)n

| = | n1 |. Hence we need to choose an n > N

such that N > 1 for this inequality to be true.

1

Exercise 2.1.7. The limit is zero. Let N = . Then if n > N ,

n n n 1 1

n3 + 4 0 = n3 + 4 < n3 = n2 < N 2 = .

n

Hence lim = 0.

n n3 +4

1 2 2

Exercise 2.1.8. The limit is zero. Let N = . Then for n > N ,

2

1 2

n > 2 n > |1 2 |,

2

hence adding 2 + n to both sides yields

2 + n + 2 n > |1 2 | + 2 + n 1 + n,

where the last step follows from the triangle inequality. Factoring the left side gives

( n + )2 > n + 1,

and since both sides are positive we may take the square root which yields

n + > n + 1 > n + 1 n = | n + 1 n 0|,

hence lim n + 1 n = 0.

n

2.2. USING THE DEFINITION OF LIMIT 15

Exercise 2.1.9. The limit is zero. We know for any > 0, there exists N1 such that for all

n > N,

1

< /2,

n

since /2 is another positive real and we have shown the limit of 1/n as n goes to infinity is

zero in problem 4. Similarly, we may find N2 such that for all n > N2 ,

(1)n

n2 < /2,

since we found the limit as n of (1)n /n earlier to be 0, and it can be shown in much

the same way that lim (1)n /n2 = 0. Hence, for n > max{N1 , N2 }, both inequalities hold

n

and we may add the two and apply the triangle inequalityto obtain

1 (1)n 1 (1)n

+

0 + 2 < ,

n n2 n n

hence the limit is zero.

Exercise 2.1.10. Prove that lim 2n = 0. Hint: prove first that 2n n for all natural

numbers n.

Proof. We wish to show that 2n > n for all n. Proof by induction. The base case, 21 > 1

is obviously true, since 21 = 2. We assume now that 2n > n for some n. Then we wish to

check 2n+1 . But, we can rewrite this simply as 2n 21 . Let k = 2n . Since we know that k > n,

it is obvious that 2k > n + 1. Thus, 2n > n for all n N.

We note that 2n = 21n . Thus, lim 2n = lim 21n . Since 2n increases until infinity, we see that

1/2n will grow smaller and smaller, since 1/2n > 1/2n+1 for all n.

We see that for any > 0, we need to simply pick n such that 1/ < 2n . As such, the limit

is 0.

Exercise 2.1.11. Prove that if an 0 and k is any constant, then kan 0.

If an 0, this means that an < for any > 0. We multiply by k and find that kan < k.

Exercise 2.2.1. Make an educated guess as to what you think the limit is, then use the

definition of limit to prove that your guess is correct.

2 2 22 2

lim 3n

n2 +1

. I assume the limit will be 3. We note that 3n

n2 +1

< 3n

n2

= 3. Hence, the limit

is 3.

1

Exercise 2.2.2. The limit is zero. Let N = , then

n n n 1 1

n2 + 2 0 = n2 + 2 < n2 = n < N = .

16 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES

Exercise 2.2.3. Make an educated guess as to what you think the limit is, then use the

definition of limit to prove that your guess is correct.

1

|; therefore, this is true whenever

we choose an n > N such that N > 1 .

2

Exercise 2.2.4. The limit is 1. Let N = , then

(

)2 2n 1

n = 2n + 1 < 2 .

1 = 2

n+1 n + 2n + 1 n2 + 2n + 1 n

This last step is true because for any positive integer n, we have 3n + 2 > 0, hence 2n2 + 4n +

2 > 2n2 + n, and so dividing by n(n2 + 2n + 1) on both sides yields the desired inequality.

Hence, (

)2 2

n 2

1 < < = .

n+1 n N

Exercise 2.2.5. Make an educated guess as to what you think the limit is, then use the

definition of limit to prove that your guess is correct.

1 1

The limit is . Let A = {n N : |an | } for a given . This set is finite since

2 2

( )2

1 1

n +nn n +nn + +

2 2 2

+ n(2 + 1)

2 2

( )2

1

0 + + 2n.

2

But this last inequality is never true, since each of the terms is strictly greater than zero. Of

course, we might also have

1

n + n2 + n n2 + +n(1 2) + 2 n2 + n

2

2n + 2 0

n,

2

which is certainly only true for finite n. Hence for a given the set A is in fact finite, so the

1

limit is .

2

Exercise 2.2.6. Make an educated guess as to what you think the limit is, then use the

definition of limit to prove that your guess is correct.

1 3 1 3 3 1 3 3

|(1 + ) 1| = | 3 + 2 + + 1 1| = | 3 + 2 + |

n n n n n n n

2.2. USING THE DEFINITION OF LIMIT 17

We note that each term is of the form c/n or multiples thereof for some constant c. It has

already been shown that each such term tends can be made smaller than any . This also

holds for the sum.

Exercise 2.2.7. Suppose the sequence converges to a, then for all > 0, there is an N

so that when n > N , |an a| < a < an < a + . In particular, let = 1, then

certainly for all n > N , the sequence is bounded above by a + 1 and below by a 1. For

n < N, notice that the a1 , ..., aN is bounded above by e = max{|a1 |, ..., |an |} and below

by f = min{a1 , ..., aN }. Hence the entire sequence is bounded above by max{e, a + 1} and

min{f, a 1}.

We then note that we are given that |an a| < . From this we see that

Exercise 2.2.9. Does the sequence {cos(n/3)} have a limit? Justify your answer.

No. The sequence {cos(n/3)} oscillates between 1 and 1; a limit cannot converge to

two dierent values. Hence, this sequence does not have a limit.

Exercise 2.2.10. For a similar reason as in the previous problem, the sequence an =

cos(n) does not converge but the sequence |an | = | cos(n)| does converge since |an | = 1

for all n.

Exercise 2.2.11. Prove that if {an } and {bn } are sequences with |an | bn for all n and if

lim bn = 0, then lim an = 0 also.

We are given that |an | bn for all n. Therefore, we know that lim |an | lim bn . We

know that lim bn = 0. Hence we can write - equivalently - that lim |an | 0. We notice that

|an | is defined to be greater than or equal to zero. Hence we have 0 lim |an | 0, from

which it follows by the squeeze theorem (proof on p. 43 of the book) lim |an | = 0.

Exercise 2.2.12. Prove the following partial converse to Theorem 2.2.3: Suppose {an } is a

convergent sequence. If there is an N such that an c for all n > N , then lim an c. Also,

if there is an N such that b an for all n > N , then b lim an .

Note that an is bounded by c according to the premise. In this case, we can say that

an sup an c for all n. Let a = lim an . We know by definition that a sup an , and

therefore we can write that lim an sup an c.

Likewise, we can say that b is a lower bound for an such that b inf an . We know that by

definition inf an a, allowing us to write b lim an .

18 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES

Exercise 2.2.15. Suppose this sequence converges to( zero. Then)for all > 0, there exists

N

N such that for all n > N , |an | < . But consider n = 6

+ 1 106 . This is a multiple

10

of one million, so an . And, it is larger than N since

N N

< +1

106 106

( )

N

by definition, 106 + 1 > N. Hence we have a contradiction.

106

Exercise 2.3.1. Solved in Class

n 5 2

Exercise 2.3.2. Use the Main Limit Theorem to find lim n3 +2n2 +5 .

n2 5

lim 3 = (dividing top and bottom by n3 )

n + 2n2 + 5

1/n 5/n3

lim =

1 + 2/n + 5/n3

lim(1/n 5/n3 ) 0

= = 0.

lim(1 + 2/n + 5/n3 ) 1

problem 1, we can see that the limit is 1.

Exercise 2.3.4. Let an = 1/n, then lim an = 0, and let bn = sin n, then |bn | 1. By

sin n

theorem 2.3.2, the sequence = an bn has limit zero.

n

Exercise 2.3.5. Prove Theorem 2.3.2.

Proof. We know that lim an = 0, hence we know that for all > 0, there exists an N such

that whenever n > N , |an | < . Likewise, we know that bn is bounded, such that we can

state that q bb q. We can then also write |an | < |q|

. We guess that the limit of (an )(bn )

is zero, so we write:

|an bn | |q|

|q|

|an bn | .

Thus, the lim an bn = 0, since we there is an N such that the above inequality is true whenever

we pick an n > N .

2.3. LIMIT THEOREMS 19

Exercise 2.3.6. Prove that a sequence {an } is both bounded above and bounded below if

and only if its sequence of absolute values {|an |} is bounded above.

Proof. By definition, if {|an |} is bounded above, then there exists some M such that |an | M

for all n. This is equivalent to saying M an M , which proves that {an } is bounded

above and below.

Proof. Since both an and bn have a limit, we can write |an a| < 2 and |bn b| < 2 . For

all , we have an N such that if we choose n > N , these inequalities are true. We know add

them together and find

|(an ) + (bn b)| |an a| + |bn b| <

|(an + bn ) (a + b)| |an a| + |bn b| < .

Exercise 2.3.8. Prove that if {bn } is a sequence of positive terms and bn b > 0, then

there is a number m > 0 such that bn m for all n.

This is true by virtue of the definition of R. The statement above is equivalent to saying

that we are looking for some m such that 0 < m bn . By definition R is full, such that

between any two numbers, there are infinitely more numbers.

Exercise 2.3.9. Prove part (d) of Theorem 2.3.6. Hint: Use the previous exercise. I.e, that

if an a and bn b, an /bn a/b, if b = 0 and bn = 0 for all n.

Proof.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

|an a | = |an a + a a | |an = a|| | + |a|| |

bn b bn bn bn b bn bn b

We know that {1/bn } is bounded, and hence {|1/bn |} is bounded above. We also have

|an a| 0. Therefore, |an a||1/bn | 0. Also, |a||1/bn 1/b| 0. By (b) we know that

|an a||1/bn | + |a||1/bn 1/b| 0, proving that an /bn a/b.

Exercise 2.3.10. Prove part (f) of theorem 2.3.6. Hint: use the identity:

xk y k = (x y)(xk1 + xk2 y + . . . + y k1 )

1/k 1/k

with x = an and y = a1/k , to show that an a1/k if an 0 for all n.

n a

a1/k = (an a)(a1/K1 a1/k + . . . + a1/K1 ) = (an a)bn

1/K

n + a1/K2

n

20 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES

where

bn = a1/K1

n + a1/K2

n a1/k + . . . + a1/K1

We know that {an } converges, and hence that {|an |} is bounded above. We choose an upper

1/k

bound m for {|an |} which satisfies that |an | m. Then bn 1/k

m

sowing that {|bn |} is

bounded above. According to theorem 2.3.2 we conclude that |an a||bn | and find from

1/k

theorem 2.3.1 that an a1/k .

