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7. .

. j)S SOLIDINORKS
CREATING ANIMATIONS
Using SolidWorks
Learn the fundamentals of creating animations at your own
speed, as you progress from simple to more complex models.

7.
J}S SOLID INORKS
It"' 1995-2012, Dassault Systi:mes Solid Works Corporation, a In the event that you receive a request from any agency of the U.S.
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COMMERCIAL COMPUTER SOFTWARE- Outside ln:R Viewer Technology, e> 1992-20 I0 Oracle
PROPRIETARY

.---
P01tions of this software (!d 1996-20 12 Microsoft Corporation. All
The Software is a "commercial item" as that term is defined at 48 rights reserved.
C.F.R. 2. 10 I (OCT I 995), consisting of"commcrcial computer .I :=
software" and "commercial software documentation" as s uch Copyright Notices for eDrawings Products
tetm s are used in 4 8 C. F. R. 12.2 12 (SEPT 1995) and is provided to Portions of this sofhvare 2000-2012 Tech Soft 30.
the U.S. Government (a) for acquisition by or on behal f' of civilian Portions of this software .~c 1995-1 998 Jean-Loup Gailly and Mark
agencies, consistent with the policy set forth in 48 C.F.R. 12.2 12; Adler.
or (b) for acquisition by or on behalf of units 3 of the department
Portions of this software t:_ 1998-2001 3Dconnexion.
of Defense, consistent with the policies set forth in 48 C.F.R. .- 3
227.7202-1 (Jl JN 1995) and 227.7202-4 (JUN 1995). Portions of this software r: 1998-20 12 Open Design A lliance. All
rights reserved.
Portions of this software 1995-2010 Spatia l Corporatio n.
This software is based in part o n the work of the
In dependent JPEG Group. /=::
Document Number: PMTI251-ENG
fthe U.S.
~set forth
.e request
:n its sole
~fa ct urer:
::1 Street,
Contetnts
~miu m J

Lifecycle

m~ens
Chapter 1: Introduction
About This Book . .. . . ... .. . . . . .. . ....... ... . .... . .. ....... .... .. ... .. ... ... .. .. .. ................2
,6\are
Prerequisit es ............................ . . ......... .. . . . ... . ....... ... .. . . .. . . ...... . ... . . ..2
ft" are
Instructional Design Philosophy . . ...... .. .... ..... . .. . .. .. ... . .. . ........ . . . . .... . ..... .. . ....2
= Using This Book............... . .................. . .. . ....... . ... ...... . . .. . ....... .. ....... .. 2
:::-e
About the DVD ..... .... .. . ..... .. ..... . .. . . ...... . . . . . . . . ......... ...... . . . ....... ... . ...... 3
.:!J'e Images ..... ........ . . .. . . . .. . .... . .. . .. . . .. . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . ..... ... . .. . ........ . . ... .... 3
Software Up dates .... ... .... . .. ................ . . .. . .. .... .. . . . .. .. . ............. . .. . ..... . 3
x:!Iion. All
Conventions Used in This Book ..... . ............. . ........ ....... .. ... . .. .. ... . ... .. .. . . .. .. 4
OL-\ ~006- The SolidWorks MotionManager ... . ......... .. ...... . ..... .. .. . .. . . ....... . . .. . .... . . . . .. .... .. . 4
-\ll rights Motion Study Purposes ..... . .. .. ...... . . .......... . ... . ... . ... . ..... ....... .. . . .. . .. .. ..... 5
:l.. History of the MotionManager ... . . . . . . ..... ... . ...................... . ... .. . .. .. . ... . .. ... . . . . . . 5
-rs. All
;_q.t)_063; Motion Study Types ........... .. .. .... .... . ... ... .... .. . .. . ... ... .... ..... ....... ... ....... .. . . . 5
-=ling.
Distiller
What Is the Output? . .......... .. ........ . . .. ... . ... ... . . .. . .......... . . .. . . . . ....... . . .. . . .. 6
\dobe Animations .. ...... ... ......... . ........................................................ . .. . . ... 6
1p ' About Basic Animation Concepts ... .... .......... .. .. . . . .. .... .... ...... .. . . .. . .. .. .. . ... ... .. . .... 6

Prod ucts
Basic Workf low .... . . . ......... . .... . ............... . .. .. ........ . . ... . . ....... .... ... . . ...... ...7
::c. Why Create an Animation? . . .. . .... .. . . ...... .... . ... . .. . . ... ....... .. . . .............. . . .. . . . . . . .. 7
xS~stem
Should We Ever Use a Video Camera? . ........ .. .. .. . ......... .. ...... . ................ . ..... 8
::t Build ing Animations .............. . ... . .... .... . . . . ....... . .. . .. .. ... . .. . ... ... .. . . . ............. 8
~

J(.'r.l.tion. All Animation Results.... .. ..... . .................... . .......... . .... .. . . .. . ...... .. . . ...... ... . .... 8
When Is the Animation Finished? . .... . ........... ... ...... . . . . ......... . . .. . . ... .. ....... ...... . . 9
Rigid Body Motion ... ... ... ... .. . ... . . . .. ..... . . ..... . ............ .. ... ...... .. . .. . .. ... .. .... .. 9
i~ and Mark TypesofMotion . . .. . ................. . .. ... ..... . ... ... .... . ....... .. . .. .............. ... ..... .10
Which Motion Study to Use . ...... ...... . .. . . . . . .. . .. .... . . ......... . . .. . ....... . .... .. . . . . . . . ... 12
\.lliance. All
Motion Drivers .... . . ..... ..... . .......................... . . . . ....... . ...... ......... . .... ... .... 13
::-orporation.
MotionManager Pane .. . ............................. . ...................................... 13
:e
Mot ionMa nager User Interface . . ... . .. ..... .. ... . ... ...... .... ... . .... . .. . .. . ......... .. .... . . . .15
ii

Model Tab .... . ......... . ........................ . ......... ........ .. .... .. . .... . ... .. .... . .15
Motion Study Tab ... ..... ........................ .. ....... ... . . . . . ........ ..................15
MotionManager Components ... .. .... .. .............. . ....................... . . .. . . . .. . .. ...16
Timeline and Time Bar .... .. ... .... ............... . ... . ......... . . .. . ...... . .. . . .. . . . . . . . ....16
Key Points ........... . .. . . . ........ .. . ........ . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . .. ....... ...... . . . ...... .. .. ... 17
Too lt ips .. ... .. ...... . ........ .. . ..... .............. ..... . ...... ..... ..... .. . . .. . ... .. . ..... 17
Key Frames an d Changebars ... . .. .. .... . .. ...... . . . .. ........... . ....... ..... . . .. . . .. . ...... 17
Completed Motion Studies . ...... . .. . .. . .... . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. ....... .... .... . .. . .. . ... .... .. . . 17
-=~
Completed Videos ........ . .. ............ ........ . . . . ...... . .. ... ....... .. .... ... . . ..... ... .18 - =- --r-,-
Right Way/Wrong Way .... . .. .. ........ ... . .... . . . ...... .... . ..... ......... ....... . . . . . . . ...18
Getting Help . . ......... .. ....... ......................... . ............ ...... .... . . . . . ...........19
Knowledge Base ......... .. ...... . ........................ . . . ........... ..... .... ......... . .19

Chapter 2: Creating Simple Animations


Animation . ......... . .......... . . ....... . . .. . . . ................ . ......... .. .... .. ... .. . .. . . . . .. 22
Topics . ....... ................ ........... . .... .. . . ...... ......... . ..... ............... . ... . 22
Point-to-point (Key Point ) Animations .... ... . . .. .. ......... . . ......... . . . .... .............. . .... 23
Exploded Views .. .. . .. . . ..... . .' .. . . . . .... ....... .... . ..... ... . . . . .... . .. . .................. 23
Case Study: Exploded Views ... . . . ........................ ... .. ...... .. . . . .. .. . . .. . . . ..... . . ... . 23
Animating Exploded Views.. . .. . ... ......... . . .. ........... . .. . .. . . .. . ... . .. .. . ......... . .. . 24
Animation Controller ......... ........................... .... . .... ........... . ............. . 24
Playback Options ... . .... .. ... . ....... . . ...... . ........... .. . .. ... . . . ....... .. ...... ....... 24
- ==
Animation Timing .... . ..... . . .. .... .... . ..... . ... ..... . . .. . ... .. .. . .. .. .... . .......... . .... 25
Review . . . .. ....... ..... ..... . . .. ............. . ............................. . . . .......... . . 26
-=
The Animation St udy Type ............ ........ . . . ... .. . ... . ............... . ...... . . .. . . . ........ 26
Animation Wizard ....... . ... . ........ ............. . .... . .............. . ......... .. ... . .... . .... 26
Stages in the Process ... . ............. ... . .. . ... .. . .. . ........ .. ... ............. . ... . . .. ....... 27 _--_---
._, =
The Storyboard ............................... . ..... ... .... . . ... ... . . . ......... . ...... . .... 27
Storyboard Development . . . . ....... .. ..... . .. .... . .. ..... . . . . ...... .. .... ..... .... . .... .... 27 5::,..,
Case Stu dy: Animat ion Wizard .... . . . . . . . ....... .... . . . .. .... .. ... .. ... . .. .. ..... .... . . . ... ... . . 28
Storyboard ......... .. ........ ............ .... . .. . ...... . ..... . . . .............. ...... ..... . 29
Rotat e Model . . ... . . . ... . .. . ....... . .. . ...... . . .. . ........... . .. . .......... .... . ... ... ... ... 31
Delete Existing Paths ........... ...... . .......... . ..... .. .... . .............. . .... . ........ .. 31
iii

.. . .. ..... 15 Explode ..... .. .... .. ... .. . .......... . ..... . . .............. . ... . .... . . ... . ... .............. 33
. . . ..... . .15 View Orientation ... .. ...... ... ... . .... . . .............. .. ..... . ..... .. ...... . ....... ... . . .... .. . 35
. ... ......16 Creating Viewpoint Keys ... .......... . . ... . ......... . . . ... .. ........ . . . . . . . . .. . . . .... . ..... 36
. . .. .....16 Viewpoint Playback ..... ... .... . . .. .. ............ . .... ................. .. .... . ......... .. .. 36
.. . .... ... 17 Modifying Key Points ...... . ... . ... .... ....................... .... . .... .. ... . ..... . ........ . 37
.. . ...... .17 Interpolation Modes ....................................... . ...... . .... . ..... . ............... . .. 37
. .. ...... 17 Collapse ..... . .... . ... . ..................................... . ........ .................... . . 40
... . .. . ... 17 Copying Key Point s . . . . ... . .. .. .. . . . . . . ....... . ............. . .. . ... . ... . . . ........... . ..... .41
.. . .......18 Recording Animations ..... . .. .. . . ....................... . .......... . ........ .. ... .............. .41
.. . ...... .18 Video File Format .... .... ..................... .. .... . ............ . . ..................... . .. 42
.. . .. . ... .19 Image File Formats ... .... .......... . .. .......... . .. ..... . ... ... . ....... . ................... 42
. . . .... . .19 Renderer . . .. . .... . ..... ... . ... .... ........ . .... . .... ...... .......... ... .. ................. 42
CODEC . .. ..... .......... .. . . . . ... .. .......... .. . . ..... .. . . . ... . ... .. .... .. .. .. .... . .. .. . .. 42
Frame Rat e ... .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . ...... .. ...... . . . .... .. .. . . ... .. ... . ... . . . .. ... . ........ .. . ... 43
... . .. ... 22 Partial Animations .............. . ... .... . .. . ............ ......... . ......... ... . .. . ......... 43
.. . . . . ... 22 Key Frame .. . ................ . .. ..... . ............. . . . .... . ... . ............................ 44
.... . .... 23 Image Quality .. ... .. .. .. ...... .......... . ........................... ... .. . ............. . ... 44
... . . ... 23 Video File Output Size . .......... . ......................... . . .. . . . . ....................... . 44
.. . . .. .. 23 ) ragging a Component . . . . .. . .. . ............... . .. : ......... . .. . .... . .......................... 47
.. . ...... 24 General Sequence ........ . ...... . ...... .. . . .............. ... . .......... . .............. . .... 47
.... . .... 24 Timeline Colors ....... ... ..... . .. . .................... .... . . ... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . ...... 47
.. .. .. .. 24 Creating Reversed Animations .... . ...................... . . . .... . ........................... 48
. . .... . . 25 Motion Study Tabs ... . . .. . .. .... .. . ... . ... . .. .......... .... .... . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . ... . .. .. 49
... . .. . ... 26 Review .... ... . . .... .. . . . .... . ......... . . . ... . . ...... ...... . .. . ..... ...... . ............. . .. 49
.. .. ... .. 26
.. . . . ... . 26 Chapter 3: Editing the Timeline
.. . .. ... . 27 ::diting the Time line ..... .. .. ............... . ... ..... . . . .. .. ......... .. .. ..... .. .. ....... . ...... 52
.... .... .. 27 Topics ........... . ... . ..... . ... . . .. . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . ... . . ... .. . .. .. . . .. .. ..... .. . .. . . . .. .. ... 52
.. . . . . . .. 27 St oryboard ....... . .. . .. . .. . . . ....... . .. . .... . ............. ... . ...... . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .... . .. 53
... . .. ... 28 Case Study: Editing the Timeline .... . ... . .. ............... . ..... . .... . ... . ...... . ............... 54
.. . ... ... 29 How Explode Works .... . .... ...... . ............. . ..... ..... . ..... ...... . .......... .. ....... 54
.. ....... 31 Scaling the Timeline ...... .. ......................................... ... . ... .... . .......... . 56
.. . ... . ... 31 -:-imeline Symbols ... . ....... ...... ..... . ..... .. . . ..... ... .. .. .. .... . ..... .. ... . . .. ...... . .. .. .. .57
iv

