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Journal of Marine Science and Application,Vol.5, No.3, September 2006, pp.

17-29

Review of magnetorheological (MR) fluids and


its applications in vibration control
MUHAMMAD Aslam, YAO Xiong-liang, and DENG Zhong-chao
College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001China

Abstract: Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are now well established as one of the leading materials for
use in controllable structures and systems. Commercial application of MR fluids in various fields,
particularly in the vibration control, has grown rapidly over the past few years. In this paper, properties
of magnetorheological (MR) fluids ,its applications in suspensions of vehicles, suspension of trains, high
buildings cable-stayed bridges have been discussed. The scope of MR fluids in future, problems and
some suggestions are also presented. Finally, effectiveness of MR fluids in vibration control of marine
diesel engine through experiment is briefly discussed by the author.
Keywords: MR fluids, applications; properties; vibration control
CLC number:U661.44 Document code: A Article ID: 1671-9433(2006)03-0017-13

1 Introduction1 change in the viscosity is completely reversible when


the magnetic field is removed. Once the magnetic
Magnetorheological is a branch of Rheology that deals field is applied, it induces a dipole in each of the
with the flow and deformation of the materials under magnetic particles.
an applied magnetic field. The discovery of MR fluids
is credited to Jacob Rabinow[2,3] in 1949. The inert-particle forces originating from the magnetic
Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are suspensions of interactions lead to a material with higher apparent
non-colloidal (0.05-10 m), multi-domain, and viscosity. This dipolar interaction is responsible for
magnetically soft particles in organic or aqueous the chain like formation of the particles in the
liquids. Many different ceramic metals and alloys direction of the field (Fig. 1).
have been described and can be used to prepare MR
fluids as long as the particles are magnetically It is also believed that in addition to magnetic
multi-domain and exhibit low levels of magnetic interactions between two particles, the formation of
coercivity. Particle size, shape, density, particle size the particles contribute to a certain level to increase
distribution, saturation magnetization and coercive the apparent viscosity. Particles held together by
field are important characteristics of the magnetically magnetic field and the chains of the particles resist to
active dispersed phase. Other than magnetic particles, a certain level of shear stress without breaking, which
the base fluids, surfactants, anticorrosion additives are make them behave like a solid. When this shear stress
important factors that affect the rheological properties, exceeds a critical value, the structure breaks and the
stability and redispersibility of the MR fluid. material starts to flow. MR fluid effect is often
characterized by Bingham Plastic model, which is
In the off state, in terms of their consistency, MR discussed in Ref. [5]. The critical value of the shear
fluids appear similar to liquid paints and exhibit stress necessary to break the structure is the apparent
comparable levels of apparent viscosity (0.1 to 1 Pa-s yield stress of the material. PHULE and GINDER
at low shear rates) [4]. Their apparent viscosity reported a yield stress of 100 kPa at a flux density of 1
changes significantly (105 106 times) within a few T for (Fe) = 40% Fe based fluids [6]. WEISS and
milliseconds when the magnetic field is applied. The co-workers reported the yield stress of MR fluids with
an unknown concentration as 90~100 kPa for 30 kOe
Received date :2006-03-13.
18 Journal of Marine Science and Application,Vol.5, No.3, September 2006

(3 T) of magnetic field [7]. stable than MR fluids based on non-colloidal magnetic


particles. The comparison of MR, ER fluids, and Ferro
fluids is discussed in detail in Ref. [66].