Exercise 2.3.12. Prove that lim a1/n = 1. Hint: use the result of the previous exercise.

We notice that n1/n > 1 for all n N.We can therefore write that we are looking for a

solution to n1/n 1 < .We can rearrange and raise both sides to the nth power, resulting in

the equation n < (1 + )n . We can expand the right hand side using the binomial theorem:

1

n < 1 + n + n(n 1)2 + . . .

2

As long as n < 21 n(n 1)2 this inequality holds, requiring that n > 1 + 2

2

. Therefore, for

any > 0 there exists an N such that whenever n > N , |n1/n 1| < .

Exercise 2.4.1. Tell which of the following sequences are non-increasing, non-decreasing,

bounded? Justify your answers.

(a) {n2 }; for n N, this sequence is non-decreasing since n2 < (n + 1)2 for all n. It is

bounded below by 1.

(b) { 1n }; this sequence is non-increasing, since n = n1/2 < (n + 1)1/2 for all n. This then

implies 1n > n+1 1

. The sequence is bounded by 0 and 1.

n

(c) { (1)

n

}; this sequence is neither non-increasing, nor non-decreasing as the sign of the

value of the sequence fluctuates due to the term (1)n . It is, however, bounded by 1 and

1/2.

(d) { 2nn }; this is the sequence 12 , 24 , 38 , . . . which is clearly non-increasing. It is bounded by 0

and 1.

(e) { n+1

n

}; this is the sequence 12 , 23 , 34 , 45 , . . . which is clearly non-decreasing and tending to

1. It is bounded by 1/2 and 1.

Exercise 2.4.2. Prove that the sequence xn with x1 = 1 and xn+1 = xn + 1 converges

and decide what number it converges to.

Proof. The first few terms of the sequence: 1, 2, 1 + 2, 1 + 1 + 2, . . .. We see

that xn is both increasing an bounded:

xn+1 = 1 + 1 + . . . 1 + 2 > 1 + 1 + . . . 1 + 2 = xn

| {z } | {z }

n terms n 1 terms

2.4. MONOTONE SEQUENCES 21

prove that

xn < 2 by induction. We have x1 = 1 < 2.

Then, if xk < 2, xk+1 = 1 + xk < 1 + 2 = 3 < 2. Thus by the monotone convergence

theorem, xn converges and is bounded

by 2.

Finding thelimit: We solve

a = 1 + a, which implies a2 a 1 = 0. The solutions to this

are a1 = 1+2 5 , a2 = 12 5 . The correct limit is a1 , since a2 < 0.

also monotone, converging to 1. The whole term then is monotone and non-increasing. It is

also bounded by 0 and 1. Therefore, by the monotone convergence theorem, an converges.

Exercise 2.4.4.

5 3

4 n+1 = .

Exercise 2.4.8. Prove that lim nn+3n +2

lim = lim

n4 n + 1 n4 (1 n/n4 + 1/n4 )

1 + 3/n2 + 2/n5

= lim |{z}

n ( )

1 1/n3 + 1/n4

| {z }

1

5 3

4 n+1 = .

And hence, lim nn+3n +2

Exercise 2.4.10. If the sequence is bounded, then we are done by theorem 2.4.1. Otherwise

there is no M R such that M an for all n. This is equivalent to saying any M R, there

exists N such that aN > M . Since the sequence is monotone, for all n > N , an > aN > M .

Hence it has limit equal to infinity.

Theorem lim an = i lim(an ) =

Proof. If an , there exists some value of an such that an > M for any possible M R.

If we consider the sequence an (1), we see clearly that an < M for any M R. But if

that is true, then lim an = .

Exercise 2.4.12. Suppose lim bn < . Then bn is bounded by theorem 2.2.3, so there exists

M with bn M for all n. Since an bn , we have an M so lim an < , a contradiction.

Exercise 2.4.13. For all M R, given k 0, M/k R. Hence there exists N , for all

n > N , an > M/k. Since bn k, we have an bn > k M/k = M, hence lim an bn = .

22 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES

Exercise 2.5.1. Give an example of a nested sequence of bounded open intervals that does

not have a point in its intersection.

Exercise 2.5.2. Let

an x R with x Ii . But there exists an integer m, m > x by the archimedean property.

i

Hence Im does not contain x, a contradiction.

Exercise 2.5.4. Prove by induction that if {nk } is an increasing sequence of natural num-

bers, then nk k for all k.

Proof. Assume the base case nk = n, which is the series 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .. Since k is the counter

index, i.e. k N, it is obvious that nk = k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .. We generalize to the n + 1 case,

i.e. nk = n + 1. In that case we have nk = n + 1 = k + 1 > k.

Exercise 2.5.5. Which of the following sequences {an } have a convergent subsequence?

Justify your answer.

(a) an = (2)n ; None of the subsequences are convergent, as they either tend to + or .

nn

(b) an = 5+(1)

2+3n

; This sequence is convergent for all n such that n mod 2 = 0, which is

the sequence starting with 0.875, 0.6428, 0.55, 0.5, 0.46875, 0.4473, 0.4318, 0.42, 0.41071, . . .

n

(c) an = 2(1) This sequence has convergent subsequences for all n such that n mod 2 = 0

and for n mod 2 = 1.

The sequence is 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, .... The subsequence {ani }, ni = 2i 1 converges to

1.

2. The sequence is 2/2, 1, 2/2, 2/2, 1, 2/2, 0, .... Since the sequence is peri-

1.

odic, we can find infinitely many terms equal to 0, which gives a convergent subsequence

(convergent to 0).

3. Let ank = 1/2k which happens when n = 2k + 1. Then by a previous homework this

has limit 0. Hence it is a convergent subsequence.

Exercise 2.5.7. For each of the following sequences, determine how many dierent limits

of subsequences there are. Justify your answer.

(a) {1 + (1)n }; This sequence is 0, 2, 0, 2, 0, 2, . . . and as such has two dierent limits: 0

and 2.

(b) {cos(n/3)}; There are two dierent limits. The first approaches 1 for the sequence of all

n where n mod 6 = 0. The second limit is attained at 1 for all n such that n mod 6 = 3.

(c) 1, 21 , 1, 12 , 31 , 1, 12 , 31 , 14 , 1. 21 , 13 , 41 , 15 , . . . The terms a1 , a3 , a6 , a10 , a1 5, . . . are convergent to 1.

Exercise 2.5.8. Does the sequence sin n have a convergent subsequence? Why?

convergent.

2.6. LIM INF AND LIM SUP 23

Exercise 2.5.9. Prove that a sequence which satisfies |an+1 an | < 2n for all n is a Cauchy

sequence.

Proof. We notice that the sequences defined by the above condition are non-increasing and

covergent. We notice the following pattern:

|an+3 an | = |an+3 an+2 + an+2 an+1 + an+1 an | |an+3 an+2 | + |an+2 an+1 | + |an+1 an |

< 2(n+2) + 2(n+1) + 2n

Inductively, we see that this pattern continues for all patterns an and an + k with k N.

Now, we assume two indices m and n such that m > n. We find

2n (1 + 21 + 22 + . . . + 2(m1)+n )

| {z }

geometric series

0

2n ( 2k ) = 2n (2 2m+n+1 ) = 21n 21m

k=m+n+1

We want to to prove |21n 21m | 21n + 21m < . We solve the equations 21n <

2

and

21m < 2 . The solution to this is 2 log(2)

log()

< n, m

Exercise 2.6.1. Solved in Class

Exercise 2.6.2. Find lim inf and lim sup for the sequence an = n

2kn

1 with kn being the

largest integer k so that 2k n.

and lim sup = 1.

Exercise 2.6.3. Find lim inf and lim sup for the sequence 1, 12 , 1, 12 , 13 , 1, 21 , 13 , 14 , 1, . . ..

Exercise 2.6.5. If lim sup an is finite, prove that lim inf(an ) = lim sup an .

24 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES

Proof. By assumption, lim sup an is equal to some a, such that a an for all an {an }.

We multiply this by 1 to find the inverse sequence {an }. Then we have a an for

all an {an }. By definition, this means a = lim inf(an ). Therefore, lim inf(an ) =

lim sup an .

Exercise 2.6.8. If {an } and {bn } are non-negative sequences and {bn } converges, prove

that lim sup an bn = (lim sup an )(lim bn ).

Proof. We need to consider two cases. First, assume {an } is not bounded above. Then

lim sup an = . It then doesnt matter what we multply an with, we will always get infinity

provided that bn = 0.Then lim sup(an bn ) = lim sup an lim bn = .

We now consider case 2, where an is bounded above. By Bolzano-Weierstrass we know that

an then has at least one convergent subsequence. Let a be the subsequential limit of an , and

let M be the upper bound of an . We know then that lim sup an exists and lim sup an M .

MORE WORK NEEDED ON THIS. We note that according to the main limit theorem, if

an a and bn b, an bn ab. Thus lim sup(an bn ) = lim sup an lim bn .

Exercise 2.6.12. Which numbers do you think are subsequential limits of {sin n}

n=1 ? Can

you prove that your guess is correct?

Chapter 3

Continuous Functions

3.1 Continuity

Exercise 3.1.1. If f is a function with domain [0, 1], what is the domain of f (x2 1)?

======= If f is a function with domain [0, 1], what is the domain of f (x2 1)?

{

x2 1 x (, 1] [1, ]

x2 2 x [ 2, 2]

Thus x [ 2, 1] [1, 2].

x2 +1

Exercise 3.1.2. What is the natural domain of the function x2 1

? With this as its domain,

is this function continuous? Why?

The domain is R\{1, 1}. The function is continuous everywhere except for the points

not part of the domain.

Exercise 3.1.3. For any real x, x2 + 1 is defined and nonzero. And, 1 + x2 is continuous

on R, so by theorem 3.1.9(d), it is continuous.

Exercise 3.1.4. Show that the function f (x) = |x| is continuous on all of R.

Proof. We need to find a such that for any > 0, we have ||x| |a|| < whenever

|x a| < .

Exercise 3.1.5. Assuming sin is continous, prove that sin(x3 4x) is continuous.

Proof. We know that |sin(x)| < 1 for all x.

Exercise 3.1.6. Since f (x), g(x) are continuous, and {f (xn )} converges to f (a) and {g(xn )}

converges to g(a), when {xn } converges to a. By theorem 2.3.6(d), {f (xn )/g(xn )} converges

to f (a)/g(a) since g(a) = 0 by assumption and g(xn ) = 0 in the domain of f (x)/g(x) by

definition.

