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DOUBLE INTEGRALS

4. DOUBLE INTEGRALS

4.1 Review of the Definite Integral

b
The area under the curve y = f(x) between x = a and x = b is given by f (x) dx . This is
a
illustrated by the figure below

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4.2 Iterated Integrals

The following theorem tells us how to compute a double integral over a rectangle

If f(x,y) is continuous on R = [a,b]x[c,d] then

b d d b


R
f ( x , y ) dA f ( x , y ) dy dx
a c
f ( x, y ) dx dy
c a

Notice that the inner differential matches up with the limits on the inner integral
and similarly for the outer differential and limits. In other words if the inner
differential dy then the limits on the inner integral must be y limit of integration
and if the outer differential dx then the limits on the outer integral must be x limit
of integration.

How to compute the iterated integral

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b d


R
f ( x , y ) dA f ( x , y ) dy dx ?
a c

We will compute the double integral by first computing


d

f ( x , y ) dy
c
By holding x constant and integrating with respect to y from y = c to y = d and
then with respect to x from x = a to x = b.

Similarly, the iterated integral


d b

R f ( x , y ) dA c a
f ( x , y ) dx dy

Means that we first integrate with respect to x(holding y fixed) from a to b and
then we integrate the resulting function of y with respect to y from y = c to y = d.
Notice that both the equations we work from the inside out

Example 1

Evaluate each of the following double integral

( 2 x 4 y ) dA, R [ 5 ,4 ] x[ 0 ,3 ]
2
a)
R
3 2

x
2
b) ydydx
0 1
2 3
c) (1 8xy)dxdy
1 0
/2 1
c) y sin xdydx
0 0

d)

Example 2

Find the volume of the solid that lies under the plane z = 4 x - y and above the
rectangle R ( x, y) :0 x 1, 0 y 2 .

Exercises 4.1

1. Evaluate the iterated integral.

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(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

2. Calculate the double integral

a) ( 6 x
2
y 3 5 y 4 ) dA, R ( x , y ) : 0 x 3, 0 y 1
R

xy 2
b) dA, R ( x , y ) : 0 x 1, 3 y 3
R x2 1

c) x sin ( x y ) dA,
R
R [ 0 , ] x[ 0 , ]
6 3

3. Find the volume of solid S that is bounded by the elliptic paraboloid


2 x 2 2 y 2 z 16 , the plane x = 2 and y = 2, and the three coordinate planes.
Answer:

3 1
2. a) 21/2 b) 9 ln 2 c)
2 12

4.3 Double Integrals over General regions

In the previous section we looked at double integrals over rectangular region. But
most of the regions are not rectangular so we need to look at the following double
integral,
f ( x, y ) d A
R
where R is any region.

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There two types of regions.

Type I;

A plane region R is said to be of type I if it lies between the graph of two


continuous functions of x, that is

R {( x , y ): a x b, g 1 ( x ) y g 2 ( x )}
where g 1 ( x ) and g 2 ( x ) are continuous on [a,b].

The double integral for both of these cases are defined in terms of iterated
integrals as follows.

b g2 ( x )

f ( x , y ) dA f ( x , y ) dy dx
R a g1 ( x )

y y

y g2 ( x ) d

x h1 ( y )
R R x h2 ( y )

y g1 ( x )
c
x x
a b
Type I region Type II region

Type II;

A plane region R is said to be of type II if it lies between the graph of two


continuous functions of x, that is

R {( x, y) : c y d , h1 ( y) x h2 ( y)}
where h1 ( y) and h2 ( y) are continuous on [c,d].