Components .... . ......................... . ........... . ............. . . . ..... . ..... . ........ 57


Key Points . .......... . .... . .. ..... . ....... . ..... . ....... . ............ . ..... . . . ...... . .... . . 57
Key Frames ........... . .... .. .... . .... .. .... . .............................................. 57
Changebars .. . ....... . .. . .. . .... . . .. ..... .. .. . . . ... . .. . ....... . ............ .. .......... .. .. 58
Editing Key Points ........ . .... .. .... . ..... . .................................... . ..... . ......... 58
Drag Key Point . . ............ . ........... .. . ..... . ...... . .. ... . .. .... . ..... . . . . ...... . .... .. 58
Control Drag Key Point .. . .......... . .... . .... . ..... . ......... .. ......... . ...... . ... . ... . ... 58
Copy/Paste Key Po int . ............ .. ..... . . . .... . ..... . . ...... . ...... . ..... . . . ..... . . .. . .. . 58 - -=
Drag Multiple Key Points ............... . ..... . .. . .. . . .............. . ............... . ....... 58
Edit Key Point Time ....... . . . ... . .. . .. . .. . ....... . ............. . . . .. . . ............... . . .. .. 59
Moving t he Time Bar . . .... . . . ................... . ................... . . . .... . ...... . . .. ..... 59
Component Appearance ......... . ....... . .... . ................................ . ............. 61

Chapter 4: View Orientations


View Orientat ions . ...... .. .... . ...... .. .... . . . ....... . .... .. .... .. . .................... . ....... 66
Topics ........ .. .. ... .... .. . . . ..... . ..... . .... . .. . .......... . ... .... . . . ............. . ...... 66 ----
- .j-

Viewpoints .. ... .. . . .... . .. . .......... .. .... .. .... .. ....... .. .. . ........ . .... . . . . ..... . . . .... .. 66
Positioning t he Viewpoint. .............................. . ..... . ......... . ........ . ...... . ....... 67
Middle Mouse Button Functions .. . . ...... .. ............ . . . .. .. . . . .... . ...... . .. . .. .. ....... 67
Arrow Keys ....................... . ..... . .......... . ....................................... 68
Adjusting the Arrow Key Movement . . ... . ...... . . . . .... . . . .. . . . .... . . . ....... . . .... . ..... .. . 68 .... --
~-

Reference Triad ...... . .................. . .. . .... . ......... .. ..... . ........ . ....... .. ....... 69
Named Views .... . ....... . . . ................ . . . .. . ..... . . . . . ............. . .. .. . . ... . . . . . ... . . .. 69
Perspective View .. . ............ . . ......................... . ................................... 70
Modify Perspective View ............ . .... . ...... . ....... . . ....... . ... . ..... .. ...... . ..... .. 70
View Orientation States .......... . ... . ..... . .. . ........ . .. . ..... .. ...... . . . .. . ........ . ........ 72
Disable View Key Creation . . ...... .. ...... . . ............ .. . . .. ... . .... . ......... . . ... ..... . . 72 -=-= --
Disable View Key Creation Cleared ....... . .... . .......... . .................................. 72
Disable Playback of View Keys ............. . ... . . . ......... . . . ...... . . .. .. . .. .. ............ . 72
Disable Playback of View Keys Cleared ... .. .......................... . .... . ............. . ... 72
Creating View Key Points .... . . .. . ...... . ... . ........... . .... . .... . .. . . . .... . ...... .. ....... 72
View Orientat ion Changes . . ... . ...... .. ..... . ......... . .... .. ...... . . ..... . .. . ..... . ... . ....... 73
Establishing Shots and Leaders ......... . ............ . ..... . .......... . ... . ................ . .. . . 73
v

. . . ...... .. 57 Case Study: Viewpoint s .. .. ... . . . . ..... . . .. ............ . ... .. ... . . . . .. . ............ . ....... . . .. 74
.. . . .. .. .. 57 Storyboard .. ....... . .. . ... ......... . ........... .. . . .. . . .... . . . . . .. . .... . .. ................ 74
.. . .... . . . 57 Editing Viewpoint Keys . .... . .......... . ..... . .... . ....... ... . . ... .......................... 79
.. . ... ..... 58 Further Tweaking . .. .. ...... .. . ....... . .......................... .... .. . .. . .......... . ......81
. .. ..... . . 58 Perspective View Effect ..... . . . ..... .... ... ....... .............. . . ... .. .............. ... ........ 81
-- . ... ..... 58 Case Study: Visual Bloom ..... .. . .......... . .. . ....... . . . ..... . .. . ............................. .. 81
.. . . .. . .... 58 Bounding Box ... . ... . ..... . ................................................................ 83

58 Alternative Methods ... . ........................ . ....... ...................... ............. 85


... ... ..... 58
.. .. ... .... 59 Chapter 5: Animating Appearances and Properties
.. . ....... . 59 Animating Appearances ..... . . . ........ .. ... .. . ...... . ... . ....... . .. . ... .. .... . . . ... . .. ........ 88
... .... .....61 Topics ....... ... ... . .................... ........ ............. . ... . ..................... ... . 88
Changing Displays and Appearances .................. . .......................................... 89
Interpolation Modes for Visual Pro perties ........ ... . . .... . . ... . .. ................... ... .... go
.. . .... ... . 66 Case Study: Component Visibility Changes .............. .. ...... . .. . . . . . .............. . .......... 91
.. . .. .... .. 66 Storyboard ... ... . ........ .......... . .... .......... . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. ........................ 91
... . . .. . . . . 66 Display States ......... . .................... . ....... . .. . .. . ...... . . . . .. . .. . .... . ............... 94
.. . .. ...... 67 Stored Display States .................. . . ... . ................... .. .... .... .. . .............. 94
. ... ... .... 67 Display States vs. Conf igurat ions . .... . .............. . ..... . .... . .................... .. ... . . 95
.. . . ....... 68 Display Pane ......................... . .......... .... ........................ ... .. ... ....... 95
- . ..... .. 68 Display Pane Icons ............ ....... . ............... .. . . ...................... . ........... g6
.. . .. . . .... 69 Selecting Display Pane Options ....... .. . . ... ... ... ... . ....... .. . .. . . . .... .................. 96
.. .. . . .... . 69 Creat ing Display States .............. . ..... . .. .. . . .......... . ...... ........... . ... . .... . . .. 97
... .. . .. .... 70 Case Study: Changing Appearances . .... . . ........... ... . . ....... ........ . ..... . . ........ . ..... . 97
... . .. . .. . . 70 Storyboard . ...... ...... . ......... . .... .. ................. ... . . . ... .. . . ....... ... . . . ....... 97
... .. .... .. . 72 Graphics Display Modes ..... . . . . ... . .. ... ... . . .. .... . .... .. . . . ............. . . .............. 101
- . ...... .. 72 Rotat ion by Reference Triad .. . . ............. ......... .................................... ..... 103
- . ..... . .. 72 Case Study: Reference Triad ........... ... .. ..... . . ..... . .... . ............... ................ . . 103
.. . .. ..... .. 72 Animating Lights ......... . ......... . ... ....... .. ......... . .... .. .... . ... .. .................... 105
... . . ....... 72 Scene and Environment ............. ... ..................... ...... . ..................... . . 105
- ... ....... 72 Lock to Mode! or View ................................. . .... . .. ...... . . ............. . ..... 105
.. . ... ...... 73 Lighting .............. . . . . .. . . .... . ... . ............... .. ... . . . ......... . ................ ...... 106
.. . ..... .... 73 Types of Lights .............. ......................... ............. . . . . ................... 106
vi

Creating Lights ....... .. .................... .. . . .... .. . . ............ .. ... . . .. ........ ... . ..107
Shadows ... .. ... .. .. ... ..... . ............. . . .... ... .......... . ..... ... . . ... .. .... .. .. .. .. ... .. .107
Lighting Coordinates .................................... ..... . ........ . ..... . ....... ... . .. 109
Positioning Lights .. .... ... . .... . . . ..... .. ... .. .. . . . .. .. . .. . .. . . .. . ..... . ...... ..... . . .... .. 11 0
Spot Lights ........ . .. . . . ..... ......... ... .... .. . .. .. .. ...... . . . . . .. ..... ... ... .. . . . .. . . ... .. .. 110
Light s in Animations .. . ...................... . ........ . .... . ............. . . .... ...... . . ......... 110
Keep Light . .. . .......... . ... ..... . . . . . . ... .. .. . . .............. ... . .... .. .. . ................ 110
Case Study: Lighting.. .. ....... . ............. . .... .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . ..... . ........ . .. . . . .... . .. .... 111
Storyboard ....................... . ... . . . . . ... . .. .. . ....... ... . .. .. . .. .... . .... . ...... . .... 111
ReaiView Lighting . .. .. ..... . ..... . ........... . . .. ....... . .. . .. ... . . . . .. . . . . .. ... .... . ...... 115
Light ing Properties That Can Be Animated . ........ .. ....... ... ... . ... ... . . .... . ... . ......... 116
Rendered Animations . . ..... .. . . ........................... . ................ . .. . ........... .. ... 117
Case Study: Rendering an Animation .. .. .... ....... . .. ... . ...... .. ... . . ......... .. .. .. ... . . . .... 117
Photo View 360 Check . .... ... . .. . ... . .. ... .. .. .. ................. .. .. .. . ... . .... . . . ........ 119
Choosing A CODEC ................. . .... . ... ... ...... ............... . . . .................... 121
Saving a Ser ies of Images ........... .. ......... . ................ . .. ...... ... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ....122
Chc
Chapter 6: Free Component Motion
Overview . . ........ . ... ... . .. .. . .... .. . .. .. .. .. . .... . .... . ........... . ...... . ...... . ... . ... . . . 126
Topics .. .. ........ . .. ... . ... . .... . .... ... . .............. . . . .. .. . ....... . .. ........ .. ...... 126
How Are Animations Calculated? . . ......... . ..... .. ........... ... .. ... .. ... .. ... . . .. ... . .... ... 126 .-
: ....t

Master Animator/Assistant Animator . ................................. . ................... 126


How Are the "lnbetween" Points Calculated? ..... . ........ .. .. . ........ . .. ... ... . .. ......... 126
The Solution Process ... . ... . ..... .. ....... . ........ . . . ... . . .... . . .. ... . ............ . ....... 127
Free Component Motion .............. .. ................ . .. . . . ..... . .. . .... .. ... . . .. .......... . 128
Keys ....... . .......... .. . .. .. .. ... ... ....... .. ........... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .... . . .. ... . ...... 128
Autokey . ... .. .... . ..................... .. . ........... . ..... .. .... . ... .. .......... . .... . .. 128
Place Key ...... ....... . .... . ... .. .. ........ . ... . .... . . . . .. . . . ......... . .... . ...... . ....... 128
Replace Key ....... . ......... . ... .. ... . .................... . .... ... ...... .......... .. ..... 128
Motion Study Properties ...... .. ...... . ....... . ........ . .... . . . ... ... .. .. . .. .. ... . ........ . ... 129
Animation Properties . . .... . ...... . .................. .. .... .. .. ... .. .. ... . .... .. .. ..... . . .. 129 :)- -
0.