2.2 Magnetic materials for MR fluids


In MR fluids, materials with lowest coercivity and
highest saturation magnetization are preferred,
Surfactant because as soon as the field is taken off, the MR fluid
should come to its demagnetized state in milliseconds.
Due to its low coercivity and high saturation
magnetization, high purity carbonyl iron powder
Magnetic phase Continuous phase
appears to be the main magnetic phase of most
(a) No magnetic field practical MR fluid compositions. Iron powders made
by the CVD decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl
H
(Fe(CO)5) [28, 29] are preferred as opposed to for
example, those prepared using the electrolytic or spray
atomization process. This is because carbonyl iron is
chemically pure and the particles are meso-scale and
spherical in nature in order to eliminate the shape
anisotropy. The meso-scale particles are necessary
since they have many magnetic domains. The high
(b) Magnetic field, H level of chemical purity (> 99.7%) means less domain
Fig.1 Schematic of the formation of chain-like formation of pinning defects. The spherical shape helps minimize
magnetic particles in MR fluids in the direction of an magnetic shape anisotropy. The impurities that cause
applied magnetic field
magnetic hardness in metals also cause mechanical
hardness, due to resistance to dislocation motion, and
2 Properties of MR fluids make the iron particles mechanically harder. In MR
2.1 Comparison of field responsive fluids fluid based devices, it is preferred to have non-abrasive
More recently MR fluids have gained considerably particles. This is another reason why spherical, high
more attention than their electric analogue purity iron powders are more appropriate for
electrorheological (ER) fluids which were discovered applications as a dispersed phase in MR fluids. Thus,
by WINSLOW in 1948 [9, 10]. carbonyl iron is chosen because of its high saturation
magnetization (2.1 T, at room temperature) [30] and
One of the advantages of MR fluids is the higher yield magnetic softness. Among other soft magnetic
stress value than ER fluids. The reason for having materials, Fe-Co alloys (composition w(Fe) = 50% )
higher yield stress for MR fluids is the higher magneto have a saturation magnetization of 2.43 T[36]. Although
some researchers reported an enhanced yield stress for
static energy density,  H 2 of MR fluids compared
Fe-Co based fluid, the settling problem of the fluid
to electrostatic energy density, E 2 of ER fluids. will be aggravated due to the higher bulk density (8.1
 
Low voltage power supplies for MR fluids and relative gr/cc) than that of Fe (7.8 gr/cc). Also the cost of these
temperature stability between 40C and +150 C alloys makes them undesirable for MR fluids.
make them more attractive materials than ER fluids. CARLSON and WEISS reported that as well as
Ferro fluids do not exhibit yield stress, but show an iron-cobalt alloys, iron-nickel alloys in ratio ranging
increase in the viscosity. The viscosity under an from 90:10 to 99:1 showed a significant increase in
applied magnetic field increases almost twice as much the yield stress of MR fluids [31]. MR fluids have been
as the viscosity when there is no magnetic field prepared based on ferromagnetic materials such as
applied. Since Ferro fluids are synthesized by manganese-zinc ferrite and nickel zinc ferrite of an
colloidal magnetic particles, these fluids are more average size of 2 m. The saturation magnetization of
ceramic ferrites is relatively low (0.4~0.6 T) [27] and
MUHAMMAD Aslam, et al: Review of magnetorheological (MR) fluids and its applications in vibration control 19

therefore the yield stresses also tend to be smaller. and MUNOZ, 1996) predicted quadratic behavior at
very low flux densities. The non-linear model
PHULE and co-workers reported a yield stress of 15 kPa proposed by GINDER, DAVIS and ELIE (1995)
at a magnetic flux of 15 kPa[32]. predicted a power law index of 1.5 at intermediate
fields. Beyond flux densities of about 0.2~0.3 T, the
Magnetic induction curves, or B-H curves of the four effects of magnetic saturation are revealed as a
commercial MR fluids are shown in Fig. 2. departure from power law behavior. The stress
response ultimately plateaus as the MR fluids
approach complete magnetic saturation.

2.4 The volume fraction and particle size dependence


T/B

of viscosity
At high volume fractions, the particles are close
enough to each other that the flow field of one particle
is affected by the neighbors. Thus the particles are
0 H/T said to experience hydrodynamic interactions. At a
Fig. 2 Flux density within MR fluids as a function of concentration of about 50%, a rapid increase in the
applied field. viscosity is noticeable [35] (Fig. 3).
Inset: Intrinsic induction as a function of applied field.
Ascending order of the plots corresponds to increasing iron
volume fraction.(MARK,et.al )

2.3 Properties of commercial MR fluids


Magnetic, rheological, tribological and settling
properties of four commercial MR fluids are discussed.
The basic composition of these four fluids
commercially available is given in Table 1.