The double integral for both of these cases are defined in terms of iterated
integrals as follows.

d h2 ( y)

f (x, y) dA f (x, y) dx dy
R c h1 ( y )

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Here are some properties of double integral that we should go over before we
actually do some examples:

1) f ( x, y ) g( x, y ) dA f ( x, y ) dA g( x, y ) dA
R R R

2) cf ( x, y ) dA c f ( x, y ) dA
R R
where c is any constant

3) If the region R can be split into two separate region R1 and R2 then the
integral can be written as

f ( x, y ) dA f ( x, y ) dA f ( x, y ) dA
R R1 R2

Example 3

Evaluate each of the following integrals over the given region R.

a) e
x/ y

dA, R ( x , y ) : 1 y 2 , y x y 3
R

b) ( x 2 y) dA , R is the region bounded by the parabolas


R
y 2x 2 and

y 1 x 2

( 4 xy y R is the region bounded by y x and y = x3


3
c) ) dA ,
R

d) (6x 4y) dA ,
R
R is the triangle with vertices (0,3), (1,1) and (5,3)

Example 6

Find the volume of the solid enclosed by the planes z 4 x 2 y 10 , y 3x ,


z 0 , x 0

We can integrate the integrals in other order (i.e. x followed by y or y followed by


x), although often one order will be easier than the other. In fact there will times
when it will not even be possible to do the integral in one order while it will be
possible to do the integral in the other order.

Example 7

Evaluate the following integrals by first reversing the order of integration.

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3 9

x
3
3
a) e y dy dx
0 x2
8 2
b)
0 3
x 4 1 dxdy
y

Exercises 4.2

1. Evaluate the iterated integral


1 x2 1 ey
a) ( x 2 y ) dy dx
0 0
b)
0 y
x dx dy

/ 2 cos 1 2 x

e dr d ( x
sin
c) d) 2
y ) dy dx
0 0 0 x
2. Evaluate the double integral

a) x
3
y 2 dA, R ( x , y ) : 0 x 2 , x y x
R

b) x
2y
2
1

dA, R ( x , y ) : 0 x 1, 0 y x
R

c) e
x/ y

dA, R ( x , y ) : 1 y 2 , y x y 3
R

d) x cos y dA,
R
R is bounded by y 0 , y x 2 , x 1

y
3
e) dA, R is triangular region with vertices (0,2), (1,1) and
R
(3,2)
f) ( 2 x y )dA, R is bounded the circle with centre the origin and
R
radius 2

3. Find the volume of the given solid

a) Under the plane x + 2y z = 0 and above the region bounded by y


= x and y = x4

b) Under the surface z = xy and above the triangle with vertices (1,1),
(4,1) and (1,2)

c) Enclosed by the paraboloid z = x2 + 3y2 and the planes x =0 y = 1,


y=x, z=0

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d) bounded by the cylinder x2 + y2 = 1 and the plane y = z, x = 0 z = 0


in the first octant.

4. Evaluate the integral by reversing the order of integraton

1 3 1 1

x 3 1 dx dy
x2
a) e dx dy b)
0 3y 0 y
3 9 1 1

y cos( x x 3 sin ( y 3 )dy dx


2
c) ) dx dy d)
0 y2 0 x2

5. Find the volume of the solid in the first octant bounded by the cylinder z =
9 y2 and the plane x = 2

Answer:
4 3 / 2 32
1) a) 9/20 b) e
9 45
c) e1

1 4
2) a) 256/21 b) ln 2 c) e 2e
2
d) (1 cosx)/2 e) 147/20 f) 0

3) a) 7/18 b) 31/8 d) 1/3


1
4) a) ( e9 1 ) / 6 c) sin 81 5. 36
4

4.4 Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates

In many cases in applications of double integrals, the region in xy-plane has much
easier representation in polar coordinates than in Cartesian, rectangular
coordinates.

Suppose we want to evaluate the double integral f ( x, y ) dA


R
, where R is a

region that is a disk, ring, or a portion of a disk or ring. In these case using
Rectangular coordinate could be somewhat cumbersome. So we could convert the
double integral formula into one involving polar coordinates.

Recall from figure below that the polar coordinates ( r , ) of a point related to the
rectangular coordinates (x,y) by the equations

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r 2 x 2 y 2 , x r cos , y r sin and


dA can be written as dA = r dr d

Figure 1

Recall also how the area between two curves given by functions of x on the first figure
bellow corresponds to the area between two polar curves given by functions of

Figure 2: Region between two curves in Cartesian and polar coordinates


Consider now a function z = f(x, y) of two variables defined on a region D which can be
represented in polar coordinates as follows.