Move and Rotate Component .. . ......... . ................... . ... . .... . . . .. . ............. . .. . .. 129
Triad ..... . ... .. ............ . .... . ....... .. ....... .. .. ... ... . .. . ... . .... . . . ..... . ....... . ... .. 130 .-
~
vii

.. .. ... .....107 Triad Move and Rotate .................. .... . . ... . ............ .. ....... . .. . ............... 130
.. .. .. ......107 Drag Rulers ........ .... .. . ... .. ......... ........ . . ..... . .... . . .. .............. . . . .. .. . . ... 130
... ....... . 109 Reorienting the Triad ......................... .. ................ . ..... . .. .... ............. .. 131
. .. .... .. ... 110 Mates .................... . . .. . .... ............. . . .. . ................ . . . ............ . .. ....... . 131
.. .. .. ...... 110 Global Mates ......... . ..... . . . . ..... ...... ..... ... .. ... .. .... ... ... . . .. ........... .. . ..... 131
.. .. .. ...... 110 Local Mat es ............. . .. . ....................... . ....... . ....................... . . ..... 131
.. .... ...... 110 Case Study: Free Component Motion ....... ............ ......... . . . . . . ...... . ........ .. . ........132
... . ... ..... 111 Storyboard .................... .. .................... .. ........ . .... ......... .. .. . . .. ... ... 132
.... . ... .... 111 Scrub the Timeline ................. . .............. ...... ............ . .. . ..... ..... . .. . . ... 136
.... .. ...... 115 Reverse Path ............... ....... ............ ....... ........ ....... ......................... 138
.. ... ....... 116 Case Study: Alternate Solution - Motor ...... .. ......... . ... ....... .... .. ..... . ......... . .. .. . 140
.. . .... .... 117 Duplicate St udy ........ ............ ......... ... ... ... .............. . . .. ... .... .. ... ... . ....... 140
... . .. .... .. 117 On/Off . ....... ... . ..... .... . .... . .. ... . ..... .. . ............... . ............... . . .. . . . .... 142
.. .. ..... ... 119 Case Study: Alternate Solution- Mate ...... ...... ... . ........ .......... . ... ........ . . . . . . .... 145
... .. ....... 121 Screw Mate ........ .... .............. . .. .. . ................. .. ............. .. ............ 146
.. . ........122
Chapter 7: Motion Drivers
Mot ion Drivers ......... ........ ......... ............ .............. . . .. ......... . ... . ... ... .... 150
.. .. .. ..... 126 Topics .............. . . ... ................ ..... . . .............. ... . . ............ . ..... . ... . 150
... ... ..... 126 Dragging Components ........... . ........... . .. . .... .. ........ . ... . ........... . ............... 150
... . .. .... 126 Mates .... . . . ... ... ... .. . . ... .... . .. ......... . .... .. ......... . .... . ......... ..... . . ..... . ..... 150
... . ...... 126 Suppressing/Unsuppressing Mates.................................. . ....... . ......... . ..... 151
... .. ... ... 126 Distance and Angle Mates ... .. .. .. ............... ... .. ..... . .. . .... . ........... . ........... 151
.... .. .. . ... 127 Pat h Mates ......... .... ................. .. .......... . ... . . ... .. . . ............. .......... . . 151
.... . .. .. . . 128 Mates in Subassemblies ..... . . ... . . . ..... . .... . . . . ............... . . . . . ... . . .... . .. . . . .... . . 151
... .. ..... 128 Mating Strategies ... ... ......... . ... . .. .......... ............ ....... ............ .. . .... . . .. 152
. ... .... ... 128 Animating Robots ........................................ .... ..................................153
.... . ...... 128 Mate Organization .. ... ................. ........ ............... . ................... . . ..... 154
... . .... ... 128 Case Study: Robot Motion ........ ................ ..... ....... . . . . . . . . ... . ....... ... . . . ........ 154
.. ...... ... 129 Storyboard ................ .. ....... . ...... . ..... . .... ... . .. . ........ .. . .. . ....... ... . . ... 154
... .. ...... 129 Part 1: Mates ............. . .. .... . .. ..... . . . . . . .... ...... . ....... . . . .. . .. . .......... . ........... 155
... . .. ..... 129 Mate Problems in Animations ... .. ... . .... . .. . ................. ... ......... .. .............. 160
.. .. .... ... 130 MotionManager Filters ...... . ....... .. ... . ........... . ............. .. ...... ... . ... ........ . .... 161
viii

Motors .. ... ........ ........... .. . .... . .......... .... ........ ... . .. ......... .. . ....... . .. . .... 163
Motor Types ................................ .... ..... . .. .. ........... . ......... . .. . .... . .. 163
Motor Principles .. .. .. . ......... ... .......................... . ............................ 166
Recalcu lating Studies . ..... . .. . ... .................... . . . .. ........... . ......... .. . . ... . .. 166 -::r-= =
Defining a Motor ....... ...... .. ... .. .. . .... . ............... .... ........ ... ... . ......... . ...167
Part 2: Distance Motor ...... ........ ........ ... ... ........................... ... ..... .. ....... .167
,_ ~

- .E:
Motor Options ....................................................................... . .. . . 168
Where is Zero? ........................ . ............. .. ........ .. .... .. . .. .. ... ... . ....... 168
Revers ing t he Motion ................... . ............. . . . ............................ ...... 171
Constant Speed Motor ................... ..... ....... . .. . .... ..... .... . .. . ................ ..... 172
Part 3: Constant Speed Motor ....... ... ......................... . .......... . .. .. ......... ... . . .172
Constant Speed Motors-Alternate Meth od ............... . . . ....... ... ................. . ...174
Function Builder....... ...... ..................... . . ............ ... .......... ........ ...........176 -~

Dat a Input .......... . ... . ...... . ............... .. ........................................ .. 177 ::::J


Data Export ...... ... .. . . . ............... . .... ..... ... . ......... ... . . ........ . . ........ ....178
Data Point Motors ... . . . ........ .... . . .......... ...... ....... ....... .......... . ................178
Importing Data Points ....................... . . ... ...... . .. .. ........... . ............. . .....178 ' -
Curve Fitting...... .. ......... ........ .... ..... . .... . . ....... . .......... . ... . ........ . .. .. ..179 .--
-
Linear .. ....... .. ... ... ....... ..... ........ . ......... . . ... ......... ..... . . .. ........ . . . . ...179 .!. ::1

Akima .... . .. . . . ............. ... . ... ... ........ . ..... . .. . . .... ..... . .. .. . . ........ . . ... ....179
Cubic ....... .. ... ... ............. .. .................................. ... .... ............. . 180
General Considerations ... . . ... . .......... ... ............. . .... ...... .. .. ... ........ . ...... 180
Part 4: Data Points Motor ......... ......... ... ......... ...... . .. .. . .. . .... . . . . . .......... . . . .. 180 5-- c.:
Part 5: Segments Motor ....... . .............. .. . . ........ . . . . . . . . ........ . .... ...... ....... ... 182
Segment Interpolation Types . .. . ... . ... . ........................... .. .......... ... . .... ... 183 Cha
Part 6: Expression Motor ... .. ..... ....... ........ .... ............ ...... ...... . ...... ... . ..... . 185 --
i""\.1..... L :C-

Function Builder- Expressions . .. . . . .... . ..... . .. . .. ..... . . .... . .. . . . .... . .. . . .... ..... . .. . . . .. 186
Subassemblies . . ... . ......... . ... . .. . .................... . . ..... ..... . .. . . .. ... ............ .. ..187 ( --- :::-
C::J::: -

Rigid Subassemblies ............... . . .... . ............ .. ...................................187 S:J


Flexible Subassemblies ... . . ........... . ..... . . ... . . ... ... ... . .. .. . .... . ... . ....... . ....... 188
Case Study: Subassemblies .............. . ............. . .......... ... ........ ... .. . .... . .... ... 188
Modifying t he Structure of an Assembly ........................................... ...... ... 190
Dissolving a Subassembly .. .. ............ .. ...... . ........ . ............. ........ .... ...... 190 ( -- ~ :::-
c::::.:: - -
ix

. - - -- ...... . 163 Reorganize Components Using Drag and Drop .......... .. . .......... . ... ........ . . .. . ...... 190
- . - .... .. .. 163 Reorganize Components.. . .... . ..... . . . . ..... . .. ..... . ..... . . ..... .... . ........ . . .. . .. .... 190
- - .. ........ 166 Promot ing and Demoting Components . ... . .. ............. . .. . . .. ................. .. . . ..... 190
- -- .. ....... 166 Troubleshooting Motor Problems ............ . ............... . .... . ............... .. ........... 192
-- - . ...... . ..167 Case Study: Mot or Troubleshooting ................................. . ...... ......... .. . ... . .... 192
. . . . ........167 Moving around a Closed Path . . ....... ............. . ............ . ...... .... . .................. . 195
. - - ... .. . .. . 168 Direct Path .... . . ... .... ..... . .............. . ..... . ...... . .... ..... . .. .......... . ... . . . . .. 195
- - . .... ... . 168 Using Mates ............................. .. ... .. ............ . ........... . ....... . ...... . ...197
- -.... . .... 171 The 100/360 Rule ....... . .................. . . . ... . ............ . .... . .. . ................. . ... . . 198
- - - - .. .. . .... 172 How Do We Go Beyond 360 degrees/100 percent? ... . . ........ ........ ..... . . .. . . .... . ..... 199
-- - - ......... 172 Motor Method ............ . . .. ... ... ............... .... ............... . . .. ....... . ........ 199
. --- - .... . .. .174 Case Study: Path Mate ....... . .... ....... ........ . ... . .... .. ............. . .. ... ... . ........... 200
.. - . ....... .176 Pat h Mate .......... .. .... . .............. . ... . .......... . . .. .... . . . .............. . ..... . .. 200
.. - --. . ... . .. 177 Storyboard ........ . .............. . .. . .... . .... . ...... . ... . . .. .. . .... . ............ . ....... 200
... . .. .......178 Limitations of the Pat h Mate .. .. . ............... . . .. .... ....... .. ... . . . .. ... ..... .. ....... 203
- . .. .... . . ..178 Path Mate Percent Scale ......... .. ............... ... ... ... . . ............. . . . . .. . ......... 204
- . .. . .......178 What's Wrong? ........................................ .... . . .................... . ......... 204
- .. .......179 Alt ernative #1- Suppress the Reset. ...... . . . .... .... ........ . .. .. .... .. ........ . .. . . .. . ... 205
-. - . .. ..... .179 Alternative #2-Two Path Mates . ... . ... .... . . ............. . . .. . .. ... .. .... . .. .. . . .... . . .. 205
-.- - . ..... . .179 Alt ernative #3- Key Points ........... . .. .. . . . . ....... .. . ... . . . . .. . . ............. . . .... ... . 205
-- - . ... ... 180 Alternative #4- Path Mate Motor ... .. ............. .. ................. ... .. . . ....... .... .. 206
-- - . - ..... 180 Path Mate Motor ......................... . ........ .. .. .... ......... . ... ..... . . ...... . ... . 206
--- - . ...... 180 Simulation Motion Drivers ........ ......... . . ... . ... ... . ......... . ....... . ... ... .......... . .... 208
-- . - . ... . 182
.. - - . ...... 183 Chapter 8: Animating Parts
--- . . ... . .. 185 Animating Parts ............ . .... ..... . .. ...... . ...... . .. .. . . . .. .. ... . ........ . .. . ... . .. . . . .... 210
--- . ....... 186 Topics ..................................... . ...... . .. . .. .. ... . .. . .................. . ...... 210
--. - .... ....187 Case Study: Animating In-Context Parts . ....... . ........ ...... ............... ....... ...... ...... 211
... . ...... ..187 St oryboard ....... .. . . ........ .. . .... ... . ......... . ........ .. .... . ...... . . . .. . .. .. . ........ 211
. 188 Rebuilding In-Context Parts ........ ... ... .... .... .... .......... . . . . ... . ..... ........ . .... ... 212
. . . 188 Create an In-Context Part ..... . ... . .. ..... .. ...... .. . ...... . .. .... .. ... ... . . .. . ... . .. . . . ... 212
. - . ... ..... 190 Animating a Spring .. ............... ........ ....... ............. ........ ............. ......... .. 217
- . . . . ..... 190 Case Study: Create a Spring . ..... .. ... ..... ... . ... .. ... .... . .. ...... . .. ... ... .... ............ .. 217
1-

Phase Shift .......... . ............................... . ............................ .. ....... 221


Rebuild Failures ........................................................................... 222
Spring Diameter ............................................ . . . . .. ... .. .............. . .... 222
Methodology ...... ... ....... . ... ....... . ... . ............ ... .. . ........................... 223
Case Study: Wheel Assembly . ............................... . .. . .. . ........................... 225
Question........ . . . . .. . . ............ ..... ....... . ...... . .. .. .. . .. . . ... ...... . . ...... ...... 225
r ___ -
Storyboard . . . ............. ..... . .. . . ... . ..... . ....... . . . ...... .... . ................ . ..... 226
Driving the Motion ... . .... . ..... . ......... ... .... . ......... ..... .... . ..... . .... . .......... 228

Chapter 9: Physics-based Motion


Physics-based Motion .. . . ..... . . . .. . ........ . ........................ . .. . ................... .. 234
Topics .... . ..... . .... . .. . .. . .... . .... . . . ..... .. ......... ... . .... . .................... . .... 234
Terminology .............. . .. . .......... . .......... . ... .. ......................... . .... . .. 234
Motion Solutions .......... .................. ............................... ............... 235 ----
'-:

Animation of Physics-based Simu lations .............. .. ..... ................. . .... . .......... . . 236
Driving Motion .............. . . . . . . . . ..................... .. ... . .. . ... . .. . . .. . .......... ... . ... 236
r __
Motors ... .. . ..................... ......... . .... . ...... .... . .............................. 236
Mates .. . ..... . ...... ..... ........... . ... . ... . .. . .......... .. .. . ......... . .. .. ............ 237
Redundant Mates . ..... . .. . ....... .. ...... .. ....... . ... ..... . .... . . .. . . ... . . . .. . ... ....... 237 ,- --- -
'-:::,j,.._

