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Testing Tools

Software Quality:

Technical:
Meeting Customer Requirements
Meeting Customer Expectations (User friendly, Performance, Privacy)

Non-Technical:
Cost of Product
Time to Market

Software Quality Assurance:


To monitor and measure the strength of development process, Organisation follows SQA concepts.

Software Project:
Software related problems solved by software engineers through a software engineering process.

Life Cycle Development (LCD):


Information Gathering

Analysis

Design

Coding

Testing

Maintenance
Testing:
Verification & Validation of software is called testing.
Fish Model of Software Development:

LCD Analysis Design Coding Maintenance

System
Information S/W RS Testing
Gathering (FRS + SRS) Programs
LLDs
(BRS)
Black Box
Testing
LCT Reviews
Reviews White Box
Test S/W Change
Prototype
Testing

Verification Validation

Business Requirement Specification (BRS-Information Gathering):


BRS defines requirements of the customer to be developed as a software. This type of documents
developed by business analyst category people.

Software Requirement Specification (S/W RS):


This document defines w.r.t BRS. This document consists of functional Requirements to develop
(FRS) & System Requirements to use (SRS). This document also developed by business analyst
people only.

Reviews:
It is a static testing technique to estimate completeness and correctness of a document.

Design
High Level Design Document (HLD):
This document is also known as external design. This document defines hierarchy of all possible
functionalitys as modules.

Low Level Design Documents (LLDs):


This document is also known as internal design. This document defines structural logic of every
sub module.
Example:

DFD-Data Flow Diagram, E-R Diagram, Class Diagram, Object Diagram.


Prototype:
Sample model of an application with out functionality is called Prototype.
Ex: Power point slide show.

Coding:
White Box Testing:
It is a coding level testing technique. During this test, test engineers verifies completeness and
correctness of every program.
This testing is also known as Glass Box Testing or Clear Box Testing.

System Testing:
Block Box Testing:
It is a build level testing technique. During this tests, testing team validates internal functionality
depends on external inter phase.

V Model of S/W Development:

V Stands for Verification & Validation. This model defines mapping between development stages
& Testing Stages.
Development Testing
Development Plan --Assessment of Development plan
I/f gathering & Analysis -- Prepare Test Plane
-- Requirements phase testing

Design -- Design Phase Testing


&
Coding -- Program Phase Testing (WB)

-- Functional & System Testing(BB)


Install
BUILD -- User Acceptance Testing

-- Test Documentation
-- Port Testing
Maintenance
-- Test S/W Changes

-- Test Efficiency

DRE = A / (A+B)
Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE):
It also known as Defect Deficiency.
DRE = A / (A+B)
Where
A = No of defects found by testing teem during testing
process.
B = No of defects found by customer during Maintenance.

Refinement Form of V Model:


For medium scale and small-scale organisations V Model is expensive to follow. For this type of
organisations, some refinements required in V Model to develop quality Software.
BRS / URS / CRS User Acceptance Testing

Reviews
S/W RS Function & System Testing
(BB Testing)

HLD
Integration Testing

Reviews White Box Testing


LLDs
Unit Testing

Coding
From the above refinement form of V-Model, Small & Medium scale organisations are maintaining
separate testing team for functional & System testing stage to decrease cost of testing.

I) Reviews During Analysis:


In general, software development process starts with information gathering and analysis. In this
stage business analyst category people are developing BRS and S/W RS like documents. BRS
defines requirements of the customer & S/W RS defines functional requirements to be developed
and system requirements to be used.
After completion of this type of documents preparation, they are conducting reviews on the
documents for Completeness & Correctness.
In this review analysts are using below factors:
Are they complete?
Are they met requirements?
Are they achievable? (w.r.t Technology)
Are they reasonable? (w.r.t time & cost)
Are they testable?
II) Reviews During Design:
After completion of analysis and their reviews, our project level design will start logical design of
application in terms of external & internal design (HLD, LLDs).

In this stage they are conducting reviews for completeness and correctness of design documents. In
this review they are using below factors.
Are they understandable?
Are they met right requirements?
Are they complete?
Are they followable?
Does they handle Errors?

III) UNIT TESTING:


After completion of design & their reviews, programmers will start coding to physically convert
software. During this coding stage programmers are conducting unit testing through a set of White
Box Testing Techniques.
This unit testing is also known as Module Testing or Component testing or Program Testing or
Micro Testing.
There are three possible White Box Techniques.
1. Execution Testing:
Basis paths coverage (Execution of all possible blocks in a program).
Loops Coverage (Termination of loops statements).
Program technique coverage (Less no of memory cycles & CPU cycles).

2. Operations Testing:
Run on customer expected platforms (OS, Browser, Compiler etc.).
3. Mutation Testing:
It means that a change in program. White Box Testers are performing this change in
program to estimate test coverage on the program.
Tests Retests Tests Retests

Change Change

Pass Fail Pass Pass


(Complete Testing) (Incomplete Testing)

IV) Integration Testing:


After completion of dependent modules development and testing, programmers are combined them
to form a system. In this Integration, they are conducting Integration testing on the coupled
modules w.r.t. HLD.
There are three approaches to conduct integration testing.
1. Top Down Approach:
Conduct testing on main module with out coming to some of the sub modules is called Top-Down
Approach.
Main

Stub

Sub 1 Sub 2

From the above model, stub is a temporary program instead of under construction sub module. It is
also known as called program.
2. Bottom Up Approach:

Conduct testing on sub modules with out coming from main module is called Bottom
Up Approach.
From the above model, Driver is a temporary program instead of main module. This
program is also known as calling program.
Main

Driver

Sub 1

Sub 2
3. Sandwich Approach:
The combination of Top Down and Bottom-UP approaches is called Sandwich Approach.

Main

Driver

Sub 1

Stub

Sub 2 Sub 3

BUILD:
A finally intigrated all modules set .EXE form is called Build.

V) Functional & System Testing:


After compleation of final integration of modules as a system, test engineers are planning to
conduct Functional & System Testing through Black Box Testing Technique.
Thease techniques classified in to four Catageries.

1. Usability Testing Core Level


2. Functionality Testing
3. Performance Testing
4. Security Testing Advanced Level

During Usability Testing, testing team validates User Friendliness of screens.


During Functionality Testing, testing team validates Correctness of Customer Requirements.
During Performance Testing, testing team estimates Speed of Processing.
During Security Testing, testing team validates Privacy to User Operations.

1. Usability Testing:
In general testing team starts test execution with Usability testing. During this test, testing team
validates User Friendliness of screens of build.

During Usability Testing, testing teams are applying two types of sub tests.
a) User Interface Test (UI):
Ease of use ( Understandable Screens)
Look & Feel ( Attractive or pleasantness)
Speed Interface ( Less no of events to complete a task)

b) Manuals Support testing:


Context sensitiveness of user manuals.

Receive Build from developers

UI Testing
Usability
Testing
Remaining System Tests

Manuals Support Test

2) Functional Testing:
A major part of BB testing is Functional Testing. During this test testing team concentrate on Meet
Customer Requirements. This functional testing classified into below tests.

a) Functionality or Requirements Testing:


During this test, test engineer validates Corrections of every functionality in terms of below
coverages.
Behavioral coverage ( Changes in object properties )
Input(i/p) Domine coverage ( Size and type of every input object)
Error-Handling coverage ( Preventing ve navigations )
Calculations Coverage ( Correctness of outputs )
Backend coverage ( Impact of front-end operations on backend tables content)
Service level coverage ( order of functionalitys)

b) Input Domine Testing:


It is a part of Functionality Testing. Test engineers are maintaining special structures to define size
and type of every input object.

Boundary Value Analysis BVA( Range / Size ):

Min -- Pass
Min 1 -- Fail
Min + 1 -- Pass
Max -- Pass
Max - 1 -- Pass
Max + 1 -- Fail

Equivalence Class Partitions ECP (Type):

Valid Invalid

Pass Fail
Example1:
A login process allows user ID and Password to validate users. User ID allows Alpha Numerics in
lower case from 4 to 16 characters long. Password allows alpha bits in lower case 4 to 8 characters
long. Prepare BVA and ECP for user ID and password.
User ID
BVA ECP
4 pass Valid Invalid
3 fail a to z A to Z
5 pass 0 to 9 Special characters
16 pass Blank
15 pass
17 - Fail
Password
BVA ECP
4 pass Valid Invalid
3 fail a to z A to Z
5 pass 0 to 9
8 pass Special characters
7 pass Blank
9 - Fail

Example 2:
Prepare BVA & ECP for the following text box.
A text box allows 12 digit numbers along with * as mandatory and sometimes it allows also.
BVA ECP
Min = Max = 12 pass Valid Invalid
11 fail 0 to 9 with * A to Z
13 - Fail 0 to 9 with *, - a to z
0 to 9
Special characters other than *, -
Blank

c) Recovery Testing:
It is also known as reliability testing. During this test, test engineers validates whether the
application change from abnormal state to normal state.
Normal
Abnormal

Using
Normal Backup & Recovery

d) Compatibility Testing:
It is also known as portability Testing. During this test, testing team validates whether our
application build run on customer expected platform (OS, Compiler, Browser and other system
software) are not?

Build OS
Build OS

Forward Capability Backward Capability


Note: During testing, test engineers are finding Backward capability defects as maximum.

e) Configuration Testing:
It is also known as hardware compatibility testing. During this test, testing team validates whether
our application build supports different technology hardware devices are not?
EX: Different types of LANs, different topologies, different technology printers etc.
f) Inter System Testing:
It is also known as end to end testing. During this test, testing team validates whether our
application build co-existence with other existing softwares are not?
To share resources

EBD
Server
WBA Local
DB
TBA

ITA
New Server

New Application

g) Installation Testing:
During this test, testing team validates installation of our application build along with supported
softwares into customer site like configured systems. During this test, testing team observe below
factors:
Setup program execution to start installation.
Easy interface during installation.
Occupy disk space after installation.

h) Parallel Testing:
It is also known as comparative testing and applicable to software products only. During this test,
testing team compare our application build with competitors products in the market.

i) Sanitation Testing:

It is also known as garbage testing. During this test, testing team try to find extra features in our
application build w.r.t customer requirements.
Defect:
During testing, testing team reports defects to developers in terms of bellow categories.
Mismatch between expected and actual.
Missing functionality.
Extra functionality w.r.t CRS.

When defects are accepted by development team to solve, they called defects as BUGs.
Some times defects are known as issues. Defects raise in application due to errors in coding

3) Performance Testing:
It is an advanced testing technique and expensive to apply because testing team have to create huge
environment to conduct this testing. During this test, testing team validates Speed of Processing.
During this performance testing, testing team conduct below sub tests.
a) Load Testing:
The execution of our application under customer expected configuration and customer expected
load to estimate performance is called Load Testing.
b) Stress Testing:
Execution of our application under customer expected configuration and uninterval loads to
estimate performance is called stress testing.
c) Storage Testing:
The execution of application under huge amounts of resources to estimate storage limitations is
called Storage Testing.
Break Event Analysis

nce Threshold Point


ma
for
Per

Resources
EX: MS-Access 2 GB database as maximum.
d) Data Volume Testing:
The execution of our application under customer expected configuration to estimate peak limits of
data is called data volume testing.

4) Security Testing:
It is also an advanced testing technique and complex to conduct. During this security testing,
testing team validates Privacy to User Operations. During this test, testing team applies below
sub tests.
a) Authorization (Whether user is Authorised are not )
b) Access Control (Whether valid user have permission to specific service or not)
c) Encryption/Decryption (Data conversion in between Clint process and Server process)

Clint Server

Decryption Encryption Decryption Encryption

Note: In small and medium scale organisations, test engineers are covering Authorization and
Access Control during functional testing. Encryption and decryption process covered by
development people.
VI) User Acceptance Testing (UAT):
After completion of Functional & System testing, organization invites customer site people to
collect feedback. There are two methods to conduct UAT such as test and test.

TEST TEST
Software applications Software products
By real customers By customer site like people
In development site In customer site like environments
Collect Feed Back

VII) Testing During Maintenance:


After completion of User Acceptance Test and their modifications, management concentrates on
release team formation. This team consists of few developers, few testing & hardware engineers.
This team conducts Port Testing In Customer Site. During this test, release team validates below
factors.
Compact Installation
Overall functionality
I/P Devices handling
O/P Devices handling
OS error handling
Secondary storage handling
Coexistence with other software

After completion of port testing, release team provides training sessions to customer site people
and comes back.

During software maintenance customer site people are sending Change request (CR) to the
organization.

Change Request (CR)

Enhancement Missed Defect

CCB Impact Analysis Impact Analysis


(Change
Control
Board) Perform Change Perform Change

Test Software Change Change Test Process


Testing Terminology:

1. Monkey Testing / Chimpanzee Testing:

A tester conducts any test on basic functionalitys of application.

2. Exploratory Testing:

Level by level of functionalitys coverage is called exploratory testing.

3. Sanity Testing:

It is also known as Tester Acceptance Testing (TAT) or Build Verification Test (BVT).

After receiving build from development team, testing team estimates stability of that build before
starts testing.

4. Smoke Testing:

It is an extra shakeup in sanity process. In this test, tester try to trouble shoots when that build is
not working before start testing.

5. Big Bang Testing:(Informal Testing - Single Stage)

A testing team conducts single stage testing, after completion of entire system development instead
of multiple stages.

6. Incremental Testing:

A multiple stages of testing process from unit level to system level is called incremental testing. It
is also known as formal testing.

7. Manual Vs Automation:

A tester conducts any test on application build without using any Testing tool / Software is called
manual testing.

A tester conducts a test on application build with the help of Testing tool / Software is called
Automation testing.