25

26 CHAPTER 3. CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

But all the xn , a Df g implies xn , a Dg and g(xn ), g(a) Df . Hence {g(xn )} is a sequence

in Df which converges to g(a) when {xn } converges to a, hence {f (g(xn ))} converges to

{f (g(a))}, so by theorem 3.1.6 it is continuous.

Exercise 3.1.8. We know x is continuous at all a 0 by theorem 3.1.7. Give another

proof of this fact by using only the definition of continuity.

Proof. We need to distinguish

between two cases:

Case

1 - a = 0: | x 0| = x < i 0 x < 2 , = 2 . Whenever x < 2 we find that

x < and therefore x is continuous at a = 0.

|xa|

Case 2 - a > 0: |x a| = | x a|| x + a|. This implies | x a| = xa <

x a a

if we have |x a| < a, = a.

{

1 : x 0,

f (x) =

1 : x < 0

Is this function continuous if its domain is R? Is it continous if its domain is cut down to

{x R : x 0}? How about if its domain is {x R : x 0}?

Exercise 3.1.10. Let f be a function with domain D and suppose f is continuous at some

point a D. Prove that, for each > 0, there is a > 0 such that

|f (x) f (y)| < whenever x, y D (a , a + )

{

sin(1/x) x = 0

f (x) =

0 x=0

is not continuous at 0.

Proof. Whenever xn 0 we have f (xn ) f (0) = 0. We are looking for a sequence

xn 0 but where f (xn ) f (0) = 0. We choose xn = /2+2n

1

. This goes to 0 but

sin( 1 + 2n) = 1.

{

x sin(1/x) x = 0

f (x) =

0 x=0

is continuous at 0.

Proof. We need to estimate |f (x) f (0)|.

( ) ( )

1 1

|f (x) f (0)| = |x sin | = |x|| sin | |x| <

x x

Thus |x 0| < for = .

3.2. PROPERTIES OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 27

Exercise 3.1.8. We know x is continuous at all a 0, by Theorem 3.1.7. Give another

proof of this fact using only the definition of continuity (Def. 3.1.1).

solved in class

Exercise 3.1.11. Prove that the function (piecewise function) is not continuous at 0.

solved in class

solved in class

Exercise 3.2.1. The minimum of f on [0, 3) is 1. The maximum does not exist, since

sup f[0,3) = 6 which is achieved at x = 3 [0, 3).

Exercise 3.2.2. Prove that if f is a continuous function on a closed bounded interval I and

if f (x) is never 0 for x I, then there is a number m > 0 such that f (x) m for all x I

or f (x) m for all x I.

Proof. Assume f (a) > 0. We have that f ([a, b]) = [m, M ]. We know that m = min f ,

M = max f . Lets prove that m > 0. By contradiction: assume m < 0. Value 0 is taken

(non-legible) an intermediate value [m, f (a)] which contradicts f (x) = 0. Prove for case 2 is

analogous (show that M < 0).

Exercise 3.2.3. Prove that if f is a continuous function on a closed bounded interval [a, b]

and if (x0 , y0 ) is any point in the plane, then there is a closest point to (x0 , y0 ) on the graph

of f .

Proof. Pick any point x [a, b]. Then the distance to x0 , y0 is dist ((x0 , yo ), (x, f (x))) =

1

((x x0 )2 + (y0 f (x))2 )) 2 . We must prove that this function attains its minimum value

1

in [a, b] and that if f is continuous, then ((x x0 )2 + (y0 f (x))2 )) 2 is also continuous on

[a, b]. Then distance takes its minimum value there.

Exercise 3.2.4. Find an example of a function which is continuous on a bounded (but not

closed) interval I, but is not bounded. Then find an example of a function which is contin-

uous and bounded on a bounded interval I, but does not have a maximum value.

The second condition cannot be fulfilled; according to theorem 3.2.1 (p. 65): If f is a

continuous function on a closed bounded interval I, then f is bounded on I and in fact, it

assumes both a minimum and a maximum value on I. The only way to create a function

28 CHAPTER 3. CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

which would not assume a maximum on such an interval would be by violating the continuity.

For example, the function

{

2x x < 1/2

f (x) =

0 x 1/2

fails to achieve its maximum on a bounded interval [0, 1]. However, it does so by having a

discontinuity at x = 1/2.

Exercise 3.2.5. Let f (x) = ex , I = [1, ). Then f is continuous on a closed (but not

bounded) interval, but is not bounded. If f (x) = 1/(1 + ex ) and I = [0, ), then f is

continuous and bounded by 1 on I which is closed but does not have a maximum.

Exercise 3.2.7. Give an example of a function defined on the interval [0, 1] which does not

take on every value between f (0) and f (1).

In other words, we are looking for a function with a discontinuity between [0, 1]. One

example would be: {

x : 0 x < 21

f (x) =

2x : 12 x 1

Exercise 3.2.8. Show that if f and g are continuous functions on the interval [a, b] such

that f (a) < g(a) and g(b) < f (b), then there is a number c (a, b) such that f (c) = g(c).

Proof. We create a function h(x) = f (x) g(x). This is continuous since it is a linear

combination of continuous functions, and it is defined on [a, b]. We know that h(a) =

f (a) g(a) < 0 and h(b) = f (b) g(b) > 0. Bt the intermediate value theorem there exists

a c such that h(c) = f (c) g(c) = 0, which implies f (c) = g(c).

Exercise 3.2.9. Let f be a continuous function from [0, 1] to [0, 1].Prove that there is a

point c [0, 1] such that f (c) = c - that is, show that f has a fixed point. Hint: Apply the

Intermediate Value Theorem to the function g(x) = f (x) x.

Proof. Let g(x) = f (x) x. Since f (x) is continuous, we know that g(x) is also continuous.

Then g(a) 0 and g(b) 0. By the intermediate value theorem we know that there exists

some x [0, 1] such that g(x) = 0, which implies that f (x) = x.

Exercise 3.2.10. Use the intermediate value theorem to prove that if n is a natural number,

then every positive number a has a positive n-th root.

Proof. We write the function f (x) = xn which is continuous on [0, ) since it is a polynomial.

We notice f (0) = 0 < a. We know that there is a number m N such that m > a which

implies f (m) = mn m > a. Thus we have f (0) < a and f (m) > a and since f is

continuous on [0, m], the intermediate value theorem states that there exists a c such that

f (c) = cn = a.

Exercise 3.2.11. Prove that a polynomial of odd degree has at least one real root.

3.3. UNIFORM CONTINUITY 29

Proof. Assume g(x) : R R is an odd degree polynomial. Then g is of the form nk=0 ak xk ,

n1an nxk N such that n mod 2 =1.n1

where ak is the k-th coecient of the polynomial We can

k

then factor g to be of the form g(x) = x (an + k=0 ak xn ). We note that limx k=0 ak xxn =

n

if x 0. Therefore, limx+ xn an = + and limx xn an = , provided that an > 0.

Hence, we find that limx g(x) = and limx g(x) = . In the case of an < 0, we

find that limx g(x) = and limx g(x) = .

We know that any polynomial is continous, and the above shows that there are some a, b R

such that g(a) < 0 and g(b) > 0. We now consider the interval [a, b]. By the Intermediate

value theorem, we find that for every c [g(a), g(b)] there exists some x [a, b] such that

g(x) = c, implying that there exists at least one x such that g(x) = 0.

Exercise 3.2.12. Use the Intermediate Value Theorem to prove that f is a continuous

function on an interval [a, b] and if f (x) m for every x [a, b), then f (b) m.

Proof. Assume that m < f (b), such that f (x) m < f (b) for all x [a, b). We then know

that m = f (b) for some > 0 R. But, by properties of the real numbers, we would

also have m = f (b) < f (b) < f (b) some some , such as = 2 . But f (b) [a, b)

- contradiction: by the intermediate value theorem, since f is continuous, we know that

there exists some x such that f (x) = f (b) , and thus we require m f (b) . Hence,

f (b) m.

Exercise 3.3.1. Is the function f (x) = x2 uniformly continuous on (0, 1)? Justify your

answer.

interval I, it is uniformly continuous there. Assume I = [0, 1]. Then by theorem 3.3.4, f is

uniformly continuous on I. By theorem 3.3.6, f is then also uniformly continuous on (0, 1).

Exercise 3.3.2. Is the function f (x) = 1/x2 uniformly continuous on (0, +) (actual text

printed asks only about interval up to 1 )? Justify your answer.

such as (0, 1). But f (x) is not bounded on the interval (0, 1). Therefore, it is not uniformly

continuous.

Exercise 3.3.3. Is the function f (x) = x2 uniformly continuous on (0, +)? Justify your

answer.

No, it its not. As x we find that the distance between y, y gets bigger and bigger,

such that x, x need to be closer and closer for y, y to still be within of each other. This

means that does depend on a, so it is not uniformly continuous.

30 CHAPTER 3. CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

Exercise 3.3.4. Using only the definition of uniform continuity, prove that the function

x

f (x) = x+1 is uniformly continuous on [0, ).

Proof.

x y x(y + 1) + y(x + 1)

|f (x) f (y)| = | |=| |

x+1 y+1 (x + 1)(y + 1)

xy + x xy y |x y|

=| |= |x y|

(x + 1)(y + 1) (x + 1)(y + 1)

Estimate |f (x) f (y)| |x y|. Then for all > 0, = implies |x y| < = will result

in |f (x) f (y)| < .

Exercise 3.3.5. In example 3.3.8 we showed that x is uniformly continuous on [1, ).

Show that it is also uniformly continuous on [0, 1].

By theorem 3.3.4: if x is continuous on [0, 1], it is uniformly continuous there.

Exercise 3.3.6. Prove that if I and J are overlapping intervals in R(I J = and f is a

function, defined on I J, which is uniformly continuous on I and uniformly continuous on

it is also uniformly continuous on I J. Use this and the previous exercise to prove

J, then

that x is uniformly continuous on [0, +).

Proof. By assumption I J = . We shall assume that the interval I is the lower one of

the two. Then there exists an x such that x I J. Since I is uniformly continuous by

assumption, we know that [x a, x] is uniformly continous for all (x a) I. Likewise we

know that [x, x + b] is uniformly continous for all (x + b) J since J is uniformly continous

by assumption.This implies that the whole interval [x a, x + b] is uniformly continous.

To prove that x is uniformly continuous, we assume we are given some > 0. For this, we

pick = 2 . We note that | x y| | x + y|. If |x y| < = 2 , we find:

| x y|2 | x y|| x + y| = |x y| < 2

This guarantees that | x y| < , proving that x is uniformly continous on (0, ).

