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Int. J. Adv. Appl. Math. and Mech.

3(2) (2015) 100 112 (ISSN: 2347-2529) IJAAMM

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Finite difference approach for non-homogeneous problem of thermal

stresses in cartesian domain
Research Article

B.B. Pandita, , V.S. Kulkarnib

a
Department of Mathematics, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management Studies, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India
b
PG Department of Mathematics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai-400098, Maharashtra, India

Received 14 August 2015; accepted (in revised version) 04 November 2015

Abstract: The thermal conductivity of metals varies with the temperature. In most of the heat conduction problems, to avoid
nonlinearity, thermal conductivity is usually assumed to be temperature independent. This assumption could not be
reasonable when large variation of temperature is under consideration because structures of the materials are also
affected by variation in thermal conductivity. This is an attempt to study the effect of variable thermal conductivity
in thermal stress analysis of rectangular plate subjected to temperature variation. As a special case, the mathematical
model of thermoelastic problem is constructed for Copper (pure) plate. The results for temperature distribution,
displacement and thermal stresses are illustrated graphically and interpreted technically.
MSC: 35K05 35K61 65M06 65N06
Keywords: Rectangular plate Thermal stresses Nonlinear boundary value problem Finite difference method
2015 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

1. Introduction

A challenging problem faced by the Engineers and Mathematicians is to find solutions of the governing equa-
tions representing physical systems. There could be nothing more desirable than to find exact closed form solutions
of these equations. However due to non-linearity occurring in the most of real life engineering problems one has to
adopt numerical techniques to obtain the solution.
Youssef et al (2007) proposed general finite element model to analyze transient phenomena in thermoelastic
model in the context of the theory of generalized thermoelasticity with one relaxation time with variable thermal
conductivity. Hsin-Ping Chu and Cheng- Ying Lo  outlined the differential transformation technique and then
procedures for transforming and discretizing the governing equations as well as the boundary conditions are given in
two numerical examples. Mashat  presented finite different scheme as well as least-square method for the magneto-
thermo analysis of an infinite functionally graded hollow cylinder. Bin Shen et al.  a heat transfer model based on
the finite difference method is developed to study the thermal aspects in grinding. Kedar G.D. et al.  done Thermal
Stresses in a Semi-Infinite Solid Circular Cylinder .Somayyeh Sadri et al.  done Efficiency analysis of straight fin with
variable heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity. Sherief and Abd El-Latief  observed effect of variable
thermal conductivity on a half-space under the fractional order theory of thermoelasticity. Kulkarni V. S. et al.  have
done heat transfer and thermal stress analysis of cylinder due to internal heat generation under steady temperature
conditions. Verma Shubha et al.  have studied a finite element solution to transient asymmetric heat conduction
in multilayer annulus. Recently Pranab Kanti Roy et al.  studied application of homotopy perturbation method for
a conductive-radiative fin with temperature dependent thermal conductivity and surface emissivity.
In this paper, a thin clamped rectangular plate with variable thermal conductivity and internal heat generation
is considered. Finite difference method is proposed to find the temperature distribution, displacement and thermal
stresses. The role of variable thermal conductivity on thermal stress analysis is observed mathematically and repre-
sented graphically.

Corresponding author.
E-mail address: panditbhagwat51@gmail.com (B.B. Pandit), vinayakskulkarni1@rediffmail.com (V.S. Kulkarni)
B.B. Pandit, V.S. Kulkarni / Int. J. Adv. Appl. Math. and Mech. 3(2) (2015) 100 112 101

2. Mathematical formulation

Fig. 1. Geometry of heat conduction problem.