In common testing process, test engineers are using test Automation w.r.t test Impact and
Criticality. Impact means that test repetition & Criticality means that complex to apply test
manually. Due to these two reasons, testing people are using test Automation.

8. Re-Testing :

The re-execution of a test with multiple test data to validate a function is called Re-Testing.
Ex: To validate multiplication, test engineers use different combination of inputs in terms of
Minimum, Maximum, Integer, Float, +ve and ve ect.
9. Regression Testing:

The re-execution of tests on modified build to ensure bug fix work and occurrences of side effects
called Regression Testing (Previously failed test and previously related passed tests).
Note:
1) Re-Testing on same build & regression testing on modified build but both are indicating re-
execution.
2) From the definitions of Re-Testing and Regression Testing, test repetition is mandatory in
test engineer job. Due to this reason test engineers are concentrating on test Automation.

10. Error, Defect and Bug:

A mistake in code is called Error. Due to errors in coding, test engineers are getting mismatches in
application called defects. If defected accepted by development to solve called Bug.
WINRUNNER 7.0

Developed by Mercury Interactive


Functionality Testing Tool
Supports Client / Server, Web applications ( V.B, VC++ , Java, Power Builder, D2K, Delphi,
HTML and Siebell)
To support .NET, SAP, People Soft, Oracle applications and multimedia we can use Quick Test
Professional(QTP)

TEST PROCESS:

Learning

Record Script

Edit Script

Run Script

Analyze Script
1. Learning:

Recognition of objets and windows in application by


WinRunner is called learning.
WinRunner 7.0 supports auto leaning.

2. Record Script:

Test engineer creates automated test script to record our business operations. WinRunner record
manual test operations in TSL (Test Script Language) like as C.

3. Edit Script:

Test engineers are inserting required check points into the record script.

4. Run Script:

During test execution, test engineers run the script instead of manual testing.

5. Analyze Results:

During automation script execution on application build, WinRunner returns results in terms of
passed & failed. Depends on that results, test engineers are concentrating on defect tracking.
Note: WinRunner only run on windows family operating systems. If we want to conduct
functionality testing on application build in Unix, Linex platform, we can use Xrunner

CASE STUDY:
Login

UID

Expected: OK P W D button enabled after filling UID & PWD.


OK
Manual Process:

Focus to login
OK Disabled
Enter UID
OK Disabled
Enter PWD
OK Enabled

Automation Process:

set_window(login, 5);
button_check_info(OK, enabled, 0);
edit_set(UID, xxxx);
button_check_info(OK, enabled, 0);
password_edit_set(PWD, encrypted PWD);
button_check_info(OK, enabled, 1);
button_press(OK);

Test Script :
An automated manual test program is called test script. This program consists of two types of
statements such as Navigational statements to operate project and Check points to conduct testing.
Add-In Manager (Window):
It lists out all possible supported technologies by WinRunner to conduct testing.
WinRunner Icons:

1. Start Recording
2. Run from top

3. Run from point.

4. Pause

Recording Modes:
WinRunner records manual operations in two types of modes such as Context Sensitive Mode and
Analog Mode.

a) Context Sensitive Mode:

In this mode WinRunner records mouse and keyboard operations w.r.t objects and windows in
application build. It is a default mode in WinRunner.

Focus to window set_window(window name, time to focus);


Click push button button_press(button name);
Fill edit box edit_set(text box, typed text);
Fill password password_edit_set(password, encrypted password);
Select item in list list_select_item(list box name, item);
Selection option in menu menu_select_item(menu name; option name);
Radio button button_set(radio button name, ON/OFF);
Check box button_set(check box name, ON/OFF);

Note: TSL is a case sensitive language and it allows entire scripting in lower case but maintains
Flags in upper case.

b) Analog Mode:

To record mouse pointer movements w.r.t desktop coordinates. We can use this mode in
WinRunner.

EX: Digital Signature, Graphs drawing and image movements.

To select Analog mode recording in WinRunner bellow possibilities can be used.

Click Start Recording Twice



Create menu Record Analog
Note :
1. In analog mode WinRunner records mouse pointer movements on the desktop w.r.t desktop
coordinates. Due to this reason test engineer maintains corresponding window in default
position during recording and running.
2. Test engineer also maintains monitor resolution as constant during recording and testing.
3. WinRunner maintains F2 as a shortkey to change from one mode to other.

Analog Recording:
In Analog mode WinRunner maintains bellow TSL statements.

1. move_locator_track( ); :

WinRunner use this function to record mouse pointer movements on the desktop in one unit (one
sec) of time.

Syntax:
move_locator_track(Track No);
By default track no starts with 1.

2. mtype( ); :

WinRunner use this function to record mouse operation on the desktop.

Syntax:
mtype(<T track no><kleft/kright>+/-);

Ttrack no where mouse operation on desktop


+/- Release/Hold key

3. type( ); :

WinRunner use this function to record keyboard operations in Analog mode.

Syntax:
type(Typed text / ASCII notation);

CHECK POINTS:
After completion of required navigation recording, test engineers are insisting check points into the
script to cover below sub tests.

1. Behavioral Coverage
2. I/P Domine coverage
3. Error handling coverage
4. Calculation coverage
5. Backend coverage
6. Service levels coverage

To automate above sub tests, we can use four types of checkpoints in WinRunner.

1. GUI check point


2. Bigmap Check point
3. Database check point.
4. Text Check point.

a) GUI Check Point:


To test properties of objects, we can use this checkpoint in WinRunner. This checkpoint consists of
3 sub options

a) For Single property


b) For Object / Window
c) For Multiple Objects

a) For Single Property:

To verify one property of one object, we can use this option.

Example:

Object: Update

Focus to window Disabled


Open a record Disabled
Perform a Change Enabled

Navigation:

Select position in script Create menu GUI check point For single property Select
testable object select required property with expected Click Paste.

Test Script

set_window("Flight Reservation", 4);


button_check_info("Update Order","enabled",0);
menu_select_item ("File;Open Order...");
set_window ("Open Order", 1);
button_set ("Order No.", ON);
edit_set ("Edit", "1");
button_press ("OK");
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 7);
button_check_info("Update Order","enabled",0);
button_set ("Business", ON);
button_check_info("Update Order","enabled",1);
button_press ("Update Order");

Example :
Sample
Input Expecting:
Focus to window
input is focused
OK OK disabled
Fill input
OK enabled
Create script.
Script

set_window ( sample , 4);


edit_check_info (input , focused,1);
button_check_info ( OK , enabled ,0);
edit_set ( input , XXXX );
button_check_info ( OK , enabled ,1);
button_press ( OK );

Example 3:
Student Expected:
Focus to window
Roll No Roll No focused
Name OK disabled
Select Roll No
OK
Name focused
OK disabled
Enter Name
OK enabled

Script

set_window ( Student , 5 );
edit_check_info ( Roll NO , focused , 1);
button_check_info ( OK , enabled , 0);
list_select_item ( Roll No , XXXX );
edit_check_info ( Name , focused , 1);
button_check_info ( OK , enabled , 0);
edit_set ( Name , XXXX );
button_check_info ( OK , enabled , 1);
button_press ( OK );

Case Study:
Object Type Testable Properties
Push Button Enabled, Focused
Radio Button Enabled Status
Check Box Enabled Status
List / Combo Box Enabled, Focused, Count, Value.
Menu Enable, Count
Table Grid Rows Count, Column Count, Table Content
Enabled, Focused, Value, Range, Regular
Edit Box / Text Box
Expression, Date Format, Time format.

Example 4:

Journey
Expected:
Fly
No ofFrom
items in Fly To equal to
No
of items in Fly From-1, when you
select 1 item in Fly From.
Fly TO set_window(Journey, 5);
list_select_item(Fly From, xxxx);
list_get_info(Fly From, count, n);
list_check_info(Fly To, count, n-1);

Example 5:
Sample 1 Sample 2

Display
List
OK Text Box

Expected :
Selected item in list box is equal to text box value when you click display.

set_window(Sample 1, 5);
list_select_item(Item, xxxx);
list_get_info(Item, value, x);
button_press(OK);
set_window(Sample 2, 5);
button_press(Display);
edit_check_info(Text, value, x);

Example 6:
Roll No
Student
OK
Percentage

Grade
Expected :

If % is > 80, Than grade A


If % is < 80 & > 70 Than grade B
If % is < 70 & > 60 Than grade C
Other wise Grade is D.

set_window(Student, 5);
list_select_item(Roll No, xxx);
button_press(OK);
edit_get_info(Percentage, value, P);
if (P > = 80)
edit_check_info(grade, value, A);
else if (P < 80 && P > = 70)
edit_check_info(grade, value, B);
else if (P < 70 && P > = 60)
edit_check_info(grade, value, C);
else
edit_check_info(grade, value, D);
Example 7:
Insurance
Expected :
Type If type is A Age is focused
If type is B Gender is focused
Age
Any other type Qualification is focused
Gender
Qualification

set_window(Insurance, 5);
list_select_item(Type, X);
list_get_info(Type, Value, x);
if (x = = A)
edit_check_info(Age, focused , 1);
else if (x = = B)
list_check_info(Gender, focused , 1);
else
list_check_info(Qualification, focused , 1);

a) For Object / Window:

To test more than one properties of single object, we can use this option.

Example 8:

Object : Update Order

Focus to window disabled


Open record disabled
Perform Change enabled, focused

Navigation:

Select Position Script Create Menu GUI check point For Object or Window Select
testable object(Double Click) Select required property with expected click OK.

Syntax:
obj_check_gui(object name, checklist file.ckl, expected values file, Time to create)

In the above syntax checklist file specifies list of properties to be tested. Expected values file
specifies expected values for those properties. This two files created by WinRunner during
checkpoint creation.

set_window ("Flight Reservation", 3);


obj_check_gui("Update Order", "list2.ckl", "gui2", 1);
menu_select_item ("File;Open Order...");
set_window ("Open Order", 1);
button_set ("Order No.", ON);
edit_set ("Edit", "1");
button_press ("OK");
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 3);
obj_check_gui("Update Order", "list4.ckl", "gui4", 1);
button_set ("First", ON);
obj_check_gui("Update Order", "list5.ckl", "gui5", 1);
button_press ("Update Order");

For Multiple Objects:

To verify more than one properties of more than one objects, we are using this checkpoint in
WinRunner.

Example 9:
Objects Insert Order Update Order Delete Order
Focus to window Disabled Disabled Disabled
Open a record Disabled Disabled Enabled
Perform change Disabled Enabled, Focused Enabled

Navigation:

Select position in script create menu GUI check point for multiple objects click add
select testable objects right click to quit selected require properties with expected for every
object click OK.

Syntax:
win_check_gui(window, checklist file.ckl, expected values file, Time to create)

set_window ("Flight Reservation", 2);


win_check_gui("Flight Reservation", "list4.ckl", "gui4", 1);
menu_select_item ("File;Open Order...");
set_window ("Open Order", 1);
button_set ("Order No.", ON);
edit_set ("Edit", "1");
button_press ("OK");
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 2);
win_check_gui("Flight Reservation", "list2.ckl", "gui2", 1);
button_set ("Business", ON);
win_check_gui("Flight Reservation", "list3.ckl", "gui3", 1);
button_press ("Update Order");

Example 10:

Sample
Age Expected:
Range 16 to 80 years

Create menu gui check point for object or window select age object select range
property enter from & to values click OK.

set_window(sample, 5);
obj_check_gui(Age, list1.ckl, gui1, 1);

Example 11:
Sample

Name Expected : Alphabets in lower case

Navigation:

Create menu gui check point for obj/win select name obj select regular expression
enter expected expression ( [a-z]*) click OK.

set_window(sample, 1);
obj_check_gui(name, list1.ckl, gui1, 1);

list1.ckl regular expression


gui1 [q-z]*

Example 12:

Name object is taking alphabets

Regular expression [a-zA-Z]*

Example 13:

Name object is taking alphanumerics, but first character is alphabet

[a-zA-Z] [a-zA-Z0-9]*

Example 14:

Name object is taking alphabets only but it allows _ as middle.


[a-zA-Z] [a-zA-Z_]* [a-zA-Z]
Example 15:

Regular expression for yahoo user ID.

Example 16:

Name object allows alphabets in lower case and that value starts with R and end with O.

[R][a-z]*[O]

Example 17:

Prepare Regular expression for the following text box. A text box allows 12 digit numbers along
with * as mandatory and sometimes it allows also.

[[0-9][*]]*

Editing Check Points:


During test execution test engineers are getting test results in terms of passed & failed. These
results analyzed by test engineers before concentrating on defect tracking along with developers. In
this review test engineers are performing changes in checkpoints due to their mistakes or changes
in project requirements.

a) Changes in expected values:

Due to test engineer mistake or requirement change, test engineers perform changes in expected
values through below navigation.

Navigation:

Run script Open result Change expected value Re-execute test to get correct results.

b) Add extra properties:

Some times test engineers are adding extra properties to existing checkpoints due to tester mistake
or requirement enhancements.

Navigation:

Create menu Edit GUI check list select checklist file name click OK select new
properties to test click OK Click OK to overwrite click OK after reading suggestion
Change run mode to update click run run in verify mode to get results open the result
analyze the result and perform changes required.

2. Bitmap Check Point:


To validate static images in our application build, test engineers are using this checkpoint.
Ex: Logos testing, Graphs comparison, Signature comparison etc..

This Check point consists of two sub options:

a) For Object or Window


b) For Screen Area.

a) For Object or Window:

To compare our expected image with actual image in our application build, we can use this option.

Example1:
dd New

. .

