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Root Cause Analysis for the Weld Failure

1. Weld Statistics

Welder Welder Total No No of No of Re- Repair
S.No Repair
Name Number of Joints Repairs Repairs %
1 Ram T 7003 21 2 1 9.52%
2 Inardeb 7234 75 3 2 4% 6.66%

3 Based 7447 62 2 1 3.22% 4.83%

4 Dilip 8101 76 4 5.26%

Based on Joint Nos

Total Repair % = 4.70%

Total Re-Repair% =6.41%

Based on RT Request

%Repair Rate=35.48%

%Re-Repair Rate=48.38%

2. Welder Repair Causes

Type of Repair in
Welder Welder Types of Repair on
S.No Re-Repair
Name Number Initial Radiography
1 Ram T 7003 P, LF, CP LF

2 Inardeb 7234 P,LF,RUC P, RUC,LF

3 Based 7447 P, RUC P

Dilip 8101 LF, RUC,P

Other common type of defect (not repair) found in the joints is Slag Inclusion

CP=Cluster Porosity
RUC=Root under Cut
LF= Lack of Fusion
Actions Taken
1. WPS Awareness Class done.
2. Electrode Oven has been changed
3. Only Vacuum Pack Electrodes have been issued to site
4. Vacuum Pack Electrodes are heated to 250 degree Celsius before issuing
to site
5. Baking Electrode Register Implemented.
6. Temperature at which electrodes are stored has been made 150 degree
centigrade continuously.
7. Electrode Issue Register have been signed off by Foreman to control the
Issue of electrodes.
8. Galvanized surfaces near the bevel are being removed completely by
heating with propane gas torch which is recommended because of Health
and Safety Reasons. 6010 we are using is one of the best recommended
electrodes for welding galvanized steel.
9. Electrode Quivers two are working properly, two have fuse problems in
long run it gets tripped if used more than 1-2 hours. Temperature during
the trip off has been monitored and is in the range of 70-90 degree Celsius
and the same is being immediately restarted the minimum 70 degree
centigrade required is being maintained. As an additional step two more
quivers have been requested to replace the same. Incase more welders
comes in more electrode ovens needs to be requested.
10.Current and Voltage have been monitored by QC Inspector, the current
has been kept as per the WPS. Attached Statistics of Monitoring Current
11.QC Inspector marks the repair joints and will be standing during the repair
cutting to understand the location and type of repair.
12.Pre-heating has been introduced

Legend: Yellow indicates new action

Root cause analysis on the Weld Repair

Most common defects found in the repair joints are Porosity, Lack of fusion and Root

Reasons for Porosity: Improper Baking, Welder Skill, Improper Cleaning, Improper
Start-Stop, Galvanized Steel.

Category of Repair: Welder Skills, Atmospheric Conditions.

Reasons for RUC: Incorrect Current and Voltage Settings, Travel Speed, Incorrect
Weld Angle. From the attached sheet you can find that the welders are welding
using incorrect parameters against the welding procedure specification.

Category of Repair: Welder Skills

Reasons for Lack of Fusion: Low Heat Input, Incorrect Current and Voltage Settings,
Incorrect Travel Speed, Incorrect Weld Angle, Scale presence.
Category of Repair: Welder Skills.

Joint ID: 1399-AAIA-HSE-ISO-0004 SHT 2 OF 2 J#38

Electrode Used: E6010 Size:2.4 mm, E7018: 3.2mm

WPS No: AST-015P

Travel Speed Heat Input

Pass Current Voltage Time Taken
mm/min (KJ/mm)

Root 68-72 23-24 65 sec 60.18 1.5-1.72

87-90 23-24 58 sec 67.70 1.77-1.914

Capping 85-90 23-24 60 sec 65 1.80-1.99


Heat Input which is not an essential variable is in the correct range for the
SMAW process for welding an A106 Gr.B pipe which should be less than 2.3

But the travel speed is less than the accepted values in the Approved
WPS. Since the travel speed is one of the root causes of Root under Cut
and Lack of Fusion the main problem can be identified as the welder
positioning and attaining the required weld deposit in required time
(travel speed) which is mainly related to welder skills. Also the diameters
of the pipe is smaller that could also affect the welder performance and
speed since the more refined welder skills are required on the welding
smaller pipes.

Corrective Action

1. Welders should be informed to increase travel speed and current-

voltage characteristics.
2. RT should be done on at least 3 welds which the new parameters has
been introduced. If the joints passes this should be implemented on
all other welds.