D (r, ): , r1 ( ) r r2 ( ) .
The double integral of f over D is

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Example 7

Evaluate the following integrals by converting them into polar coordinates


a) 2 xy dA , R is the portion of the region between the circles of radius 2
R
and radius 5 centred at the origin that lies in the first quadrant.

e
x2 y2
b) dA , R is the unit circle centred at the origin.
R

Example 8

Find the volume of the solid bounded by the plane z = 0and the paraboloid
z 1 x 2 y 2

Example 9
( 3 x 4 y
2
Evaluate ) dA , where R is the region in the upper half plane bounded
R

by the circles x 2 y 2 1 and x 2 y 2 4

Exercises 4.3

1. Evaluate the given integral by changing to polar coordinate


a) xy dA , where R is the disk with centre the origin and radius 3
R

cos( x
2
b) y 2 ) dA , where R is the region that lies above the x-axis within
R

the circle x 2 y 2 9

e
x 2
y2
c) dA , where R is the region bounded by the semicircle
R

x 4 y 2 and the y-axis

ye
x
d) dA , where R is the region in the first quadrant enclosed by the
R

circle x 2 y 2 25

2. Evaluate the iterated integral by converting to polar coordinate

1 1 x2 2 4 y2

e x
x2 y2 2
a) dydx b) y 2 dx dy
0 0 0 4 y2

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Answer: 1. a) 0 b) sin 9 c) ( 1 e 4 )
2 2
4
2. a) ( e 1) b)
4 3

4.5 Application of Double Integrals

Area of bounded region in the plane

Definition: The area of a closed, bounded plane region R is A = dA


R
Here we integrate the constant function f(x,y) = 1 over R

Example 1

Find the area of the region R bounded by the line y = x and the parabola y = x2 in
the first quadrant.

Example 2

Find the area of the region R bounded by the line y = x + 2 and the parabola y =
x2 in the first quadrant.

Surface Area

y
R

x
Figure 3

Figure 1 shows a surface S which projects onto the region R of the x-y-plane. If S
is given by the continuously differentiable function z = f(x,y) then the surface area
of S is given by

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2
z z
2

S 1 dA
R x y

Example 1

Find the surface area of the part of the parabolic cylinder z 2 y 2 9 which lies
over rectangle R = ( x, y ) : 0 x 2, 3 y 3

Example 2

Find the surface area of the portion of the plane 2x + 2y + z = 8 in the first octant

Example 3

Find the surface area of the portion of the cone z 2 4 x 2 4 y 2 that is above the
region in the first quadrant bounded by the line y = x and the parabola y = x2.

Example 4

Find the surface area of the portion of the surface z 2 x 2 y that is above the
triangular region with vertices (0,0), (0,1) and (1,1).

Moment and Centre of Mass

Suppose the lamina occupies a region D and has density function ( x , y ) . We


define the moment of a particle about an x axis as the product of its mass and its
distance from the axis. We divide D into small rectangle as in figure 2. The mass
of Rij is approximate ( xij , yij ) A , so we can approximate the moment of Rij
with respect to the x-axis by

( x ij
, yij ) A yij

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Figure 2

So the moment of the entire lamina about the x- axis:


m n
M x lim
m ,n
y
i 1 j 1
*
ij ( x ij , y ij ) A
* *
y ( x , y ) dA
D
Similarly, the moment about the y-axis is

m n
M y lim
m ,n
x
i 1 j 1
*
ij ( x ij
*
, y ij ) A
*
x ( x , y ) dA
D



As before, we define the center of mass x , y so that m x = My and m y = Mx.

The physical significance is that the lamina behaves as if its entire mass
concentrated at its center of mass. Thus, the lamina balances horizontally when
supported at its center of mass (see figure 3).



