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Arab J Geosci

DOI 10.1007/s12517-014-1550-4

ORIGINAL PAPER

Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential index based on SPT data


in the Erzincan, Eastern Turkey
E. Suba Duman & S. B. Ikizler & Z. Angin

Received: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 July 2014


# Saudi Society for Geosciences 2014

Abstract This study includes determination of liquefaction investigated and by Sonmez and Gokceoglu (2005) method.
potential in Erzincan Province. Erzincan Province, the study At the final stage of this study, liquefaction potential maps and
area, is located in a deep alluvial basin in a mountainous liquefaction potential index maps were prepared for different
region of eastern Turkey that is a few kilometers from the earthquake magnitudes and different depths.
highly active North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). North
Anatolian Fault Zone is located approximately 7.7 km from Keywords Liquefaction . Liquefaction potential index .
Erzincan city center. In a probable earthquake, Erzincan Prov- Earthquake . Standard penetration test . Erzincan . Turkey
ince is thought to be affected. On 13 March 1992, an earth-
quake having a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 struck Erzin-
can, giving rise to peak horizontal accelerations in the center Introduction
of the city of 0.501g in the eastwest direction and 0.398g in
the northsouth direction. Liquefaction potential for peak One of the most important causes of damages after the earth-
horizontal accelerations (0.501g and 0.398g) was determined. quakes is the soil liquefaction. Liquefaction can be defined as
Liquefaction potential was investigated using Standard Pene- temporary loss in strength of saturated sandy and silty deposits
tration Test (SPT). Liquefaction potential analyses are deter- under transient and cyclic loadings due to excess pore water
mined in two steps: geotechnical investigations and pressure. Since 1970, Seed and Idriss (1982, 1983, 1985,
calculations. In the first steps, boreholes were drilled to 1986) developed a simplified procedure for evaluation of soil
obtain disturbed and undisturbed soil samples and SPT liquefaction resistance from Niigata and Alaska earthquakes
values were obtained. Laboratory tests were made to identify in 1964. Several empirical expressions were recommended to
physical properties of soil samples. In the second step, determine the liquefaction potential using standard penetra-
Liquefaction potential analyses were examined by a Seed tion tests, cone penetration tests, and shear wave velocity
and Idriss (1971) method (simplified method) based on Stan- (Tokimatsu and Yoshimi 1983; Iwasaki et al. 1981; Seed and
dard Penetration Test (SPT). In order to liquefaction analysis De Alba 1986; Suzuki et al. 1997; Robertson and Wride
complete within a short time, MATLAB program were pre- 1998). Liquefaction potential was determined by many re-
pared. Following the analyses, liquefaction potential is searchers using SPT-N values (Yalcn et al. 2008; Kanth and
Dash 2010; Tosun et al. 2011; Orhan et al. 2013). In the
literature, assessments of liquefaction potential are available
E. S. Duman
for different regions (Samui and Sitharam 2011; Ayothiraman
Civil Engineering Department, Turgut Ozal University,
Ankara 06010, Turkey et al. 2012; Ganapathy and Rajawat 2012). Many provinces of
e-mail: subasi_esra_53@hotmail.com Turkey such as Manisa, Eskiehir, Aksaray, Sakarya, and
Hatay, the determination of liquefaction potential based on
S. B. Ikizler (*) : Z. Angin
SPT-N values were determined using Seed and Idriss (1971)
Civil Engineering Department, Karadeniz Technical University,
Trabzon 61080, Turkey method (Karanlk 2006; Sisman 2006; Saglam 2008; Ulamis
e-mail: banuh73@gmail.com and Klc 2012).
Z. Angin Liquefaction potential index (IP) and its severity categories
e-mail: angin@ktu.edu.tr were proposed by Iwasaki et al. (1982). Sonmez and
Arab J Geosci

Fig. 1 Erzincan Province map

Gokceoglu (2005) modified the equation of IP1. Liquefaction Geological and geotechnical studies have been conducted
potential index was investigated by many researchers for by several researchers in Erzincan. For instance, Akyldrm
different regions (Yalcn et al. 2008; Papathanassiou and (1993) investigated the geotechnical and seismologic
Valkaniotis 2010; Dixit et al. 2012). characteristics in the center of Erzincan. Saylan (2006)