Exercise 3.3.7. Suppose f is not continuous on I, then since uniform continuity implies

continuity, f is not uniform continuous on I. Suppose f is continuous on I. Then f is

But a continuous function on a closed,

uniform continuous on I if f is continuouss on I.

bounded interval is bounded, but f is unbounded. This is a contradiction so f cannot be

uniformly continuous.

Exercise 3.3.8. Let f be a function defined on an interval I and suppose that there are

positive constants K and r such that

3.4. UNIFORM CONVERGENCE 31

Proof. According to assumption, we find that |f (x) f (y)| K|x y|r for all x, y I.

This implies that if K|x y|r < , |f (x) f (y)| < . Thus we find that we

need to solve

K|x y| < , and find that for any given , we pick a such that = r K . Since

r

Exercise 3.3.9. Is the function f (x) = sin( x1 ) continuous on (0, 1)? Is it uniformly contin-

uous on (0, 1)? Justify your answers.

Proof. Since sin is a trigonometric function, it is continuous on its whole domain. Likewise,

sin(1/x) is continous since it is merely a composition of two elementary functions.

However, sin(1/x) is not uniformly continous. The reason for this is that the as x 0

the function oscillates between 1 and 1. Thus, a that would work at one point in the

function will can produce potentially a dierence |f (x) f (y)| = 2 for x, y suciently close

to 0. Hence, the functions is not uniformly continous.

Exercise 3.3.10. Is the function f (x) = x sin(1/x) uniformly continuous on (0, 1)? Justify

your answer.

Proof. Method 1: f (1) = sin(1). It is still uniformly continuous. limx0 f (x) = limx0 x sin(1/x) =

0. By squeeze theorem:

0 by squeeze thrm.

z }|

( ){

1

0

|{z} |x sin | |x|

x |{z}

0 0

If we define f (0) = 0, f (1) = sin(1), then f (x) becomes continuous on [0, 1]. then by

theorem 3.3.4, f is uniformly continuous on [0, 1] = f is uniformly continuous on (0, 1).

Method 2:

Then for all > 0 we have |f (x) f (y)| < if x, y (0, 2 ]. If now x, y > /3, then there

exists a > 0 such that |f (x) f (y)| < whenever |x y| < :

|f (x) f (y)| |x| + |y| < + |x| + |y x| < + + <

3 3 3

if < 3 . Then we choose = min( 3 , 0 ).

32 CHAPTER 3. CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

Chapter 4

The Derivative

4.2 The Derivative

4.3 The Mean Value Theorem

Exercise 4.3.1.

Exercise 4.3.1. If we apply the MVT to the intervals [1, 1], [0, 1] and [1, 0] we find

that there exist points where the derivative equals 1/2, 1, and 0.

Exercise 4.3.2. Observe that f (x) = sin x satisfies the hypotheses of theorem 4.3.9

where we let (a, b) = (, ) and so it must satisfy |f (x) f (y)| M |x y| where M is a

bound for the derivative. In this case f (x) = cos x 1 for all x, hence we may set M = 1.

Then | sin x sin y| = |f (x) f (y)| M |x y| = |x y| as desired.

Exercise 4.3.3.

Exercise 4.3.4. We know that there is some c (0, ) with f (x)f (y) = f (c)(xy) for

x, y (0, ). Then |f (x) f (y)| f (c)|x y| M |x y|. If we take the limit of both sides

as y 0, then since |f (x) f (y)| is continuous, lim |f (x) f (y)| = |f (x) f (0)| = |f (x)|.

y0

Hence |f (x)| M x.

Exercise 4.3.5.

Exercise 4.3.6. We know that f (x) = 6x2 + 6x 12 = 6(x + 2)(x 1). Hence f (x) 0

on [2, 1] and is positive elsewhere. Hence f (x) is decreasing on [2, 1] and increasing

elsewhere.

Exercise 4.3.7.

Exercise 4.3.8.

33

34 CHAPTER 4. THE DERIVATIVE

Exercise 4.3.9.

Exercise 4.3.10.

Exercise 4.3.11.

Exercise 4.3.12.

Exercise 4.3.13.

Exercise 4.3.14.

Exercise 4.3.15.

Exercise 4.3.16.

Exercise 4.4.1. By Cauchys form of the MVT for the interval [1, x] and f (x) = ln x and

g(x) = xr , we have

ln x 1/c 1

= r1 = r ,

x 1

r rc rc

hence

xr 1

ln x = .

rcr

We know moreover that c > 1 and r > 0, hence r logc 1, or cr 1 hence 1/cr 1. Then

xr 1 xr 1

ln x = ,

rcr r

as desired.

Exercise 4.4.2.

Exercise 4.4.3.

Exercise 4.4.4.

Exercise 4.4.5.

ln x 1/x

lim = lim

x xr x rxr1

1

= lim = 0.

x rxr

4.4. LHOPITALS RULE 35

ln x

Exercise 4.4.7. If we write x ln x = then the limit is of the form /. By

1/x

LHopitals, the limit is equal to

1/x

lim = lim x = 0.

x0 1/x2 x0

cos x 1

lim .

x0 3x2

It is still of the form 0/0 hence equal to

sin x

lim .

x0 6x

Applying LHopitals again, the limit equals

cos x

lim = 0.

x0 6

Exercise 4.4.9.

x0 x0

This has numerator and denominator , hence we may apply LHopitals to get

x0 x0 x0

Exercise 4.4.11.

Exercise 4.4.12.

Exercise 4.4.13.

Exercise 4.4.14.

Exercise 4.4.15.

Exercise 4.4.16.

36 CHAPTER 4. THE DERIVATIVE

Chapter 5

The Integral

Exercise 5.1.1. We have

1 4 1 2 1 4 1

U (f, P ) = 1 + + + = 319/40.

4 5 4 3 4 7 4

Moreover,

4 1 2 1 4 1 1 1

L(f, P ) = + + + = 533/840.

5 4 3 4 7 4 2 4

Exercise 5.1.2. Since x is an increasing function, we know that Mk = k/n and mk =

(k 1)/n hence

n

k1 1 n(n + 1) n+1

U (f, Pn ) = = 2 =

k=1

nn n 2 2n

and

n

k11 1 n(n 1) n1

L(f, Pn ) = = 2

= .

k=1

n n n 2 2n

Since these have the same limit as n , we know that limn U (f, Pn ) L(f, Pn ) = 0,

as desired.

Exercise 5.1.3. The base case is clearly true, so suppose that

k

k(k + 1)(2k + 1)

j2 = .

j=1

6

k+1

k(k + 1)(2k + 1) (k + 1)(k + 2)(2(k + 1) + 1)

j2 = + (k + 1)2 = ,

j=1

6 6

as desired.

37

38 CHAPTER 5. THE INTEGRAL

n ( )2

ka a a3 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

U (f, Pn ) = = 2 ,

k=1

n n n 6

a (n 1)a

where Pn = {0 < < < < a} and Mk = (ka/n)2 since f (x) = x2 is increasing.

n n

Moreover, notice that the limit is a3 /3. We now find that

n ( )2

(k 1)a a

L(f, Pn ) =

k=1

n n

a3 n(n 1)(2n 1)

.

n2 6

Notice that this also has limit a3 /3, hence the limit of the dierence of the two is zero, and

the integral exists. Moreover, it equals lim U (f, Pn ) = a3 /3.

Exercise 5.1.5. For any P , we know that U (f, P ) = 1 since U (f, P ) = Mk (xk

k

xk1 ) = xk xk1 = 1 0 = 1 as the supremum of f on any interval is 1. On the

k

other hand we know L(f, P ) = 0 since the infimum of f on any interval is 0. Hence for all

partitions P , U (f, P ) L(f, P ) = 1, hence by theorem 5.1.7 the function is not Riemann

integrable.

Exercise 5.1.8. We know that

b

f (x) dx = sup{L(f, Q) : Q P},

a

where P is the set of partitions of [a, b]. This is equal to nk=1 mk (xk xk1 ) for some

partition {a = x0 < x1 < < xn = b} of [a, b]. But we know

n

n

mk (xk xk1 ) m(xk xk1 ) = m(b a).

k=1 k=1

This gives the first inequality in the chain of inequalities. The second inequality is obtained

by the definition of supremum and infimum. The third inequality is found by noting that

Mk M .

Exercise 5.1.9. For any partition,

n

n

n

U (f, P ) = Mj (xj xj1 ) = k(b a) = mk (b a) = L(f, P ).

k=1 j=1 j=1

Hence U (f, P ) L(f, P ) = 0 < for any partition P , so by theorem 5.1.7 the integral exists.

Applying definition

n 5.1.6 and the definition of upper and lower integral, we find that the

integral equals j=1 k(b a).

5.2. EXISTENCE AND PROPERTIES OF THE INTEGRAL 39

Exercise 5.1.10. See definition 5.1.1. If P partitions [a, b] into n equal subintervals,

then xk xk1 = (a b)/n hence the dierence is

ab

n

(Mk mk ).

n k=1

Exercise 5.2.1. If f = g h and g, h are non-decreasing, then g , h 0. We will then have

g h , g = h or g h . In the first and third cases, we know that either f 0 or f 0.

In either case, f is monotone on a closed bounded interval [a, b], hence by theorem 5.2.1 it is

integrable. On the other hand if g = h then f = 0, hence f is constant and it was proved

that a constant function is integrable in the previous homework.

Exercise 5.2.6. We know 1 + x2n is continuous and never zero, hence 1/(1 + x2n ) is also

continuous on [1, 1], hence by theorem 5.2.2 it is integrable. Moreover, M = sup[1,1] f = 1

and m = inf [1,1] f = 1/2. By corollary 5.2.5, we know that the integral is therefore trapped

between m(b a) = 12 2 = 1 and M (b a) = 1 2 = 2. Hence the desired inequality.

Exercise 5.2.11. Let f (x) = 1 if x [0, 1] is rational, and 1 if x is irrational. Then

for reasons similar to problem 5.1.5, this function is not integrable. However, |f (x)| = 1 for

all x [0, 1], and hence it is integrable.

Exercise 5.2.12. We know that f (x) is continuous, hence integrable on a closed bounded

interval [a, b]. It is also therefore bounded, and so M = sup[a,b] f and m = inf [a,b] f are finite

so f actually attains these values. Moreover, we know by the IVT that f attains every value

between m and M (possibly these values). In particular, f attains the value

b

1

f (x) dx,

ba a

by corollary 5.2.5.

Exercise 5.3.1. We know that the antiderivative is f (x) = x2 sin(1/x) and that it satisfies

of theorem 5.3.1 from example 5.3.2, and so the integral equals f (2/)

all the hypotheses

f (4/) = 4/ 8 2/ 2 .