Mot ion Study Properties ...... . . ... ..... . .............. ............... . . ..... . .. . ...... . .... .. 238 - .a
Case Study: Ball Sorter ... .. . . . .. .. . .. .. . .... . ............ ... ... . . . . ..... . ... .................. 239
Storyboard .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . ..... . .... .. . ... .. ........ . . . . . . . ........ . ................ 239 ,. . . - - .- c- -'-
'- c~c

Gravity . ..... .......... . ..................... . ....... .......... . ... ............... . ........... 240
Contact ............... .. ........... . ................... . ........ ... ......... . ................. 241
Contact Groups ............ . .... .................. ....................... . ................ 242 5:::
Change t he Animation Speed .................. ....................... .. ................... 244 -
Limitat ions ....... ......... .. ....... ... . .................... .. .... . . ........ .. . ........... . ... 245 '-
c

Mates .......... ... .... . .. . .... . ..... . ...... ..... ..... .... . .... . ........ .... . .... ... ... .. . 245
Motors ..... . ......... . ..... . ..... . ............. . ....... .... . ..................... . ....... 245
Damping .... . .. ..... .. ......... ........................ .. ......... . ...... ... .. .. ... ....... 245 Sc
Force .. . ... . . . . . . . . . ... . ................ ... ........ .. . . . ... . .. ........ . . .... . ........... .. 245 '-
Contact. .................... .. .... ............. ...... . ..... . .. . . . .... . . ........ . ...... . .. . 245
Contact Friction ........... ............... . . ............. .. ......... . ..... . ........ . . ...... 246
xi

- . . ....... ... 221 Coefficient of Restit ut ion ... ...... .... . ............ .. . .. ... ............. . .... . . ......... . . 246
. . .. ........ 222 Case Study: Impact .. .......... . ..... . . .. .. .......... ... .. ... ..... . ...... .. ... . . .. . .. . ......... 246
.. . .... ..... 222 Case Study: Geneva Wh eel. ........... . ............................ .... . . ........ . ............ . 248
- .. .... . . ... 223 Storyboard .. . ..... ...... ... . ............... . ....... ... ... . . ....... ... ..... ....... .. . . . ... 248
.. . . .... .. .. 225 Contact Options ........ . ..... _. . _. . . . . ................... . .. . . _.......................... 250
- . . ......... 225 Restoring Force .. . .. .... .... . ............................... . ............................. 252
. .. ........ . 226 Combining Motion.... ........ ................................. . ............................... 256
-- . .. . . . . ... 228 Case Study: The Bouncing Ball ........... ........ ... .... ...... ... .. .......... . ................. 256
Storyboard . ....................... .................... .. . . .... _..... . .......... . ..... . ... 257
Springs .............................. ...... ........... .. .. . ..... ... .. ... ...................... 258
--- .. ... . . .. 234 Translational Spring ....... ... ... . ..... . .... . .... .. .... . ..... .. ....... .. .. . ....... . . .... . ...... 258
- ... .... .... 234 Magnitude of Spring Force . . ....................... . .... ... . . . . .. . ..... . ........... . . . .. . . 259
.. . ..... ... 234 Damping ....... . .......................... ..... .............. . . . . .. .. . .......... . ......... 261
- - - ....... .. 235 Creating a Spring ... . .. ....... . . .... ..... .. . ..... . .... . . . ....... .......... .. . . . .. . .. . ... .. 262
-- ... . ..... 236 Importing Simulation Results . ...... . . . .. . .................... .. .... . .... .... .... . .... . ........ 263
-- . ........ 236 Errors ..... ... .......... ...... .. .... ....... .......... . ....... .. . ........ ... .. ...... . ...... 267
- . . . ........ 236 Complete the Spring Part. . .... ............. .... .............. . ......... . . . .... . . ..... ..... 267
-- . ......... 237 Physical Dynamics ..... .............. ...................................... . ... ........ .. .. .. . 268
- - .... ...... 237 Capturing the Screen ..... .. ...... ... . ............... ... ....... .... ...... .............. ........ 268
-- .. ....... . 238 Image Capture .. .. ... .. .... . . .......... . . .. . ..... . . ......... . . . ...... . .. .. ................ 268
--- . ........ 239 Record Video .............. . ..... . . . ..... .. ................ .. .... . ............. .. . .. . ... .. 268
- - .. .... .... 239 Case Study: Physical Dynamics . ..... ............. . ....................... ... .. . . . . ..... ....... 269
- -- ...... . .. 240 An imating Gears . ... ..... ... . .. .... .. . ..... . . . .. . . ................. .................... ... 270
-- .. .. ...... 241 Case Study: Fly-Ba ll Govern or . ...... ...... .. ....... ................. . . . ... . . ... ... ... ... ...... . . 271
. .. .... .. . . 242 Storyboard ... . ............... .............................. . . . . . .. . ... . .... . . . ..... ..... .. 271
- . .. .. .. 244 Animation Approach. . .. . .. .. ...... . .. . ....... . .... . .. ... .. .. . ... . ..... .. . ........ . ......... 271
-- - .. . ..... 245 Mates .. . ... . ..... . .................... . ................ . .. ......... . .. .......... . ........ 272
-- -- -- . ..... 245 Calculating Physics-Based Motion Studies .. ... .................. . .. . ........ .. ................ . .277
--- ... ..... 245 The PhysX Solver ... . ... .. .............. . ... .. .................. . .. . ......... . ....... . .....277
- - ...... ... 245 SolidWorks Motion Solvers ............ ................. .. . .. .... . ... .. . .. . . ............... 280
. .. ..... .. .. 245 Which Solver? ............ .. ........ . .. _.. . ...... . .. ... ... .......... . ............... . . .... 280
- ......... 245
- - .. ... 246
xii
--------------------------------------------- ------ -- --
Chapter 10: Alternate Methods
Alternate Met hods ... . ................................ . .... . .................................. 282
Topics .............. . ............ .. .............. . .. . .... . ............ . . ..... . ............ 282
Planning the Animation .. . ........... ... .................. . ....... .... ..... .. . ............. 282
Case Study: Fly Ball-Governor... .. ....................... ... ... . ..... .. .... ..... . .. . ... ........ 283
Alternate Approach ............................................ . . ... .. . ..... . ....... . ......... 284
Case Study: Bouncing Ball ........ . .............. . .. ... ..... . .. . .... ... ... .. ........ . .. . ....... 286
___ -
..._
~ ; u::.::: .._.

Oscillating Motors ... . ......... .... . ........... . .... . ...................... ..... .. ...... . ...... 286
Motors Driven by Expressions ............................... .... ... .... ... . ............ . .. .. .. 288
Operators ..... ... .. .. .... . ........... . .............. .... . .... .. ....... ..... .... .... ...... 288 --- -..-.5
-~ -

Mathematical Functions ... . .......... ....... ... .. ................. .... ...... ..... ...... .. . 289
Variables and Constants ........ .. .................... . .. . ................. ... ... .. . ....... 290 '.' ---
Driving Expression .............. ... . ................. ................ . . ... ................ 291
Syntax ........................... ................ .... . .......... . ............ .. .......... 291
What Is the Best Way to Animate? ....... ........... ................ . ........ ........ . . ........ 294
Case Study: Arbor Press .... .. ... . ............................. ... ... ... . . .......... . . ...... . . . 295
Storyboard ................................. .. .......... .. .. . .............. ... .. .... ...... 295
Method 1-Point-to-Point .. .... ... . .. . . ............ . .... ....... .. . ..... . ... . ..... . .. . ..... 296
Method 2- Mates..... . ............ . ...... . ..... . .. . .... ..... . .... . .... .. . . .. . .. .......... 298 -=
Method 3-Motors ...... .. . . . ........................ ... ... .. .. . .. .... . .... . .... . ......... 301 .=
Method 3- Motors (continued) .... .. . ....... ......... . ........... . . . ....... . ..... . ..... . .. 304
Method 4-Basic Motion . . ...... .. ............... . . ..... .. .. . ... . .............. .. ......... 304 C2se S . .
The Law of Simplicity ... . ....... ..... . ............ .. ....... . ............ ....... .. . ..... .. ..... 307
r __
=
.... ::.
Chapter 11: Introduction to Cameras
Introduction to Cameras .. ... ........ ... ................... .... . .. .. . .. ............. . .... . ..... 310 ' -
.=
Topics ................. .. ... ....... . . ..... . .. . .... ..... ... ................ ..... . . . .. ... . ..... . 310 Ccse ::: ..._
Camera Terms . .... . .. .. .. . ..... . ........ . ...... . . .. ..... .. .... . ... .. . . ..................... .. . 311
Camera Rotation ... ... ........... . ......................... . . ............. . .... . ........... 311 C.:se 5::.
Camera Translation . ... ... .. . . ..... . . . .......... . .... . ... ........ . . ... . . .. ..... .. ..........312 St c:"lc2-:
Positioning and Aiming Cameras .. ... .. .......................... . . . .. ... . ........ .. . . .... . .....312 )ep:- ::.::
Camera Aiming Methods . .... .. ....... . ........ . .... . ....... .. ... .. . . ..... . . ..... . ......... 313
Adding a Camera ............. . ........ . . ... . . .. ......... . ................. .. .. . ................313 C.:se 5:
xiii

Camera Options ................... . .... . .................................... . ... . ..... . ....... 314


Target Point Position, and Rotation . . .... . ... . . . .......... .... .. . . . ....... .. . .. . .. . ... . . . .. 314
-- . ..... . .. 282
Aiming the Camera ................. . . .... ... . . . ........................ . .. .. . . .. . ...... . .. 314
-- -. . . . . .... 282
Locking t he Camera Position ........ . . ..... .. .. ........... .. . . .. . ... . ..... .. . . . ... .. .. . . . . .. 315
- . . .. .. ... 282
Camera Motion Controls .... . ...... . .................. .. ....... . . . ... .... ............ . ... .. 315
- . .. . ..... 283
Definable Camera Properties ...... .. ..... . ... . ......... . .......... .. ....... . . . ....... . . . .. 316
- . ....... 284
Case Study: Introduction to Cameras ............. . ....... . .. . ....... . ..................... . .. . .. 317
- . . ....... 286
Camera Position and Target . . .......... . ......... .. ............. . .... . ......... . . . ............ 318
... .. . . .. ... 286
Pe rcent Distance along Selection ... . . . . . .... ........ . .. . ... . . .. . ....... . ..... . .. .. . . . . . . .. 319
--- .. . .. . 288
Editing a Camera ......... . .... . . . .... . .......... . ........................ .. ...... . ...... . . ... . 322
- ....... 288
General Sequence ... .. . . . . . . . ...... . ................ . ... .. ......... . . . ...... .. ....... .. ... 322
- . . .. ... .. 289
Multiple Cameras .... .. ... . . . ........ . . . ....... .. . . ............. . ........ .. ...... . ...... . . ... . 322
- . .. ...... 290
Show/Hide Cameras .... . .......... . ......... . ....... . ...... ... .. . ..... . .. .. .. . .. . . . . .. ... 322
--- ... ...... 291
Cameras in an Animation ..... . .... . .. . .. . .................. . . ........ . . . ......... . ....... . .... 324
... . . ... . ... 291
Switching a Camera On ........ ... . . .. ... .. .. . . . . . ..... . ... . . ... ... . . ...... . . . . ... . ... . .... 324
-- . .... . . . . 294
Locking the Camera Posit ion ... . . . . . . ..................... . .......... . ... . . .. . . ... .. ... .. .. 324
- .. . . . .. . ... 295
Camera Properties ........ . ... .. . . . . .. . ............ . .... . . . .... . .. . . . . ... . . .. . . ... .... . ... 328
- . .. . ..... 295
Camera Lenses ......... . . ....... . . . .. . ................ . ........ . . . . .... .. . . .. . .. .... . . . . . 328
--- . . ...... 296
Field of View . . . ...... .. .. . ........ . ............... .... . . . .. . .. . .. . .. ... . . . ... . ........ . .. 329
-- - . . . ..... 298
View Rectangle ......... . ........ . . . . . . .. . . .. . .... ... . . . . .. .. ........ . .. . .... . . ........ . .. 329
- . ........ 301
Size of Field .. . ......... . .. . ...... . ......... . . .. . ..... ... . ..... ... ... .. .... . .... . ....... .. 329
- . ........ 304
Case Study: Camera Lenses .... . .... . ..... . .......... . . ........... .. ... . ... . ... . . .. . ... . . .. . ... 330
-- . .. . . . .. . 304 ,
View Rectangle .. ....... . ... ...... ......... . .. ......... .. . ........... . ........ . . . . .. .. . ... 334
-- . . ...... 307
Camera Roll ... . .......... . ......... . ....... . . ........ ............ . . ... . .. .. . . . .. . ..... . .. 335
Camera Aspect Ratio .... . . .. . . . . . ... . .......... . .......... .. ............ . ............... . . 337
View Area ... . . . .. ... .. ................ .. ............. .... .... . ..... .. ................... . 343
.. . .. ...... . 310
Case Study: Camera Movements . .. . . .......... . .... . .. . ...... . .. .. ..... . .. . ... . . .. ............ 344
.. . .. ...... . 310
Apparent Depth ...... . .......... . ......... . . ..... ... ... ........... ..... ..... .... ... . ..... . . . .. 349
-- . .. .. . ..... 311
Case Study: Apparent Depth ..... . .. . . ... ... . . . . ... .. . . . .. .. ..... .. .. . .. .. . .... .. .. . . . ......... 349
-- -. . ... . .... 311
Standard Lens .... . ......... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .... . .... . .... . ........... . .. . . . ........ . .. . . .. 353
-- .. .. . ..... .312
Depth of Field .......... . ... . . ...... . .. .. . . . .. . .. .. . . . . ..... . .. .. . ...... . ... . ...... . ..... ... . . 354
-- -.. .. .. .. .. 312
Use of Depth of Field . .... ... . . . ..................... . ...... . .... . ........... . ......... ... 354
"".. ...... .. .313
Case Study: Setting Depth of Field .. . .. . ....... . ... .. .. . . ..... .. . ................. . . . . .. .. . .. .. 355
-. -. ... . . .. . .313
xiv