Fig. 2 Simplified geological


plan of the Erzincan Basin
Arab J Geosci

Fig. 3 Tectonic framework and location map of the Turkish sector of the AlpineHimalayan orogenic belt (Tatar et al. 2013)

determined liquefaction potential using shear wave velocity liquefaction potential of Erzincan Province and its vicinity.
data for Erzincan Province. The liquefaction potential analysis Liquefaction potential is investigated by a Seed and Idriss
based on SPT-Nvalue methods is not studied for Erzincan (1971) method (simplified method) based on standard pene-
Province. The aim of our study was determination of tration test (SPT) and by recent procedure suggested by

Fig. 4 a Active faults in Turkey. b Cumulative right-lateral slip associated with M6.7 earthquakes. c The region inscribed by the solid red line in a is
projected relative to the AnatoliaEurasia rotation pole, so that a transform fault would strike due eastwest; the North Anatolian fault is seen todeviate
less than 40 km from being a simple right-lateral transform (Stein et al. 1997)
Arab J Geosci

Table 1 Some historical earthquakes in Erzincan (Earthquake Research


Department, 1993)

Date N E Magnitude (M)

06 April 1907 39.3 40.4 4.9


15 September 1929 40.3 38.8 5
10 December 1930 39.7 39.2 5.6
13 October 1935 39.4 40.5 5
07 December 1937 39.9 40.4 4.7
26 December 1939 39.8 39.5 7.9
22 April 1940 39.6 39.9 5.2
12 November 1941 39.7 39.4 5.9
17 August 1949 39.6 40.6 5.3
04 February 1950 39.5 40.6 4.9
24 October 1954 40 40 4.6
07July 1957 39.4 40.4 5.1
14 January 1958 39.5 40.4 5.1
13 December 1959 39.8 38.8 4.5
26 January 1960 40.2 38.8 5.9
01 November 1961 39.7 40.8 4.5
16 November 1964 39.5 40.3 4.9
31 August 1965 39.4 40.8 5.6 Fig. 5 Acceleration time histories for the main shock (Erzincan station)
(EEFIT 1992)
20 August 1966 39.3 40.5 4.6
26 July 1967 39.5 40.4 5.9
18 September 1968 39.8 40.2 4.5
01 October 1969 39.3 40.6 4.7 sides by mountains rising to heights in excess of 3,000 m. The
03 September 1970 39.6 38.8 5.3 whole plain 4550 km long and 420 km wide in northwest
20 January 1979 40 39.6 4.6 southeast direction is located within the boundaries of Erzin-
18 October 1980 39.9 40.3 4.6
can. The elevation of plain from sea level is 1140 m. Erzincan
18 November 1983 39.8 39.4 5
Plain is surrounded by 3,500 m high Mount Kei in the north,
13 March 1992 39.7 39.5 6.8
more than 3,500 m high Mount Munzur in the south and
Karada in the west. Karasu which is a river reach of Frat
and other influent streams create large planes on Erzincan
plain. There is a big fault system in the north of Erzincan plain.
Sonmez and Gokceoglu (2005). Within this scope, SPT values The principal geological feature of the affected area is
were obtained in different locations and laboratory testing was Erzincan Basin (Fig. 2). Formation of the basin was initiated
performed to determine physical properties of soil samples. by pull-apart motion between two divergent segments of the
The liquefaction maps were prepared by considering the liq- North Anatolian Fault; subsequently, development is complex
uefaction severity categories for different depths and different and incompletely understood. The center of the basin is filled
peak horizontal accelerations (0.501g and 0.398g) using with alluvial plain deposits, consisting of silts, sands, and
ArcGIS 10.0 Software. The analyses and maps showed that gravels. These comprise rather more loose material than the
there is diversity in the study area in terms of liquefaction alluvial fan deposits which predominate around the edges of
potential. the basin.

