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Motherboard: is the main circuit board of a

microcomputer. Motherboard aka (system board, planar board,


main board, logic board)1.

The following is some of the ways in determining if your


motherboard is an AT motherboard or an ATX motherboard. The
Keyboard: AT Motherboard = DIN/5 connector ATX Motherboard =
PS/2 connector2.

AT Motherboard = Single Row two connectors 5v3. &


12v ATX Motherboard = Double row single connector 5v, 12v, and
3.3v In this section, you learned that the motherboard holds all the
components of the computer that serves as their main attachment
point.

CPU type: CPU socket or CPU slot Memory slots: SIMM


slots, DIMM slots or RIMM slots Cache memory: Internal or
External Cache found on the CPU and as support chips Chipsets:
Northbridge, Southbridge, Cache, Heatsink, MCC, sound and
video chipsets System BIOS: ROM usually a DIPP chip and
complemented by the CMOS battery Expansion slots: AGP, ISA,
PCI, AMR and CNR Motherboard connectors: FDC, IDE
Controllers, Fan Controllers, CD/DVD and sound controllers
Motherboard settings: Jumpers and Switches Power connectors:
AT socket vs. ATX socket4.

(newer) ATX NLX old school) AT (Full vs. Baby) XT (rip)


LPX (rip)5.

Full-AT (12" wide x 13.8" deep) Matches the original IBM


AT motherboard design, which only fits into full size AT or tower
cases only, not being produced much any more if any. This form
factor is no longer produced because it cannot be placed into the
popular Baby-AT chassis.6.
Baby- AT (8.57" wide x 13.04" deep) Almost the same as
the original IBM XT motherboard with modifications in the screw
hole position to fit into AT style case, with connections built onto
the motherboard to fit the holes in the case7.

A. Primary and Secondary IIDE Controllers B. ROM/BIOS


C. ISA slots D. CMOS Battery E. PCI slots F. DIN/5 Keyboard
Connector G. AT Socket H. ATX Socket I. DIMM Slots8.

. SIMM Slots K. Chipset L. L2 Cache M.CPU Socket N.


Floppy Drive Controller O.LPT Connector P.COM Connector9.

10. Full-ATX - (12" wide x 9.6" deep) / Mini-ATX - (11.2"


wide x 8.2" deep) The official specifications were released by Intel
in 1995 and was revised to version 2.01 in February 1997.The ATX
form factor is an advancement overprevious AT style
motherboards. Therefore requires a new case design. ATX is not a
abbreviation however is actually a trademark, which belongs to
Intel. On a socket 7 ATX motherboard the socket has been placed
a further distance from the expansion slots allowing for long boards
to be placed in easier. Relocation of the memory and the CPU
creating better ventilation and easier upgrade Power management
possible with proper BIOS support.

Micro ATX - A smaller version of Full ATX Flex ATX -


Another version of the ATX motherboard11.

NLX (Supports motherboards with overall dimensions of


9.0" x 13.6" [maximum] to 8.0" x 10.0" [minimum]) Implemented in
1998 by Intel this form factor is gaining popularity the last couple of
years because there found on most clone computers Support for
the Pentium II Support for AGP Support for USB. Support for
DIMM. Easier Access to internal components Support for
motherboards that can be removed without using tools12.
Special Thanks to ASUS, GB, Intel and Shuttle A. Audio
Ports B. USB Ports C. Fire wire Ports D. RJ45/Ethernet Ports E.
TV Tuner F. PS2 Mouse and Keyboard Ports G. P4 Socket H.
Cooling Tube Pipes I. LGA CPU Socket J. Memory (DIMM Slots) K.
Floppy Drive Controller L. ATX 24pin Socket M. Serial ATA Sockets
N. Northbridge Chipset O. Southbridge Chipset P. IDE Controller
Q. PCI-express X1 R. AGP S. PCI T. PCI-express X16 U. CMOS
Battery V. BIOS W. Front Panel Connectors13.

There are many reasons for wanting to build your own PC.
Building your own PC can be an enjoyable learning experience
(especially when it works first go!) and greatly improve your
understanding of hardware systems. In addition, building your own
system may be the only option if youve sourced the individual
components from different supplies, or if youre building a machine
from parts that have been lying around. Further, building your own
PC can help your gain skills in PC troubleshooting as well.14.

This article describes the general procedure for building a


PC from individual components, rather than focus on any specific
type of hardware. In which case, it is important to always consult
the installation guide for each piece of hardware in your system
before commencing the build. This article assumes you have a
basic understanding of computer hardware terminology.15.

Perhaps the greatest threat facing system builders is


electrostatic discharge (ESD). ESD is the sudden discharge of
static electricity causing a momentary current flow that can weaken
or permanently damage semiconductor components (such as the
processor, memory, motherboard, and video card). Therefore it is
imperative that you follow the correct ESD storage and handling
procedures.16.
All components that are susceptible to ESD damage are
shipped in antistatic bags. Always keep these components in their
correct packaging until you need to use them. Youll also need to
purchase an antistatic wrist strap. This device ensures that your
body has not built up a static charge that can damage sensitive
components when you handle them. When handling sensitive
components, always handle them by the edges. Never allow your
fingers to touch any electrical connectors or electronic
components.17.

Computer case and power supply Motherboard


(mainboard) and mounting hardware Processor (or central
processing unit - CPU) Processor heatsink and fan assembly
Memory module (RAM) Hard disk drive CD or DVD ROM drive
Video card (optional if not integrated on motherboard) Network
card (optional) Floppy disk drive (optional) To build a working
system, youll need the following minimum components:18.

The starting point is to decide on the type and speed of


processor your system will be based on. Once this has been
decided, choose a mothe Data cables for connecting drives
Installation guides for each component Monitor Keyboard
Mouse Operating system installation disks Any additional driver
software shipped with hardware components19. rboard that can
support that type of processor. You can now choose a type of
memory module that is supported by the motherboard. be sure to
also choose a hard disk drive that the motherboard can support.
Finally, choose a case thats big enough for your build and that
suits the form factor (physical dimensions) of your motherboard.

Selection of flat-head screwdrivers Selection of


Phillips head screwdrivers Long-nose pliers Torch (flashlight)
Antistatic wrist strap Clean static-free workbench At the very
least youll need the following tools and equipment:20.
1.Familiarise yourself with the motherboard layout.Read
the motherboard installation guide and familiarise yourself with the
motherboard layout. A typical arrangement is shown in the diagram
below:21.

Install the motherboard.Install any plastic spacers that


came with the case in the correct positions to support the
motherboard. Ensure there case is not plugged in to the mains
power outlet. Following the correct ESD prevention procedures,
carefully remove the motherboard from its antistatic bag and
correctly position it in the case. Use the screws supplied to firmly
mount the motherboard.22.

Consult the documentation that came with your case (or


do some clever tracing!) to locate connections to the case front
panel. These will include the power light and switch, reset switch,
hard disk light, loudspeaker and so on. Connect these to the
appropriate connectors on the motherboard (consult the
motherboard23.

Following the correct ESD prevention procedures,


carefully remove the memory module(s) from their antistatic bag
and correctly insert them in the memory module sockets, begging
with Slot 1. Push the clips on each side of the slots inwards so that
the memory modules are firmly in place.24.

Most processors are installed using a ZIF (zero insertion


force) socket. Lift the ZIF sockets leaver fully upwards, and,
following the correct ESD prevention procedures, carefully install
the processor. Most processors are keyed (should only go in one
way) and should not require any force (see picture below).25.