$ $
Expected Actual

= = Pass
! = fail

Example2:

10000
10000
5000
5000
0
No of items = 10000 0
Expected No of items = 10005
Actual

= = Fail
! = pass

Navigation:

Create menu Bitmap checkpoint for object or window selected expected image (double
Click).

Syntax:
obj_check_bitmap(Image object name, Image file name.bmp, Time to create);

b) For Screen Area:


To compare our expected image area with actual, we can use this option.
Navigation:

Create menu bitmap checkpoint for screen area select required image region right click
to release.
Syntax:
obj_check_bitmap(Image object name, Image file name.bmp, Time to create, x, y, width,
height);
Note:
1) TSL functions supports variable size of parameters to call like as c language.(No
functional overloading)
ARITY no of arguments in a function.

2) In functionality test automation GUI checkpoint is mandatory but bitmap check point is
optional because all applications doesnt allows images as contents.

3) Database Check Point:


Back end testing is a part of functionality testing. It is also known as Database Testing.
During testing test engineers are validating impact of front-end operations on back end tables
content in terms of data validation and data integrity. Data validation means that weather the front-
end side values are correctly storing into back end tables are not. Data Integrity means that weather
the impact of front end operations working on back end table contents (Updating / Deletion ).

To automate above backend testing using WinRunner, test engineers are following database
checkpoint concept in create menu.

In this backend test automation, test engineers are collecting this information from development
team.

DSN(Data Source Name)


Tables definitions D D D (Database Design Document)
Forms Vs Tables
Depending on above information, test engineers are using database checkpoint in WinRunner to
automate back end testing.

DSN
Front End

1
Database Check Excel Sheet
Point Wizard 2 Select
3 x x x

Step 1: Connect to Database


Step 2: Execute Select Statement
Step 3: Provide results into Excel Sheet to analyze.
Database checkpoint consists of three sub options such as
a) Default Check
b) Custom Check
c) Run Time Record Check

a) Default Check:

Test Engineers are conducting back end testing depending upon database tables contents using this
checkpoint.

Create database checkpoint (Current Content of tables as expected)


Perform Insert/ Delete / Update through front end. = = Fail
Executive database check point (Current content of tables selected as actual) ! = Pass
(May be)
Navigation:
Create menu database check point default check Specify connection to database using
ODBC (Local Database) / Data Junction( For remote database or distributed database) Select
specify SQL statement ( C:\ Program files \ Mercury interactive \ WinRunner \ Temp \ test name \
msqr1.sql) click next click create to select DSN ( EX. Machine data source Flight 32)
Write select statement ( EX. Select * from orders;) click finish.
Syntax:
db_check(Check list file name.cdl, Query result file name.xls);

In the above syntax checklist specifies content is the property. Query result file specifies results of
the query in terms of content.

b) Custom Check:

Test engineers are conducting backend testing depending on rows contents, column contents and
content of database tables.
But test engineers are not using this option because default check content also showing no of rows
and column names.

c) Run Time Record Check:


To find mapping between front-end objects and backend columns test engineers are using this
option. It is optional checkpoint in tester job, because test engineers are using this checkpoint when
they got mismatch between front-end objects and backend columns.

From Expected :
a b
X 10
DSN Xa
20 20
Y Yb
30
40 50
To automate above like mapping testing, test engineers are using Run Time Record Checkpoint in
WinRunner.

Navigation:
Create menu database checkpoint runtime record check click next click create to select
DSN write select statement with doubtful columns (ex: select orders.order_number,
orders.customer_name from orders) click next select doubtful front end objects for that
columns click next select any one of three options ( exactly one matching record, one or
more matching records and no matching records) click finish.

Syntax :
db_record_check(check list file name.crr, DVR_ONE_MATCH /
DVR_ONE_OR_MORE_MATCH / DVR_NO_MATCH, Variable);

In the above syntax checklist file specifies expected mapping between back end columns and
front end objects.
Flags specifies type of matching
Variable specifies that number of records matched

for(i=1; i<=5; i++)


{
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 3);
menu_select_item ("File;Open Order...");
set_window ("Open Order", 1);
button_set ("Order No.", ON);
edit_set ("Edit", "1");
button_press ("OK");
db_record_check("list1.cvr", DVR_ONE_OR_MORE_MATCH,
record_num);
}
Note: Runtime Record Checkpoint does not allow ; at the end of the select statement. It is a
new concept in WinRunner 7.0.

4. Text Check Point:


To conduct calculations and other text based tests, we can use get_text option in WinRunner. This
option consists of two sub options.

a) From object or Window


b) From Screen Area

a) From object or Window:

To capture object values in to variable we are using this option.

Navigation:

Create menu Get text From Object / window Select object (D Click).

Syntax:
obj_get_text(name of the object, Variable);

Note: Above function is same as

edit_get_info(edit box name, Value, variable);

Example :
Sample
Expected :
Input
Out put = In Put * 100

Out put

set_window(sample, 5);
obj_get_text(input,x);
obj_get_text(output,y);
if(y = = x * 100)
printf(test is pass);
else
printf(test is fail);

b) From Screen Area:

To capture static text from screen area we can use this option.

Navigation:
Create menu get text from screen area select required region right click to release.

Syntax:
obj_get_text(object name, variable, x1, y1, x2, y2 );

Example 1:

Getting text from object / window by using sub strings to cut some area of string.

set_window(flight reservation, 5);


obj_get_text(tickets, t);
obj_get_text(price, p);
p = substr( p , 2, length(p) - 1);
obj_get_text(total, tot);
tot = substr(tot , 2, length(tot) - 1);

if (tot = = t * p)
printf(test is pass);
else
printf(test is fail);

Example 2:
Shopping
Expected: Total = price * qty
QTY xx

Price Rs:xxx/-
Total Rs:xxx/-

set_window(shopping);
obj_get_text(QTY, q);
obj_get_text(price, p);
p=substr(p,4,length(p)-5);
obj_get_text(Total, tot);
tot=substr(tot,4,length(tot)-5);
if (tot = = q * p)
printf(test is pass);
else
printf(test is fail);

tl_step( ):

To create our own pass / fail result in result window, we can use this statement.

Syntax:
tl_step(step name, 0 / 1, description);

in the above syntax tl stands for test log(test results).


0 / 1 : 0 pass, 1(non zero) fail

Data Driven Test (DDT):


DDT is nothing but a retest. To executive one test more than one time on same application build
with multiple test data.

There are four types of DDT tests to validate functionality testing.

a) Dynamic Test Data Submission.


b) Through Flat Files (.Txt)
c) From Front End Grits ( List, Menu, Table, ActiveX And Data Window)
d) Through Excel Sheet

a) Dynamic Test Data Submission:


Some times test engineers are conducting re-testing depends on multiple test data through manual
submission.

Key Test Data


BUILD
Board

From the above model test engineers are submitting test data through keyboard. To record value
from keyboard during test execution, we can use below TSL statement.

Syntax:
create_input_dialog(message);

Example 1:
for(i=1; i<=5; i++)
{
x = creat_input_dialog( Enter order No);
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 3);
menu_select_item ("File;Open Order...");
set_window ("Open Order", 1);
button_set ("Order No.", ON);
edit_set ("Edit_1", x);
button_press ("OK");
}

Example 2:
Multiply
Expected:
Input 1 Result = input 1 * input 2
Test data in paper: 10 pairs of inputs
Input 2

OK

Result

for(i=1; i<=10; i++)


{
x = creat_input_dialog( Enter Input 1);
y = creat_input_dialog( Enter Input 2);
set_window ("Multiply", 3);
edit_set ("Input 1", x);
edit_set ("Input 2", y);
button_press ("OK");
obj_get_text(result, temp);

if(temp = = X * Y)

tl_step(step,0, Pass);

else

tl_step(step,1,fail);
}

Example 3:

Shopping
Item No Expected:

QTY Total = Price * QTY

OK Test data in paper : 10 pairs of item no and


QTY
Price $ Total $

for ( i = 1; I<=10; i++ )


{
x = create_input_dialog(Enter Item No);
y = create_input_dialog(Enter QTY);
set_window(Shopping, 5);
edit_set(Item No, x);
edit_set(QTY, y);
button_press(OK);
obj_get_text(Price, p);
p = substr(p,2,length(p)-1);
obj_get_text(Total, tot);
tot = substr(tot,2,length(tot)-1);
if (tot = p * y)
tl_step(step1, 0 ,Test is pass);
else
tl_step(step1, 1, Test is fail);
}
Example 4:

Login
Expected:
User ID
If next enabled user is authorised
Pwd If next is disabled user is unauthorised

OK Next Test data in paper : 10 pairs of user IDs


& Passwords.

for(i=1; i<=10; i++)


{
x = create_input_dialog(Enter User ID);
y = create_input_dialog(Enter Pwd);
set_window(Login,5);
edit_set(User ID, x);
password_edit_set(Pwd, passwore_encrypt(y));
button_press(OK);
button_get_info(next, enabled, n);
if ( n = = 1)
tl_step(step1, 0, User is Authorised);
else
tl_step(step1, 1, User is Unauthorised);
}

b) Through Flat Files:

Some times test engineers are conducting re-testing depends on multiple test data from flat file.

Test Data
BUILD

. txt
Test Screen
To prepare above model automated test scripts, test engineers are using few file functions in
WinRunner.

1. file_open( ):

we can use this function to open file into RAM with required permissions.
Syntax:
file_open(File Path, FO_MODE_READ / FO_MODE_WRITE / FO_MODE_APPEND);

2. file_getline( ):

We can use this function to read a line from opened file in READ MODE.

Syntax :
file_getline(path of file, Variable);

Note: in TSL file pointer incremented automatically up to end of file.

3. file_close( ):

we can use this function to sweep out a opened file from Ram .

Syntax:
file_close(path of file);

Example1:

f="c:\\My Documents data.txt";


file_open(f,FO_MODE_READ);
while(file_getline(f,s) !=E_FILE_EOF)
{
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 5);
menu_select_item ("File;Open Order...");
set_window ("Open Order", 2);
button_set ("Order No.", ON);
edit_set ("Edit",s);
button_press ("OK");
}
file_close(f):

Example 2:
Multiply

Input 1 Expected:
Result = input 1 * input 2
Input 2 Test data in file: c:\\My Documents data.txt

OK xx xxx
xxx xxxx
xxx xxx
Result .
..

f="c:\\My Documents data.txt";


file_open(f,FO_MODE_READ);
while(file_getline(f,s) !=E_FILE_EOF)
{
split(s,x );
set_window ("Multiply", 3);
edit_set ("Input 1", x[1]);
edit_set ("Input 2", x[2]);
button_press ("OK");
obj_get_text(result, temp);

if(temp = = x[1] * x[2])

tl_step(step,0,Pass);

else

tl_step(step,1, fail);
}
file_close(f);

Example 3:

Shopping
Item No Expected:
Total = Price * QTY
QTY
Test data in file: c:\\My Documents data.txt
OK
Ram purchase 101 items as 10 pieces
Price $ Total $

f="c:\\My Documents data.txt";


file_open(f,FO_MODE_READ);
while(file_getline(f,s) !=E_FILE_EOF)
{
split(s,x );
set_window(Shopping, 5);
edit_set(Item No, x[3]);
edit_set(QTY, x[6]);
button_press(OK);
obj_get_text(Price, p);
p = substr(p,2,length(p)-1);
obj_get_text(Total, tot);
tot = substr(tot,2,length(tot)-1);
if (tot = p * x[6])
tl_step(step1, 0 ,Test is pass);
else
tl_step(step1, 1, Test is fail);
}
file_close(f);
Example 4:

Login
Expected:
User ID
If next enabled user is authorised
Pwd If next is disabled user is unauthorised
Test data in file: c:\\My Documents data.txt
OK Next xxxx@xxx xx

f="c:\\My Documents data.txt";


file_open(f,FO_MODE_READ);
while(file_getline(f,s) !=E_FILE_EOF)
{
split(s,x @);
split(x[2],y, );
set_window(Login,5);
edit_set(User ID, x[1]);
password_edit_set(Pwd, passwore_encrypt(y[2]));
button_press(OK);
button_get_info(next, enabled, n);
if ( n = = 1)
tl_step(step1, 0, User is Authorised);
else
tl_step(step1, 1, User is Unauthorised);
}
file_close( );

4. file_printf( ):

We can use this function to print specified text into a file. If file is opened in WRITE / APPEND
MODE.

Syntax :

file_printf(Path of file, format, values / variables);

EX:
a b
xx xx a = xx and b == xx

file_printf(xxxx, a = %d and b = %d, a, b);


5. file_compare( ):

We can use this function to compare two files content.

Syntax:
file_compare(path of file1, path of file2, path of file3);

In the above syntax third argument is optional. It specifies concatenated content of both compared
files.

c) From Front-end Grids:

Some times test engineers are conducting re-testing depends on multiple data objects such as list,
menu, ActiveX, table, data window.

Test Data

BUILD

Test Screen
Example 1:

Journey
Expected:
Fly Fromitem does not availablein
Selected
fly to.
Fly TO set_window(Journey, 5);
list_get_info(Fly From, count, n);
for(i=0; i<n; i++)
{
list_get_item(Fly From, i, x);
list_select_item(Fly From, x);
if (list_select_item(Fly To, x) !=E_OK)
tl_step(step, 0 , Does no appears);
else
tl_step(step, 1 , Appears and Test is fail );
}

In WinRunner every TSL returns E_OK when the statement successfully executed on our
build.