Geology of the study area Seismotectonics of the study area

Erzincan Basin is situated in eastern Turkey, at 39323952 The Erzincan basin and vicinity in the North Anatolian Fault
latitude and 39153950 longitude; approximately 600 km zone, which is the most active and the longest fault system of
east of Ankara (Fig. 1). The province of Erzincan is a highly Turkey (Fig. 3), display a fairly complex structure in terms of
mountainous region with an area of 11,900 km2. The city sits its geologic, tectonic, and morphologic features. This region
in a basin measuring 50 km eastwest by 15 km northsouth, where many earthquakes with varying magnitudes occurred
at an altitude of 1,200m above sea level, surrounded on all during the historical period is seismologically very active
Arab J Geosci

Fig. 6 Test holes at different locations

(Fig. 4). Erzincan basin and its vicinity located on North and the largest event (Emre et al. 2010). As a result of this
Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The area where numerous earthquake, nearly 360-km-long surface rupture occurred
earthquakes (Table 1) in various magnitudes have taken place from Erzincan to Erbaa, then towards Amasya. The 1939
during historical era is very active in seismologic sense earthquake started with a large compressing flexure towards
(Kaypak 2002). In the last century, two destructive earth- the east end of surface rupture and the rupture moved mostly
quakes have occurred causing significant loss of life in the towards west. Surface faulting between Erzincan-Niksar ba-
province of Erzincan. The 1939 (M, 7.9) earthquake is the first sins followed the main route of North Anatolia Faulting Zone

Table 2 Field properties of the


soil samples Investigation area Depth (m) Boreholes Nspt Ground water level

State building (1) 420 SK1SK5 2235 12


Private hospital 318 SK6SK10 2235 22
Hospital (1) 37.5 SK11SK18 4155 30
Hospital (2) 320 SK19SK26 2548 30
State building (2) 39 SK27SK29 1447 19
Home for the aged 320 SK30SK32 2650 9.5
Treatment plant 310.5 SK34SK36 1930 1
Industrial area 320 SK37SK38 2649 33
Uzumlu 67.5 SK39SK40 2344 3
Yalnizbag 324 SK41SK46 1836 33
Cukurkuyu 37.5 SK47SK49 2150 47
Kavakyolu 37.5 SK50SK54 2350 30
Akyazi 39 SK55SK58 2650 31
Altinbasak 312 SK59SK62 1738 1
Ula 36 SK63 2850 11
Arab J Geosci

Fig. 7 Soil class zonation maps

(NAFZ). However, in the most west section which is 76 km Another important earthquake that took place on Erzincan
long, surface faulting diverged from the main route and turned Basin was the one in 1992 with the magnitude of 6.8. This
towards Ezinepazar (Amasya) faulting route (Emre et al. earthquake was the second most devastating earthquake after
2010). This earthquake triggered earthquakes during 1939 1939 great disaster due to its way of formation, seismic
1967 on NAFZ, seismic activity shifted towards west, and the features, and the damage it caused. Erzincan earthquake which
following earthquakes took place in the east and west ends of took place in 1992 is between the east end of 360-km section
faulting system. of North Anatolia Fault which was torn in 1939 earthquake

Fig. 8 Position of the samples on


a plasticity chart
Arab J Geosci

Table 3 Statistical assessment of


the soil samples Soil properties Sample amount Value

Min. Max. Mean Std. deviation

Unit weigth (kN/m3) 111 18.1 20.15 18.72 0.325


Water content (%) 111 4.23 27 14.90 5.52
Consistency limits
Liquid limit (%) 33 24 52 38.96 6.06
Plastic limit (%) 33 6 32 20.46 6.21
Plasticity index (%) 33 2 35 18.5 8.01
Grain size distribution
#10 (%) 111 0 57.71 7.01 9.63
#200 (%) 111 7.96 84.98 41.45 15.01