Animation Speed .. ..... ... . ................................................. . ............. 362


Rendering Quality ......................................................... . ............... 363

Chapter 12: Walk-through Animations


Using Cameras in Animations ............................. .... ...... . ........... . .............. 366 - -c=-:
Topics . ....... . ......... ............................... .... ... ...... ..... . ................ 366
Case Study: Walk-through Animations ............................... .... .. . ...... . ............. 367 =>- =
Storyboard ............... ................ ... ....... ............. . . . .. .. . ......... . . .. . ... 367
Editing th e Target .. . . ..... .. . . ....... . . . ..... . .. . ... ... ... . .... . .. .. .................... .. 369
Smooth Camera Motion ................. . ........................... . ........... .... ....... 371
Case Study: Walk-through with a spline path .................. ... ............................... 372
Storyboard .... ... .......................................................... . .. . .......... 372
Create Intermediate Point s ............................ . .. . ................ ........... . .... 375
-= =
Walk-through Funct ion ........ . .......... . .... .. . . ...................................... . .... . 377
Walk-through Interface ............ . ................ . .. . . . . . . ............................. . 378
Walk-through PropertyManager ......... ........ ... ... .. . ... . . .. ........................... 378 Cha
Walk-through Control Panel. ............. . ............. . ... .... . ... .. .... .. . .. . . ... . ....... 379 -~-
Walk-through Controls ............... ....... .... .. . . ...... . . ..... .. ........ ... ............ 380
Walk-through Mini Panel. .. ... . .... ........... ... .. . . . . .. ... . . .. .. . .. . . ................. .. . 381
Case Study: Walk-through Function ... . .... . .... . ..... ...... .... . . .. . .. . . .... .. .... .. .. ........ 382
Storyboard ... . . ............. .................... . .. . ................ .................... . 382
Reset. ... ............... . .... ............................ . .. ...... .. . ... . . ... .. .. ... ...... 382 --.:
Saving the Walk-through ................................. ..... ............................ 384

Chapter 13: Using Camera Sleds in Animations


__ ...,_ ,-
Using Camera Sleds in Animations .... . .... . ........ .. .. ........................... ... . .. .. .... 386 . -=--
Topics .... . .... . ... ..... ............................. ... .. . .......................... .. ... 386
Camera Sleds ... . .. .... . ..... .. .......................... . ... .... ... . .. .. . .... . .. . . . .......... 386
Creating a Camera Sled.... . . ... . ............................... . .. . ....... . .... . ... .. .... ..... 387
Case Study: Camera Sled ......... .... .. ... . .. . . .. . . . ..... .......... . ..... . .. .............. . .. . 387
Storyboard ...... .... .. .... . ................... . .... . ... ... . . .. ... ........ .. . ..... . ... . . .. 388
Additiona l Practice ............. ......................... . ................................. 393
Case Study: Hitchcock Effect ... .... . .............. . ......... . .. . .. . ..... .. . ... . .. . . ........... 393
XV

- - ... .... .. 362 Lens Focal Length..... .. . .............. . .......... . ............. .. .................. . .. . .. 397
- .. ........ 363 Focal Length vs. View Area . . .......................... . ... . .... ..... .............. ... . .. .. 398

Chapter 14: SolidWorks Motion


- ........ 366 Chapter Scope ..... ... . . .... . . ..... .. .. ... .. . . .. . . .. . ................ . . ...... . .. . . . .. ...... . .. 402
-- .. - . . ... 366 Topics ....... . . . .. ...... .. . ......... . ... . .. . . .... ..... . .. ... .. .. . . .. . ... .. .. .. . . .......... 402
, .. .. ...... .. 367 SolidWorks Motion ........ .... ..... ...... ... ... . .. . .... . ....... . .. . ... .. .. . . . . .. . . ............ 402
-- ........ 367 Motion Analysis Study Type ........ . . . .. ....... .... . .. ....... . ... . ................... . .... 402
-- .... ..... 369 Why Motion Analysis for an Animation? .......... . .. ... . .. . .......... . .. .. . . ... . . .......... 403
. - - . .. ... .. . .. 371 When to Use SolldWorks Motion .... . ............. . .......... . ..... . .... . .......... . ........... 407
- -- .. . .. .... 372 Case Study: Fly-Ball Governor.. . ... . . . . .... ........ .. .................... . ... .. ................ 407
-- .. . ..... .. 372 Alternate Choices ...... .. ........ . . ..... .. .... . ......... . .. .. . . .... ... . . . . .... .. .... . ..... 409
- - . ......... 375 Review ... .. ....... . .................. . .............. .. .. . . ................... . . . . .... . .... . .. 410
-- ........ . 377 Summary of Motion Drivers . ......... .. .... . ..... . .. . . . .. . .. . ....... .. ................ .. ....... 411
-- - - ..... .. . 378
- .. ...... 378 Chapter 15: Output and Post-Processing
--- .... ..... 379 Output and Post-Processing . ...... . . .. . ...... . . .. . ... .... . .. . ....... . .. . .......... . . .. . . ... ... 414
--- - ......... 380 Why Post-Processing? ... ......... .. .... .. . . . .. ......... .. ..... . ........ ... . . .. . ...... . .... 414
- -- .. ....... 381 Video Editing ........ . .... . ......... . .......... . ........ ... ......... . .. . .. . . .............. 414
-- - . ....... . 382 Topics ...... ... ....... . ............. . ... ... ............ ... ... ... ... ........ . . . ........ .... 414
-- .. ... .... 382 Animation Output ....... . .... . . .. . .. . ... .... . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . .. ..... .. . . .. . . . .... .. ....... 415
, ___ .. ....... 382 Post-Processing Functions.. ....... . . . .. . .. . .. . . . ..... . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . ... . ...... . ........ .. 415
-- . . .. .. . 384 Video Editing Programs .. . . . .. ... . ............................................................ .417
External References ......... . ...... . ...... . ... .. .... . ....... ... .... ...... . . ......... . ......... .417
Timellnes ...... . ........... ... ....... .... ................. .............. .. .... . ..... . ......... 418
-- - . ........ 386 Video Compression ........ ...... . ...... .. .......... ... ............ . ................ . .. ....... 418
- . ....... . 386 Transitions ......... .. . . . . . . ................... .... .... ............ . ......... . ...... . ..... . ... 419
-- - .. ... . ... 386 Titles and Annotations . . .................................... . .. . .......... . ........... . ... . ... 419
- -- .... . .... 387 Looping.. . ............ . ..... . .. . . . . . . . ... . .. .................... . ............................. 420
- - .. ....... 387 Parallel Processing . ........ . ..................... .. . .............................. . .. ........ . 420
-- - .... .... 388 Frame Rate ... . ..... .. ......... . .......... . ..... .. ... . ............. . .. . ....... . ............... 421
.. .. .. ... .. .. 393 Rendering Efficiency ........ . ... . . . ..... ..... . .... ....... . . .. . . .... . . . ... . .. . . . ... ... ......... 421
-- - .. ....... 393 Render to AVI or Images? .... . ....... . .. .. ... . ............... .... .. . ..... .. .................. . 422
xvi

Case Study: Animations f rom Rendered Images . ............... . . ................... . ... . . . ..... 423
Other Choices . . . . ... . . ............ .. . .. . .. ............. .... . . ....... . . . ..... .. .. .. . ....... 427
Case Study: Post-Processing ............ . .. . . . ............... . ..... . . . .. . ......... .. . .. .. . ..... 428 c: --
Storyboard .. . ..................... . .............................. . .... . .......... . .. . .... 428 C=s= :
Create The First Clip ................ . . .... .......... . ................ . ........ .... ........ 430
Create the Second Clip ..... . ....... . .. . ................... . . . ........ . . . .................. 431
Create the Third Clip . .................. .. ........... . ....... . .. . .. . .............. . .. . ..... 433
Post-Pr ocessing . . . . ... . . ....... .. . . . . . . .... .. . ..... .. ... . . . . .. .... . . . ... .. . . . .... . .. . . .. . 433
Windows Live Movie Maker ............... .. .... . ............. . . . .. . .......... . .. . .. . . ... . ..... 434 -..
Windows Movie Maker .. . ....... . ..... . . . .......... . ..... . . . .................... . ......... 435 -.J

Aspect Ratio ............. . ............... . ..... . .................................. . .. . .. . . 436


Use of Transitions . ............ . ... . .................... . ... . . . ........ . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . ... 439
Consistency .. .. . .. . .... ... ......... . . . . . ... . . ..... . .. . . . . . .... .. ... . ....... .... .... . ..... 441
Finish t he Movie . .. ... . . .. .... . ........ . . .. . ........ . ... . . . . . .... . . . ...... . . . ... . .. . . . . ... 441

Chapter 16: Advanced Topics and Problems


Advanced Topics ....... . ....... . ... . . ........ .. ............. .. .. . ......... . ........ . ..... . ... .444
Topics ... .. ... . ... .. .......... .. .... . . ... . . .... . ... .... .. . . .. ........ ... .. . ........ . ...... 444
Configurations fo r Animations . . . . .. . . ... .. . . . . . . . ....... . . .. .... . ... . . .. . . . .. .. .. .. .... .. . . ... 445
Case Study: Hand Punch ........ . . . ... . . . . .. . . ..... . .... . ... . . . . .. ... . .......... . . .. . . ......... 445
Storyboard ................ . ............ . ........................... . ..................... 446
Clip 1: Assemble t he Punch ..................................... . ......... ... ............. . ..... 447
Limit Mates... . ............ . ....... . ..... . ....... . ........ . . . ..... . .... . ...... .. .. . . . ..... 447
==-
Establishing Shot ... . . .. . ....... . ... . . . . . ........... . ...... . .. . . . ...... . ... . ............. . 451
Clip 2: Show Assembly Action . .. . .. . .... . . .. .. . . .. ....... ... . .. . ... . .. . ....... . . . . . . . .. . . .... . . 453 :: Q
Dynamic Section Cuts ... ......... . .... . ... . . . .............. . .................. . . ... ... ........ 453 S..-..a
Clip 3: Change Punch Tip and Die ......... .. ................ . ... . ... . ....... . .. . ... . . . . . ... . .... 459
Changing Configurations ........................................ .. .................... .. .. .. .. .459
Lock Mates ... . . . .. . ..... . ....... . .. . . .. . . .... . ....... . .... . ... . .......... . ... . ...... . ... .460
M ates ... .. ... . . ..... ......... .. . . . .. . .. . .......... .... .. . .... . ....... . ... . ...... . .... . ... 461 Chap1
Clip 4: Cut Sheet Metal . .... . . . . . ..... . . . . . . ..... .. . . ... .. . . .. . . . . ..... .... . .. . .. . . . . .. .. . ..... 465 In-Cor
Positioning Strategy .............. .. . . .. .. . .. .. . . . . ...... . ... . .......... .. .... . ........ .. .466 :..
Motion Paths ............. .. ....................................... . . . .................... 467 ::c.se 5:
xvii