Table 1 Basic composition and density of four


commercial MR fluids (LORD, 1998)
Fig. 3 Dependence of viscosity on the solid loading of alumina
of 0.7 m mean particle size [35]
Percent Density
Commercia Carrier
iron
l MR fluid fluid / g imL-1 The loose packing of uniform spheres assuming
by volume
MRX-126PD 26 Hydrocarbon oil 2.66 simple cubic packing corresponds to 52% by
MRX-140ND 40 Hydrocarbon oil 3.64
volume. At this concentration, the friction due to
MRX-242AS 42 Water 3.88
particle interactions would become a significant
MRX-336AG 36 Silicone oil 3.47 factor and the resistance to shear seems to cause a
rapid increase in viscosity. At high volume fractions,
The rheological properties of controllable fluids the maximum packing volume fraction m becomes
depend on concentration and density of particles, important and the relationship can be given by
particle size and shape distribution, and properties of KRIEGER-DOUGHERTY equation [36].
the carrier fluid, additional additives, applied field,
temperature, and other factors. The interdependency 2.5 Linear viscoelasticity
of all these factors is very complex, yet is important in Linear Viscoelasticity is the time dependent
establishing methodologies to optimize the mechanical response of a material to an applied stress.
performance of these fluids for particular applications. Under constant deformation, the viscoelastic solid
Both linear models and models accounting for stores part of the input energy and dissipates the rest
nonlinear magnetic effects such as particle saturation of this energy whereas a viscoelastic liquid dissipates
(Ginder, DAVIS and ELIE, 1995; JOLLY, CARLSON all of the energy eventually. An essential characteristic
20 Journal of Marine Science and Application,Vol.5, No.3, September 2006

of the viscoelastic behavior for various transient 2 steps which are known as pre-yield and post-yield
experiments such as creep and stress relaxation. In conditions, respectively (Fig. 4) [5].
creep experiments, the stress is suddenly created and
maintained constant and the deformation is observed. Pre yield: = G ,  = 0 , < y (1)
In the stress relaxation experiments, a strain is
Post yield: =  + y y (2)
suddenly imposed and maintained constant and the
change in stress is observed. In a creep experiment, in where is the plastic viscosity ,  is the shear rate
order to consider linear viscoelastic for the material,
and y is the dynamic yield stress and G is storage
one requirement is that the strain in the creep
experiment must be proportional to the applied stress. modulus. The MR fluids within the pre-yield region
The stress history of the linear viscoelastic material in exhibit viscoelastic properties and these are important
simple shear has to correspond to the strain history. in understanding MR suspensions, especially for
This most powerful law of polymer physics is known vibration damping applications. For applied
as the Boltzmann Superposition Principle. If the strain stresses > y , the material is able to flow.
varies in a continuous function of time, then the strain
at any instant of time t depends on the stress of the
previous times.

2.6 Rheology of magnetorheological (MR) fluids


Many of the models developed for ER fluids can be
adopted for MR fluids in low magnetic fields.
However, at high magnetic fields, due to the
non-linearity and magnetic saturation of the particles, (a) pre yield
the linear models used to treat ER fluids are no longer
valid for MR fluids.

In their Finite Element Analysis (FEA), GINDER and


co-workers determined the static yield stress as the
maximum shear stress, which was modeled as tensile
component in the shear direction of the linear infinite
single chains of spherical particles [38, 39]. Rheology of (b) post yield
magnetic particle dispersions is generally analyzed in Fig.4 Bingham plastic model

Table 2 Equations of rheological properties for different geometries


Geometry Shear stress Shear rate Strain Viscosity
2 2
M 2R R1 2 Rave M ( R22 R12 )
Concentriccylinder 2
(2Rave h) r ( R22 R12 )
2
R2 R1 4hR12 R22
M R R MR 4
Parallel plate
2R 3 h h 2h
3M 3 M
Cone and plate
2R 3 2R 3
M R42 R 2 R42 R2 M ( R42 R32 )( R22 R12 )
Double concentric 2 2
+ 2 1 2 2 2
+ 2 1 2
2h( R12 + R42 ) ( R4 R3 ) ( R2 R1 ) ( R4 R3 ) ( R2 R1 ) 2h

Notes: In these equations, M is the torque, h is the height, R is the radius (Fig. 5, is the angular velocity, is the angular displacement and is the cone
angle [5, 50]
MUHAMMAD Aslam, et al: Review of magnetorheological (MR) fluids and its applications in vibration control 21

materials. Stable MR fluids are considered to exhibit


no or very little amount of particle settling. For dilute
systems, the dependence of the sedimentation velocity
of a spherical particle can be obtained from Stokes
law as follows [40]:
2 Rs2 ( ) g
= . (3)
9
Rs is the particle radius, is the difference in
density of the magnetic phase and carrier liquid, is
(a) double concentric cylinder
the viscosity of the carrier liquid and g is the
2
gravitational acceleration (9.8 m/s ). Since, less
viscous liquids will aggravate the settling of the
particles in an MR fluid, Rankin and co-workers
formulated a suspension with viscoplastic continuous
phase (e.g., grease) to prevent sedimentation [41].
When the yield stress of the viscoplastic medium is
bigger than the critical yield stress that was defined
for each particulate material and particle radius, the
particles are suspended. Although, for most of the
(b) cone and plate applications the figure of merit for MR fluids is to
keep the off state viscosity as small as possible, for
applications such as control of seismic vibrations,
paste-like MR fluids can be more appropriate since
the gravitational settling over an extended period can
be prevented.