and the east of Erzincan. It draws attraction that fractures Soil condition is an important factor in the soil lique-
emerged in this earthquake does not exactly follow the fault. faction. The SPT-N values are important for the lique-
Fractures spread through an area about 50 km long and 3 km faction potential analysis. Sixty-three boreholes in differ-
wide. These fractures focused on four areas. These areas are ent locations were drilled to obtain SPT-N values. Test
west end of Erzincan plain, road to ayrl in the north of holes at different locations are shown in Fig. 6. The
Erzincan, around mineral water facilities in the east of Erzin- depths of measured SPT-N values changed between 1.5
can and east end of Erzincan plain. There are also thrust faults and 24.0 m. Different soil types were observed in the
among these. There were 4-cm right lateral movements in study area. The lowest SPT blow counts are observed in
fractures and up to 30 cm drifts observed. Apart from this, regions where ground water level near the surface of the
liquefaction was observed around mineral water facility and ground, whereas at deeper levels, high SPT-N values are
torsions on the railway (Akyldrm 1993). Strong ground obtained. Average of SPT values is changed between 20
motions were recorded by an accelerometer located in the and 30. However, high SPT-N values are changed be-
meteorology station, about 0.75 km northwest of Erzincan tween 30 and 50 at the some soils like hospital (one),
city center and an estimated 5 km from the epicenter (EEFIT Cukurkuyu, Kavakyolu, Ula. Test holes at different loca-
1992). Acceleration time histories for the main shock (Erzin- tions were obtained to determine index properties of soils
can station) are shown in Fig. 5. Maximum acceleration were disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. Ground water
recorded 0.501g (eastwest) and 0.398g (northsouth). levels were determined. Ground water levels changed
between 1 and 47 in the study area. The field properties
of the soil samples are shown in Table 2.
Field and laboratory properties of the study area The physical properties of the soil samples were tested
in laboratory. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were
In this study, Erzincan city center and its vicinity was chosen determined physical properties such as grain size distribu-
as the investigation area. Areas which are contained in the tion, Atterberg limits, unit weight, water content, and type
study area are as follows: Erzincan city center (state building of soil. According to USCS (Unified Soil Classification
(1), private hospital, hospital (1), hospital (2), state building System), in the study area, soils can be classified as SM
(2), home for the aged, treatment plant), industrial area, (silty sand), GM (silty gravel), and CL (inorganic clay).
Uzumlu, Yalnzbag, Akyazi, Cukurkuyu, Kavakyolu, Ula, The major part of the study area was classified as SM. Soil
Altnbasak. class zonation maps of the study area are shown in Fig. 7.
In this study area, the values of unit weight changed
Table 4 Rod length correction with respect the depth between 18.1 and 20.15 kN/m3 and average is 18.72 kN/
m3. The values of water content changed between 4.23 and
Depth, d Correction for road length, CR

d<3 m 0.75 Table 5 Correction fac-


tor for borehole diameter Diameter of borehole CB
d=34 m 0.80
d=46 m 0.85 65 to 115 mm 1.00
d=610 m 0.95 150 mm 1.05
d=1030 m 1.0 200 mm 1.15
Arab J Geosci

Table 6 Correction factor for


hammer energy ratio Country Hammer type Hammer release CE

United States Safety Rope and pulley 1.0


United States Donut Rope and pulley 0.75
Japan Donut Rope and pulley, special throw release 1.1
Japan Donut Free fall 1.1

27 % and average is 14.90 %. The Atterberg limits in the overburden stress, rd is depth-dependent stress reduction fac-
study area are quite variable. In most places, soil was tor (Dixit et al. 2012). Youd et al. (2001) formulated following
determined as none-plastic. Position of the samples on a expression to calculate the stress reduction factor (rd):
plasticity chart is shown in Fig 8. The values of liquid limit
changed between 24 and 52 % and average is 38.96 %. 1:00:4113z0;5 0:04052z 0:001753z1;5
rd
The values of plastic limit changed between 6 and 32 % 1:00:4177z0;5 0:05729z0:006205z1;5 0:00121z2
and average is 20.46 %. Average value of plasticity index 2
is determined as 18.5 %. The statistical assessment of the
soil samples is shown in Table 3. Determination of cyclic resistance ratio

The cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) is defined as the ability of