2

Exercise 5.3.4. The integral may be split up as

x 1/x

t2

et dt,

2

e dt

0 0

and hence the derivative of the first integral is ex and of the second it is e1/x /x2 by

2 2

Exercise 5.3.5. f (x) = 1/x is not continuous at x = 0 [1, 1], violating the

hypotheses of theorem 5.3.1.

40 CHAPTER 5. THE INTEGRAL

Exercise 5.3.6. Letting g(x) = f (x), applying (5.3.5) gives that the integral equals

b

f (b) f (a)

2 2

(f (x))2 dx.

a

1 n+1

Exercise 5.3.8. Let x t and g (t) = tn and f (t) = ln t. Then g(t) = t and

n+1

f (t) = 1/t. Both f and g are continuous on [0, ) and dierentiable on (0, ). We know

f g and gf are continuous, hence by (5.3.5) the integral equals

x x

1 n+1 1 n+1 1

t ln t t dt.

n+1 0 0 n+1 t

Simplifying this and making the necessary evaluations, the integral comes out as

1 1

xn+1 ln x xn+1 .

n+1 (n + 1)2

Exercise 5.3.10. Theorem 5.3.1 requires f (x) = x/|x| be continuous at every point in

[1, 1], but f (x) is not continuous at x = 0.

Chapter 6

Infinite Series

6.2 Tests for Convergence

6.3 Absolute and Conditional Convergence

6.4 Power Series

sin(kx)

Exercise 6.4.2. Prove that f (x) = k=1 2k

is continuous on the entire real line.

Proof. We use the Ratio test to show that the sum converges on the entire real line:

k

= .

2 2 sin(kx) 2 sin(kx) 2

This proves convergence on all of R. We notice that sin(kx)2k 2k . Since

k=0 2

k

= 2,

sin(kx)

we know by the Weierstrass M-test that k=1 2k converges uniformly on all R. This

proves that this sum is continuous on the entire real line.

1 k

Exercise 6.4.4. Radius of convergence of k=1 k3k x .

1 1

(k3k )1/k = = 31 .

3 kk

1 1

R= = = 3.

lim sup ck

k lim sup 31

41

42 CHAPTER 6. INFINITE SERIES

(1)k1

Exercise 6.4.5. Radius of convergence of k=0 k+1

(x + 2)k .

(1)k1

We have ck = k+1

. We take the k-th root:

( )1 ( )1

(1)k1 k (1)k k

(ck )1/k

= =

k+1 k+1

(1)k/k 1 1

= 1/k

= 1/k

= .

(k + 1) (k + 1) (k + 1)1/k

We then use the formula for the radius of convergence:

1 1 1

R= = 1/k

= = 1.

lim sup ck

k

lim sup (k + 1) 1

Exercise 6.4.8. Radius of convergence of k=0 2k x2k .

( )1

We have ck = 2k . We then take the k-th root: 2k k = 2k/k = 2. We use the formula for

the the radius of convergence:

1 1 1

R= = = .

lim sup k ck lim sup 2 2

Thus we can see that the radius of convergence is 1/2.

numbers which

converges to 0. Use theorem 6.3.2 to show that the power series k=0 (1) ak xk converges

k+1

uniformly on [0, 1], and hence converges to a continuous function on this interval.

Proof. According to theorem 6.3.2, the series k=0 (1)

k+1

ak converges provided that {ak }

is a non-increasing sequence of non-negative numbers. We notice that this power series is

uniformly Cauchy, since the sequence of partial sums is uniformly Cauchy according to the

theorem. Therefore, this series converges uniformly.

Notice

thatk+1for all x [0, 1], (1)

k+1

ak xk (1)k+1 ak . Therefore, we see that the series

(1) ak xk is bounded by

k=0 k=0 (1)

k+1

ak , which by the Weierstrass M-test implies

k+1 k

that k=0 (1) ak x is uniformly convergent on [0, 1].

Exercise 6.4.12. Prove that if f (x) is the sum of a power series centered at a and with

radius of convergence R, then f is infinitely dierentiable on (a R, a + R) - that is, its

derivative of order m exists on this interval for all m N.

k=0 ck (x a) . Then, according

k

Proof. Suppose that f (x) = to theorem 6.4.12, f (x)

is dierentiable on (a R, a + R) and its derivative is f (x) = k=1 kck (x a)k1 . This

means we are left with a k 1 degree dierentiable polynomial. By induction we see that

we can then integrate this power series again. Since we take k to infinity, this means we can

take an infinite number of derivatives. Additionally, any polynomial has an infinite number

of derivatives: the kth derivative is a constant, and all others are zero.

6.5. TAYLORS FORMULA 43

n

Exercise 6.5.1. Prove that lim xn! = 0 for all x.

Proof. Since we take the limit as n , n will take on every value of N. We assume that

x R. Therefore, at some point we find have that x n; at the first point this occurs, we

xn1

then consider the rational expression nx C where C is some constant of the form (n1)! . If we

consier the next term in the sequence, n (n+1) C, we find that n (n + 1) x x, since x n.

xx

n

Therefore, it is obvious that limn xn! = 0 for all x.

Exercise 6.5.3. Use Taylors formula to estimate the error if cos(x) is approximated by

2

1 x2 on the interval [0.1, 0.1].

We estimate as follows:

x4 0.14

5 106

4! 4!

Thus we can bound the error by 5 106 .

Exercise 6.5.5. Taylors formula for f (x) = t + x with a = 0.

We begin by taking the first few derivatives of f (x) = t + x.

1

f (x) =

2 t+x

1

f (x) = 3

4 (t + x) 2

3

f (3) (x) = 5

8 (t + x) 2

15

f (4) (x) = 7

16 (t + x) 2

Then the Taylor formula for the above function for the first 5 terms, with remainder, at

a = 0 will be as follows:

f (n) (a)

f (x) = (x a)n

n=0

n!

1 1 1 3 1 15 1 4 105 1 5

t + x 3 x 2 + 5 x3 7 x + 9 x

2 t 4t 2 2 8t 2 3! 16t 2 4! 32 (c + t) 2 5!

x 1 1 3 5 7

= t + 3 x2 + 5 x

4

7 x +

5

9 x .

2 t 8t 2 16t 2 128t 2 256 (c + t) 2

44 CHAPTER 6. INFINITE SERIES

f (x) = ln(1 + x)

1

f (x) =

x+1

1

f (x) =

(x + 1)2

2

f (3) (x) =

(x + 1)3

6

f (4) (x) =

(x + 1)4

Then the Taylor formula for the above function for the first 5 terms, with remainder, at

a = 0 will be as follows:

f (n) (a)

f (x) = (x a)n

n=0

n!

1 2 3 6 4 24

x x2 + x x + 5x

5

2 6 24 120 (c + 1)

1 1 3 1 4 1

= x x2 + x x + 5

5x .

2 3 4 5 (c + 1)

Exercise 6.5.11. If f is an infinitely

dierentiable function on (a r, a + r) and there is

some constant K such that f (x) K rn for all n N and all x (a r, a + r), then the

(n) n!

series on (a R, a + R), then it is infitinely dierentiable on thatsame interval.

We can see that if there is some constant K such that f (n) (x) K rn!n for all n N and

all x (a r, a + r), then f (n) (x) is always bounded.

Exercise 6.5.13. If g(x) = e1/x for x = 0 and g(0) = 0, show that g is infinitely dieren-

2

tiable on the entire real line but all of its derivatives at 0 are 0. Argue that this means that

g cannot be analytic at 0. Hint: Use the previous exercise to help compute the derivatives of

g at 0.

1/x2

First note that g (x) = 2 e x3 . The Taylor expansion of e1/x centered around a is

2

of the form f (k) (a) (k)

k=0 k!

(x a)k . This is a power series where ck = f k!(a) and as such is

dierentiable according to theorem 6.4.12, and infinitely so (cf. exercise 6.4.12). Likewise,

e1/x is infinitely dierentiable, and all of its dieerentials are clearly defined everywhere

2

except

n at x = 0. This is due to the fact that all n-th derivatives of g are sums of the form

1/x2 (n+k+1)

k=1 k e

a x . Therefore, analytically g(x) is not defined at 0.

1/x2

Remember however that limx0 e xn = 0. Therefore, if we define g(x) and and all of its

derivatives to be 0 at 0, g(x) is infinitely dierentiable.

Part II

Multivariable - 3220

45

Chapter 7

Exercise 7.1.5. Prove that ||x| |y|| |x y|.

Proof. We note that x = x y + y. This implies that |x| = |x y + y|. We use the triangle

inequality:

|x| |x y| + |y| | |y|

|x| |y| |x y|

Exercise 7.1.6. Prove that equality holds in the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality if and only if

one of the vectors u, v is a scalar multiple of the other.

Proof. Let v be a scalar multiple of u, such that v = u. Then

( )

= u21 + . . . + u2n

v 2

u n

u

= t u2i = |u|2 .

i=1

Therefore, we find that |u|2 |v |2 = |u| |u|2 = |u|2 , and hence, equality holds. The proof

for the case where u is a scalar multiple of v is analogous.

7.3 Open and Closed Sets

Exercise 7.3.1. Prove that the set {(x, y) R2 : y > 0} is an open subset of R2 .

47

48 CHAPTER 7. CONVERGENCE IN EUCLIDEAN SPACE

Proof. According to theorem 7.3.10, a set A Rd is closed if and only if every convergent

sequence in A converges to a point x A. Consider the sequence { n1 , n1 }. This sequence

is clearly contained in the set A = {(x, y) R2 : y > 0}. However, { n1 , n1 } (0, 0), and

(0, 0)

/ A. Therefore, the set A is not closed. Since A is not closed, A is an open set.

Exercise 7.3.4. Find the interior, closure, and boundary for the set

A = {(x, y) R2 : |(x, y)| 1 y = 0, |x| 2}

A = {(x, y) R2 : |(x, y)| = 1 x = 2, y = 0 x = 2, y = 0}

Exercise 7.3.6. Let A be an open set and B a closed set. If B A, prove that A\B is

open. If A B, prove that B\A is closed.

Proof. Case 1: B A. Since B is a closed set, for any sequence {xn } B, there is some

Li B such that {xn } Li . Since B A, we know that {xn }, Li A for all n, i N.

If B is a proper subset of A, then for every Li there exists some sequence {yn } such that

{yn } A\B and {yn } Li . Since Li B, we find that Li / A\B. But then not all limit

points of A\B are actually in A\B, thus showing that A\B is an open set.