2.8 Effect of temperature on MR fluids


When a magnetic field is applied across MR fluids [64],
a yield stress is developed, and their rheological
properties can then be categorized into two distinct
regimes: pre-yield and post-yield. The research in
(c) parallel plate
Ref.[64] concerns the viscoelastic behavior of MR
fluids in the pre-yield region. Oscillatory tests were
carried out to determine the complex shear modulus
properties of MR fluids between the temperature
range of -20C and +50C. The test results show that
the storage modulus and loss modulus increased in
value as the excitation frequency was increased from
5Hz to 50Hz. The complex modulus was also found to
be influenced by changes in temperature; the higher
the temperature, the lower the complex modulus. This
is consistent with the behavior of viscoelastic
(d) concentric cylinder
polymers. The sets of temperature-dependent and
Fig. 5 Types of rheometer geometries
frequency-dependent data were subsequently
condensed using the method of reduced variables into
2.7 Stability of MR fluids
master curves of complex modulus, which effectively
The stability and redispersibility of MR fluids have
extended the frequency coverage of the data at the
been one of the most important issues of these
22 Journal of Marine Science and Application,Vol.5, No.3, September 2006

reference temperature. a MR damper has been proposed. For vibration


3 Applications of MR control of the car suspension system [56], sliding mode
controller has been used for the system controller and
3.1 Applications in automotive industry the damper controller has been designed to adjust the
A semi-active force tracking PI control scheme with a appropriate input voltage to the MR damper. In
controllable MR-damper was formulated and analyzed [51] addition, the effectiveness of the MR suspension
to study its performance characteristics in terms of system has been demonstrated via HILS. Under
vibration attenuation of a quarter-vehicle model sinusoidal excitation, it shows the improvement in
subject to idealized harmonic and transient base reducing the displacement and acceleration. These
excitations. The simulation results suggest that the results again show that the controlled MR suspension
synthesized controller could achieve superior system can improve the ride comfort quite effectively.
vibration attenuation performance of the vehicle, and A similar research has been carried out by
it offers considerable advantage in view of Ref.[57-58].
implementation since it requires only directly
measurable relative position and velocity signals. 3.2 Applications of MR for train suspension system
A detailed study for semi-active secondary train
suspension system[62] with MR dampers has been
investigated by considering a full-size railway vehicle,
which includes three vibration motions (vertical, pitch
and roll) of the car body and trucks. The governing
equations of a nine degree-of-freedom railway vehicle
model integrated with MR dampers are developed. To
illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of controlled
MR dampers on railway vehicle suspension systems,
the LQG control using the acceleration feedback is
Fig. 6 A car model [51]
adopted as the system controller, in which the state
variables are estimated from the measurable
accelerations with the Kalman estimator.

Fig. 7 A quarter car model [51]

A semi-active force tracking control strategy is Fig. 7 Schematic of semi-active control system for railway
proposed in Ref.[52-55] to realize desired variable and vehicle [62]
asymmetric damping characteristics of a MR damper
used for vibration control of vehicles. The controller is 3.3 Application of MR for seismic protection of
formulated on the basis of a modified on-off control buildings
law, coupled with an inverse model of the hysteretic The experimental study in Ref. [59] investigates
MR-damper. An asymmetric force generation function performance of a 12-ton mass supported by a hybrid
is further proposed and integrated within the controller base-isolation system that includes rolling pendulum
to achieve asymmetric damping properties in system and a 20 kN MR damper. The system is tested
compression and rebound. on a large shake table and numerous transducers
monitor motion and feedback data to a controller.
A semi-active control for a car suspension system with Fuzzy logic control is used to design the semi-active
MUHAMMAD Aslam, et al: Review of magnetorheological (MR) fluids and its applications in vibration control 23