Methodology the soil to resist the shear stresses induced by the earthquake.
Seed and Idriss (1971) formulated following expression to
The most liquefaction data are based on standard penetration calculate the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR):
test in the literature. Using SPT data, liquefaction potential can The first step in assessment of liquefaction potential anal-
be determined by using three different methods: Seed and yses are to compute (N1)60 values from Eq. 3.
Idriss (1971), Tokimatsu and Yoshimi (1983), and Iwasaki
N 1 60 N C N C R C S C B C E 3
et al. (1981). In this study, SPT- based method suggested by
Seed and Idriss (1971) has been performed.
CN values can be calculated from Eq. (4).
r
Pa
Determination of cyclic stress ratio CN 1:7 4
0 v
Cyclic stress ratio (CSR) characterizes the seismic demand In this equation, ' v is the vertical effective stress at the
induced by a given earthquake, and it can be determined from depth of SPT-N values and Pa is atmosphere pressure (100
peak ground surface acceleration that depends upon site- kPa).
specific motions (Dixit et al. 2012). Seed and Idriss (1971) The CR values are recommended are shown in Table 4
formulated following expression to calculate the cyclic stress (Youd et al. 2001). CS is for SPT samplers used without a
ratio (CSR): sample liner. CS value is 1.0 for a standard sampler without
amax v liner. Otherwise, CS value is 1.2 for samplers with liner. CB
CSR 0:65 rd 1
g 0 v correction factor values are recommended by Robertson and
Fear (1996). These values are shown in Table 5. The correc-
The 0.65 is a weighing factor to calculate the equivalent tion factor and energy ratio values are recommended by Seed
uniform stress cycles required to generate the same pore water et al. (1985). CE values are shown in Table 6.
pressure during an earthquake; amax is the peak horizontal
ground acceleration; g is acceleration of gravity; v and ' v Table 8 Liquefaction potential categories suggested by Sonmez and
are total vertical overburden stress and effective vertical Gokceoglu (2005)

Liquefaction potential index (IP) Liquefaction potential


Table 7 Liquefaction potential categories
0 Non-liquefiable
Liquefaction potential (FS) Liquefaction potential
0<IP 2 Low
0 Liquefiable 2<IP 5 Moderate
0<FS 1.2 Marginally liquefiable 5<IP 15 High
1.2<FS Non-liquefiable 15<IP Very high
Arab J Geosci

Table 9 Computation of FS for


different peak horizontal acceler- Location Depth (m) amax =0.501g amax =0.398g
ations (0.501g and 0.398g)
FS Assessment FS Assessment

State building (1) 4 1.53 Non-Liq. 1.58 Non-Liq.


8 1.07 Non-Liq. 1.57 Non-Liq.
12 0.96 Mar-Liq. 1.21 Non-Liq.
Private hospital 12 0.88 Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
Hospital (2) 3 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
7.5 1.14 Mar-Liq. 1.44 Non-Liq.
State building (2) 3 1.53 Non-Liq. 1.02 Mar-Liq.
6 0.81 Liq. 1.38 Non-Liq.
9 1.09 Mar-Liq. 1.17 Mar-Liq.
Home for the aged 3 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
6 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
9 2.02 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
12 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. 1.24 Non-Liq.
Treatment plant 3 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
6 0.85 Liq. 1.07 Mar-Liq.
9 0.75 Liq. 0.95 Liq.
Industrial area 3 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
4.5 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
Uzumlu 3 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
4.5 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
6 1.04 Mar-Liq. 1.3 Non-Liq.
7.5 0.7 Liq. 0.88 Liq.
Yalnizbag 3 1.37 Non-Liq. 1.73 Non-Liq.
6 0.92 Liq. 1.16 Mar-Liq.
9 0.85 Liq. 1.07 Mar-Liq.
Akyazi 3 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
6 (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq. (N1)60 >30 Non-Liq.
9 1.71 Non-Liq. 2.15 Non-Liq.
Altinbasak 3 1.23 Non-Liq. 1.54 Non-Liq.
6 0.85 Liq. 1.08 Mar-Liq.
9 0.76 Liq. 0.95 Liq.
12 0.83 Liq. 1.04 Mar-Liq.