Consider a rectangular plate with its dimensions 0 x a , 0 y b as shown in Fig. 1 and initial temperature
Ti .The nonlinear boundary value problem for heat conduction is given as,

T
c p = O(k(T )OT ) + g (x, y, t ) (1)
t
Subjected to the boundary conditions,

T
=0 at x = 0, t > 0 (2)
x

T
hT = 0 at x = a, t > 0 (3)
x

T
=0 at y = 0, t > 0 (4)
y

T
= (t ) at y = b, t > 0 (5)
y

and initial condition,

T = Ti at t =0 (6)

where T =T (x, y, t ), (t )=T0 e mt , k(T )=k 0 (1 + T ) is the thermal conductivity varies linearly with temperature, k 0 is
the thermal conductivity at the reference temperature, is the temperature coefficient of thermal conductivity, c p is
specific heat, is the density of the material, T0 is the temperature strength, h is heat transfer coefficient g (x, y) =
g s (x x 0 )(y y 0 ) is an instantaneous heat source located at (x 0 , y 0 ) with temperature strength g s .
Since the plate is in plane stress state without bending, Airys stress function method is applicable to the analyt-
ical development of the thermoelastic field. The fundamental equation is given as
2 2 2 2 2
+ U = E + T (7)
2 x 2 y 2 x 2 y

The plate is clamped at all sides gives the boundary conditions,

U
U = 0, =0 at x = 0, x = a (8)
x

U
U = 0, =0 at y = 0, y = b (9)
y

where is linear coefficient of the thermal expansion, E is Youngs modulus, U is Airys Stress function.
102 Finite difference approach for non-homogeneous problem of thermal stresses in cartesian domain

The displacement components u x and u y in x and y directions are represented in the integral form and the
stress components in terms of U are given by,
Z h 2
1 U 2U i
ux = + T dx (10)
E 2 y 2 x

Z h 2
1 U 2 U i
uy = + T dy (11)
E 2 x 2 y

2U
xx = (12)
2 y

2U
y y = (13)
2 x

2U
x y = (14)
xy

and

x y = y y = 0 at y =b

xx = x y = 0 at x = a

where is the Poissons ratio of the material of the plate.

Equations (1) to (14) constitute the mathematical formulation of the problem.

3. Mathematical solution
3.1. Heat transfer analysis

Following Ozisik  the Crank Nicolson finite difference method is applied to solve the nonlinear boundary
value problem defined by (1) to (6). Divide the x,y,t domain into small intervals 4x,4y,4t such that

x = i 4x, i = 1, 2, 3...., N (N 4x = a)

y = i 4y, j = 1, 2, 3...., M (M 4y = b),

t = n4t , n = 1, 2, 3....

The dependent variable at the nodal points (i 4x, j 4y) at time n4t is denoted by T (i 4x, j 4y)=Tin, j
The Crank Nicolson finite difference representation by Ozisik  for two dimensional nonlinear heat Eq. (1) is
given by,

Tin+1
,j
Tin, j 1h Tin+1
1, j
Tin+1 ,j
Tin+1
+1, j
Tin+1
,j
i
c p = ki 1 , j + k i + 1
, j
4t 2 2 4x 2 2 4x 2
n n n n i
1 h T i 1, j
T i,j
T i +1, j
T i,j
+ ki 1 , j + ki + 1 , j
2 2 4x 2 2 4x 2
(15)
1h Tin+1
, j 1
Tin+1
,j
Tin+1, j +1
Tin+1 ,j
i
+ ki , j 1 + k i , j + 1
2 2 4y 2 2 4y 2
n n
1h Ti , j 1 Ti , j Ti , j +1 Tin, j i
n
n+ 1
+ ki , j 1 2
+ k i , j + 1
2
+ gi ,j 2
2 2 4y 2 4y
1
The subscript i for the thermal conductivity denotes that a mean value of thermal conductivity between the nodal
2
points i 1 and i .
Solving Eq. (15) for Tin+1, j and setting square grids 4x=4y one gets the recursive relation as,

n+ 1
g i , j 2 4t
Tin+1 n+1 n+1 n+1 n+1 n+1
, j = A i j Ti 1, j + B i j Ti +1, j +C i j Ti , j 1 + D i j Ti , j +1 E i j Ti , j + b i j + (16)
c p
B.B. Pandit, V.S. Kulkarni / Int. J. Adv. Appl. Math. and Mech. 3(2) (2015) 100 112 103

where
k i 1 , j 4t
2
Ai j =
24x 2 c p

k i + 1 , j 4t
2
Bi j =
24x 2 c p

k i , j 1 4t
2
Ci j =
24y 2 c p

k i , j + 1 4t
2
Di j =
24y 2 c p

E i j = A i j + B i j +C i j + D i j

b i , j = A i j Tin1, j + B i j Tin+1, j +C i j Tin, j 1 + D i j Tin, j +1 (1 E i j )Tin, j (17)