-. - .... ... . .. 423 The Animation Series ....................... . .... . ... .. . . . .. . . .... . . .. ... .... . . ... . .... . ... 469
.. - . ..... .... 427 =>est-Processing...... . ...... ... .. . . .. .. . .... . ....... . .. . ............. . . ...... . ....... . . .. . . ... 469
--- - .. ....... 428 St r oboscopic Effect ....... . ......... . ........ . . . ........ . ....... . .......... . .... . . ... .. ... . ... 473
- .. ....... 428 C:ase Study: Stroboscopic Effect . . .... . ................... . . . .. .. ... ..... ................. .. ... 474
-- . . .. . .. ... 430 Stroboscopic Rate . . ..... ... ....... . .................. ... . ........ ......... .. .. . .... . .... . 475
... .......... 431 Calculating Frame Rate ...... .......... .. .. . ..... . ..... . .... . .. ... ............ . ......... . .. 477
--- .. . ....... 433 : hains . ..... .. .... . .... . .................. . .................. . .................. . . . . . ......... 478
. . . ... .. .. ... 433 Chain Animation Setup ..... . ..... . ....... . .. . ... .. ..... . .... . .... . .... . . .... . ..... .. . . . ... 478
-- .. . ...... . -434 Chain Animation Considerations .. . ....................... ....... ............. . ............ 479
--- . ..... . ... 435 Troubleshooting the Chain ..... . ........................................................... 483
--- - .. - .. ... -436 Driving the Motion ..... ....... ......................... . .................. . .............. . 487
-- .. . .. ... . .. 439 M aking the Animation Longer ...... . . . .. .. . . .. . . .. ........ . ..... . .............. . . . . . . .. ... . 487
--- .... . ..... 441 Physics-Based Solution ................ . .......... . ....... ................ ........ . .... ... . 488
-.. .. ...... .. 441 3elts ..... . . . . .......... .. .... .. ....... .. .. . . ..... .. .... . ........ .......... ... . ..... .......... 490
The First Law of Animations ........... . .......... . ...... .... ..... ...... ..... ...... . .. .. . .. 490
Animating t he Belt .... ... .. ..... .. .... . .............. . . ..... . ............... . ...... . . . . . .. 493
-- - -- --------444 Moving the Marker . .. ......... .. .... ... .. . .. . . ... ...... . ......... ...... .................. .494

-- - ---- ..... -444 Motor Speed .......................... . .. .. ..... . .... . ... .. . ...... ...... .... ............. 495
-- - .. -.... .. . 445 =>lanetary Gear System . . ............................. . .. . .... . .. . . .. ... .. ..... . .... . . ... . ..... 497
--- -- -445 Storyboard .... ........... ............................. .. . . . . ........................ . .... 497
... . .. ....... 446 Preparatory Work .... . ......... . ..... . . . . . . . . .... . .. . .... .. . . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . ... . ... 498
--- --... .. ... 447 Mating Gears . . . . . . . . . ... . .... . .... .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . . ...... . .... . .... . ..... . ................ 500
--- - . .. ...... 447 Capture Appearance Settings ... . . .. ... .... . ..... . .... . .... .. .... . .... . ........ ........ . ... 505
-- -- -........ 451 Case Study: Shadow Study ....... .. ... . . .............. ......... . . .. .. .. .... ... ... ........ . .... 506
-- - . ... ...... 453 Display Considerations . .. . . . . . ............. . . ... . . .. . ........ .. . . ....... . ..... ...... . ..... 507
-- - .- .-.- ... . 453 Shadows in ReaiView . ...... . . .. ...... ............... . ....................... . .... . .. . ..... 509
-- -- ----- . .. -459 Moving the Lights ........ .. . ... .... ..... .... ............ .......... .......... . . . . . .. . . ..... 509
-- - -... ... . .. 459 Recording the Results . ..... . . ... .. .. ...................... ................. .............. . .512
-- -- .. . ..... .460
-- -..... . -... 461 Chapter 17: Advanced Topics with
... . . . ..... .. 465 In-Context Modeling
- -- ---- .. - .. .466 Animations Using In-Context Features .... . .............. . ...... .. ... . ..... . ..... . .......... .. .. 516
- . . ..... .... 467 Case Study: Pencil Sharpener .. ..... .... ... . ..... .. .... .. ... ... .. ....... . .... . ..... . ........ . .. 516
xviii

Storyboard ...... .. . . ....... ... .... . .. . ................ . ... . . . .... . .. . ......... .. ... . .... .. 517
Plan the animation .. . . .... ....... .. . .. .. ... . ... .... . . . . .. ... . . . ... .... . . .. ... .... . . . .. .. ... 518
Preparation Work ............... . .... . .... . .......... . . . .... . ... .. . .... . .... . ... ... ....... 519
Assembly Cut .... .... .......... . ..... . . .. . . . . ... .. ......... .. .... . ... . . .. .. . . . .. .. ........ 520
Animate Appearances . ..... .... .... . . ..... .... ...... ... . . .. . . .. .... . . . .. ... .. . . . . ... ..... . 526
Pencil Appearances ... ..... . . . .. . . . ... . . .. ....... . .. . ..... .. ... . . . .............. . ... ... ... 527
Viewpoints ...... .. .. . ... . . . .. . . . ..... . . . . . . ..... . .... . .... . . . ..... .... . . . . .. . . .. ... . .... . 527
Lengthening Your Animation ... . .. ... . . ... . .. .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . .... .. ....... . . .. . . ...... 530 = '==-
Case St udy: Jigsaw ........................ . ...... .. .. . ...... .. ............. . . .. ............... 532
Storyboard . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. ...... .. . ... .. ....... . . .. ... . ... . ....... . . .. . .. .. . .. . . ... .... . . 532
Procedural Appearances .. . . .... .... .. . ..... .. ....... .... .... . .... . .... . . . .. . .. . ... . .. .. .. . .. .. 533
Assembly Cut ... .. ......... .. ......... .. ......... . ............. . .. . .. ... .. . . . ...... . . . . ... 535
Assembly Changes . ........ .. ... . ..... . .. . ..... . .. .. ..... . . . .... .. . .... . .. ... .... ........ . 536
Animation of the Jigsaw Blade ... . ..... . .. . . ... . . .. .. . ....... .. . . . . . . .... .. .. .. .. ... .. ... .. 537
Bending Parts ......... .. ....... . ... . .... . . . . . .. .. .... . . ........ . . ......... .. ..... . .. . ....... . . 542 I
-::::r
-

Case Study: The Pipe Bender ... .... ...... .... . . ..... ... . . .... ..... . . . . . . .... . ... . . . . .. .. .... . . 542
Sto ryboard . . ... ... ........ .... ..... ..... ... . .. .. . . .... . . .. .. . .... . ... .. . . . . . . ... .. . . ..... 543
The Pipe Part ..... . ......... . .......... . .......... . ... . .. . ... . ...... . .. . ........ . . . ....... 544
Case St udy: The American Flag .. . . ... ..... ... ...... . . .. ..... ... .. .. . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . .... . . .. . . . 550
The American Flag ........... . .. . ...... . ............ . ............ .. .... . ..... . .. .... ...... 550
Sheet Metal Features . . .... . . . . .. . ... .. . . ...... .. . . ....... . . ........ . . .. ... .. .... .. ....... 552
Case Study: SolidWorks Flag... ..... . ......... ...... ... . . . .. ....... . . ... ... . ... . . .. . ... . . . ... . . 553
Rect angular Flag . . . .... . ..... . ... .. . .. ....... . .......... . . .......... . ....... . . ........ . ... 556
Case St udy: Cable Winding Off a Reel ....... . . . .................. .. .... ... . . ....... .. . . . . ..... . 558
Storyboard . . . . . . ..... .... . . ............... .. .. . .... . . .. . . . .. .. .. . .. . . . . .... . ..... . ...... . 558
Cable Solution Method ...... .. . ... . .. . .. . ...... ... .... ..... . ... ...... ..... ... . . ... . .. . .... 558
Creating t he Cable .. .. . ..... .... .. .. . ...... ..... ... ........ ... .... .. ...... ..... .... ...... . 559
Mate Function . . . . .. .... .. . .... .... . .. .. . .. ... .. . . . . . . . ... . ... . ...... . ... . .... ... ....... . . 561

Chapter 18: Tips and Tricks for Better Animations


Putting It All Together ..... ....... ... .. .. . . .... .... . .. ... ....... . .. .. ... . ... . .. . ..... . . . . .. .... 566
Planning .. . . . ...... .. . . ...... . ... . . ...... .. .. . .. ... ...... ... . ..................... .... ...... . . 566
Storyboards .. ...... .... ....... .. . . ..... . . .. . . ... ...... . . . . . ...... ... . . .. . . .. .. . ...... . . .... . .566
xix

- .. ..... .... .517 Animation Length ..... .......... . . ............................. ..... ...... . ............. . ..... 567
.. .. ... . .. .. 518 Lengthening Your Animation ... . .. ..... . ............. .. . ... .... ... . .... . . . .. .. .. ..... . ..... 567
- . .. ... ..... 519 Organization ... .. .......................... .......... .............. . .... . ... ...... . . . . ........ 567
.. .. ... ... .. 520 Separate Assembly for Animation ........... . ... ............ . ... ............ . ........ . .... . 568
... ... ..... . 526 Mates .......................................... . ............... . .. . . . . ................... 568
.. .. . . ...... 527 Frame Rates ... . .. .. ............ . . .... . .. .. . . . .... .................... ...... ........ . ..... 568
.. ....... .. . 527 Post-Processing...... .. ............. . . .. . ... ........ ................................. ... ...... 569
- .. ......... 530 Viewpoints/Cameras .... . . .... . .. . . . ..... . .................................. . ................. 570
.... .. ..... .. 532 Camera Tips ............. ... .................... . .... . .... .. ................... ......... . . 570
. -- . ......... 532 Establishing Shot . . .. ........ . ............. . ........... ... ................................. 571
--- ... .. . .. 533 Tit le Shot......... ... . .......... .............. .. . . .. ........... .. . .... ... . .............. . .. 571
- - ... .. . .. 535 Credits ........ ...... ... .... . .......... . ................ . ... . . . ... ... .................. . . . .571
- .. . .. ... . 536 Rendering Efficiency ... . .......... . ... ... .................. . ....... . ..... . ..................... 571
-- . . .. ..... . . 537 Do It t he Easy Way ........ . ..... . ......................... . . . . .. . . . . ..... ........ .. . .. . ....... 572
. .. ..... . . .. 542 When Is t he Animation Finished? ......................... ..... . ............................ 573
-- . .. ....... . 542 Consistency.... ................... ... . .. . . ... . .. . . . . ........ . .. .. ..... . ....................... 573
-- . ...... . .. 543 Large Assembly Animations .................................... .. ............ .. ............... 574
.. ... ....... 544 Animation Tips and Tricks ... . ..... . ... .. ..... . .................................. . ............. 574
.. . ..... . ... 550 The First Law of Animations . ................................... . .... . .... .. ............... 575
... . ......... 550
-- . ....... .. 552
-- .. - ..... . .. 553
-- .. .... ..... 556
-- .. . ... .. ... 558
... . .... .... 558
--.. . . . .. ... . 558
.. .. ...... ... 559
-- . ..... ..... 561

... 566
.. .. .... .. ... 566
-- - . .. ... 566
Introduction

Upon successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:

Describe t he uses of the MotionManager interface.


Understand the t hree types of motion studies.
Understand the different types of motion used in
animations.
Understand the three things that can be animated in a
motion study.
Set options within the MotionManager.
2 Chapter 1

About This Book


The goal of this book is to teach you how to create animations of SolidWorks assemblies and save
them as video files or still images.
The animation capabilities of SolidWorks are robust and feature-rich so it is impractica l to cover every -- _,..., -~-
-.::-~:: 5.:
minute detail and aspect of the software and still have the book be a reasonable length. Therefore, the
focus of this book is on the fundamental skills and concepts used to create animations in SolidWorks.
You should view this material as a supplement to, not a replacement for, the system documentation and
online help. Once you have developed a good foundation in basic skills, you can refer to the online help
fo r information on less frequently used command options.

Prerequisites
To get the most out of this book, you should have the following:
Basic experience wit h the SolidWorks software
Experience with the Windows operating system

Instructional Design Philosophy


The chapters in this book are designed around a process- or task-based approach to learning. Rather
...,...
~---
= -:r- -
than focus on individual features and functions, a process-based approach emphasizes the process and _.._::J

procedures you follow to complete a particular task. By utilizing case studies t o illustrate these
processes, you learn t he necessary commands, options, and menus in the context of completing an
animation.
There has been considerable effort made in this book to go beyond the "do it this way" app roach and to
also cover how the software works, different methods to achieve the animation goa ls and t o compare
and contrast those different methods. The idea is to be able to create the desired animation as quickly
-----
-::::.:::..
':
as possible.