Case 2: A B. Since A is an open set, Li , {xn } such that Li B, {xn } A and

{xn } Li . Consider now the set B\A. Since Li B, but Li / A, we find that Li B\A i.

Therefore, B\A is a closed set.

statement true for A B? Justify your answer.

of R and U1 U2 . . . Uk . . . is a nested

d

Exercise 7.4.1. If K is a compact subset

upward sequence of open sets with K k Uk , then prove that K is contained in one of

the sets Uk .

Proof. This seems obvious.

Since UK is a nested upward sequence,

we have that Ui Ui+1

for all i N . If K k Uk , then xi K we find that xi k Uk . Since K isa compact

set, it has a finite subcoverage. This means, there is afinite n N such that n Un K.

Therefore, there exists a finite m N such that K n+m Um+n .

7.4. COMPACT SETS 49

maximal norm. That is, there is a point x1 K such that

Hint: set m = sup{|x| : x K} and consider the open balls Bm1/n (0).

and let f : K R such that f (x) = |x|. This is a continuous function since the space is

compact. As a continuous, real valued function, it attains both a maximum and a minimum

per 3.2.1. Therefore, there exists an xi K such that f (xi ) f (xk ) for all k N. This

proves that x : |x| |xi | for all i N.

Exercise 7.4.6. Prove that the conclusion of the previous exercise also holds if we only

assume that K is a closed subset of Rd . Hint: replace K by its intersection with a suitably

large closed ball centered at y.

set imaged into a compact set, we know that f is a continuous function. As such, this

function attains both a minimum and a maximum per 3.2.1. Therefore, there exists a point

xi such that f (xi ) f (xk ) for all k N, which proves that there exists a point xi such that

|xi y| |x y| for all x.

Exercise 7.4.9. Show that it is true that the union of any finite collection of compact sub-

sets of Rd is compact, but it is not true that the union of an infinite collection of compact

subsets is necessarily compact. Show the latter statement by finding an example of an infi-

nite union of compact sets which is not compact.

Any compact set has a finite subcoverage. Having a finite subcoverage - given an open

cover - is sucient for a set to be considered compact. The union of 2 compact sets then has

two sets of compact subcoverages. The union of subcoverages is likewise finite. Assume we

have n compact sets with finite subcoverage. The union of these n sets with an additional

compact set results in the union of a set of finite subcoverages of the union of the n sets

together with a finite subcoverage of the n + 1-th set. This is then evidently also finite.

Hence, any finite union of compact sets is also compact. However, an infinite collection is

not necessarily compact as this infinite union may lead to the existence of an infinite number

of subcoverages, which would make this union no longer compact.

Exercise 7.4.10. Prove that if A and B are compact subsets of a Rd , then A B and A B

are also compact.

Proof. Any compact set has a finite open coverage. Hence, there is a finite open cover UA of

A and an open coverage UB of B. We now consider the union UA UB . Since both coverages

are finite, the union is finite as well. This union now is a finite coverage of A B. Since

A B has a finite coverage, it is also compact.

50 CHAPTER 7. CONVERGENCE IN EUCLIDEAN SPACE

Exercise 7.5.1. A = {(x, y) R2 : |(x, y)| < 1} {(x, y) R2 : 1 x 2, y = 0}. This

set is connected, since it is the union of two connected sets whose intersect is non-empty.

Exercise 7.5.3. A = {(x, y) R2 : 1 < |(x, y)| < 2}. This set is an open set in the form of

a disk, and as such is connected.

Exercise 7.5.5. What are the connected components of the complement of the set of inte-

gers in R?

The connected components of this set consists of all sets A = {x R : m < x < m + 1}

for all m Z.

Exercise 7.5.7. Which subsets of R are both compact and connected? Justify.

Any closed interval in R will be both compact and connected. That is any set A = {x

R : m x n} for some m, n R. It is important that this interval not contain any

holes, as it is possible to create a compact set with holes which would not be connected. For

example, the Cantor set is considered to be both compact and totally disconnected.

Proof. We need to consider two distinct cases: either A is an open set, or a closed set. If A

is a closed set, then A = A and hence, the closure is connected.

If however A is an open set, then there exists at least one sequence {xn } such that xn A

for all n N, {xn } L, but L / A. Consider now the set A. Now, L A and A A.

Assume now that A is not a connected set. Then there exists some xi such that xi {xn }

but xi / A. But by assumption, xi {xn } and therefore xi A. Since A A, which shows

that xi A. Contradiction. Hence, A must also be a connected set.

Chapter 8

Exercise 8.1.2. Give a simple reason why the function : R R4 defined by (t) =

(t, sin(t), et , t2 ) is continuous in R.

The function consists solely of continuous functions in R, and as such (t) is likewise

continuous (theorem 8.1.5).

{

x y : x y > 0.

f (x, y) =

0 : x y 0.

x, y > 0

x, y < 0

x < 0, y > 0

or x > 0, y < 0.

The function is also continuous at zero if we approach (0, 0) along the axis from the same

quadrant.

x2 y

f (x, y) =

x4 + y 2

51

52 CHAPTER 8. FUNCTIONS ON EUCLIDEAN SPACE

show that f has a limit 0 as (x, y) (0, 0) along any straight line through the origin but

that it does not have a limit as (x, y) (0, 0) in R2 .

Assume thatwe approach along the x = 0 axis. In that case, the function has the limit 0.

Assume now we approach along some line, which has the form y = mx. Then we consider

x2 (mx) x3 m mx

lim 4 2 2

= lim 4 2 4

= lim = 0.

x,y(0,0) x + (mx ) x,y(0,0) x + m x x,y(0,0) x + m2

2

The function does not however have a limit itself. For a function to have a limit, its limit

must be path-independent. This is not the case for the function in question. Assume you

approach via the path y = mx2 . The resulting limit

x2 (mx2 ) x4 m m

lim 4 2 2

= lim 4 4

= lim

x,y(0,0) x + (mx ) x,y(0,0) x + x m x,y(0,0) 1 + m

Exercise 8.1.12. Let B1 (0) be the open unit ball in R2 . Is it true that every continuous

function f : B1 (0) R takes Cauchy sequences to Cauchy sequences?

I cant come up with a counter example; as such, I think this holds true given that we

are considering an open ball which includes the point (0, 0). If we however choose the go

towards the functions via a path of the form y = mx2 .

Exercise 8.1.14. Find a parameterized curve (t) in R2 , with parameter interval [0, ),

that begins at (1, 0), spirals inward in the counterclockwise direction, and approaches (0, 0)

as t .

Exercise 8.2.3. If K is a compact, connected subset of Rp and f : K R is continuous

function, what can you say about f (K)?

We know that a continuous function maps a compact set to a compact set, and that a

continuous function also maps a connected set to a connected set. As such, I would argue

that f (K) is a compact, connected set.

Exercise 8.2.5. The image of a compact set under a continuous function is compact, hence

closed by theorem 8.2.3. Is the image of a closed set under a continuous function necessarily

closed? Prove that it is or give a counter example.

A simple counter example would be the function f : R R+ where f (x) = ex . Then the

preimage of f is closed, yet the image of f is not, as the limit point limx ex = 0 is not

part of the image set.

8.3. SEQUENCES OF FUNCTIONS 53

know?

The sphere described above is connected. We know that any path-connected set is a

connected set. The surface of a sphere is path connected, as we can join any two points

through a continuous path function. As such, I would argue that the sphere is simply

connected, which implies that it is a connected set.

1

f (x, y) =

(x 2)2 + y 2

uniformly continuous on B1 (0, 0)? Is it uniformly continuous on B2 (0, 0)? Justify your an-

swers.

I think it is uniformly continuous on B1 (0, 0), as well as on B2 (0, 0). In both cases, we

can bound the function appropriately such that it goes to 0 without depending on x and y.

on D, then {F (xn )} is a Cauchy sequence in Rq whenever {xn } is a Cauchy sequence in D.

Proof. Assume F is defined as above, with {xn } being a Cauchy sqeuence in D. Since F is

a a uniformly continuous mapping, we know that for all > 0, there exists some > 0 such

that |f (xn ) f (xm )| < whenever |xn xm | < . Since {xn } is Cauchy, we know that there

exists some N > 0 such that |xn xm | < whenever n, m > N . Due to uniform continuity,

we know that is independent of x. Hence, if |xn xm | < , we have |f (xn ) f (xm )| <

for m, n > N . As such, the image of the Cauchy sequence is again Cauchy.

Exercise 8.3.1. Show that the sequence {n (t)}, where

( )

1 t

n (t) = , ,

1 + nt n

does not converge uniformly on [0, 1].

For the function to converge uniformly, both parts of the function need to individually

converge uniformly. While it is true that t/n converges uniformly on [0, 1] since it can be

bound by 1/n, it is not true that 1/(1 + nt) converges uniformly. Specifically, we find that

1 1

1 + n 1 + nt 1.

As can be seen, this bound is dependent on t, since we need n large whenever t approaches

0 to be within > 0. Hence, this part of the function fails to converge uniformly, which

results in our sequence n (t) failing to converge uniformly.

54 CHAPTER 8. FUNCTIONS ON EUCLIDEAN SPACE

Exercise 8.3.3. Does the sequence {(k 1 sin(kx), k 1 cos(ky))} converge pointwise in R2 ?

Does it converge uniformly in R2 ? Justify your answers.

{( )}

1 1

We can rewrite this sequence as ,

k csc(kx) k sec(ky)

. Clearly, the limit of this sequence

is (0, 0) for all x. As both the secant and cosecant functions arent properly bounded, I

would argue that this convergence cannot be uniform, and must be pointwise.

Exercise 8.3.8. Does the series k k

k=0 x y converge uniformly on the square

{ }

(x, y) R2 : 1 < x < 1, 1 < y < 1 ?

Justify your answer.

variables. The geometric series exhibits uniform convergence per the Cauchy criterion. As

such, I would argue that the extension of the geometric series to R2 would converge uniformly

as well.

Exercise 8.3.10. Does the series k=0 (x , (1 x) ) converge pointwise on [0, 1]? Does it

n n

converge pointwise on (0, 1)? On which subsets of (0, 1) does it converge uniformly? Justify

your answers.

The series does not converge pointwise on [0, 1], since n

k=0 1 does not converge. It does

however converge pointwise on (0, 1), since k=0 k converges pointwise provided |k| < 1.

n

I would argue that the series in question converges uniformly for all rightclosed

subsets of

(0, 1), i.e. all sets of the form (0, a] where a <1. It is evident then that k=0 x n

passes the

Weierstrass M-test. We can see though that (1 x) will n

also pass this test. Assume we

pick a value x = > 0. Then we can bound the series (1 ) with some function k n

n

such that k = 1 > 1 for some > > 0. We are guaranteed such a point exists, and

hence this series passes the Weierstrass M-test on all sets of the form (0, a] with a < 1.

