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# ECC3004: ENGINEERING STATISTICS

SEMESTER 2 2016/2017

## DR. FAIRUZ ROMLI

DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING, UPM
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Universiti Putra Malaysia
ECC3004

PROBABILITY THEORY
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Sample Spaces
Sample space of an experiment
the set consisting of all of the possible experimental
outcomes
Example
An experiment involving the tossing of a dime only
two possible outcomes: head or tail
Hence, the sample space for this experiment is

## Department of Aerospace Engineering

Universiti Putra Malaysia
Class Activity
An experiment is conducted by
rolling two dice. Write down the
sample space for this
experiment.
(5 minutes)

## The experiment is done by rolling the two dice twice

each time. How many possible outcomes now for the
experiment?
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Venn Diagrams
It is often helpful to portray the sample space as a diagram
Venn diagram
S
(1,1) (1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (1,5) (1,6)

## Department of Aerospace Engineering

Universiti Putra Malaysia
Probability Values
Likelihood of particular experimental outcomes actually
occurring are found by assigning a set of probability
values to each of the elements of the sample space
Probability value a number between zero and one
The sum of probability values over all of the elements in the
sample space is one
The probability of outcome Oi occurring is said to be pi
P( Oi ) = pi

## Department of Aerospace Engineering

Universiti Putra Malaysia
Probability Values
Example
For a coin toss, the probabilities in general is given as
P( head ) = P( tail ) = 0.5
P( head ) = 1 P( tail ) = 0.5

This is for the case for fair coin use. If a biased coin is
used, the two outcomes will not equally likely.

## Department of Aerospace Engineering

Universiti Putra Malaysia
Class Activity
An experiment is conducted by
rolling two dice. What is the
probability that the sum of the
obtained numbers is larger than 3?
(5 minutes)