Using This Book


This book is intended to be used as a self-paced, self-study course.
Obtaining a suitable animation is very subjective. You should continue to experiment with the various
settings available within SolidWorks even after the case study objectives have been achieved.
Introduction 3

About the DVD -' 8 SolidWorks Step-by-Step Guides


-:Jiies and save 3ound inside the rear cover is a DVD containing copies of the parts, -" ..!. Creating Animations with SolidWorks
assemblies, and other files that are used throughout this book. Chapterl
qunning the installation wizard on the DVD will create a directory _ Chapter2
:c:l to cover every _ Chapter3
ilamed SolidWorks Step-By-Step Guides that will have a folder
:~- Therefore, the _ Chapter4
for each chapter in the book. Each chapter folder will have two sub-
-:s in SolidWorks. _. ChapterS
folders: Case Study and Videos.
::cumentation and ..- Chapter6
~:: the online help _ Chapter7
The Case Study folder contains the files used during the various
" _ ChapterS
chapters.
" .,. Case Study
- he Videos folder contains completed videos referred t o in the Built Parts
_ Coil Spring
chapters.
_ Incontext
Several of the above folders have a subfolder called Built Parts. Wheel Assembly

Whenever possible, complet ed animations are provided as ,., Videos


_. Chapter9
additional motion studies in the assemblies included to do the case
_!, Chapter 10
study. In some cases, t his cannot be done because the case study
earning. Rather Chapterll

s o:he process and or exercise requires additional parts to be created. To avoid


confusion and missing references, a complete new assembly and set of parts are provided in the Built
c:ate these
Parts folder representing the files as they would be at the completion of the case study. These files are
c::mpleting an
always denoted by the suffix "_& :'

atJproach and t o Images


The images and screenshots in this manual were made using SolidWorks 2012 running on Windows 7. If
s cild to compare
you are running Windows XP or Windows Vista, you may notice differences in the appearance of the
-ation as quickly
;nenus and windows. These differences do not affect the performance of the software.
Software Updates
SolidWorks software is continually being updated and refined through each version and service pack.
These changes become more noticeable in areas where numerical solution methods are used such as
,.,;th the various the solvers for both Basic Mot ion and SolidWorks Motion. Wh ile every effort was made t o insure that
c::::hieved. the results you get when doing the case studies are the same as those presented in the book, there may
be differences due to changes in the software.
4 Chapter 1

Conventions Used in This Book


This book uses the following typographic conventions: --=
Convention Meaning

Bold Sans Serif SolidWorks and MotionManager commands and


options appear in this style. For example, Insert,
New Motion Study means select the New Motion
Study option from the Insert menu.

Typewriter Feature names and file names appear in this style.
For example, Tool Vise.sldasm. lit

17 Do this step The numbered steps of the case studies are


indicated by sans serif bold type with the numbers
themselves accented in color. This helps to
distinguish the step-by-step procedures from the
explanatory text that is interspersed through the -'= ::..
chapters.

The SolidWorks MotionManager


SolidWorks MotionManager is an interface to the t hree motion study types found in SolidWorks. It is
fu lly integrat ed into the SolidWorks software t o create animations and/or motion analyses from
SolidWorks assemblies. The MotionManager can also work with Photo View 360 to produce
photorealistic animations to add visual impact to presentations and documents.

Some of the key features of MotionManager are:

Timeline
The MotionManager uses a key fra me-based interface built into a timeline. The time line allows easy
access to the key frames, simplifying the editing process.

Animation Wizard
The Animation Wizard provides a simple interface for converting exploded views and phys ics-based
simu lations to key frame-based animations.

MotionManager design tree


::-
The Motion Manager design tree duplicates the assembly components and sequence of the assembly.

Output
The MotionManager can output to an AVI file or a series of image files.
Introduction 5

Motion Study Purposes


The MotionManager is used to create and solve motion studies. These motion studies can be created
for any of three purposes:
Animations
Animations are the focus of this book. They are videos or a series of still images used to show how
components move.
Interference Detection
Component motion can be used to determine int erference as parts move along their motion path.
Motion Analysis
Motion analysis is the focus of the SolidWorks Motion training course. The purpose of a motion
analysis study is to determine the values of motion variables such as velocity. power. and acceleration.

History of the MotionManager


The current MotionManager interface was developed to have a standard interface to control all three
motion study types that are used to create animations and motion ana lysis. This came from the merging
of two different product s. SolidWorks Animator and COSMOSMotion (now called SolidWorks Motion).
into SolidWorks.
So!idWorks. It is Motion Study Types
2Jyses from There are three motion study types that can be used in the MotionManager to create animations:
~::~duce
Animation
This is the primary motion study type used to create animations. Components move either by
setting their position at specified t imes. or by the interaction of ot her components through
SolidWorks mates and motion drivers. With animations. there is no physics involved in the solution.
-e:ine allows easy so components have no mass. momentum. friction. or contact.

Basic Motion
Basic Motion is an outgrowth of physical simulation and uses features from both Animation and
2~0 physics-based SolidWorks Motion study types. It can use many of the same inputs and contacts between
components as SolidWorks Motion. but does not provide the ana lysis. Basic Motion is used instead
of Animation for dynamic systems where the physics of the problem must be solved for a realistic
ce of the assembly. animation.
6 Chapter 1

Motion Analysis
Motion Analysis is the motion analysis module and uses SolidWorks Motion. We use this motion
study type when we are trying to determine such things as t he power required to move a system,
or the accelerat ion of a component. Although it is not the primary intent of t he software.
SolidWorks Motion can also provide animation output and can be used t o create animations when
additional realism is needed for dynamic systems of mot ion.
The Animation and Basic Motion study types are part of core SolidWorks. SolidWorks Motion is pa rt of -.e
SolidWorks Premium.

What Is the Output?


In general, we use Animation and Basic Motion study types to create animations. In other words, our
desired output is a video or a series of still pictures, to show how something works. When we use
SolidWorks Motion, our primary goal is a motion analysis to determine forces, power, loads, and the like.

Animations
An animation is like a small movie. It is composed of a series of frames, or
photographic images, shown in sequence to display motion. It is import ant to
understand that t he focus of this book is t he creation of animations of mechanical
systems using t he Animation and Basic Motion study types. We will also look at some
elements of SolidWorks Motion however. we will only look at a small portion of its
capabilities as they relate to creating an imations.
If your focus is the analysis of mechanical motion, where you need to know such t hings as the power
required to drive a mechanism or the acceleration of a component, see the training course SolidWorks
Motion offered by your local SolidWorks reseller.
Important! The motion products in SolidWorks are not intended to animate nonmechanical systems
such as human movement or to create computer graphics (CG) movie effects.

Basic Animation Concepts


What is it that we animate? If we relate our animation to a movie or video, there are only three things
that change during an animation or movie:
Component position
Each component in the animation can be moved t o different positions using the various too ls
available. In a movie, this would be the movement of the actors. vehicles, set pieces, etc. ;::r- .
..... ~:

e:::
Introduction 7

Component properties
_se this motion Most properties can be changed during an animation. Properties such as appearance can change the
:: 1ove a system, way components look on the screen, or they can be changed to make them disappear, become
~~vare, transparent, or become wireframe. Other common properties changed during an animation could be
.::"imations when the intensity or color of a light. the focus of a camera, and many more. In a movie, this would be like
actors changing costumes or makeup.

; '/,otion is part of Viewpoint


Viewpoint is the position of the camera. In our animations, this can be controlled either by using
SolidWorks camera s or t he standard view commands such as Pan. Zoom, Rotate, and Roll.

:::-.er words, our Throughout this book, we will be focusing on just those three topics and the various ways to achieve
',~en we use ::hem.
:::.:ds, and the like.
Basic Workflow
::ach person that creates an animation may have a different opinion as to the order in which the three
:>asic items (component position, properties, viewpoint) need to be an imated. Thro ughout this book, our
"irst goal in each animation will be to define the component motion as this is usually the heart of the
animation and generally takes the most work. Once the components move as desired, t he appearances
:till be animated. Finally the viewpoint or camera will be animated. By leaving the viewpoints until last,
.ve will be able to change our viewpoint as needed during the first two stages in order to make sure the
animation is working the way we want.

gs as the power Why Create an Animation?


c~-se SolidWorks An animation is just a movie made with 2D or 3D computer products. If it is a video, why use the
computer instead of a real camera? There are two basic reasons we use a computer to do t he animation:
-<:..,ical syst ems The subject does not exist in the physical world.
The product we are designing has not yet been built but we need to show how it will work fo r a
marketing campaign, progress review, trade show or any number of other reasons. Using SolidWorks
to provide t he model and one of the animation tools, we can create videos of the model t hat look like
o:-rty three things the actual product.
To add special effects that are not available or achievable in the physical world.
The effects that can be created on the comput er are not limited by the laws of physics. We are only
.a-ious tools moving mathematical volumes, not actual solids, so there are things we can do on the computer that
ces, et c. are either not possible in t he real world or require post-processing of t he video. For example, we can
make a part move through space without having to hold it or attach it to a fixture. Component s can
accelerate with infinite acceleration or disappear. Objects that appear to be solid can move through
each other. We can also make solid objects transparent to see what is inside or behind them.
8 Chapter 1

Should We Ever Use a Video Camera?


With the relatively cheap price of both video cameras and video editing software, there are cases where
shooting a video may be a better choice than creating an animation. In cases where we have a physical
model. making a video can be faster than creating a photorealistic animation.
There may also be times when we need the mix of a product that does not yet exist physically plus
interaction by people. In these cases we may want to do an animation of the product and merge it with
other video. We see this in many commercial movies where actors are filmed in front of a green screen
and then merged with computer-generated animation for t he final product. We also see meteorologists
on news reports stand in front of a moving animation, again using a green screen.

Building Animations
In many ways, animations are created just like the parts and assemblies we create in SolidWorks, that
is, as a collection of small features. When we learn SolidWorks, we learn the individual commands such
as Extrude, Revolve, Combine, and t hen it is up to us to apply t hese commands in the proper order and
combination to create ou r parts and assemblies. Creat ing animations is similar in t hat we will learn the
different tools to move components, change their properties, change our viewpoint, and edit the
timeline. Once we understand these tools, it is up to us to apply them in the right order and combination
to create the desired animation.
Good animations are the sum total of many elements that come together to create the final result. To
be able to put all the different elements together, you must first understand what each control does and
its cause and effect on the outcome. Because this book is more about the animation process than the
final video, many of the case studies and examples will show individua l effects in isolat ion, rather than
as part of complete animation. In many places, we will discuss different approaches to achieve a given
result. As in part modeling, you can get the same result with different methods and commands, so you -~=

should not look at met hods shown in this book as the "right way" to do something. Rather, the methods
shown here are just "one way:' So, what is the "right way" and what is t he "wrong way"? The right way is
whatever gives you the end result that you were trying to achieve. Among t he different right ways, the
differences in methods may result in longer process ing time or harder edits, but once you have a suitable
video, it is time to forget about those issues and move on.

Animation Results
Obtaining a suitable video animation is very subjective. When we design parts and assemblies with
SolidWorks, our goal is to achieve the design intent. Knowing if we have achieved the design intent is
very objective and should be able to be answered with a yes or no. if 10 different people review a design,
based solely on the design intent. all 10 should agree on whether or not the design intent was achieved.
Introduction 9

...;i11ike design intent. knowing if we have achieved our goals wit h a video is very subjective. Subtile
e are cases where ::Jferences in the paths of the components, position of the objects against the background, smoothness
rc i ave a physical ::" mot ion, camera angle, and more. can cause different people to see the output differently. If we had
-J different people review our video, we might never get a consensus as to whether it meets the
-;<:ended goal.
::'-ysically plus
::1d merge it with .;:::Jditionally, it can t ake many more animation passes to refine the output t han it does to make a change
::"a green screen i the part and rebuild it. Th is, coupled with the fact that recalculation t imes are genera lly longer than

:.e "TTeteorologists -ebuild time, can add up to a lot of time spent tweaking the animation to get acceptable results.
.rou should cont inue to experiment with the various features and settings available within the motion
s~u di es
even after the chapter objectives have been achieved.
SolidWorks, that
When Is the Animation Finished?
:, ::ommands such
:Jeople who work in computer graphics say that their work is never done, only abandoned. There are
:::&oper order and
always refinements that can be made to component positions, camera settings, color, light. What causes
: ;:e will learn the
11ost animations to be finished are deadlines. At some point, you must realize that all the extra time
a:-d edit the
spent on the animation is not creating a proportional improvement. so you need to abandon the project
.- 21d combination
and move on. This can be summed up by the following:
The Law of Diminishing Returns
:-:e final result. To -\t some point, more and more effort is required for smaller and smaller improvement.
- :ontrol does and
::::-ocess than the Rigid Body Motion
c<::on, rather than Juring animations and motion simulations, all components are rigid. That is to say they do not deform.
::J achieve a given _ater in this book, we will explore methods to create animations where components change size or
:::;nmands, so you shape, but we will do this through animation techniques, not by actually changing t he shape of a body.
cer, the methods
? - he right way is
:.rt right ways, the
rcu have a suit able

:;semblies with
? design intent is
.e review a design,
:eilt was achieved.
10 Chapter 1

Types of Motion
There are three different types of motion when creating animations. Depending on the components t hat
make up our assembly and the way they are intended to move, we could have one. two, or all three of
these motion types in our animation.