Fig. 9 The factor of safety-depth correlation


Arab J Geosci

Table 10 Computation of IP for different peak horizontal acceleration Table 11 Computation of IP for different peak horizontal acceleration
(0.501g) (0.398g)

Borehole IP IP IP IP Borehole IP IP IP IP
no. (depth, 3 m) (depth, 6 m) (depth, 9 m) (depth, 12 m) No (depth, 3 m) (depth, 6 m) (depth, 9 m) (depth, 12 m)

SK-1 0 0 0 0.82 SK-1 0 0 0 0


SK-2 0 0 0 0.192 SK-2 0 0 0 0
SK-3 0 0 0 0.68 SK-3 0 0 0 9.4
SK-4 0 0 0.05 2.05 SK-4 0 0 0 0.36
SK-5 0 0 0.154 0.974 SK-5 0 0 0 0
SK-6 4.2 SK-6 1.68
SK-7 10.08 SK-7 5.88
SK-8 25.2 SK-8 15.9
SK-9 4.2 SK-9 1.68
SK-10 4.2 SK-10 1.68
SK-19 0 0.049 SK-19 0 0.049
SK-20 0 0 SK-20 0 0
SK-21 0 0 SK-21 0 0
SK-22 0 0 SK-22 0 0
SK-23 0 0 SK-23 0 0
SK-24 0 0 SK-24 0 0
SK-25 0 0.049 SK-25 0 0.049
SK-26 0 0 SK-26 0 0
SK-27 5.273 5.359 6.484 SK-27 0.38 0.38 0.3961
SK-28 1.942 1.942 1.942 SK-28 0.0238 0.0238 0.0238
SK-29 5.273 5.359 6.484 SK-29 0.38 0.38 0.38
SK-30 0 0 0 0 SK-30 0 0 0 0
SK-31 0 0 0 0 SK-31 0 0 0 0
SK-32 0 0 0 0 SK-32 0 0 0 0
SK-33 0 3.487 8.174 SK-33 0 0.125 1.06
SK-34 0 0 0 SK-34 0 0 0
SK-35 0 0 0 SK-35 0 0 0
SK-36 0 0 0 SK-36 0 0 1.06
SK-37 0 0 0 SK-37 0 0 0
SK-38 0 0 0 SK-38 0 0 0
SK-39 0 0.105 SK-39 0 0
SK-40 0 0.105 SK-40 0 0
SK-41 0 1.86 4.67 8.37 SK-41 0 0.002418 1.027 2.025
SK-42 0.0416 3.06 3.08 3.09 SK-42 0.0416 0.073 0.073 0.073
SK-43 0.182 0.984 0.988 1.98 SK-43 0.182 0 0 0.0122
SK-44 0 0 0.0045 0.0045 SK-44 0 0.002418 1.027 2.025
SK-45 0 1.86 4.67 8.37 SK-45 0 0.002418 1.027 2.025
SK-46 0 1.86 4.67 8.37 SK-46 0 0.002418 1.027 2.025
SK-55 0 0 0 0 SK-55 0 0 0 0
SK-56 0 0 0 0 SK-56 0 0 0 0
SK-57 0 0 0 0 SK-57 0 0 0 0
SK-58 0 0 0 0 SK-58 0 0 0 0
SK-59 0.458 3.945 8.632 8.632 SK-59 0.458 0.106 1.043 1.043
SK-60 0 5.347 9.85 14.57 SK-60 0 0.802 1.739 4.589
SK-61 0 0.651 5.15 7.57 SK-61 0 0.106 1.043 1.178
SK-62 0 0.651 3.84 3.84 SK-62 0 0 0.178 0.178
Arab J Geosci

where MSF is the magnitude scaling factor, M is the


moment magnitude of earthquake.
The factor of safety values are classified three categories,
namely, liquefiable, marginally liquefiable and, non-
liquefiable (Table 7).

Determination of liquefaction potential index

Liquefaction potential cannot be evaluated only by the factor


Fig. 10 Pie charts showing the areas of the liquefaction potential index of safety (FS) values. In order to quantify the severity of
liquefaction, liquefaction potential index (IP) suggested by
The liquefaction potential of the silty and clayey soils has Iwasaki et al. (1982). IP is calculated as follows.
been determined for (N1)60 values greater than 30 or above as Z 20
non-liquefiable soil by Seed et al. (2003). The CRR values can IP F zW zdz 8
be calculated from Eq. 5. 0