The truncation error is of order 0[4x 2 , 4y 2 , 4t 2 ] and the scheme is unconditionally stable.The finite difference ap-
proximation for initial and boundary conditions,
Initially at t = 0

Ti0, j = Ti (18)

At initial edge (x = 0)

Tin, j 1 = Tin, j +1 (22)

Equation (18) gives the initial value of temperature T at each grid point of the plate (att = 0).Assuming that the
coefficients A i j , B i j ,C i j , D i j , E i j at each iteration, Eq. (16) with the boundary conditions (19) to (22) gives a set of
linear equations,one can apply the successive over relaxation method to solve these equations. The recursive relation
is given by,

n+ 1
g i , j 2 4t
Tin+1
,j = (1 )Tin, j + (A i j Tin1, j + B i j Tin+1, j +C i j Tin, j 1 + D i j Tin, j +1 E i j Tin, j + bi j + ) (23)
c p

where relaxation factor lies between 1 and 2.

104 Finite difference approach for non-homogeneous problem of thermal stresses in cartesian domain

The 13- point difference scheme for equation (7) is given by

Ui , j +2 +Ui , j 2 +Ui +2, j +Ui 2, j + 2 Ui +1, j +1 +Ui +1, j 1 +Ui 1, j +1 +Ui 1, j 1

8 Ui , j +1 +Ui , j 1 +Ui +1, j +Ui 1, j + 20Ui , j (24)
= 4x 2 E Ti , j +1 + Ti , j 1 + Ti +1, j + Ti 1, j 4Ti , j

The difference scheme for boundary conditions (8) and (9) are given by

U0, j = 0,U N , j = 0 at x = 0, x = a (25)

Ui ,0 = 0,Ui ,M = 0 at y = 0, y = b (26)

Ui 1, j = Ui +1, j at x = 0, x = a (27)

Ui , j +1 = Ui , j 1 at y = 0, y = b (28)

Substituting the boundary conditions (25) to (28) in Eq. (24) one gets the set of simultaneous linear equations.The
system of simultaneous linear Eq. (24) has the unique solution by using the following theorem due to Thomas  ,

Theorem 3.1.
M
X
If A is an irreducible matrix for which |a i j | > |a j ,k | for at least one j then A is invertible.
k=1,k6= j

The finite difference approximation for displacement components for sufficiently small value of 4x are given
by,
h 1 Ui , j +1 +Ui , j 1 2Ui , j Ui +1, j +Ui 1, j 2Ui , j i
ux = + Tin, j 4x (29)
E 4y 2 4x 2

h 1 Ui +1, j +Ui 1, j 2Ui , j Ui , j +1 +Ui , j 1 2Ui , j i

uy = + Tin, j 4y (30)
E 4x 2 4y 2

Equations (29) and (30) give the displacement components at each nodal point. The difference scheme for Eqs. (12)
to (14) is given by

Ui , j +1 +Ui , j 1 2Ui , j
xx = (31)
4y 2

y y = (32)
4x 2

Ui +1, j +1 Ui +1, j 1 Ui 1, j +1 +Ui 1, j 1

x y = (33)
4x4y

Equations (31) to (33) give the thermal stresses at each nodal point.