Exercise 8.3.12. Prove that if D is a subset of Rp and {Fn } is a sequence of functions from

D to Rq , then {Fn } fails to converge uniformly to 0 if and only if there is a sequence {xn }

in D such that the sequence of numbers {Fn (xn )} does not converge to 0.

Proof. Assume that {Fn } does not converge to 0, and that there does not exist a sequence

{xn } such that {Fn (xn )} fails to converge to 0. Then for all sequences {xi } D, we find

that {Fn (xi )} 0. This means that for all x, |Fn (x)| < for some > 0 with x D

and n N for some N . But this is the definition of convergence for{Fn }. Hence, it cannot

be that {Fn } fails to converge provided every sequence of {xn } results in {Fn (xn )} going to 0.

Now, assume that {Fn } converges to 0, but there exists a sequence {xn } D such that

Fn (xn ) does not converge to 0. But then, it is not true that |Fn (x)| < whenever x D

and n N for some N, > 0. As such, {Fn } would no longer converge.

Therefore, {Fn } converges to 0 if and only if for all sequences {xn } D, {Fn (xn )}

0.

8.4. LINEAR FUNCTIONS, MATRICES 55

8.5 Dimension, Rank, Lines, and Planes

56 CHAPTER 8. FUNCTIONS ON EUCLIDEAN SPACE

Chapter 9

9.2 The Dierential

Exercise 9.2.1. If L : Rp Rp is a linear function, show that dL = L. In other words, if

L has a matrix A, then A is the dierential matrix of the linear function L(x) = Ax.

|h|

h

= 0. We need to then show that

L(a + h) L(a) A h. But by linearity we can write this is L(a) + L(h) L(a) A h = 0,

from which it is evident that L(a) = A h, and hence, that dL = L.

Exercise 9.2.5. Find the dierential of the real-valued function f (x, y, z) = xy 2 cos(xz).

Then find the best ane approximation to f at the point (1, 1, /2).

[ ]

The dierential is df = xy 2 z sin (xz) + y 2 cos (xz) 2xy cos (xz) x2 y 2 sin (xz) .

We find the linear approximation of f at the given point as follows:

f (x, y, z) f (1, 1, /2) + fx (1, 1, /2)(x 1) + fy (1, 1, /2)(y 1) + fz (1, 1, /2)(z /2)

( ) ( )

=0+ (x 1) + 0 + z +

2 2

1

= z (x 1) = (x + 2z 2) .

2 2 2

We can see that we can now approximate f by the linear function L(x, y, z) = 21 (x + 2z 2).

Evaluating L at the point of interest, we see that L(1, 1, /2) = 0.

R containing a and if S is an ane function such that f (a) = S(a), and

f (a + h) S(a + h)

lim =0

h0 h

then S(a + h) = f (a) + f (a)h.

57

58 CHAPTER 9. DIFFERENTIATION IN SEVERAL VARIABLES

f (a + h) S(a + h) = f (a + h) m a m h b.

Since we assume f (a) = S(a), we find then that b = f (a) m a. Then, we rewrite as

f (a + h) S(a + h) = f (a + h) f (a) m h. We find

f (a + h) S(a + h) f (a + h) f (a) mh

0 = lim = lim lim .

h0 h h0 h h0 h

This implies that m = f (a) and S(x) = f (a)x + f (a) m a. If we let x = a + h, we find

the function g : R R defined by g(t) = f (a + th) has a derivative at t = 0. Can you

compute it in terms of df (a) and h?

everywhere and its dierential matrix is constant.

everywhere with a constant dierential matrix. This is evident when we consider that an

ane function F (x) is of the form F (x) = b + L(x), with L : Rp Rq , with an associated

matrix p q-matrix A. Also, b, x Rp . By exercise 9.2.1, we see that for a linear function

L(x) with associated matrix A, dL = A. From this we see that F is dierentiable everywhere

with a constant dierential matrix.

We now proceed to consider a function which is dierentiable everywhere, and has a constant

dierential matrix. The function F = (F1 (x), F2 (x), . . . , Fp (x)). Since the dierential is

constant, we can write Fi = a1,i x1 + a2,i x2 + . . . + ap,i xp + bi for some constants a1,i , a2,i , ..., bi .

This implies that F (x) = b + Ax where A = aj,i and b = [b1 , b2 , . . . , bq ]T . Hence, F (x) is

ane.

Exercise 9.3.1. If F is a function from an open subset U of Rp to Rq which is dierentiable

at a and if B is an r q matrix, then show that d(BF )(a) = BdF (a). Here, BF (x) is the

matrix B applied to the vector F (x) and BdF (a) is the product of the matrix B and the

matrix dF (a).

9.3. THE CHAIN RULE 59

Proof. F is dierentiable at a if and only if there exists some function q(h) for h near 0 such

that F (a + h) F (a) = Q(h)h, and Q(0) = dF (a). Let Q be a function satisfying these

conditions. Now let B be some p q-matrix. Then the following holds:

B (F (a + h) F (a)) = B Q(h) h

B F (a + h) B F (a) = B Q(h) h

d(B F )a = BQ(0) = B dF (a).

g

g

y y = 0.

U R2 , if x and y are dierentiable function of (s, t) V for an open set V R2 , and

if (x, y) U whenever (s, t) V , then use the chain rule to obtain an expression for u s

and ut

on V in terms of the partial derivatives of u with respect to x and y and the partial

derivatives of x and y with respect to s and t.

d d x d y

= +

s x s y s

d d x d y

= +

t x t y t

Exercise 9.3.8. If F (x, y) = (f1 (x, y), f2 (x, y)) is a dierentiable function from R2 to R2

and if we define G : R2 R2 by G(s, t) = F (st, s + t), find an expression for the dierential

matrix of G in terms of the partial derivatives of f1 , f2 .

Exercise 9.3.9. If (x, y, z) are the Cartesian coordinates of a point in R3 and the spherical

coordinates of the same point are r, , , then

Let u be a variable which is a dierentiable function of (x, y, z) on R3 . Find a formula for the

partial derivatives of u with respect to r, , in terms of its partial derivatives with respect

to x, y, z.

60 CHAPTER 9. DIFFERENTIATION IN SEVERAL VARIABLES

u d x d y d z

= + +

r x r y r z r

d d d

= cos() sin() + sin() sin() + cos()

x y z

u d x d y d z

= + +

x y z

d d

= r sin () sin () + r sin () cos ()

x y

u d x d y d z

= + +

x y z

d d d

= r cos () cos () + r sin () cos () r sin ()

x y z

Exercise 9.4.3. Find the parametric equation for the tangent line to the curve (t) =

(t3 , 1/t, e2t2 ) at the point where t = 1.

[ ]|

We note that (1) = (1, 1, 1), and d(1) = 3 1 2 . Then the tangent line (t) can

be written as

2 3 1 3t 3 3t 2

(t) = 1 + (t 1) 1 = 1 + 1 t = 2 t

1 2 1 2t 2 2t 1

Exercise 9.4.6. Show that the gradient at x Rp of the function g(x) = x x is the vector

2x.

n 2the standard dot product as inner product, such that

g(x) = x, x = x2 + . . . xn = i=1 xi . We notice that deg(x) = (2x1 , 2x2 , . . . , 2xn ) = 2x| .

2 2

Exercise 9.4.11. Find the equation of the tangent plane to the cone z = x2 + y 2 at the

point (1, 2, 5).

z z

We see that x

= 2x and y

= 2y. Then:

z z

z z0 = (x x0 ) + (y y0 )

x y

z z

z= (x x0 ) + (y y0 ) + z0

x y

z = 2x(x x0 ) + 2y(y y0 ) + z0

z = 2x(x 1) + 2y(y 2) + 5.

9.5. TAYLORS FORMULA 61

Exercise 9.4.12. Show that for each point (a, b, c) on the surface x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, there

is a neighborhood of (a, b, c) in which the surface may be represented as a smoothly param-

eterized 2-surface. Hence, there is a tangent plane to this surface at every point.

subsets of S given the graphs of the functions:

x+ (y, z) = 1 y 2 z 2 (y 2 + z 2 < 1)

x (y, z) = 1 y 2 z 2 (y 2 + z 2 < 1)

y+ (x, z) = 1 x2 z 2 (x2 + z 2 < 1)

y (x, z) = 1 x2 z 2 (x2 + z 2 < 1)

z+ (x, y) = 1 x2 y 2 (x2 + y 2 < 1)

z (x, y) = 1 x2 y 2 (x2 + y 2 < 1)

Each of these functions is injective and dierentiable. For any a S, we have that a is in

the image of one of these functions, so we can construct a tangent plane to thee surface at

any possible point.

Exercise 9.4.13. Find an equation for the tangent plane to the surface x2 + y 2 z 2 = 1 at

each point on the surface.

have w(A) = (2a, 2b, 2c). Then we get the following equation:

2a2 + 2ax 2b2 + 2by 2c2 + 2cz = 0

2ax + 2by + 2cz = 2a2 + 2b2 + 2c2

ax + by + cz = a2 + b2 + c2 .

Exercise 9.5.1. Find the degree n = 2 Taylor formula for f (x, y) = x2 + xy at the point

a = (1, 2).

f 2f

= 2x + y, =2

x x2

f 2f

= x, =1

y y 2

f 2f

= = 1.

xy yx

62 CHAPTER 9. DIFFERENTIATION IN SEVERAL VARIABLES

We now use the known equation with these derivatives at the point a = (1, 2).

( ) ( )

f (a, b) f (a, b) 1 2 f (a, b) 2 2 f (a, b) 2 f (a, b) 2

f (a + x, b + y) f (a, b) + y + x +2 xy + y

x y 2 x2 xy y 2

1( 2 )

= 3 + (4x + y) + 2x + 2xy + y

2

1( 2 )

= 2x + 2xy + 8x + y 2 + 2y + 6 .

2

Exercise 9.5.4. Suppose U is an open convex set and f is a dierentiable real-valued

function on U . If there is a number M > 0 such that |df (x)| M for all x U , then

|f (x) f (y) M |x y|

for all x, y U .

Proof. Let x, y U . Then by Taylors theorem we have f (x) = f (y) + df (c)(x y) for some

c [y, x]. Then by algebra:

|df (c)||x y|

m|x y|.

Exercise 9.5.6. Show that the following form of the Mean Value Theorem is not true: if

F : R2 R2 is a dierentiable function and a, b R2 , then there is a c on the line segment

joining a to b such that F (b) F (a) = dF (c)(b a). The problem here is that F is vector-

valued, not real valued.