Example 2:
Sample 1 Sample 2

Display
Name
OK Text

Expected :
Selected item in list box appears in text box as below model
My Name is XXXXX.

set_window(Sample 1, 5);
list_get_info(Name, count, n);

for(i=0; i<n; i++)


{
set_window(Sample 1, 5);
list_get_item(Name, i , x);
list_select_item(Name, x);
button_press(OK);
set_window(Sample 2, 5);
button_press(Display);
obj_get_text(Text, temp);
if ( temp = = My Name is & x)
tl_step(step, 0 , Test is Pass);
else
tl_step(step, 1 , Test is fail);
}

Note: In TSL & = Concatenated (Adding two words etc.)

Example 3:

Employee
Expected:
EMP No
If bsal >= 15000 than gsal = bsal + 10% of bsal
OK If bsal < 15000 and > = 8000 than gsal = bsal +
bsal gsal 5% of bsal
If bsal < 8000 than gsal = bsal + 200

set_window(Employee,5);
list_get_info(EMP No, count, n);

for (i = 0; i < n; i++)


{
list_get_item(EMP No, i,x);
list_select_item(EMP No, x);
button_press(OK);
obj_get_text(bsal, b);
obj_get_text(gsal, g);
if ( b > = 15000 && g ==b+b*10/100)
tl_step(step1, 0 , Calculation is Pass);
else if ( b < 15000 && b >= 8000 && g == b+b*5/100)
tl_step(step1, 0 , Calculation is Pass);
else if ( b < 8000 && g == b+200)
tl_step(step1, 0 , Calculation is Pass);
else
tl_step(step1, 1 , Calculation is fail);
}

Example 4:
Insurance
Expected :
Type If type is A Age is focused
If type is B Gender is focused
Age
Any other type Qualification is focused
Gender
Qualification

set_window(Insurance, 5);
list_get_info(Type, count, n);
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
{
list_get_item(Type, i,x);
list_select_item(Type, x);
if (x == A)
edit_check_info(Age, focused , 1);
else if (x == B)
list_check_info(Gender, focused , 1);
else
list_check_info(Qualification, focused , 1);
}
Example 5:
AUDIT
File_store
Expected:
S.NoFile
PathTypeSize1XX10kb2XX20kb3XX30kb4X Total = Sum of size column
X40kb5xx50kb
Total

xxxkb

Sum = 0
set_window(AUDIT, 5);
tbl_get_rows_count(file_store, n);

for ( i=1; i<n; i++)


{
tbl_get_cell_data(file_store, #&I, #3, s);
s=substr(s,1,length(s)-2)
sum = sum + s
}
obj_get_text(Total, tot);
tot=substr(tot,1,length(tot)-2);

if (tot == sum)
tl_step(step1, 0 , calculation is pass);
else
tl_step(step1, 1 , calculation is fail);

6. list_get_item( ):

We can use this function to capture specified list item through Item number. Here item
number starts with 0.

Syntax:
list_get_item(list box name, Item No, Variable);

7. tbl_get_rows_count( ):

We can use this function to find no of rows in table grid.

Syntax:
tbl_get_rows_count(Table grid name, variable ):

8. tbl_get_cell_data( ):

We can use this function to capture specified cell value into a variable through row no &
column no.
Syntax:
tbl_get_cell_data(Table Grid name, # row no, # column no, variable);

d) Through Excel Sheet:

In general testing engineers are conducting data driven test using Excel Sheet data. This
method is default method in data driven testing. To create this type of automated script
WinRunner provides special navigation.

Navigation:

Create test for one script tools menu dada driven wizard click next browse the
path of excel sheet (c:\PF\MI\WR\Temp\testname\default.xls) specify variable name to
assignee path (by default table) select import data from database click next select
type of data base connection (ODBC or Data Junction) select specify SQL statement
(c:\PF\MI\WR\Temp\testname\msqrl.sql) click next click create to select data source
name write SQL statement (select order_number from order) click next select
excel sheet column names in required place of test script select show data table now
click finish click run analyse results manually

Example1:

table = "default.xls";
rc = ddt_open(table, DDT_MODE_READWRITE);
if (rc!= E_OK && rc != E_FILE_OPEN)
pause("Cannot open table.");
ddt_update_from_db(table, "msqr1.sql", count);
ddt_save(table);
ddt_get_row_count(table,n);
for(i = 1; i < = n; i++)
{
ddt_set_row(table,i);
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 6);
menu_select_item ("File;Open Order...");
set_window ("Open Order", 1);
button_set ("Order No.", ON);
edit_set ("Edit", ddt_val(table,"order_number"));
button_press ("OK");
}
ddt_close(table);

1. ddt_open( ):

We can use this function to open a test data excel sheet into RAM with specified
permissions.

Syntax:
ddt_open(path of excel file, DDT_MODE_READ / READWRITE);

2. ddt_update_from_db( ):

We can use this function to extend excel sheet data w.r.t changes in database.

Syntax:
ddt_update_from_db(path of excel file, path of query file, variable);

3. ddt_save( ):

We can use this function to save excel sheet modifications permanently.

Syntax:
ddt_save(Path of excel sheet);

4. ddt_get_row_count( ):

We can use this function to find total no of rows in excel sheet.

Syntax:
ddt_get_row_count(path of excel sheet, variable);

5. ddt_set_row( ):

We can use this function to point a row in excel sheet.

Syntax:
ddt_set_row(path of excel sheet, row no);

6. ddt_val( ):

We can use this function to capture specified column value from a pointed row.

Syntax:
ddt_val(path of excel sheet, column name);

7. ddt_set_val( ):

We can use this function to write a value into excel sheet column.

Syntax:
ddt_set_val(path of excel sheet, column name, value / variable);

8. ddt_close( ):

We can use this function to swapout a open excel sheet from RAM.
Syntax:
ddt_close(path of excel sheet);
Example 2:

Prepare data driven test script for below scenario.


default.xls
Input1 Input2 Result
xx xx
xx xx
xx xx
xx xx
Expected: Result should be written in excel sheet ( Input1 + Input2)

table = "default.xls";
rc = ddt_open(table, DDT_MODE_READWRITE);
if (rc!= E_OK && rc != E_FILE_OPEN)
pause("Cannot open table.");
ddt_get_row_count(table,n);
for(i = 1; i <= n; i ++)
{
ddt_set_row(table,i);
a=ddt_val(table,"Input1");
b=ddt_val(table,"Input2");
c=a+b
ddt_set_val(table,"result",c);
ddt_save(table);
}
ddt_close(table);

Example 3:

Prepare test script for below scenario.


default.xls
Input Result Expected:
xx Factorial of input in the result
xx
xx
xx

table = "default.xls";
rc = ddt_open(table, DDT_MODE_READWRITE);
if (rc!= E_OK && rc != E_FILE_OPEN)
pause("Cannot open table.");
ddt_get_row_count(table,n);
for(i = 1; i <= n; i++)
{
ddt_set_row(table,i);
x=ddt_val(table,"input");
fact=1;
for(j = x; j >= 1;j--)
fact=fact*j
ddt_set_val(table,"result",fact);
ddt_save(table);
}
ddt_close(table);

Example4:

Prepare test script to print a list box values into a flat file one by one.

f="c:\My Documents\sm.txt";
file_open(f,FO_MODE_WRITE);
set_window ("Flight Reservation",10);
list_get_info("Fly From:", "count",n);
for(i=0; i<n; i++)
{
list_get_item("Fly From:",i,x);
file_printf(f,"%s\r\n",x);
}
file_close(f);

Example4:

Prepare test script to print a list box values into a excel sheet one by one.

f="c:\My Documents\sm.xls";
file_open(f,FO_MODE_WRITE);
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 10);
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 13);
list_get_info("Fly From:", "count", n);
for(i=0; i<n; i++)
{
list_get_item ("Fly From:",i,x);
file_printf(f,"%s\n",x);
}
file_close(f);

Synchronization Point:

To maintain time mapping between testing tool and application build during test execution, we can
use this concepts.

1. wait ( ):

This function defines fixed waiting time during test execution.


Syntax:
wait( time in seconds);

2. For Object / Window Property :

WinRunner waits until specified object property is equal to our expected value.

Navigation:
Select position in script create menu synchronization point for object / window property
select indicator object (Ex: Status or progress bar) select required property with expected
(100% enabled, <100% disabled) specify maximum time to wait click paste.

Syntax:
obj_wait_info(object Name, property, Expected value, maximum time to wait);

3. For Object / Window Bitmap:

Some times test engineers are defining time mapping between tool and application depends on
Images also.

Navigation:
Select position in script create menu synchronization point for object/window Bitmap
select indicator image (D click).

Syntax:
obj_wait_bitmap(Image object name, Image file name.bmp, maximum time to wait);

4. For Screen Area Bitmap:

Some times test engineers are defining time mapping between testing tool and application depends
on part of images also.

Navigation:
Select position in script create menu synchronization point for screen area Bitmap
select required image region right click to release.
Syntax:
obj_wait_bitmap(Image object name, Image file name.bmp, maximum time to wait, x, y,
width, height);

5. Change Runtime Settings:


During test script execution, recording time values are not useful. During running, WinRunner
depends on two runtime parameters. Test engineers are performing changes in the parameters if
required.

Delay for window synchronization 1000 msec(Default)


Timeout to execute context sensitive and checkpoints - 10000m,sed (Default)

Navigation:
Settings menu general options change delay and time out depends on requirements click
apply click ok.

BATCH TESTING

The sequential execution of more than one test to validate functionality is called batch testing. To
increase intention of bugs finding during test execution, batch testing is suitable criteria. The test
batch is also known as test suit or test set. Every test batch consists of a set of multiple dependent
tests. In every test batch end stage of one test is base state of next test.
To create this type of batches in WinRunner, we can use below statements.

a) call testname( );
b) call path of test( );
We can use first syntax when corresponding calling & called tests both in same folder.
We can use second syntax when calling & called tests both are in different folders.

Example 1:
Test case1 Successful order open
Test case2 Successful up-dation.

Example 2:
Test case1 Successful new user registration.
Test case2 Successful login
Test case3 Successful mail open.
Test case4 Successful mail reply

Example 3:
Test case1 Successful order open
Test case2 Successful calculation.
call subtest( );

Sub test / Called test


Main test / Calling test
Parameter Passing:
To transmit values between one test to other test, we can use parameter passing concepts in batch
testing.

X
xx

call subtest(xx );
edit_set(edit, x);

Sub test / Called test


Main test / Calling test

From the above model sub test maintains parameters to receive values from main test. To create
this type of parameters we can follow bellow navigation.

Navigation:
Open sub test file menu test properties click parameter tab click add to create new
properties enter parameter name with description click ok click add to create more
parameters click ok use that parameter in required place of test script.

DATA DRIVEN BATCH:

X
xx
inputXXXXXX
Default.xls call subtest(xx );
edit_set(edit, x);

Sub test / Called test


Main test / Calling test

Main Test:
table = "default.xls";
rc = ddt_open(table, DDT_MODE_READ);
if (rc!= E_OK && rc != E_FILE_OPEN);
pause("Cannot open table.");
ddt_get_row_count(table,n);
for(i = 1; i <= n; i ++)
{
ddt_set_row(table,i);
temp=ddt_val(table,"input");
call subsri(temp);
set_window("Flight Reservation",1);
obj_get_text("Tickets:",t);
obj_get_text("Price:",p);
p=substr(p,2,length(p)-1);
obj_get_text("Total:",tot);
tot=substr(tot,2,length(tot)-1);
if(tot==p*t)
tl_step("s1",0,"test is pass");
else
tl_step("s1",1,"test is fail");
}
ddt_close(table);

Sub Test:
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 2);
menu_select_item ("File;Open Order...");
set_window ("Open Order", 1);
button_set ("Order No.", ON);
edit_set ("Edit", x);
button_press ("OK");
set_window("Flight Reservation",1);
obj_get_text("Name:",t);
if(t= =" ")
pause("cannot open record");

treturn( ); :

We can use this function to return a value from sub test to main test.

Syntax:
treturn( Value / Variable);

Note: It allows only one value to return.


X
xx
inputXXXXXx
Default.xls t=call subtest(xx );
if (condition)
if(t= =1) treturns(1);
{ else
treturns(0);
}
else
continue; Sub test / Called test

Main test / Calling test

Silent Mode:
WinRunner allows you to continue test execution when a Checkpoint is fail also. To define this
type of situation we can follow below navigation.

Navigation:
Select Menu general options run tab select run in batch mode click apply click ok.

Note: When WinRunner in silent mode, tester interactive statements are not working.
EX: create_input_dialog(xxxxx);

Public Variables :

To access a single variable in more than one tests in a batch.

Syntax:
public variable;

Note: By default variables are local in TSL scripts.

FUNCTION GENERATOR:

It is a list of TSL functions library. In this library TSL functions classified into category wise. To
search required TSL function below navigation

Create menu insert function From function generator select required category select
required function based on description fill arguments click past.

Example 1:

Clipboard Testing
A tester conducts test on selected part of an object.
set_window(login, 5);
edit_get_selection(Agent Name,v);
Printf(v);

Syntax:
edit_get_selection(Name of edit box, variable);

Example 2:

Window Existence Test:

Whether specified window is available on desk top or not.

Syntax:
win_exists(window name, time);

In above syntax time specifies delay before, test existence of window.


This function returns E_OK if window exists else E_NOT_FOUND.

Case Study:
Fail pass

test 1 sample window

test 2

test 3

test 4

call test 1( );
if(win_exists(sample, 0) = = E_OK)
call test 2( );
call test 3( );
call test 4( );
else
call test 3( );
call test 4( );

Example 3:

Open Project:

WinRunner allows you to open a project during test execution.(System Category).

Syntax:
invoke_application(Path of .exe, Command, Working Directory, SW_SHOW /
SW_SHOWMINIMISE / SW_SHOWMAXIMISE);

Example 4:

Search TSL function to print System Date?