1 N 1 60 50 1 where z is depth from the ground surface in meters.


CRR   5
34N 1 60 135 10N 1 60 45 2 200
W z 100:5z for z < 1:0 9a

Determination of factor of safety


W z 0 for z > 20m 9b
The potential for liquefaction is then described in terms of a
Sonmez and Gokceoglu (2005) modified F(z) term. F(z) is
factor of safety against liquefaction (Kramer and Mayfield
calculated as follows.
2007).
The factor of safety against liquefaction (FS) determined by F z 0for F S 1:2 10a
CRR
FS MSF 6
CSR F z 2  106 e18:427Fs for 1:2 > F S > 0:95 10b

MSF 102;24 =M 2:56 7 F z 1F S for F S < 0:95 10c

Fig. 11 Liquefaction potential maps according to FS values


Arab J Geosci

Fig. 12 Liquefaction potential index maps (0.501g)

The following equation is used in cases where more than were written using these methods. Calculations were carried
one layer of soils: out with this program. FS (factor of safety) and IP (liquefaction
potential index) values for the investigation area were deter-
Xn
Ip F zW zH mined. According to calculated FS and IP values, liquefaction
i potential maps were produced for different peak horizontal
accelerations. In the study area, some regions: namely
where z is depth of layer midpoint in meters, n is number of Cukurkuyu, Kavakyolu, Ula, hospital (1) consist of clayey
soil layer in meters, H is layer thickness in meters. W(z) soils. So, in this region, non-liquefiable soil was accepted.
calculates using Eqs. (9a) and (9b). These areas were not included in the analysis of liquefaction.
Sonmez and Gokceoglu (2005) proposed new classifica- On 13 March 1992, an earthquake having a surface
tion categories: namely, non-liquefiable, low, moderate, high, wave magnitude of 6.8 struck Erzincan, giving rise to
and very high for liquefaction potential (Table 8). peak horizontal accelerations in the center of the city of
0.501g in the eastwest direction and 0.398g in the
northsouth direction. In this study, liquefaction potential
Discussion and results was estimated Erzincan city center and its vicinity using
these peak horizontal accelerations. In this study, the
The assessment of the liquefaction potential is one of the calculations were made using this value. The corrected
critical issues in geotechnical earthquake engineering. In this values from the measured SPT blow counts (N1)60 were
study, liquefaction potential has been determined with the calculated using Eq. (5). CS, CB, CR, and CE values for
SPT-based method. It was determined by Seed and Idriss the study area were selected 1.0, 1.0, 1.05, and 1.0,
(1971) methods using SPT values in Erzincan city center respectively. The cyclic stress ratio (CSR) and the cyclic
and vicinity. The liquefaction assessments are carried out with resistance ratio (CRR) were calculated. FS (factor of
63 blow counts in the investigation area. MATLAB programs safety) values for the study area were determined using
Arab J Geosci

Eq. 6 according to Seed and Idriss (1971) methods. The Three factors (liquefiable, non-liquefiable, and marginally
results of the analysis are presented with Table 9. Table 9 liquefiable) were observed for amax =0.501g. Liquefiable
was prepared using lowest N values. As a result of these areas were not observed for amax = 0.398g. Liquefaction
analyses, some regions: namely Akyazi, home for the potential index maps were prepared according to depth
aged, treatment plant, industrial area consist of clayey intervals (36912 m). Liquefaction potential index maps
soils. According to Seed and Idriss method, in these are shown in Figs. 12 and 13. The liquefaction potential
areas, ((N1)60) values calculated greater than 30. So, in index classified into five categories, namely non-
these areas, soil liquefaction was not observed for peak liquefiable, low, moderate, high, and very high liquefiable.
horizontal accelerations (0.501 and 0.398g). Liquefiable, According to liquefaction potential index values, for the
marginally liquefiable and non-liquefiable soils for peak amax =0.398g, 75.5 % of the study area having the category
horizontal accelerations is shown in Fig. 9. The IP (liq- of non-liquefiable. The low and moderate areas are 20.7
uefaction potential index) values are presented with ta- and 2.4 %, respectively. The high and very high areas are
bles (Tables 10 and 11). Also, Pie charts showing the 0.9 and 0.5 %, respectively. For the amax =0.501g, 71.7 %
areas of the liquefaction potential index were prepared of the study area having the category of non-liquefiable.
(Fig. 10).
At the final stage of this study, liquefaction potential
maps were prepared for peak horizontal accelerations Conclusions
(0.501g and 0.398g) by interpolating most convenient FS
values depending on 63 boreholes data of study area. The Erzincan Province is an old town situated in the North Ana-
liquefaction potential is classified into three categories, tolian Fault Zone. Erzincan Basin has been affected by large
namely non-liquefiable, marginally liquefiable, and earthquakes associated with the North and East Anatolian
liquefiable areas. These maps are shown in Fig. 11. The fault zones. Erzincan Basin, where soil conditions are highly
maps produced using three colors, namely nonliquefiable heterogeneous, is composed of alluvial deposits of sand and
yellow, marginally liquefiable green, and liquefiable red. gravel with very small amounts of clay and silt. Due to the