If the function F is vector-valued as above, we cannot make sense of the equation. Specif-

ically, we find that dF (c)(b a) is defined as a scalar multiplication. In this case, the result

is a scalar, whereas F (b) F (a) would be a case of vector addition. A scalar cannot equal

a vector. Alternatively, we could attempt to solve this issue by redefining dF (c)(b a) as

matrix multiplication. However, then we could only have equality in the case of dF begin a

square matrix; otherwise, the dimensions wouldnt match up. As such, it appears as though

we cant make sense of the equation as is for vector valued functions.

Exercise 9.5.8. Find all points of relative maximum and relative minimum and all saddle

points for f (x, y) = 1 2x2 2xy y 2 .

( )

We begin by finding the dierential f (x, y) = f , f

x y

= (4x 2y, 2x 2y). This

is only zero at the point (0, 0). We calculate the Discriminant at this point:

D = (4)(2) (2)2 = 8 4 = 4.

2f

Since D > 0, x2

< 0 we find that we are dealing with a point of local maximum.

9.6. THE INVERSE FUNCTION THEOREM 63

Exercise 9.5.9. Find all points of relative maximum and relative minimum and all saddle

points for f (x, y) = y 3 + y 2 + x2 2xy 3y.

f 2f

= 2x 2y, =2

x x2

f 2f

= 3y 2 + 2y 2x 3, = 6y + 2

y y 2

2f 2f

= = 2

xy yx

We then find the points where f = 0. As f = (2x 2y, 3y 2 + 2y 2x 3), we find that

we have critical points at (1, 1) and (1, 1).

At the point (1, 1) we have D = 2(6(1) + 2) (2)2 = 12, and therefore we are

dealing with a saddle point here.

At the point (1, 1) we have D = 2(6 + 2) (2)2 = 4, and hence we have a point of local

minimum here.

Exercise 9.6.2. Show that the function F : R2 R2 defined by F (x, y) = (x2 + y 2 , xy)

has a smooth local inverse near points (x, y) where x = y. Find the inverse function F 1

on the set {(x, y) : x < y < x} and identify its domain. Calculate the dierential of this

inverse function (1) directly and (2) by using the Inverse Function Theorem. Verify that the

two methods give the same answer.

On the set {(x, y) : x < y < x} we find that x + y > 0 and x y > 0. This means that

JF (x, y) = 2(x2 y 2 ) = 0 and we have an inverse. We find then that

x+y = u + 2v xy = u 2v

1 ( )

x= u + 2v + u 2v

2

1 ( )

y= u + 2v u 2v

2

We calculate the dierential:

[ x ] [ ]

u

x

v

1

4 u+2v

+ 1

4 u2v

1

2 u+2v

1

2 u2v

=

y

u

y

v

1

4 u+2v

1

4 u2v

1

2 u+2v

+ 1

2 u2v

64 CHAPTER 9. DIFFERENTIATION IN SEVERAL VARIABLES

([ 2 2 ])1

(x +y ) (x2 +y 2

x y

= (xy) (xy)

x y

([ ])1

2x 2y

=

y x

[ y ]

x

2x2 2y 2

x2 y 2

= and substituting:

2x2 2y

y

2

x

x2 y 2

[ ]

1

4 u+2v

1

+ 4u2v 1

2 u+2v

1

2 u2v

= 1

4 u+2v

4 u2v 2 u+2v +

1 1 1

2 u2v

Exercise 9.6.5. Find a smooth local inverse function near (1, /2) for the function F of

Example 9.6.6.

( )

cos() r sin()

We find that dF (r, ) = . The determinant is non-zero whenever

sin() r cos(theta)

r = 0. At the point F (a) = (0, 1). We know by the inverse function theorem that dF 1 (b) =

(dF (a))1 . We now use this information and find the inverse dierential:

[ ] [ ]

1 1 cos() sin() 0 1

dF (b) = (dF (a)) = = .

r1 sin() r1 cos() 1 0

( )

We find that the inverse function is F 1 (x, y) = x2 + y 2 , tan1 (y/x) .

Exercise 9.6.8. Show by example that the result of the previous problem is not true if

U is only assumed to be connected, rather than convex. Hint: Try the function F (x, y) =

(x2 y 2 , 2xy) on R2 \{0}.

[ ]

2x 2y

Consider the function f (x, y) = (x y , 2xy). Then df =

2 2

. Then the

2y 2x

determinant of df is greater than 0, namely it is 4(x2 + y 2 ). Consider now U = R2 \{(0, 0)},

which is a connected but not a convex set. Here, df is non-singular but f is not injective

since f (1, 1) = f (1, 1).

Exercise 9.6.10. Show that the condition that dF (a) be non-singular is necessary in the

Inverse Function Theorem by showing that if a function F from a neighborhood of a in RP

to Rp is dierentiable at a and has an inverse function at a which is dierentiable at F (a),

then dF (a) is non-singular.

We are trying to show that if F is locally invertible, its dierential matrix is also invertible,

i.e. non-singular.

9.7. THE IMPLICIT FUNCTION THEOREM 65

dierentiate, we find that we are looking for a function such that

I = dF dF 1 (F ) .

By linear algebra, this implies that (dF (a))1 is the inverse dierential of dF (a), which

implies that dF (a) is non-singular.

Exercise 9.6.12. If F : Rp Rp is a C 1 function, what can you say about F at a point of

Rp where |F | has a local minimum? How about a point where |F | has a local maximum?

The norm of a function F is defined as |F | = (F1 )2 + . . . + (Fp )2 for a function with

p-components. Dierentiating both sides with respect to some variable x yields the equation

d|F | dF1 dFp

2|F | = 2F1 + . . . + 2Fp

x dx dx

d|F |

We note that since we are dealing with local minima/maxima, that x

= 0. As such, we

get the equation

p

dFi

0= Fi .

i=1

dx

This is an interesting equation.

Exercise 9.7.1. Are there any points on the graph of the equation x3 + 3xy + 2y 3 = 1

where it may not be possible to solve for y as a smooth function of x in some neighborhood

of the point?

we can solve this function for y as a smooth function of x whenever f y

= 0. We find that

f 2

y

= 6xy + 6y . Solving this for zero is equivalent to solving y(x + y) = 0. Therefore, we

can solve for y as a smooth function of x at all points where y = 0 and y = x.

(f1 ,f2 )

Exercise 9.7.3. Find (u,v)

if

f1 (x, y, u, v) = u2 + v 2 + x2 + y 2 ,

f2 (x, y, u, v) = xu + yv + x y.

At which points (x, y, u, v) is this matrix non-singular?

[ f1 f1

] [ ]

(f1 , f2 ) u v

2u 2v

= f2 f2 =

(u, v) u v

x y

We find that this matrix is singular whenever 2uv = 2vx. Hence, this matrix is non-singular

for all points (x, y, u, v) S = {(x, y, u, v) : 2uv = 2vx}.

66 CHAPTER 9. DIFFERENTIATION IN SEVERAL VARIABLES

u2 + v 2 + 2u xy + z = 0

u3 + sin(v) xu + yv + z 2 = 0

has a solution for (u, v) as a smooth function of (x, y, z), in some neighborhood of (0, 0, 0),

with the property that (u, v) = (0, 0) when (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 0).

dierential at (0, 0, 0, 0, 0):

[ ]

f 2u + 2 2v

=

(u, v) 3u2 x cos(v) + y

[ ]

f 2 0

(0, 0, 0, 0, 0) =

(u, v) 0 1

As the last dierential is if non-singular, this is possible.

Exercise 9.7.6. For the equation xy + yz + xz = 1, at which points on the solution set S

is there a neighborhood in which S is a smooth 2-surface? At each such point (a, b, c), find

an equation of the tangent plane.

THen F = (y + z, x + z, y + x). We find that F = (0, 0, 0) only at the points (0, 0, 0)

and (x, x, 0). Of these, the only points on the graph are (1, 1, 0) and (1, 1, 0). We find

that F (1, 1, 0) = F (1, 1, 0). This means that there exists a neighbord V of (1, 1, 0) and

(1, 1, 0) with V R3 there exists a level set S = {u V : F (u) = 0} which is a smooth

p-surface. The tangent space at (1, 1, 0) and (1, 1, 0) consists of the set of the solutions

u to F (1, 1, 0)(u (1, 1, 0)) = 0 and F (1, 1, 0)(u (1, 1, 0)) = 0.

Exercise 9.7.8. For the system of equations

x2 + y 2 + u2 3v = 1,

2x + xy y + 3u2 9v = 0,

find all points on the solution set S for which there is a neighborhood in which S is a smooth

2-surface.

[ ]

f1 f1 f1 f1

(f1 , f2 ) x y u v

= f 2 f2 f2 f2

(x, y, u, v) x y u v

[ ]

2x 2y 2u 3

=

2 + y x 1 6u 9

From this we can see that wecan express the system of equations in terms of x, y as functions

of u, v provided that x = (y + 1)2 .

Chapter 10

10.2 Jordan Regions

10.3 The Integral over a Jordan Region

10.4 Iterated Integrals

10.5 The Change of Variables Formula

67

68 CHAPTER 10. INTEGRATION IN SEVERAL VARIABLES

Chapter 11

Vector Calculus

Exercise 11.1.1. Find a smooth curve in R2 which traces the straight line from (1, 2) to

(3, 0).

The solution is the function (t) = u + t(v u) where u = (1, 2), v = (3, 0), and t [0, 1].

We rewrite:

[ ] ([ ] [ ])

1 3 1

(t) = +t

2 0 2

[ ] [ ] [ ]

1 2 1 + 2t

= +t =

2 2 2 2t

Exercise 11.1.2. We find the derivative (t) = (cos(t) t sin(t), sin(t) + t cos(t)). We

proceed to find the norm

| (t)| = (cos(t) t sin(t))2 + (sin(t) + t cos(t))2 = 1 + t2 .

4

To find the length, we solve the integral 0

1 + t2 dt. We utilize a trig substitution, lettting

t = tan().

4 tan1 (4)

2

1 + t dt = sec()d

0 0

1

= ln (sec() + tan())|tan (4

)

( ( 1 )

0

) ( )

= ln sec tan (4) + 4 = ln 4 + 16 2 + 1

The last step is justified by letting sec (tan1 (4)) = sec(), and solving tan2 ()+1 = sec2 ().

69

70 CHAPTER 11. VECTOR CALCULUS

11.3 Dierential Forms of Higher Order

11.4 Greens Theorem

11.5 Surface Integrals and Stokes Theorem

11.6 Gausss Theorem

11.7 Chains and Cycles

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