Example 5:

Search TSL function to print time out.

Syntax:
getvar(timeout_msec);

X = getvar(timeout_msec);
printf(X);

Example 6:

Search TSL function to change time out with out using settings menu.

Syntax:
setvar(time out, time in sec);

Example 7:

Search TSL function to print parent path of WinRunner.

Example 8:

Search TSL function to print path of current test.

Example 9:

Execute Prepared Query:

WinRunner allows you to execute prepared queries. A prepared query consists of variable in
structure of that query, this query also known as dynamic query.

Front End DSN Back End

TSL Script

db_connect( ); Prepared select Statement


db_execute_query( );
db_write_records( );
Excel / Flat file
db_connect( ):

We can use this function to connect database using existing DSN.

Syntax:

db_connect(session Name, DSN=****);

In above syntax session name indicates allocated resources to user when he connected to database.

db_execute_query( ):

We can use this function to execute specified select statement on that connected database.

Syntax:
db_execute_query(session name, select statement, variable);

In above syntax variable specifies no of rows selected after execution of that statement.

db_write_records( ):

We can use this function to copy query result into specified file.

db_write_records(session name, destination file path, TRUE / FALSE, NO_LIMIT);

In above syntax TRUE indicates query result with header and FALSE indicates query result with
out header.

NO_LIMIT specifies that no restrictions on query result size.

Note : These three functions available in database category.

Example:

x=create_input_dialog("enter limit");
db_connect("query1","DSN=Flight32");
db_execute_query("query1","select * from orders where
order_number<="&x,num);
db_write_records("query1","default.xls",FALSE,NO_LIMIT);

User Defined Functions:

Like as programming language, TSL allows you to create user-defined functions.


Every user-defined function indicates a repeatable navigation in your build w.r.t testing.
UDF
Login
Only Navigation

Mail Open Mail Compose Mail Reply Mail forward


Test Scripts(Check Points)

Syntax:
public / static function function name( in / out / inout argument name)
{

# repeatable test script

return ( );
}

In the above syntax, public function invoked in any test.


Static function maintains constant locations to variables during execution.
10 100

i=10; Static Function

i=100;

Note: We can use static function to maintain output of onetime execution as input to next
time execution.

in Parameter working as general argument.


out Parameters working as return values.
inout parameters are working as in and out.

User defined functions allows return statements to return one value.

Example:

public function add(in x, in y, out z)


{
z = x + y;
}

calling test:

a= 10;

b = 20;

add(a, b, c);

printf( c );

Example2:
public function add(in x, in y)
{
auto z;
z = x + y;
return(z);
}

calling test:

a= 10;

b = 20;

c = add(a, b);

printf( c );

Example 3:

public function add(in x, inout y)


{
y = x + y;

calling test:

a= 10;

b = 20;

add(a, b);

printf( b );

Example 4:

public function open(in x)


{
set_window ("Flight Reservation", 2);
menu_select_item ("File;Open Order...");
set_window ("Open Order", 1);
button_set ("Order No.", ON);
edit_set ("Edit", x);
button_press ("OK");
}

To call user defined functions in required test scripts, we can try to make user defined function
as .EXE copies. To do this task, test engineers are following below navigation.

Open WinRunner click new record repeatable navigations as UDFs save the module in
dat folder file menu test properties general tab change test type Compiled module
click apply click OK execute once(permanent .EXE created for that user defined functions in
hard disk) write load statement in startup script of WinRunner (c:\Program Files \ Mercury
Interactive \ WinRunner \ dat \ myinit).

load( ):

We can use this statement to load user defined .EXE from hard disk to RAM.

Syntax:
load(compiled module name, 0 / 1, 0 / 1);

In above syntax first 0 / 1 defines user defined / system defined.


second 0 / 1 defines path appears in WinRunner window menu / path doesnt
appears
Note: We can use this load statement in Startup Script of WinRunner.

unload( ):

We can use this function to unload unwanted functions from RAM. We can use this statement in
our test scripts if required.

Syntax:
unload(path of compiled module, unwanted function name);

reload( ):

We can use this function to reload unloaded functions once again.

Syntax:
reload(path of compiled module, unloaded function name);
OR
reload(path of compiled module, 0/1, 0/1); loads all functions

LEARNING

In general test automation process starts with learning to recognize objects and windows in your
application build. WinRunner 7.0 supports auto learning and pre learning.

1. Auto Learning:

During recognization time, WinRunner recognize all objects and windows what you operated.

GUI MAP

button_press(OK); OK

4 2
3
5
Logical Name : OK
{
class : push button
label : OK
}
Step 1: Start recording
Step2: Recognize object During Recording
Step3: Script generation

Step4: Catch entry


Step5: Catch object During running

To recognize entries WinRunner maintained in GUI MAP. To edit this entries, we can follow
navigation.

Tools menu gui map editor.

To maintain these entries, test engineers follows two types of modes.

a) Global GUI Map File.


b) Per Test Mode.

a) Global GUI Map File:

In this mode WinRunner maintains common entries for objects and Windows in a single file

Test 1 GUI Map

Save
Open
Test2

.gui

Explicitly

If test engineers forgot entries saving, WinRunner maintains that unsaved entries in default buffer
(10kb). To open buffer, test engineers follows bellow navigation.

Tools GUI Map editor view menu GUI Files(LO < temporary >).

To save / open GUI Map entries, test engineers use file menu options in GUI Map editor.

b) Per Test Mode:

In this mode WinRunner maintains entries for objects & windows per every test.
Test 1 GUI Map

Save
Open
Test2

.gui

Implicitly
In general WinRunner maintains Global GUI File.
If we have to change to Per Test Mode, we can use bellow navigation.

Settings menu general options environment tab select GUI Map File Per Test click
apply click ok.

Note: In general test engineers are using global GUI Map file mode.

2. Pre Learning:

In general test engineers jab starts with learning in lower versions of WinRunner (ex 6.0, 6.5).
Because auto learning is new concept in WinRunner 7.0.

To conduct this Pre Learning before starts recording, we can use rapid test script wizard (RTSW).

Open Build & WinRunner create menu Raped Test script wizard click next show
application main window click next select no test click next enter sub menu
symbol(, >>,) click next select pre learning mode(express, comprehensive) learn
say yes / no to open project automatically during WinRunner launching click next
remember paths of startup scripts and GUI Map File click next click ok.

Some times test engineers perform changes in entries w.r.t test requirements.

Situation 1: (Wild Card Characters)

Some times our application objects / windows labels are variating depends on multiple input
values. To create data driven test on this type of object / window, we can perform changes in
corresponding object / window entry with Wild Card Characters.

Original Entry

Logical name : fax order no1


{
class : window
label : fax order no. 1
}

Modified Entry

Logical name : fax order no1


{
class : window
label : fax order no. 1
}
To perform above like change, we can follow below navigation.

Tools GUI Map editor select corresponding entry click modify insert wild card
changes like as above example click ok.

Situation 2 : (Regular Expression)

Some times our application build objects / windows labels are variating depends on events.
To create data driven test on this type of objects and windows, we can perform change in entry
using regular expression.
Sample Sample

Start Stop

Original Entry
Logical name :start
{
class: push button
label : start
}

Modified Entry
Logical name :start
{
class: push button
label : ![s][to][a-z]*
}

Situation 3: (Virtual Object Wizard)

Some times WinRunner is notable to recognize advanced technology objects in our application
build. To forcibly recognize that non recognized objects, we can use Virtual Object Wizard.

Navigation:
Tools menu virtual object wizard click next select expected type click next click
mark object to select non recognized area right click to release click next enter logical
name to that entry click next say yes / no to create more virtual objects click finish.

Situation 4: (Mapped to Standard Class)

Some times WinRunner is notable to return all available properties to a recognized object. To get
all testable properties for that object we can follow below navigation.

Navigation:
Tools Menu GUI Map Configuration click add Show non testable object click ok
click configuration select mapped to standard class click ok.

Situation 5:( GUI Map Configuration)

Some times more than 1 objects in a single window consists of same physical description w.r.t
WinRunner defaults (Class & Label).

Navigation:
Tools Menu GUI Map Configuration select object type click configuration select
distinguishable properties into obligatory and optional list. click ok.

Note: In general test engineers are maintaining MSW_id as optional for every object type.
Because every objects consists of unique MSW_id.

OK OK

Sample

Logical Name : OK
{
class : push button
label : OK
MSW_id : XXXX
}

Logical Name : OK_1


{
class : push button
label : OK
MSW_id : XXXX
}

Situation 6: (Selective Recording)

WinRunner allows you to perform recording on specified applications only.

Navigation:
Settings General options record tab click selective recording select record only on
selected applications select record on start menu & Windows explorer if required Browse
required project path click OK.

a) USER INTERFACE TESTING:

WinRunner is a functionality testing tool but it provides a facility to conduct user interface testing
also. In this testing WinRunner applies Microsoft 6 rules on our application interface.

Controls are initcap (Starts with Upper Case)


OK / Cancel existence
System menu existence
Controls are must visible
Controls are not over lapped
Controls are aligned.

To apply above six rules on our application build, WinRunner uses below TSL functions.

a) load_os_api( ):

We can use this function to load application program in interface system calls into RAM.
Syntax:
load_os_api( );

Note: With downloading api system call into RAM, we are not able to conduct user interface
testing.

b) configure_chkui( ):

We can use this function to customize Microsoft,s six rules to be applied on our application build.

Syntax:
configure_chkui(TRUE / FALSE, .);

c) check_ui( ):

We can use this function to apply above customized rules on specified window.
Syntax:
check_ui(Window Name);

To create user interface test script, test engineers follows below navigation.

Open WinRunner / Build create menu RTSW click next show application main
window click next select user interface test click next specify sub menu symbol click
next select learning mode click learn say YES / NO to open your application
automatically during WinRunner launching remember paths of start up scripts & GUI Map file
remember path of user interface test script click ok click run analyze results manually.

Note:
Some times RTSW doesnt appears in create menu.
a) If you select wed test option in add in manager.
b) If you are in per test mode.

b) REGRESSION TESTING:

In general test engineers follows below approach after receiving modified build from developers.

Receive Modified Build



GUI Regression
Screen Level

Differences
BIT Map regression

Functionality Regression

WinRunner provides a faility to automate GUI Regression & BIT Map Regression.

i. GUI Regression Test:

We can use this option to find object properties level differences in between old build and new
build.
Old Build Modified
Build

GUI Check Point

Navigation :
Open WinRunner / Build create menu RTSW click next show application main
window click next select use existing information click next select GUI Regression test
script click next remember path of GUI Regression test script click ok open modified
build and close old build click run analyze results manually.

ii. BIT Map Regression Test:

We can use this option to find image level differences between old build and modified build. This
regression is optional, because all screens does not consists of images.
Navigation :

Open WinRunner / Build create menu RTSW click next show application main
window click next select use existing information click next select BIT Map
Regression test script click next remember path of BIT Map Regression test script click
ok open modified build and close old build click run analyze results manually.

Exceptional Handling:

Exception is nothing but runtime error. To handle test execution errors in WinRunner, we can use
three types of exceptions.

a) TSL Exceptions
b) Object exceptions
c) Popup Exceptions.

a) TSL Exceptions:

We can use these exceptions to handle run time errors depends on TSL statements return code.

E_NOT_FOUND

How to
set_window(X,5); open X
window

Test Script Handler Function


To create above like exceptions, we can follow below navigation.

Navigation:

Tools exception handling select exception type as TSL click next enter exception
name enter TSL function name specify return code enter handler function name click
ok click paste click ok after reading suggestion click close record our required
navigation to recover the situation make it as compiled module write lode statement of it in
start up script of WinRunner.

Example:

public function mindq(in rc, in func)


{
printf(func& returns &rc);
}

b. Object Exceptions:

The exception raised when specified object property = our expected.

BUILD Test Script

down

Disable Enable Reestablish connection to server

Tools exception handling select exception type as Object click new enter exception
name select traceable object select property with expected to determine situation enter
handler function name click ok click paste click ok after reading suggestion click close
record our required navigation to recover the situation make it as compiled module write
lode statement of it in start up script of WinRunner.

Example:

public function mindq(in win, in obj, in attr, in val)


{
printf(func& enabled);
}

c. Pop-UP Exceptions:

These exceptions raised when specified window come to focus. We can use these exceptions to
skip unwanted windows in our application build during test execution.
Tools exception handling select exception type as Pop-Up click new enter exception
name show unwanted window raising during testing select handler action( press enter /
click cancel, click OK and user defined function name) click ok click close.

To administrate exceptions during test execution, test engineers use below statements.

i. exception_off( ):

We can use this function to disable specific exception only.

Syntax:
exception_off (exception name);

ii. exception_off_all( ):

We can use this function to disable all types of exceptions in your system.

Syntax:
exception_off_all( )

iii. exception_on( ):

We can use this function to enable specified exception only.

Syntax:
exception_on(exception Name);

Note: By default exceptions in ON position.


WEB TESTING

WinRunner allows you to automate functionality testing on web interfaces also(HTML).


WinRunner does not support XML objects.

In this test automation, test engineers apply below coverages on web interfaces.

1. Behavioral Coverage
2. Input Domain Coverage
3. Error handling Coverage (Clint & server Validation)
4. Calculations Coverage
5. Back End Coverage
6. URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Coverage
7. Static text testing

In above coverages, URLs testing and static text testing are new coverages for Web application
functionality testing.