The coordinate x , y of center of mass of a lamina occupying the region D and

having density function ( x , y ) are

My 1 Mx 1
m m
x = x ( x , y )dA y = y ( x, y)dA
m m D D

where the mass m is given by

m ( x , y ) dA
D

Figure 3

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Example 1:

Find the mass and the center of mass of a triangle lamina with vertices (0,0), (1,0)
and (0,2) if the density function is ( x , y ) = 1 + 3x + y.
y
Solution:
(1,2)
The mass of the lamina is y = 2 - 2x

(3/8,11/16)

D
x
(1,0)
1 2 2 x
m ( x, y) dA (1 3x y) dy dx
R 0 0
22 x
1
y2
= 0 y 3 xy
2 0
dx

1
1
x3 8
4 ( 1 x ) dx 4 x
2

0 3 0 3

The moment about y-axis is

1 22 x
My R
x ( x , y ) dA
0 0
( x 3 x 2 xy ) dy dx
22 x
1
y2
= xy 3 x 2 y x dx
0
2 0
1
1
x2 x4
= 4( x x ) dx 4 1 3

0 2 4 0
The moment about x-axis is
1 22 x
Mx R
y ( x , y ) dA
0 0
( y 3 xy y 2 ) dy dx
22 x
1
y 2 3 xy 2 y 3
= 0 2 2 3 dx
0
1
( 2 2 x )2 3 x( 2 2 x )2 ( 2 2 x )3
= 0 2 2

3 dx

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11
=
16
M y M x 3 11
The centre of mass is at the point , = ,
m m 8 6

When the density of lamina is 1 the center of mass is called the centroid of the
object.

Example 2

Find the center of mass of the lamina in the shape of region bounded by the
graphs of y = x2 and y = 4 having mass density given by ( x , y ) = 1 + 2y + 6x2

Example 3

Find the centroid of the region in the first quadrant bounded by the x axis, the
parabola y2 = 2x and the line x + y = 4.

Exercises 4.4

1. Use double integral to find the volume of the solid in the first octant that is
bounded by tha paraboloid z x 2 y 2 and the cylinder x 2 y 2 4 and the
coordinate plane
16
Ans :
3

2. Find the volume of the solid whose base is the triangle in the x-y plane bounded
by the x-axis and the line y = x and x = 1 and whose top lies in the plane f(x,y) =
3 -x-y
Ans: (1)

3. Find the area of the region R enclosed by the parabola y = x2 and the line
y=x+2
9
Ans :
2
4. Use double integral to find the area of the region R enclosed between the curves
y 2 x andn 3y x = 4
Ans :(11.68)

5. Use the double integral to find the area of the region R in the first quadrant
bounded by y x 2 and y 4 and x 0
Ans :(16/3)

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6. Use the double integral to find the area of the region R bounded by the parabolas
y 2 x 2 and y 1 x 2
Ans :(4/3)

7. Find the area of the portion of surface 2x + 2y + z = 8 in the first octant.


Ans :(24)

8. Find the surface area of the portion of the surface z 4 x 2 that lies above the
rectangle R in the x-y plane whose coordinate satisfies 0 x 1 and 0 y 4
4
Ans :
3
9. Find the area of the surface z 4 x 2 4 y 2 that lies above the region R in the
first quadrant bounded by the parabola y = x2 and the line y = x
5
Ans :

6
10. Find the surface area of the portion of the surface z = 2x + 3y + 1 that lies above
the rectangle R ( x, y ),1 x 4, 2 y 4

Ans : 6 14
11. Use double integral to find the volume of the solid lying under the plane
z 2 x 5 y 1 and above the rectangle ( x, y ), 1 x 0 , 1 y 4
Ans :(75/2)
12. Find the area of he portion of the surface z 2 x y that is above the triangular
2

region with vertices (0,0), (0,1) and (1,1)


Ans :(1.318)
13. Find the mass and center of mass of the lamina occupied the region R in the first
quadrant bounded by the parabola y x 2 and the line y = x with density function
( x , y ) xy
Ans :(1/6, (16/7,3/4))

14. Find the center of mass of the lamina that occupies the region R which is bounded
by the parabola y 9 x 2 and the x-axis with density function ( x , y ) y

15. Find the center of mass of a thin plate of density 3 bounded by the line y = x
and parabola y = x2 in the first quadrant.
1 2
Ans : ,
2 5

16. The point x , y is the centroid of th eregion in the first quadrant that is bounded
above by the line y = x and below by the parabola y x 2 . Find x , y
1 2
Ans : ,
2 5

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17. Find the center of mass of the triangular lamina with vertices (0,0), (0,1) and (1,0)
and the density function ( x, y ) xy
2 2
Ans : ,
5 5

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