4. Numerical calculations

The plate is divided in equal grids of 4x = t r i ang l e y = 0.1 meters. Fifty iterations has been performed for each
time step of 4t =0.1 seconds.
The simultaneous equations formed by using (25) to (28) in Eq. (24) are solved by using MATLAB programming.
B.B. Pandit, V.S. Kulkarni / Int. J. Adv. Appl. Math. and Mech. 3(2) (2015) 100 112 105

Dimensions
Length of rectangular plate a = 2m

Breadth of rectangular plate b = 1m

Material properties
The numerical calculation has been carried out for a Copper (Pure) rectangular plate with the material proper-
ties as,

Thermal diffusivity = 112.34x106 m 2 /s,

Density = 8954K g /m 3 ,

Strength of heat generation g s = 400K at x = 1m and y = 0.5m

Temperature, displacement and stresses at grid points equally spaced with 4x=4y=0.1 meters and at time t =
50x0.1=5 seconds is calculated.The surface plots are given by Figs. 2 - 7 ,

5. Concluding Remarks

In this manuscript, the attempt has been made to discuss role of temperature dependent thermal conductivity
in heat transfer and thermal stress analysis. Due to consideration of temperature dependent thermal conductivity,
the mathematical formulation of physical application in the form of boundary value problem is highly non-linear. To
find mathematical solution of non-linear boundary value problem, the finite difference scheme has been developed
for governing non-linear partial differential equations. The convergence and stability analysis of finite difference
solution has been done by fundamental theorems of numerical analysis. The results obtained for heat transfer and
thermal stress analysis has been validated by equilibrium and compatibility equations in classical thermoelasticity.
The comparison is made for temperature, displacement and thermal stresses at each nodal point when the thermal
conductivity is independent ( = 0 ) and dependent ( 6= 0 ) of temperature.

Fig. 2 shows temperature change within rectangular plate. The convection due to dissipation can be observed
through x = a of the transient heat flux applied at y = b and this happens since initial edges x = 0 and y = 0
are thermally insulated. Also the difference in rate of heat transfer can be seen by considering with and without
temperature dependent thermal conductivity.

Figs. 3 and 4 shows displacement component in x and y direction respectively. Due to application of heat flux
and convection due to dissipation, the displacement takes place at extreme edges x = a and y = b . The dif-
ference in displacement can be observed when the thermal conductivity are temperature independent and de-
pendent.

Figs. 5, 6 and 7, shows thermal stresses developed within rectangular plate. The development of tensile stresses
can be seen around extreme edgesx = a and y = b . The difference in thermal stresses is observed with constant
thermal conductivity and temperature dependent thermal conductivity.

Thus one can summaries that, the temperature dependent thermal conductivity plays important role in heat transfer
and thermal stress analysis, particularly when solid is subjected to large temperature variation. This work gives better
outline for the solution of non-linear boundary value problem. Any special case of particular interest can be derived
by this approach.
106 Finite difference approach for non-homogeneous problem of thermal stresses in cartesian domain

(a) = 0.5

(b) = 0

(c) = 0.5

Fig. 2. Temperature distribution T (K )

B.B. Pandit, V.S. Kulkarni / Int. J. Adv. Appl. Math. and Mech. 3(2) (2015) 100 112 107

(a) = 0.5

(b) = 0

(c) = 0.5

Fig. 3. Displacement Component u x (m)

108 Finite difference approach for non-homogeneous problem of thermal stresses in cartesian domain

(a) = 0.5

(b) = 0

(c) = 0.5

Fig. 4. Displacement Component u y (m)

B.B. Pandit, V.S. Kulkarni / Int. J. Adv. Appl. Math. and Mech. 3(2) (2015) 100 112 109

(a) = 0.5

(b) = 0

(c) = 0.5

Fig. 5. Thermal Stresses xx (N /m 2 )

110 Finite difference approach for non-homogeneous problem of thermal stresses in cartesian domain

(a) = 0.5

(b) = 0

(c) = 0.5

Fig. 6. Thermal Stresses x y (N /m 2 )

B.B. Pandit, V.S. Kulkarni / Int. J. Adv. Appl. Math. and Mech. 3(2) (2015) 100 112 111

(a) = 0.5

(b) = 0

(c) = 0.5

Fig. 7. Thermal Stresses y y (N /m 2 )

112 Finite difference approach for non-homogeneous problem of thermal stresses in cartesian domain

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to University Grants Commission, New Delhi to provide the partial financial assistance
under major research project scheme.

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