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INDETERMINATE BEAM

INTRODUCTION
The redundant in form of reaction exist in an indeterminate system. However, static equation
itself unable to solve that particular redundant. The superposition method is one of the suitable
approaches to determine this reaction. The fixed end moment of a fixed end beam is given by:

M F AB = -W*a* b2 / L2

F 2 2
M BA = -W*a* b / L

OBJECTIVES
To validate the theoretical equation of fixed end moment through experimental work by using the
superposition method for indeterminate beam.

APPARATUS
1) Fixed beam
2) Load

PROCEDURES
1) Please refer to attachment for experimental set up.
2) The two supports were tightly fixed to the base with distant between them equals to the
span of the beam.
3) Then, the load was check properly to secure to the pivoting plate.
4) Placed the end of the beam between the clamping plates of the supports and the two
screws were tight to fix the beam.
5) The load hanger was clipped at the position where the beam is to be loaded.
6) The load was connected from the support pier to the display unit. Where each load cell
occupied one terminal on the display.
7) Switched on the display and beginning with channel 1 record the initial reading for each
channel.
8) A suitable load was placed on the load hanger and the reading of each load cell was
recorded.
9) The load was increased on the load hanger and the pier reaction was recorded.
RESULT
Beam Span =

Distance of load from support A =

Fixed end moment (exp) = (V * 55) Nmm

Load On The Beam Load Cell Reading Load Cell Reading


(N) At Support A, V A At Support B, V B
(N) (N)
6
8
10
12
14
16

Load On Beam Fixed End Moment At Support A Fixed End Moment At Support B
(W) (Nmm) (Nmm)
F F F F
M (Exp) = M (Theory) M (Exp) = M (Theory)

V A *55 = equation 1 V B *55 = equation 2

6
8
10
12
14
16

LAB 3.1: Determining shear force and bending moment values for a simply supported
beam.

EXPERIMENT : SHEAR FORCE.

Objective:
To show that the shear force at a cut section of a beam is equal to the algebraic sum of the
forces acting to the left or right of the section.

Apparatus:

i. A Pair of simple supports.


ii. A special beam with a cut section.
iii. A set of weights with several load hangers.

Theory:

Shear force is sum of all vertical of forces whose acting on a beam but sum of all vertical forces
must be equal to zero. The shearing force (SF) at any section of a beam represents the
tendency for the portion of the beam on one side of the section to slide or shear laterally relative
to the other portion.

The diagram shows a beam carrying loads . It is simply supported at two


points where the reactions are Assume that the beam is divided into two parts by
a section XX The resultant of the loads and reaction acting on the left of AA is F vertically
upwards and since the whole beam is in equilibrium, the resultant force to the right of AA must
be F downwards. F is called the Shearing Force at the section AA.

The shearing force at any section of a beam is the algebraic sum of the lateral components of
the forces acting on either side of the section.

Where forces are neither in the lateral or axial direction they must be resolved in the usual way
and only the lateral components use to calculate the shear force.
Procedure:

1. The two simple supports to the aluminium base at a distance equal to the span of the
beam were fixed.
2. Load hanger was hanging to the beam that has been place to the support.
3. With the help of the spirit level on both side of the cut section, to the beam was level
using screw attached to the tension spring and the spring balance rod.
4. The force gauge reading was adjust to zero using the adjustment screw at he bottom of
the balance.
5. The load hanger was placed again and the beam levelled again. Begin with the nut a top
of the force gauge was adjusted (nut A) until the left section is just lifted from the right
section.
6. The spirit level was check. The nut at the section (nut B) was adjusted if the beam was
not level.
7. The cut section was check. Nut A was adjusted until the two section separated. Nut A
was adjusted again so that the two sections just rest on each other.
8. Step 6 and 7 was repeated until the beam is levelled.
9. Record the force gauge reading. The represents the shear force at the cut section.
10. All load was remove from the load hangers and different set of loading at different
locations was apply.

Result:

Beam span =
Distance of the shear section from the left support =

Load and its distance from the left


support Shear force Shear force Percentage
Load (Theory) (Experimental) Error
N
case N %

W1 L1 W2 L2 W3 L3
N mm N mm N mm

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Case 4

Case 5

EXPERIMENT: BENDING MOMENT

Objective:

To show that the bending moment at a cut section of a loaded beam is equal to the algebraic
sum of the moment to the left or right of the section.

Apparatus:

1. Aluminium base support.

2. Beam with section connected by a pin.


3. A pair of simple supports.

4. A set of weights.

Theory:

The internal load generated within a bending element whenever a pure moment is reacted, or a
shear load is transferred by beam action from the point of application to distant points of
reaction. The bending moment is the amount of bending that occurs in a beam. It is a
calculation used to identify where the greatest amount of bending takes place. For most beams
with a uniformly distributed load (UDL), this bending occurs mid-span. The type of load and its
location has a significant impact on the overall bending of a beam. A bending moment exists in
a structural element when a moment is applied to the element so that the element bends.
Tensile stresses and compressive stresses increase proportionally with bending moment, but
are also dependent on the second moment of area of the cross-section of the structural
element. Failure in bending will occur when the bending moment is sufficient to induce tensile
stresses greater than the yield stress of the material throughout the entire cross-section. It is
possible that failure of a structural element in shear may occur before failure in bending,
however the mechanics of failure in shear and in bending are different.

The bending moment at a section through a structural element may be defined as "the sum of
the moments about that section of all external forces acting to one side of that section". The
forces and moments on either side of the section must be equal in order to counteract each
other and maintain a state of equilibrium so the same bending moment will result from summing
the moments, regardless of which side of the section is selected.

Moments are calculated by multiplying the external vector forces loads or reactions by the
vector distance at which they are applied. When analysing an entire element, it is sensible to
calculate moments at both ends of the element, at the beginning, centre and end of any
uniformly distributed loads, and directly underneath any point loads. Of course any "pin-joints"
within a structure allow free rotation, and so zero moment occurs at these points as there is no
way of transmitting turning forces from one side to the other.

If clockwise bending moments are taken as negative, then a negative bending moment within an
element will cause "sagging", and a positive moment will cause "hogging". It is therefore clear
that a point of zero bending moment within a beam is a point of contra flexure that is the point of
transition from hogging to sagging or vice versa.
Critical values within the beam are most commonly annotated using a bending moment
diagram, where negative moments are plotted to scale above a horizontal line and positive
below. Bending moment varies linearly over unloaded sections and parabolic ally over uniformly
loaded sections.

Procedure:

1. Fixed the two simple supports to the aluminium base at a distance equal to the span of
the beam to be tested.

2. Hang the load hanger to the beam.

3. Placed the beam on the supports.

4. Placed the load hangers at the desired location.

5. With the help of the spirit level on both side of the cut section, level the beam using the
screw attached to the tension spring.

6. Place the desired loads on the load hangers and level again using the screw at the
tension spring.

7. When the beam is levelled record the force gauge reading.

8. Remove all loads from the load hangers. Fixed the load hangers at different location and
repeat step 5 to 8.
Results:

Distance of the section from the left hand support =

Distance from the centre of pin to the tension spring =

Bending moment at the section = force gauge reading x 175 Nmm.

Load and distance from the left Force Bending Bending Percentage
support gauge moment moment error
Case reading,
Theory Experimen %
N t
Nmm
Nmm

W1 L1 W2 L2 W3 L3

N mm N mm N mm

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Case 4

Case 5