Clint / Server Vs WEB:


Tow tire Application
Fat Thin

T
DSN Back
Front End
End

VB, VC++, Java,


Oracle, SQL
D2K, C, C+
server, MS-
+,PB
Access, Sybase,
Mysqc, Informis
Monitoring, Manipulation Data Store

Three Tire Application

HTML, DHTML, ASP, JSP, VB


XML, Java TCP/TP Script, Java DSN
Data
Script server relets,
Base
RHPCF, Java
Server
Scripts

Monitoring Manipulation Data Storage

I. URLs Testing:
It is an extra coverage in web applications testing. During this test, test engineers validate links
execution and links existences. Links execution means that whether the link is providing right page
or not, when you click link. Link existence means that whether the corresponding link in right
place or not.

To automate this testing using WinRunner, we can select web test option in add in manager during
WinRunner launching. We can use GUI Check Point concept to automate URLs testing. In this
automation, test engineers are creating check points on text links, image links, cell, tables and
frame.

a. Text Link:

It is a non standard object and it consists of a set of non standard properties such as,

1. Background colour (Hexadecimal no of colours)


2. Broken Link (Valid / Not valid)
3. Colour (Hexadecimal no of expected colours)
4. Font (Style of text)
5. Text (Expected like text)
6. URL expected path of next page.

Syntax:
obj_check_gui(check list, Checklist file name, expected value file.txt, time to create);

b. Image link:

It is also a non standard object and it consists a set of non standard parameters such as.

1. Broken Link (Valid / Not valid)


2. Image content (.bmp of image)
3. Source (Path of Image)
4. Type ( Plain Image, dynamic Image, Image link, image button, previously saved site image ex.
Banner)
5. URL (path of next page)

Syntax:
obj_check_gui(image file name, checklist file, expected value file.txt, time to create);

To create above like check points, test engineers are collecting below like information from
development team.

Local Host Local Server (http://local server/ vdir/page.htm)


Link Name Off line URL
Xxxxxx xxxxxx
Xxxxxxx xxxxxx
xxxxxxx xxxxxxTCP/TP DSN

Above document is also known as site map document.


Before this web functionality testing developers create two types of off line environments.
Browser Web Server Data Base Server

Local host (http://local host/ vdir/page.htm)


c) Cell:

Cell indicates an area of web page. It contains of a set of text links & image links. To cover all
these links through a single checkpoint, we can use cell property.

To get cell properties, test engineers select object first and then they change their selection from
object to parent cell.

1. Background colour (Hexadecimal no of colours)


2. Broken Link (Valid / Not valid)
3. Cell content (Image files path and static text in that cell area)
4. Formats (hierarchy of internal links)
5. Images (image file name, type, width, height)
6. Links (Link names, Expected off line URLs)

Syntax:
win_check_gui(Cell logical name, checklist file name.ckl, expected value file.txt, time to
create);

d. Table:

It is also a non standard object and it consists of a set of non standard properties. These properties
are not suitable to conduct URL testing. Test engineers are using these properties for cells coverage
during testing.(columns, format, rows & table content).

e. FRAME:

It is also a non standard object and it consists of a set of standard and non standard properties. But
test engineers are using non standard properties only for URLs testing.

1. Broken Link (link name, URL, YES / NO)


2. Count objects (no of standard & non standard objects in that fram)
3. Format(hierarchy of internal links)
4. Frame Content(Static text in web page)
.txt
File_compare

Frame content

-----
---
-----
-
-----
--
.txt .htm

5. Images ( image file name, type, width, height)


6. Links(Link names, Expected off line URLs)

Syntax:
win_check_gui(frame logical name, checklist file name.ckl, expected value file.txt,
time to create);

Note: in general test engineers are conducting URLs testing at frame level. If a frame consists of
huge amounts of links, test engineers are conducting on cell level.

II. Static Text Testing:

To conduct calculations & other text based tests, we can use get text option in create menu. This
option consists of 4 sub options when you select web test option in add in manager.

a. From Object / Window :

To capture a web object value in to a variable we can use this option.

Syntax:
web_obj_get_text(web object name, # row no, #column no, variable, text before,
text after, time to create)
Example:

Rediff

Mail Box Expected:


S.noSubjectDatesize1XX10kb2xx2k Total = sum of all received mail
b sizes
Total

Xxx kb

sum = 0
set_window(rediff, 5);
tbl_get_row_count(mail box,n);
for( i=1, i < n , i++)
{

tbl_get_cell_data(mail box, #&i,#3,s);


s=substr(s,1,length (s)-2);
sum = sum + s;
}
web_obj_get_text(total obj, #0, #0, tot, , kb, 2);
if(tot= =sum)
tl_step(s1, 0, calculation is pass);
else
tl_step(s1, 1, caleculation is fail);

b. From Screen area:

This function not supports web pages.

c. From Selection:

To capture static text from web pages, we can use this option.
Navigation:

Navigation:
Create menu get text from selection select required or text right click to relive
select text before & text after click ok.

Syntax:
web_frame_get_text(frame logical name, variable, text before, text after, time to
create);

Example:

Shopping
----- --- Expected:
American $ xxxx
as------------- Australian
$ xxxx as------------------- Indian Rs = American $ value X 45 + Australian $ value X 35
Indian Rs xxx as-------

web_frame_get_text(shopping, x, American $, as, 1);


web_frame_get_text(shopping, y, Australian $, as, 1);
web_frame_get_text(shopping, x, Indian Rs, as, 1);
if (z == x * 45 + y * 35)
tl_step(s1, 0, Test is pass);
else
tl_step(s1, 0, Test is pass);

d) Web Text Check Point:


To verify existence of text in a web page in specified position through text before and text after.

.txt .htm
------- abc--------

--------- xyz --------------

Example:

obj_get_text(edit, x);

web_frame_get_text(frame logical name, x, abc, xyz):

Web Functions:

1. web_link_click ( ):

WinRunner use this function to record a text link operation.

Syntax:
web_link_click (link text );

2. web_image_click( ):

WinRunner use this function to record an image link operation.

Syntax:
web_image_click(image file name, x, y);

3. web_browser_invoke( ):

WinRunner use this function to open a web application through test script.

Syntax:
web_browser_invoke(I.E / NetScape, URL ):

WinRunner 6.0 Vs WinRunner 7.0

WinRunner 7.0 provides below facilities as extra.

Auto learning
Per text Mode
Selective Recording
Run Time Record check.
Web Testing concepts
GUI spy ( To identify weather the object is recognizable or not)

Note : To stop spying we can use Lctrl + F3.


Testing Documents

QC Test Policy
Company level
Test Strategy
Quality Analyst /
Project manager Test Methodology

Test Lead Test plan

Test Cases

Test Procedures Project level
Test Engineer
Test Scripts

Defect Reports

Test Lead Final Test Summary Report

I. TEST POLICY:

This document developed by Quality Control people(Almost Management). In this document QC


defines Testing Objectives.

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXX

Testing Definition : Verification & Validation

Testing Process : Proper planning before starts testing.

Testing Standard : 1 defect per 250 line of coding /1 defect per 10 Functional Point

Testing Measurement : Quality Assessment Measurement, Testing Management


Measurement, Process Capability Measurement

XXXXXXX
(C.E.O)

II. TEST STRATEGY:


It is a company level document and developed by Quality Analyst / Project Manager category
people. This document defines testing approach.

Components

1. Scope & Objective: Definition & purpose of testing in organization.


2. Business Issues: Budget control for testing.

100%

64 36
(Development & Maintenance) (Testing)

3. Test Approach: Mapping between development stages and testing issues.

Develop Stages Information System


Gathering & Design Coding Testing Maintenance
Analysis
Testing Issues

Ease of use X X Depends up
Authorization on change
request

This Matrix is known as TEST RESPONSIBILITY MATRIX.

4. Test Deliverables: Required testing documents to be prepared.


5. Roles & Responsibilities: Names of jobs in testing team and their responsibilities.
6. Communication & Status Reporting: required negotiations between two consecutive jobs in
6testing team.
7. Defect Reporting & Tracking: Required negotiations between testing team and development
team during test execution.
8. Automation & Testing Tools: Purpose of automation and possibilities to go to test automation.
9. Testing Measurements & Metrics: QAM, TMM, PCM.
10. Risks & Mitigations: What possible problems will come in testing and solutions to over come
them.
11. Change & Configuration Measurement: To handle change request during testing.
12. Training Plan: Required training secessions to testing team before start testing process.

Testing Issues:

To define a quality software organizations are using 15 testing issues as maximum.

QC Quality

QA/PM Test Factor

TL Testing Technique

TE Test Cases
From the above model a quality software testing process formed with below 15 testing issues.

1. Authorization: Whether user is valid are not to connect to application.


2. Access Control: Whether a valid user have permission to use specific service or not.
3. Audit Trial: Maintains Metadata about user operations in our applications.
4. Continuity of processing: Inter process communication (Module to Module).
5. Corrections: Meet customer requirements in terms of functionality.
6. Coupling: Co-Existence with other existing softwares to share resources.
7. Ease of Use: User friendliness of the screens.
8. Ease of Operate: Installation, un-installation, Dumping, Downloading, uploading etc
9. File Integrity: Creation of backup.
10. Reliability: Recover from abnormal stage.
11. Performance: Speed of processing.
12. Portable: Run on different platforms.
13. Service Levels: order of functionalities.
14. Maintainable: Whether our application build is long time serviceable to customer site people
are not.
15. Methodology: Whether our testers are following standards are not during testing.

Test Factors Vs Black Box testing Techniques

1. Authorization Security Testing


Functionality Testing

2. Access Control Security Testing


Functionality Testing

3. Audit Trial Functionality Testing


Error handling testing

4. Continuity of processing White Box


Execution
operation

5. Corrections Functionality testing


Requirements testing

6. Coupling Inter System testing

7. Ease of Use User Interface testing


manuals support testing

8. Ease of Operate Installation testing

9. File Integrity Functionality testing


Recovery Testing

10. Reliability Recovery Testing (1 user)


Stress testing (Peak hours)

11. Performance Load testing


Stress testing
Storage testing
Data Volume testing

12. Portable Compatibility testing


Configuration Testing

13. Service Levels Functionality Testing


Stress testing

14. Maintainable Compliance Testing


Management Level Testing.
15. Methodology Compliance Testing

III.TEST METHODOLOGY:

It is a project level document. Methodology provides required testing approach to be followed for
current project. In this level QA / PM selects possible approaches for corresponding project testing
through below procedure.

Step 1: Acquire Test Strategy


Step 2: Determine project type.

Type IF gathering Design Coding System Maintenance


& Analysis Testing

Traditional

Off Shelf X X X X

Maintenance X X X X

Note: Depends up on project type QA/PM decrease number of columns in TRM.

Step 3: Determine Project requirements


Note: Depends on project requirements QA/PM decreases number of rows in TRM.

Step 4: Identifies Scope of application


Note: Depends on expected future enhancements QA/PM add some of previously deleted rows and
columns.

Step5: Identifies tactical risks.


Note: Depends on analyzed risks, QA/PM decreases number of selected issues (Rows) in TRM.

Step 6: Finalize TRM for current project Receive


Build
Step7: Prepare system test plan.

Step 8:Test
Prepare modules Test Test
test plans if required. Test Test
Initiation Planning Design Execution Closer
Testing Process: Regression Defect

Test
Reporting
PET Process (Process Expert Tools and Techniques) :
It is a refinement form of V model. It defines mapping between development stages and testing
stages. From this model organizations are maintaining separate team for functionality and system
testing. Remaining stages of testing done by development people. This model developed in HCL
and recognized by QA forum of India.

Information Gathering (BRS)



Analysis (S/W RS)


Design Test Initiation

Coding Test Planning & Training

Unit & Integration Test Design

Test case selection closer
Initial Build

Sanity / Smoke / TAT/ BVT ( Level 0)

Test Automation

Create test scripts / Test batches / Test Suits


Modified Build
Next Batch
Resolving Select a batch and start execution
Regression
Level 2
Level 1
Defect Fixing
Defect If a test engineer got a mismatch Independent Batch
Developers Suspend that batch
Reporting

Otherwise

Test Closer

Final Regression / Release testing / Pre Acceptance / Post Mortem (Level 3)

User Acceptance Testing

Sign OFF
IV. TEST PLANNING:

After finalization of possible tests to be applied for corresponding project, test lead category people
concentrate on test plan document preparation to define work allocation in terms of what to
test?, Who to test ?, when to test ?, and How to test ?.

To prepare test plan documents, test plan author follows below approach

Development - Team Formation


Documents - Identify Tactical Risks
- Prepare Test Plan
System Test Plan

TRM - Review Test Plan

1. Team Formation:

In general, test planning starts with testing team formation. To define a testing team, test plan
author depends on below factors.
i. Availability of testers
ii. Test duration
iii. Availability of test environment Resources
Case Study:
Test Duration:
- Client / Server or Web or ERP - 3 to 5 months functional & system testing
- System S/W - 7 to 9 months functional & system testing
- Machine critical - 12 to 15 months functional & system testing
(Robots, satellites etc )
- Team Size - 3 : 1 (developers : Testers)

2. Identify Tactical Risks:

After completion testing team formation, test plan author analyses possible risks and mitigations.

Example:

Risk 1 : Lack of knowledge of test engineers on that domain.


Risk 2 : Lack of resources
Risk 3 : Lack of budget ( Time )
Risk 4 : Lack of test data ( Some times test engineers are conduction Adhoc testing depends
on past experiences)
Risk 5 : Lack of development process rigor (Seriousness)
Risk 6 : Delays in delivery
Risk 7 : Lack of communication ( In between Testing team & Test lead / developers / testing
team)

3. Prepare test Plan :


After completion of testing team formation and risks analysis, test plan author concentrates on test
plan documentation in IEEE format.