controller that modulates voltage to the MR damper. The performance of a smart isolation system for the
The goal is to mitigate response of the mass with the base-isolated two-degree-of-freedom structural model
aid of the nonlinear base-isolation system. Different employing MR fluid dampers has been investigated in
passive and semi-active control cases are used to test Ref. [63]. The efficacy of this smart base isolation
the effectiveness of each strategy. system in reducing the structural responses for a wide
range of loading conditions has been demonstrated in
a series of experiments conducted at the Structural
Dynamics and Control/ Earthquake Engineering
Laboratory at the Univ. of Notre Dame. An analytical
model of the MR damper employing the Bouc-Wen
hysteresis has been presented. a modified
clipped-optimal control strategy has been proposed
and shown to be effective. By applying a threshold to
Fig. 8 Photo of the 12-ton test structureHybrid controlled the control voltage for the MR damper, the controller
base-isolation system composed with Ref. [59] becomes robust for the ambient vibration. The
dynamic behavior of this system is also shown to be
A comparison study[60] covering two possible types of predictable.
intelligent base isolation systems, ideal fully active
and semi-active via MR damper, was performed. The
response to several earthquake excitations was
computed. This preliminary study suggests that MR
dampers show significant promise in base isolation
applications with greatly reduced power requirements.

A study was carried out by Ref.[61] for the Fig. 10 Schematic of experimental setup of smart base isolation
optimization problem of a complex control system of model [63]
a spatial structure with MR dampers by using the
PGA approach, which can suitably deal with not only 3.4 Applications in cable-stayed bridges
the system of large dimensions, but also limited As primary members of cable-stayed bridges, cables
control force. And the performance index is not are susceptible to vibrations because of their low
differentiable. The control force is the complicated intrinsic damping. Mechanical dampers [65] have been
nonlinear feedback of state variables. To obtain the used to improve cable damping. Magnetorheological
approximate solution, the nonlinear system is firstly (MR) dampers have been proven efficient for seismic
linearized, and then the p.3A is applied to solve the applications because of their large output damping
problem. forces, stable performance, low power requirement,
and quick response from both laboratory research and
A real computational case is given and it has been field practice. In this research, experimental work was
shown that the proposed control method is effective in carried out to demonstrate that MR dampers are also
structural vibration reduction using MR dampers suitable for cable vibration control. First, a MR
based on the proposed PGA. damper was tested with various test parameters to
obtain the performance curves of the MR damper
under different loading conditions, including different
electric currents, loading frequencies, loading wave
types, and working temperatures. The MR damper
was then installed on a cable to reduce the cable
vibration. A 7.16 m long stay cable with a
Fig. 9 Comparative time history of effectiveness of vibration prototype-to-model scale factor of 8 was established
reduction in structural vibration control in Y direction [61] for this study. The frequencies of the stay cable under
24 Journal of Marine Science and Application,Vol.5, No.3, September 2006

different tension forces were measured and compared through Modal analyzer to computer to process. A
with those obtained through theoretical calculations. voltage regulator is used to supply power to MR
Then, a free vibration control test was carried out with dampers from 0A to 2A in steps of 0.25A.
the MR damper being installed at the 1/4 point of the
cable. In the forced vibration test, a shaker was
installed at 0.18 m from the lower end of the cable.
The measured data show that the damper is efficient
for cable vibration control within its working current
range (zero to maximum) although there is a
saturation effect. It was also observed that the damper
could reduce cable vibration under a variety of
excitation frequencies, especially for resonant
vibrations.

3.5 Experimental research on vibration control of


diesel engine on board ship
Authors have designed an intelligent foundation and
used MR dampers to control the low frequency
vibration of diesel engine onboard ship, as low
frequency vibration can be detected by hostile
weapons and sensors.

It consists of a ship base to simulate the bilge and


engine base for housing the engine. The engine base is
connected with ship base by six passive spring wire
dampers, three on each side, each having k=1.01e6
and four MR dampers, two on each side, each having
capacity of 10 kN. These MR dampers can sense the
response. The current was varied in steps to check the Fig. 11 Dimensions of the foundation

response of the structure at different damping forces.