Fig. 13 Liquefaction potential index maps (0.398g)


Arab J Geosci

Frat River near the city of Erzincan, ground water level is Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake
Engineering and Soil Dynamics, St. Louis, pp 209214
quite high. Assessment of the liquefaction potential is one of
Iwasaki T, Tokida K, Tatsuoka F, Watanabe S, Yasuda S, Sato H (1982)
the critical issues in Erzincan Province due to soil conditions, Microzonation for soil liquefaction potential using simplified
high level of ground water, and earthquake hazard. In this methods. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on
study, liquefaction potential is investigated by a Seed and microzonation, Seattle, USA, 3:13191330
Kanth STGR, Dash SK (2010) Evaluation of seismic soil-liquefaction at
Idriss (1971) method (simplified method) based on SPT. Fur-
Guwahati city. Environ Earth Sci 61:355368
thermore, liquefaction potential index is investigated by Karanlk, S (2006) Determination of liquefaction risk in Hatay Altinkoy
Sonmez and Gokceoglu (2005) method. Liquefaction poten- region. Cukurova University, Graduate School of Natural and
tial maps and liquefaction potential index maps of the area by Applied Sciences, M. Sc. Thesis, pp 70
Kaypak B (2002) Determination of 3-D velocity structure of the
using ArcGIS 10.0 Software and IDW interpolation method
Erzincan basin by localearthquake tomography. Istanbul
were prepared for different peak horizontal accelerations University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences,
(0.501 and 0.398g) Ph. D. thesis,pp 224
According to Seed and Idriss (1971) methods, FS values Kramer SL, Mayfield RT (2007) Return period of soil liquefaction. J
Geotech Geoenviron 133(7):802813
were calculated greater than 1.2 for most of study area for
Orhan A, Turkoz M, Tosun H (2013) Preliminary hazard assessment and
0.398g peak horizontal acceleration. Liquefaction potential of site characterization of Meselik campus area, Eskisehir-Turkey. Nat
less than 1 was mainly located in the north sections of the city Hazards Earth Syst Sci 13:7584
center for 0.501g peak horizontal acceleration. From the result Papathanassiou G, Valkaniotis S (2010) Liquefaction hazard map-
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observed. Liquefaction potential index of greater than 15 Robertson PK and Fear CE (1996) Liquefaction of sands and its evalu-
(very high liquefiable) and between 5 and 15 (high ation proceedings. 1st Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical
liquefiable) were mainly located in small regions of the south, Engineering
north, and east sections of the city center for 0.501g and Robertson PK, Wride CE (1998) Evaluating cyclic liquefaction potential
using the cone penetration test. Can Geotech J 35(3):442459
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calculated between 0 and 5 (low liquefiable) in the south, (Manisa) municipality sites. Gazi University, Graduate School of
north, and east of the city center for 0.501g and 0.398g peak Natural and Applied Sciences, M. Sc. Thesis, pp 155
horizontal accelerations. In general, the results showed that Samui P, Sitharam TG (2011) Machine learning modeling for predicting
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liquefaction potential changes with peak horizontal accelera- Saylan S (2006) Liquefaction potential analysis of Erzincan basin
tions. Soil investigation should be done carefully in the con- due to shear wave velocity. Istanbul Technical University ,
struction sites which have high liquefaction potential and Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, M. Sc.
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Seed HB and De Alba P (1986) Use of SPT and CPT tests for evaluating
the liquefaction resistance of soils, proceedings. ASCE Insitu
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