Format:

1. Test plan ID: Unique Number / Name


2. Introduction: About Project
3. Test Items: Modules / Functions / Services / Features
4. Features to be Tested: Responsible modules for test design.
5. Features not to be tested: Whish ones and why not.
Note: 3-5 What to test?
6. Approach: List of selected techniques to be applied on above specified modules (From
finalized TRM)
7. Feature pass/fail criteria: when a feature is pass and when a feature is fail.
8. Suspension Criteria: Possible abnormal situations raised during above features testing.
9. Test Environment: Require hardware & software to conduct testing on above features.
10. Test deliverables: Required testing documents to de prepared during testing.
11. Test Tasks: Necessary tasks to do before start every feature testing.
Note: 6 11 How to test ?
12. Staff & Training Need: Names of selected test engineers and training requirements to them.
13. Responsibilities: Work allocation to above selected staff members.
Note : 12 & 13 Who to test?
14. Schedule: Dates & Times
Note: 14 when to test?
15. Risks & Mitigations: Possible testing level risks and solutions to overcome them.
16. Approvals: Signatures of test plan author and PM/QA.

4. Review Test Plan:

After completion of plan document preparation test plan author conducts a review for
completeness and correctness. In this review plan author follows Coverage Analysis

BR based coverage (What to test? Review)


Risks Based coverage (When and Who to test? Review)
TRM based coverage (How to test? Review)

Case Study:
Deliverable Responsibility Completion time

Test Case Selection Test Engineer 30 to 40 days


Test case review Test lead / engineer 4 to 5 days
Requirements Traceability
Test Lead 1 to 2 days
matrix
Test Automation
Test engineer 10 to 20 days
(including Sanity testing)
Test execution including
Test engineer 40 to 60 days
Regression testing
Defect reporting Test engineer / Every one On going
Communication Status
Test Lead Weekly Twice
reporting
Test closure & Final
Test Lead / Test Engineer 4 to5 days
Regression
Customer site people /
User Acceptance Testing 4 to 5 days
involvement of testing team
Sign OFF Test Lead 1 to 2 days

V. Test Design:

After completion of test planning and required training to testing team, corresponding testing
team members will prepare list of test cases for their responsible modules. There are three types
of test case design methods to cover core level testing (Usability & Functionality testing).

1. Business logic based test case design


2. Input Domain based test case design
3. User interface base test case design

1. Business logic based test case design:

In general test engineers are writing a set of test cases depends up on use cases in S/W RS. Every
use case describes functionality in terms of input, process and output. Depends on this use cases
test engineer are writing test cases to validate that functionality.

BRS Test Cases



Use Cases / Functional Specs

HLD

LLDs

Coding( .EXE)

From the above model test engineers are preparing test cases depends on corresponding use cases
and every test case defines a test condition to be applied.

To prepare test cases, test engineers study use cases in below approach.

Step 1: Collect use cases of our responsible modules.


Step 2: Select use cases and their dependencies from that list

Use Case Use Case Use Case

Determinant Dependent

Step 2.1: Identify entry condition (Base State)


Step 2.2: Identify Input required (Test Data)
Step 2.3: Identify exit condition (End state)
Step 2.4: Identify output and out come (Expected)

Multiply Login Operation

UID
IN BOX
Input1 XXX XXX
PWD
Input 2 XXX XXX

OK
OK

Result XXXX
Output Outcome

Step 2.5: Identify normal flow (Navigation)


Step 2.6: Identify alternative flows and exceptions (Protocols)

Step 3 : Write test cases depends on above information.


Step 4 : Review test cases for completeness and correctness.
Step 5 : Go to step 2 until completion of all use cases.

Use Case 1:

A login process allows UID & PWD to validate users. During this validation, login process allows
UID as alphanumeric from 4 to 16 characters long and PWD allows alphabets in lower case from 4
to 8 characters long.

Test Case 1: Successful entry of UID.

BVA(Size) ECP(TYPE)

Min 4 Pass Valid Invalid


Max 16 Pass a z, A- Z, Special
Min-1 3 Fail 09 characters
Min+1 5 Pass
Max-1 - 15 Pass Blank
Max+1 17 Fail
BVA(Size) ECP(TYPE)
Test Case 2: Successful entry of PWD
Min 4 Pass Valid Invalid
Max 8 Pass az A- Z,
Min-1 3 Fail 09
Min+1 5 Pass Special
Max-1 - 7 Pass characters
Max+1 9 Fail
Blank
Test Case 3: Successful login operation

UID PWD Criteria


Valid Valid Pass
Valid In valid Fail
In Valid Valid Fail
Value Blank Fail
Blank Value Fail

Use Case 2 :

In a shopping application user can apply for different purchase orders. Every purchase orders
allows item selection number and entry of qty up to 10. System returns one item price and total
amount depends on given quantity.

Test Case 1: Successful Selection of item number.


Test Case 2: Successful Entry of QTY

BVA(range) ECP(TYPE)

Min 1 Pass Valid Invalid


Max 10 Pass 09 A- Z,
Min-1 0 Fail a-z
Min+1 2 Pass Special
Max-1 - 9 Pass characters
Max+1 11 Fail Blank

Test Case 3: Successful Calculation, Total = Price X QTY

Use Case 3:

In an insurance application, user can apply for different types of insurance policies.
When they select insurance type as B, system asks age of that customer. The age should be > 18
years and < 60 years.

Test Case 1: Successful selection of type B insurance.


BVA(range) ECP(TYPE)
Test Case 2: Successful focus to age
Test CaseMin
3: Successful
19 entry
ofPass age Valid Invalid
Max 59 Pass 09 A- Z,
Min-1 18 Fail a-z
Min+1 20 Pass Special
Max-1 - 58 Pass characters
Max+1 60 Fail Blank
Use Case 4:

A door opens when a person comes in front of door. A door closed when a person come in.

Test Case 1: Successful door opens, when person comes in front of door.
Test Case 2: Unsuccessful door open due to absence of the person in front of the door.
Test Case 3: Successful door closing after person get in.
Test Case 4: Unsuccessful door closing due to person standing at the door.

Use Case 5: Prepare test cases for washing machine operation.

Test Case 1: Successful power supply.


Test Case 2: Successful door open
Test Case 3: Successfully filling water.
Test Case 4: Successful drooping of detergent
Test Case 5: Successful filling of cloths
Test Case 6: Successful door closing
Test Case 7: Unsuccessful door close due to over flow of cloths
Test Case 8: Successful selection of washing settings
Test Case 9: Successful washing operation
Test Case 10: Unsuccessful washing due to wrong settings
Test Case 11: Unsuccessful washing due to lack of power
Test Case 12: Unsuccessful washing due to lack of water
Test Case 13: Unsuccessful washing due to water leakage
Test Case 14: Unsuccessful washing due to door open in the middle of the process
Test Case 15: Unsuccessful washing due to machinery problem
Test Case 16: Successful Dry cloths

Use Case 6:
Prepare test case for money withdrawal from ATM.

Test Case 1: Successful insertion of card


Test Case 2: Unsuccessful operation due to wrong angle of card insertion
Test Case 4: Unsuccessful operation due to invalid card
Test Case 4: Successful entry of pin number

Test Case 5: Unsuccessful operation due to entry of wrong pin no three times
Test Case 6: Successful selection of language
Test Case 7: Successful selection of account type
Test Case 8: Unsuccessful operation due to invalid account type selection

Test Case 9: Successful selection of withdrawal option


Test Case 10: Successful entry of amount
Test Case 11: Unsuccessful operation due to wrong denominations
Test Case 12: Successful withdrawal (Correct amount, Right receipt and card come back)
Test Case 13: Unsuccessful withdrawal due to amount > possible balance.
Test Case 14: Unsuccessful withdrawal due to amount > Day limit (Including Multiple
transactions)
Test Case 15: Unsuccessful transaction due to lack of amount in ATM
Test Case 16: Unsuccessful due to server failure
Test Case 17: Unsuccessful due to click cancel after insert card
Test Case 18: Unsuccessful due to click cancel after insert card & PIN
Test Case 19: Unsuccessful due to click cancel after insert card, PIN & language selection
Test Case 20: Unsuccessful due to click cancel after insert card, PIN, language & account type
selection
Test Case 21: Unsuccessful due to click cancel after insert card, PIN, language, account type &
amount selection

Use Case 7:

In an E-Banking application users can connect to bank server using his personnel computers. In
this login process user can use below fields.

Password 6 digit no
Area code 3 digit no, allows blank
Prefix 3 digit no, does not begins with 0 or 1.
Suffix 6 digit alphanumeric
Commands Check deposit, Money transfer, Bill pay and Mini statement.

Test Case 1: Successful entry of password.

BVA(Size) ECP(TYPE)

Min = Max = 6 Pass Valid Invalid


Min-1 5 Fail 09 A- Z,
Min+1 7 Fail a-z
Special
characters
Blank

Test Case 2: Successful entry of area code

BVA(Size) ECP(TYPE)

Min = Max = 3 Pass Valid Invalid


Min-1 2 Fail 09 A- Z,
Min+1 4 Fail Blank a-z
Special
characters
Test Case 3: Successful entry of prefix

BVA(Range) ECP(TYPE)

Min 200 Pass Valid Invalid


Max 999 Pass 09 A- Z,
Min-1 199 Fail a-z
Min+1 201 Pass Special
Max-1 - 998 Pass characters
Max+1 1000 Fail Blank

Test Case 4: Successful entry of suffix

BVA(Size) ECP(TYPE)

Min = Max = 6 Pass Valid Invalid


Min-1 5 Fail 09 Blank
Min+1 7 Fail A- Z, Special
az characters

Test Case 5: Successful selection of commands such as check deposit, money transfer, bills pay
and mini statement.
Test Case 6: Successful connect to bank server with all valid values
Test Case 7: Successful connect to bank server with out filling area code.
Test Case 8: Unsuccessful operation due to with out filling all fields except area code.

Test Case Format:

During test design test engineers are writing list of test cases in IEEE format.

1. Test Case ID : Unique number or name


2. Test Case Name : The name of test condition to be tested.
3. Features to be Tested : Module / Function / Feature
4. Test Suit ID : Batch ID in which this case is a member.
5. Priority : Importance of test case

P0 : Basic Functionality
P1 : General Function (I/P domain, Error handling,
Compatibility, Inter systems etc)
P2 : Cosmetic (User Interface)
6. Test Environment : Required Hardware and software to executive this test case.
7. Test Effort(Person/hr) : Time to executive this test case (Ex : 20 mts max)
8. Test Duration : Date & Time
9. Test Setup : Required testing tasks to do before starts this case execution.
10. Test Procedure : Step by step procedure to executive this test case.
Format:

Step No Action I/P required Expected Actual Result Comments

Test Design Test Execution

11. Test Case Pass/Fail Criteria: When this case is pass and when this case is fail.

Note: In general test engineers are writing list of test cases along with step by step procedure only.

Example: Prepare test procedure for below test case. Successful file save in note pad.

Step
Action I/P required Expected
No
1 Open note pad - Empty Editor
2 Fill with text - Save icon enabled
3 Click save icon - Save window appears
Enter file name & Unique File File name appears in
4
click save name title bar of editor

Example2: Prepare test scenario with expected for below test case.
Successful Mail reply in Yahoo.

Step
Action I/P required Expected
No
Valid UID
1 Login to site Inbox appears
Valid PWD
2 Click Inbox - Mail box appears
3 Click Mail Subject - Mail Message Appears
Compose Window appears with
To: Received Mail ID
Sub: Received mail Subject
4 Click Reply - CC: Off
BCC: Off
MSG: Received message with
comments.
Type New massage Acknowledgement from WEB
5 -
and click send server
2. Input Domain Based Test Case Design:

In general test engineers are writing maximum test cases depend on use cases / functional specs in
S/W RS. These functional specifications provide functional descriptions with inputs, outputs and
process. But they are not responsible to provide information about size and type of input objects.
To collect this type of information test engineers study Data Modal of responsible modules (E-R
Diagrams in LLDs)

During data model study, test engineer follows below approach.

Step 1: Collect data model of responsible modules


Step 2: Study every input attribute in terms of size, type and constraints.
Step 3: Identify critical attributes in that list, which participated in manipulations and retrievals.
Step 4: Identify non-critical attributes such as just input, output type.

Example:

A/C No
Critical A/C Name
Balance Non Critical
A/C Orders

Step 5: Prepare BVA and ECP for every input object.

ECP BVA(Size / Range)


I/P Attribute
Valid Invalid Min Max

Note: In general test engineers are preparing step by step procedure based test cases for
functionality testing. Test engineers prepare valid and invalid table based test cases for input
domain of object testing.

Case Study:

Prepare test cases with required documentation depends on below scenario.

In a bank automation Software, fixed deposit is functionality. Bank employee operates the
functionality with below inputs.
Customer Name Alphabets in lower case.
Amount Rs 1500 to 100000.00
Tenure Up to 12 months
Interest Numeric With decimal

From functional specification (Use Cases), if tenure is > 10 months interest must > 10%.