Fig. 11 shows the detailed dimensions of the A multi-purpose force simulator is used to apply
foundation. The super structure of the foundation is excitation force at frequency from 1 to 15 Hz in steps
attached by ship base through six springs, three on of 400 from 400 kg to 2400 kg. All the tests are
each side and four MR dampers, two on each side. operated through software with the controlled
computer.
Modal parameters were obtained from experiment by
various sensors, among which 11 in no accelerometers, For each test, the simulator machine is programmed to
two velocity sensors, five in no displacement sensors, move up and down in a sinusoidal wave at certain
and 5 in no force sensors were used to retrieve displacement amplitude and frequency.
displacement, velocity acceleration and force at
various points on the foundation in three directions. Generally, the resonance frequency and magnitude
Signal is amplified through amplifiers and fed to 32 decrease in a linear systems, the damping coefficient
channel FFT analyzer of Brel & Kjr Company to increases. Both damping coefficient and stiffness of an
compute frequency response function and finally for MR damper increase when the magnetic field is
post-processing, modal software CAD-X-3.5 is used applied.
for identifying modal parameters and displaying the
data in time history. Output from four MR dampers in Vibration experiments mainly test the control ability
the form of force is also fed through amplifiers of the transmission ratio and mainframe vibrating shift
MUHAMMAD Aslam, et al: Review of magnetorheological (MR) fluids and its applications in vibration control 25

of the MR damper under different harmonic vibrations and force transmission ratio at different damping
in the experimental model. states. It is clear that at low damping state, peak is
high and at high damping state, peak is significantly
low at critical frequency ratio, so MR dampers are
quite feasible to control low frequency vibration in
diesel engines.

The natural frequency as calculated using ANSYS was


around 8 Hz, but in experiment, its around 9 Hz. Its
because of the fact that hydraulic force simulator used
to input excitation force exerts pre-pressure on the
model due to apparent stiffness and changes of model
Fig. 12 Experimental setup for vibration control of diesel engine
mass. From Fig. 14 and 15, it is clear that peak
response of force transmission ratio reduces by
310.9% and peak response of displacement
transmission ratio reduces by 188.6%.

Fig.13 Model of intelligent foundation built in ANSYS

3.5.1 Experimental Results


Experiment was performed at various damping states,
excitation frequencies, excitation forces and at Fig. 15 Relationship between Force transmission ratio and
different model mass. The simulations as shown in Fig frequency ratio at excitation force of 2 400 kg
14 and 15 are performed at 2 t model mass , 2 400 kg
excitation force and foundation mass is 500 kg. 3.5.2 Control System
Control system includes various sensors
(accelerometer, velocity sensors, displacement sensors
and force sensors), amplifiers, FFT analyzer, computer
to process and display modal parameters as shown in
Fig 16. A multi-point loading system with controlled
computer was used to apply sinusoidal load to
simulate excitation force of the engine at different
frequencies.

Displacement and velocity feedback control strategies


were used to control the vibration. Results of vibration
control experiment performed at 1 Ton model
mass, excitation force of 15 kN and at excitation
Fig. 14 Relationship between displacement transmission ratio frequency of 1Hz are shown in Figs. 17 and 18.The
and frequency ratio at excitation force of 2400Kg objective of vibration control was that displacement
should not exceed more then 1 mm.
Fig 14 and 15 show displacement transmission ratio
26 Journal of Marine Science and Application,Vol.5, No.3, September 2006

The application of MR fluids to produce controllable


suspension struts in the 2002 model of the Cadillac
STS model is a great success. It was announced that
further Cadillac models, the SRX and XLR will follow,
as well as the Chevrolet Corvette sports car. In
addition to vibration control of vehicle seats, there are
also likely to be significant developments in
components and systems associated with passenger
protection. Devices whose performance could be
enhanced through the introduction of smart fluids
Fig. 17 Displacement Time history curve for vibration control
of the diesel engine foundation include airbags, seatbelt retractors, steering column
dampers and external bumpers.

In the civil engineering field, the use of smart fluid


dampers for isolating buildings from seismic
disturbances was mentioned above. Along with the
control of cable stayed bridges subjected to wind and
rain excitation, this represents a key area of
applications where a significant number of further
applications might be expected. One intriguing
possibility is the application of smart fluids to
Fig. 18 Time history curve of MR damper force during buildings which employ a significant amount of
vibration control of diesel engine foundation
structural glass.