Test Case 1:

Test Case ID: TC_FD_1


Test Case Name: Successful Entry of customer Name
Data Matrix:
ECP BVA(Size)
I/P Attribute
Valid Invalid Min Max
A to Z
Customer Name
0 to 9
a to z 1 characters 256 characters
Special Characters &
Blank

Test Case 2:

Test Case ID: TC_FD_2


Test Case Name: Successful Entry of Amount

Data Matrix:
ECP BVA(Range)
I/P Attribute
Valid Invalid Min Max
A to Z
Amount a to z
0-9 Special 1500 100000
Characters &
Blank

Test Case 3:

Test Case ID: TC_FD_3


Test Case Name: Successful Entry of Tenure

Data Matrix:
ECP BVA(Range)
I/P Attribute
Valid Invalid Min Max
A to Z
Tenure a to z
0-9 Special 1 12
Characters &
Blank

Test Case 4:

Test Case ID: TC_FD_4


Test Case Name: Successful Entry of Interest

Data Matrix:
ECP BVA(Range)
I/P Attribute
Valid Invalid Min Max
A to Z
Interest a to z
0-9
Special 1 100
With Decimal
Characters &
Blank

Test Case 5:
Test Case ID: TC_FD_5
Test Case Name: Successful fixed deposit operation

Test Procedure:
Step
Action I/P required Expected
No
1 Login to bank Software Valid ID Menu Appears
2 Select Fixed Deposit - FD form Appears
Acknowledgement from
All valid
Fill all fields and click bank server
3
OK Error message from bank
Any in valid
server

Test Case 6:

Test Case ID: TC_FD_6


Test Case Name: Unsuccessful fixed deposit operation due to Time > 10 months & Interest <
10%
Test Procedure:
Step
Action I/P required Expected
No
1 Login to bank Software Valid ID Menu Appears
2 Select Fixed Deposit - FD form Appears
Valid customer
Name, Amount
and Time > 10
Acknowledgement from
with interest
bank server
>10
Fill all fields and click
3
OK
Valid customer
Name, Amount
Error message from bank
and Time > 10
server
with interest
<10

Test Case 7:

Test Case ID: TC_FD_7


Test Case Name: Unsuccessful fixed deposit operation due to with out filling all fields.

Test Procedure:
Step
Action I/P required Expected
No
1 Login to bank Software Valid ID Menu Appears
2 Select Fixed Deposit - FD form Appears
Valid customer
Name, Amount
Fill all fields and click Error message from bank
3 and Time
OK server
interest. But
some as blank

Note: Test case 0 4 I/P domain


Test case 5 6 Functionality
Test case 7 Error handling

3. User Interface Based Test Case Design:

To conduct usability testing test engineers writing a list of test cases depends on our organisation
user interface conventions, Global interface rules and Interest of customer site people.

Examples:

Test Case 1: Spell Check


Test Case2: Graphics check (Screen level alignment, font, style, colour, size(object width and
height) and Microsoft 6 rules)
Test Case 3: Meaningful error messages.
Test Case 4: Accuracy of data displayed

Amount Amount
$

DOB DOB
--/--/-- DOB --/--/-- (DD/MM/YY)

Test Case 5: Accuracy of data in data base as a result of user inputs.

10.768 10.77
Test Case 6: 10.77

Form Data Base Table Report


Accuracy of data in a data base as a result of external factors.

Example: File attachments. Greetings one year

Test Case 7: Meaning full Help menus (Manual Support testing).

Review Test Cases:

After completion of all possible test cases writing for responsible modules, testing team
concentrates on review of test cases for completeness and correctness. In this review testing team
applies coverage analysis.

BR based coverage
Use case based coverage
Data modal based coverage
User Interface based coverage
Test Responsibility based coverage
At the end of this review test lead prepare Requirements Tracability Matrix or Requirements
Validation Matrix".

Business Requirements Sources Test Cases


(Use cases, Data model etc)
XXXXXXX XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX
(Login) (Mail Open) XXXXXXXX
: XXXXXXXXX
:
: XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX
: ( Mail Compose) XXXXXX
:
: XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX
: (Mail Reply) XXXXXXX
: XXXXXXX
:

From the above model tracebility matrix defines mapping between customer requirements and
prepared test cases to validate that requirements.

IV. TEST EXECUTION:

After completion of test cases selection & their review, testing team concentrates on build release
from development and test execution on the build.

1. Test Execution Levels / Phases:

Development Testing

Stable Build Level 0 (Sanity / TAT /


BVT)

Test Automation

Defect Fixing Defect Reporting Level 1 (Compressive)


Defect Resolving Modified Build Level 2 (Regression)


Level 3 (Final Regression)

2. Test Execution Levels Vs Test Cases:

Level 0 P0 test cases


Level 1 All P0, P1 and P2 test cases as batches
Level 2 Selected P0, P1 and P2 test cases w.r.t modifications
Level 3 Selected P0, P1 and P2 test cases w.r.t critical areas in the master build.

3. Build Version Control:

In general test engineers are receiving build from development in below modes.

Build Server Soft Base

FTP(File Transfer Protocol)

Test Environment

Testers

From the above approach test engineers are dumping application build from server to local host
through FTP. Soft Base means that collections of softwares.

During test execution test engineers are receiving modified builds from soft base. To distinguish
old builds & new build, development team gives unique version no in system, which is
understandable to testers.

For this version controlling, developers are using version control tools also.(Ex: VSS(Visual
Source safe)

4. Level 0: ( Sanity / TAT / BVT)


After receiving initial build test engineers concentrate on Basic functionality of that build, to
estimate satiability for complete testing. In this sanity testing test engineers try to execute all P0
test cases to cover basic functionality. If functionality not working or functionality is missing
testing team reject that build. if testers decided stability, they concentrate on test execution of all
test cases to detect defects.
During this sanity testing, test engineers observe below factors on the build.

Understandable
Operatable
Consistency
Controllable
Simplicity
Maintainable
Automatable

From the above 8 testable issues sanity testing is also known as Testability Testing or Octangle
Testing.

5. Test Automation:
If test automation is possible then testing team concentrate on test scripts creation using
corresponding testing tool. Every test script consists of navigational statements along with
checkpoints.
Stable Build

Test Automation
(Selective Automation)
(All P0 and Carefully selected P1 test cases)

6. Level 1(Comprehensive Testing) :


After completion of sanity testing and possible test automation, testing team concentrates on test
batches formation with dependent test cases. Test batch is also known as test suit or test set. During
these test batches execution, test engineer prepare test log document this document consists of
three types of entries.
Passed All expected = Actual
Failed Any one expected != Actual
Blocked Corresponding parent functionality failed.

Comprehensive Test Cycles


Passed
Skip
1

2 4
In queue In Progress Failed Closed

3 5
Partial
Blocked Pass / Fail
7. Level 2 (Regression Testing):

During comprehensive test execution, test engineers are reporting mismatches as defects to
developers. After receiving modified build from them, test engineers concentrate on regression
testing to ensure bug fixing work and occurrences of side effects.

Resolved Bug Severity

High Medium Low


All P0 All P0 Some P0
All P1 Carefully selected P1 Some P1
Carefully selected P2 Carefully selected P2 Some P2

On Modified Build

Case 1:
If development team resolved bug impact (Severity) is high, test engineers re execute all P0, P1
and carefully selected P2 test cases on that modified Build.

Case 2:

If development team resolved bug impact (Severity) is medium, test engineers re execute all P0,
carefully selected P1 and some of P2 test cases on that modified Build.

Case 3:

If development team resolved bug impact (Severity) is low, test engineers re some of P0, P1 and
P2 test cases on that modified Build.

Case 4:

If development team released modified build due to sudden changes in project requirements, test
engineers re execute all P0, all P1 and Carefully selected P2 test cases w.r.t that requirements
modifications.

VII. TEST REPORTING:

During comprehensive testing, test engineers are reporting mismatches as defects to developers
through IEEE format.

1. Defect ID : Unique Number / Name


2. Description : Summary of defect
3. Feature : Module/Function/Service (In this module test engineers found this defect)
4. Test Case Name : Corresponding failed test condition
5. Reproducible : Yes / NO (Yes every time Defect appears, NO Rarely defect appears)
6. If Yes : Attach test Procedure
7. If NO : Attach snap shot and strong reasons.
8. Status : New / Reopen (New Defect appears first time, Reopen Reappearance
of the defect once closed)
9. Severity : Seriousness of defect w.r.t functionality
High With out resolving that defect test engineer is not able to
continue testing.(Snow Stopper)

Medium Able to continue testing but mandatory to resolve.

Low May or may not resolve


10. Priority : Importance of the defect w.r.t customer(High, medium, low)
11. Reported by : Name of test engineer
12. Reported on : Date of submission
13. Assigned to : Name of responsible person in development side(PM)
14. Build Version ID : In which version of build test engineer found this defect.
15. Suggested Fix : Tester try to produce suggestions to solve this defect(Optional)

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

By Developers
16. Fixed By : PM / Team Lead
17. Resolved By : Programmers Name
18. Resolved On : Date of resolving
19. Resolution Type :
20. Approved By : Sign of PM

Defect Age:

The time gap between Reported on and Resolved On.

Defect Submission Process:

Large-Scale Organisations

QA
Test Manager Project manager
If high severity
defect rejected Test Lead Team Lead

Test Engineer Developer

Transmittal Reports

Medium & Small-Scale Organisations

Project Manager

Test Lead Team Lead



Test Engineer Developer

Transmittal Reports

Defect Status Cycle:

New

Open / Rejected / Deferred (defect accepted but not interested to resolve
in this version)

Closed

Reopen

Defect Life Cycle / Bug Life Cycle:

Detect Defect

Reproduce Defect

Report Defect

Fix Defect

Resolve Defect

Close Defect

Defect Resolution Type:

After receiving defect reports from testers, developers reviews that defect and send resolution type
to testers as reply.

1. Duplicate: Rejected due to this defect same as previously reported defect.


2. Enhancement: Rejected due to this defect related to future requirement of customer.
3. Hardware Limitations: Rejected due to this defect raised w.r.t limitations of Hardware
devices.
4. Software Limitations: Rejected due to this defect raised w.r.t limitations of Software
technologies.
5. Not Applicable: Rejected due to no proper meaning to this defect.
6. Function as Designed: Rejected due to coding is correct w.r.t design document.
7. Need More Information: Not accepted and not rejected but developer requires extra
information to understand that defect.
8. Not Reproducible: Not accepted and not rejected but developer requires correct procedure to
reproduce that defect.
9. No Plan to Fix it: Not accepted and not rejected but they want extra time to fix.
10. Fixed: Developer accepted as to be resolved.
11. Fixed Indirectly: Accepted but not interested to resolve in this version (Deferred).
12. User Misunderstanding: Extra negotiations between testing and development teams.
Types of Defects:

1. User Interface Bugs: Low Severity

Ex 1: Spelling Mistake High Priority


Ex 2: Improper alignment low priority

2. Boundary Related Bugs: Medium Severity

Ex 1: Does not allow valid type High Priority


Ex 2: Allows invalid type also Low Priority

3. Error Handling Bugs: Medium Severity

Ex 1: Does not providing error massage window High Priority


Ex 2: Improper meaning of error massages Low Priority

4. Calculation Bugs: High Severity

Ex 1: Final output is wrong low priority


Ex 2: Dependent results are wrong high priority

5. Race Condition Bugs: High Severity

Ex 1: Dead Lock High Priority


Ex 2: Improper order of services Low Priority

6. Load Condition Bugs: High Severity

Ex 1: Does not allow multiple users to operate High Priority


Ex 2: Does not allow customer expected load Low Priority

7. Hardware Bugs: High Severity

Ex 1: Does not handle device High Priority


Ex 2: Wrong output from device Low Priority

8. ID Control Bugs: Medium Severity

Ex 1: Logo missing, wrong logo, version no mistake, copyright window missing, developers name
missing, tester names missing.

9. Version Control Bugs: Medium Severity

Ex: Difference between two consequitive build versions.

10. Source Bugs: Medium Severity

Ex: Mistakes in help documents.

VIII. Test Closer:


After completion of all possible test cycles executions, test lead conducts a review to estimate
completeness & correctness of testing. In this review test lead follow below factors along with test
engineer.

1. Coverage Analysis:

BR based coverage
Use case based coverage
Data modal based coverage
UI based coverage
TRM based coverage
2. Bug Density:

Ex: A 20%
B 20%
C 40 % Final Regression
D 20%

3. Analysis of Differed Bugs:

Whether differed bugs are deferrable or not?

At the end of this review, testing team concentrates on final regression testing on high bug density
modules if time is available.

Level 3: (Final Regression / Pre Acceptance Testing)

Gather
Regression
Requiremen
ts
Test Effort
Reporting Estimation

Final Plan
Regression Regression

IX. User Acceptance Testing:

After completion of final regression cycles, our organisation management concentrates on user
acceptance testing to collect feedback. There are two approaches to conduct this testing such as -
test and - test.

X. Sign OFF:
After completion of user acceptance testing and their modifications, test lead concentrates on final
test summary report creation. It is a part of software release note. This final test summary report
consists of below documents.
Test Strategy / Methodology (TRM)
System Test Plan
Requirements Tracebility matrix
Automated Test Scripts
Bugs Summary Report

BUG Feature Found By Severity Status Commants


Description (Closed/Differed)
Auditing:
To audit testing process Quality people three types of measurements & Metrics.

1. QAM (Quality Assessment Measurement):

These measurements used by quality analysts / PM during testing process(Monthly once).

Stability:

y
Defect arrival Rate

No of defects

0 x
Time

20% testing 80% defects


80% testing 20% defects

Sufficiency:

Requirements Coverage
Type-Trigger analysis

Defect Severity Distribution:

Organization Trend limit check.

2. TMM (Test Management Measurement):

These measurements used by test lead during testing process (weekly twice).

Test Status:

Completed
In progress
Yet to execute

Delays in Delivery:

Defect arrival rate


Defect resolution rate
Defect age

Test Efficiency:

Cost to find a defect ( No of defects / Person-Day)


3. PCM (Process Capability Measurement):
These measurements used by project management to improve capability of testing process depends
on feed back of customer in existing maintenance softwares.

Test Effectiveness:

Requirements Coverage
Type-Trigger analysis

Defect Escapes (Missed defects):

Type Phase analyses

Test Efficiency:

Cost to find a defect ( No of defects / Person-Day)