From Fig 17 and 18, when vibration starts, the


With the advent of MR fluids, which obviates the need
oscillation amplitude is large in uncontrolled state and
for the high voltages associated with ER fluids,
exceeded pre-set allowed limit. When control signal is
various aerospace applications are currently being
applied, the displacement decreases and MR damping
re-appraised. The benefits of employing smart fluids
force increases to limit the vibration with in
in aircraft landing gear are well understood and MR
predefined limit.
fluid-based units are likely to be developed. The
steer-by-wire system for a forklift truck, which was
When MR dampers are used in parallel with spring noted previously can readily be extended to a number
wire dampers, it provides better control at low of control-by-wire functions in aerospace vehicles.
frequency, and reduces the power transmission rate Brake-by-wire, throttle-by-wire and shift-by-wire are
and displacement transmission ratio, and vibration all candidates for the application of MR fluids where
response reduces by 15.1 dB when MR dampers are preserving tactile feedback is essential both for safety
used as compared to when single spring wire dampers and for operator acceptance.
are used.
Some problems with MR dampers and suggestions are
4 Perspective on future trends, given by authors as follows:
problems and suggestions
1) Large size of MR dampers limits the application of
Commercial applications are clearly expanding and, in MR dampers in marine applications due to limited
future, will probably be driven by equipment space especially in submarines, so design of MR
manufacturers looking to add value to their products dampers to reduce the size and power needs to be
through the introduction of smart fluids. Three areas further researched.
where significant developments might be expected 2) Non-linear behavior of MR dampers makes it
will be mentioned automotive, civil and aerospace difficult to devise control strategies to control the
engineering. vibration, so this effect further needs to be researched.
MUHAMMAD Aslam, et al: Review of magnetorheological (MR) fluids and its applications in vibration control 27

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5) Implementation of MR dampers in real structures.
electro-rheological fluids [J]. Society of Automotive
6) To increase the self-sufficiency of the damping
Engineers, 1993: 425- 430.
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[8] GANS B J D. Magnetorheology of an inverse ferro fluid
self-powered MR damper should be pursued. [R]. Twente: University of Twente, 2000.
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5 Conclusions electrical impulses into mechanical force [P].USA: US
Patent: 2417850, 1947.
Recently, there has been some exciting development
[10] WINSLOW W M. Induced vibration of suspensions [J].
in MR materials that can provide reasonable force and
Journal of Applied Physics, 1949(20):1137-1140.
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controlled base isolation system with semi-active
magnetorheological damper and rolling pendulum system MUHAMMAD ASLAM, a Pakistani student
[R]. Taipei: National Center for Research on Earthquake was born in 1979.He received the bachelor
degree in mechanical engineering from National
Engineering, 1999.
University of Science and Technology(Pakistan)
[60] JOHNSON E A, RAMALLO J C, SPENCER JR B F, in 2002 .He is currently a master degree student
SAIN M K. Intelligent base isolation systems [A]. The in Naval Architecture at Harbin Engineering
Second World Conference on Structural Control [C]. University Harbin, China. His primary research
Kyoto, 1998. includes active vibration control of marine diesel
engine and numerical solutions to vibration control.
[61] LI H N, CHANG Z G, SONG G B. Studies on structural
vibration control with MR dampers using PGA[A].
YAO XIONG LIANG, professor, was born in
Proceeding of the 2004 American Control Conference[C]. 1963.He received his master degree and PhD in
Massachusetts , 2004. 1989 and 1992 from Harbin Engineering
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train suspension systems via magnetorheological Dean of College of Shipbuilding Engineering,
Harbin Engineering University, China. He is the
dampers[R]. The Chinese University of Hong Kong,
authors or co-authors of many papers in national
1999. and international journals and conference
[63] YOSHIOKA H, RAMALLO J C, SPENCER JR B F. proceedings. His research interest includes, ship building, vibration control,
Smart base isolation strategies employing flow induced vibration, structural analysis of ships and many other. He has
magnetorheological dampers [J]. Journal of Engineering won many awards at national level.

Mechanics, 2002(128): 540-551.


DENG ZHONGCHAO was born in 1978 and
[64] CHOOI W W, OYADIJI S. Characterizing the effect of received M .S. degree in 2004 from Harbin
temperature and magnetic field strengths on the complex Engineering University, China. Now he is a
shear modulus properties of Magnetorhelogical (MR) teacher and PhD candidate for Active Vibration
fluids[J]. International Journal of Modern Physics , Control at Harbin Engineering University. His
research interest includes ship building, CAD and
Condensed Matter Physics, Statistical Physics, Applied
vibration control.
Physics, 2005(19):1318-1324.
[65] WU W J, CAI C S. Experimental study of
magnetorheological dampers and application to cable