Free
Free motion only exists in the computer world where component s are only mathematical volumes ts=
that have no mass or physical boundaries. In free motion, components are directed to go from one
position to another without regard for anything that might get in thei r way. Properties such as gravity,
momentum, and force do not exist in free motion.
Example: Play the file Free Motion .mp4 found in the Chapter l \ Videos folder. The block and ball are -.ass:
given both starting and ending positions where they must move diagonally across the plate. Each
component moves independently of the other and they actually move t hrough each other when t hey
cross.
::-_g

Kinemat ic
Kinematic motion is based on the mates and connections between each component. Components
move based on enforced or constrained motion and can only take one path even if we change the
amount of force.
Example: Play t he file Sarrus Mechanism. mp4 found in the Chapter l \ Videos folder. In this
example, the position of each component is controlled by the mates. Changing the mass of any part, the
angle of the part relative to gravity, or external loads will not change the motion.
Introduction 11

Dynamic
~compone nts that In dynamic motion, components interact with each other and can take different pat hs depending on
'"'or all three of input conditions, such as forces or gravity. The individual components do not have fixed positional
relationships with each other. The motion of components depends upon the mass of the individual
components and the applied forces. lf the mass or app lied forces change, then the motion behavior
:atical volumes is different
:: :o go from one ::xample: In the sorting machine shown below, the balls move by gravity, contact with the machine and
es such as gravity, :::ntact with the other balls. The ba lls can interact with each other by co llision. The balls have different
s:arting positions in t he two animations, so the path of each ball is different in each animation. If the
=:tack and ball are < ass of any ball changes. or t he angle of the machine changes with respect to gravity, then the
::-imation changes.
e :Jlate. Each
;;::~er when they ::lay the two AVl files Sorter-l.mp4 and Sorter-2.mp4 found in the Chapter I \ Videos folder. You
:an see that the colored balls have different starting positions and can move independently of each
::::her.

-::. Components
! ,;e change the

:;.der. ln this
:ss of any part, the
12 Chapter 1

Which Motion Study to Use


With three types of motion (Free, Kinematic, Dynamic) and three motion study types (Animation, Basic
Motion, Motion Analysis). how do you choose which to use? There are two primary questions that you
must ask yourself:
Does the physics of the problem need to be solved?
Are there any in-context relationships that have to be solved?

lf you must solve the physics of the problem. then you must use either Basic Motion or Motion Analysis -~
~ .

(SolidWorks Motion). lf t here are in-context relationships that need to be so lved in the animation, t hen
you must use t he Animation study type. If you need to solve both the physics of the problem and in-
context relationships. then you will need to first solve the animation with either Basic Motion or Motion
Analysis and then import the results into an Animation motion study. This technique will be covered in
Chapter 9.
The following table shows the choices that generally work best. These are not hard and fast rules.
however, but only recommendat ions. 5 ~

Type of Motion Animation Basic Motion SolidWorks Motion

Free Motion X
Kinematic X
Dynamic X X

There may be cases where two or three motion types are be present in the same animation. Later in t he
book, we will discuss the method used to combine motion from the three study types.
Introduction 13

Motion Drivers
~imatio n.Basic ::ach of the t hree motion study types has specific tools that can be used to create motion. We will see
.estions that you .ater t hat many of t hese tools have capabilities in the different motion study types. For instance. a
-notor can be used in all three motion study types; however. t he servo motor type can only be used in
SolidWorks Motion.

Basic Motion SolidWorks Motion

X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X
X

MotionManager Pane
- he MotionManager pane must be enabled in the toolbar listing.
X
:. here to Find It
-.::: ion. Later in the Menu: Tools. Customize, select MotionManager
!'S. Menu: View, Toolbars, MotionManager
14 Chapter 1

Procedure
1 Enable MotionManager.
In the Customize dialog box. click the Toolbars tab and select t he MotionManager.

Click OK.

,,...... ,_,....,,.....,,..........,_,
Customize

Toolbors Options
1'Y~

0 Enable CommandManager O lll<!leicons


0 Use iaJge buttons "ith text 0 Show too lips
0 Use large !ool!ips
~ ff 2DID30
A

D I~ A5gn
D ~ Anrwtation Context toolbar sd!hgs
D ~ Assent>!y 0 Show on selection
D Gf] Blocl<s
~ Show in shortcu meru
0 ?J Q.<ves
D <b. Dimensions!Relations
D -$- IJim)(pert
D Display States I
-
0 [ild Drawing I
0 d f>l>lode Skelth i
D &I'll FasttninQ Feature '
D G Features
D BJ Formatting
D Loyer I_
D 1ft! LayoutTools
0 - Line Format
D ~S Macro
l ri r~ MnlnT~k
0 Motiof1Mana9er )
Iu I~ Quick Snaps
D \S>~ Reii:rence Geometry
oe Render Tools
D il'J Screen Capture
rJ ~'i" Selection F~ter ~

I Reset To Defaults I -
I OK II Cancel II ~ I
':X::
- - - ..,.r
-::: -""'

=~-
Introduction 15

MotionManager User Interface


The MotionManager software uses a key point-based interface with a time line to define, edit, and save
animations. The Mot ionManager interface appears when a Mot ion Study tab is selected.

~ To~ l'is (Defu~<O.f<IU1t_O~ploy "


~ Senws
~ LJ Amototions
~ bl~. c-as and SCene
~ front
~ Top
~ Rt#
:.. Orir;in
~ ~ (f) Sadde<l > (Oefoo.JlO.f ...
-" ~ () ccmpound center member<!
.._ ~ ()upper compourd membor <2:
.._ ~()upper p~te<l >(OefoutC
~ ~()upper o~te<2> (Oefout C
( >
-.t:'>. -. ..._ _...
J l!L_~ -+ W~ If' + 0 ~ ~ &1
jOsef jSsef 10 !ltC
I lls r 120 sec
I I

+--+--i

t tot t
ttt
tt
ttt
tt t
t
t tt
tt tt
tt
t
t
t
t ttt
tt .. t
ttt t


t Ht ttt t
t ttt ttt t ~~~

Model Tab ' - - - - Motion Study Tabs

Model Tab
The Model tab is used when actua lly changing the model. and any changes affect all studies globally.

Motion Study Tab


The Mot ionManager allows you to create addit ional t abs 1 Modo! 1 COfi]l!eted Motionsb.Jdy 1 MotionS!!Jdy.L 1 Exploded
below the graphics window. In addition to the Model and Motion Studies tabs, there could be
additional tabs for Simulat ion and Design Studies. The default Motion Study tab is named
Motion Study l but it can be renamed. Clicking the appropriate tab allows you to swit ch between
Model and MotionManager modes. You can create multiple animations.
16 Chapter 1

Tip Click Collapse Motion Study to collapse the MotionManager pane to just the too lbar.
MotionManager Components
:sa
The components of the assembly are listed in t he MotionManager design t ree. Simu lation elements are
also listed. The time line sits to the right of the Motion Manager design tree with t he toolbar above both
of them.

/ Motion Study type / Mot ion Manager tool bar

~..-
~-"""'"'~on~....
-) lfB__!? "" J [!!I _~ ... WI ~ I~I + ~ ._ ~
1Y if ~ ~ i, ~I I I I I 1 I 14 IS~C I I I I I I I 16 ISe iC I I I I t I I 18 IS~C I I I I I I 1 l ~ ~e~ 1 J l 1 I 1 ! ~ ~e~
1
1 I 1 1

..... -=- ~ Ut't;tiMNttttt!tTI:ttit.


~ (K~1CC1<:Jndr MVf.] \/fl!t'm 1--+--~~-+---t
..to tal Ud'ts~ Cameros ~:~nd Scene
"' ~ (f)s.d<ie<I>(Oeloui:<<Ocf


..
... ~ ()~certetmembe'<
... ~ ()-~-<2
'*' ~ ( )<q>e<plate<I > (Defoult<


.., ~ ()uppe<pl <Z>(Def....~< <l
... ~ () lowet <l >(Def.ut<

.
"' ~ ()lowe<

.
\
.., ~ ()e<c
a. ~-$ai
. ..::;.m. m:l
_
> <
Motions m
u
>

Timeline --.e :::.


MotionManager design tree
--~

Timeline and Time Bar s


The timeline is a temporal interface used to display and / Oseconds / 2 seconds
control the sequence of events in an animation. Symbols are
10 sec 11 sec 2 sec '13 sec
used to represent events at specific t ime intervals. The yellow I I I I l1 I I I I I I I It I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I

-

-
highlight on the timeline indicates the portion that has been ~=-

calculated.
The time bar is a vertical line in the timeline that can be
dragged to display the an im ation at any point in time. It can
also be used to place an event at a specific t ime.
The slider ;----------- -__ls.J60secl__--1 also moves the t ime bar -=-
~--...-.

L_ J - .
but it does not show changes in the animation until it is released.
Note In some video editing software, the time bar is also called the current t ime indicator or CTI, which
aptly describes its funct ion.
Introduction 17

:~olbar. Key Points


.ey points t control a characteristic of a component or view Key point
at a specific time. 13 sec
a::ion elements are 2 sec
1I I I I I I I I I I I I


;:;;olbar above both - 1e colors of the key points vary and have specific meanings
see Key Points on page 57)-

rge.- toolbar

12 sec
I I I I
\!!)

If

Tooltips



-
-ooltips are available by floating the cursor over any key point. The

...,. .....
::ooltip will graphically display the current settings of the key point. ..} =-
lower plate< l > 0 sec
~=0~. LJ
Key Frames and Changebars
f+ ' ey frames appear as connected strings of key points. The line Key frame
~.-. ~.~ : onnecting the key points is called the changebar. 12 se
> 11 s ec / 1
I I I I I I I I I I

-
u - 1e color of the changebar varies and has specific meanings (see
:::hangebors on page 58).

,ote Some key points may appear alone, without any connecting

Changebar
/ 2seconds : hangebars.
2 s ec 13 sec
I I II 111 1 I I
Completed Motion Studies
::ach of the following chapters and exercises has specific assembly files that you will use to complete

.
::he case study. In turn, most assembly files contain one or more motion studies named Completed
Motion Study and another named Motion Study 1. This motion study named Completed Motion

..
if
t Study contains the comp leted procedure and can be viewed for reference.
3ecause some assemblies need add itional components to be added t o create t he animation, some
assemblies do not cont ain these motion studies. Instead, t he completed animations are found in t he
separate assemblies provided in the Built Part s fo lders.

:ator or CTI, which


18 Chapter 1

Completed Videos Gett~


Describing in words what should happen in a video can be difficult. Most case studies and key topics will '.'otio-'
have videos of the completed project. In one of the early steps, you will be told to play the video. The Solid'.".::
purpose will be to help you visualize what it is you are trying to achieve by doing the steps in the case :::spla'. ~
study.
The videos provided on the DVD will require different CODECs:
Microsoft Videol
.. ::-~
"",..-
.,,== -
~/.e:--
.

lnteliYUV codec Knowle4


Cinepak CODEC by Radius --e Sc
TechSmith Screen Capture CODEC
::-;ta--s
The first two CODECs should have been installed on your computer as part of the Windows operating
system installation. If you are using a 32-bit operating system, the Cinepak CODEC by Radius will
also be installed however. this CODEC is not available for 64-bit syst ems. The TechSmith CODEC can be
obtained free at www.techsmith.com. If you are using the 64-bit version of SolidWorks, you must
download BOTH the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of t he TechSmith Screen Capture CODEC (TSCC) from
TechSmith. The reason for this will be explained later.

Right Way /Wrong Way


Just as in modeling products in SolidWorks, there are many ways t o achieve a satisfactory animation.
Throughout the book, we will explore a variety of methods to accomplish various tasks. Our goal is to
learn multiple techniques, so there may be times when you question a method in a case study and ask
"Why are we doing it this way? I think I could do it better by... : Questioning is a good thing as it means
that you are thinking about applying the techniques and are not focused on just the "picks and clicks:'
So, as far as we are concerned, the "right way" to do something is a way that results in the animation
you were trying to achieve. The "wrong way" is a method that does not achieve the desired result. This
will be discussed again in later chapters.
Introduction 19

Getting Help
'"'d key topics will MotionManager help files are part of the larger SolidWorks Help. The help files shipped with
"I the video. The SolidWorks are in HTML Help format and are also available online. This offe rs improved search and
ii:eps in the case display functions, as well as a consistent look and feel with Microsoft's online help.

Where to Find It
Menu: Help, SolidWorks Help
Menu Bar: click Help (!EJ

Knowledge Base
The SolidWorks Knowledge Base is available to all customers with subscription support. It is accessed
through the SolidWorks website, and can be searched by topic or keyword. The Knowledge Base
";xiows operating contains answers to Frequently Asked Questions and Technical Tips that describe procedures for both
by Radius will
beginn ing and advanced operations.
th CODEC can be
:<s, you must
J::c (TSCC) from

~ctory animation .
i:<s. Our goal is to
5e study and ask
Zling as it means
;)icks and clicks:'
-, the animation
=sired result. This
Creating Simple
Animations

Upon successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:
Understand point-to-point animations.
:::1 Use the Animation Wizard to create simple animations.
Create Rotations.
::1 Create Explodes.
Create Collapses.
Create an AVI video file of an animation.
22 Chapter 2

Animation
In the Introduction we learned that there are three motion study types that can be used to create
animations and that they are all controlled through the MotionManager interface. The simplest and
most used of these is Animation and it will be our focus in this and the next few chapters. We use the
Animation motion study type for both free motion and kinematic motion.
When using the Animation motion study type, the physics of the problem are not solved and all
components are just mathematical volumes that have neither mass nor solid boundaries. The resu lts of
these conditions allow components to change velocity or direction instantaneously and also allow
components to pass through each other without interference.

Topics
The topics covered in th is chapter include: --_c--

Exploded views
Components can be exploded manually in an animation by moving and rotating them.
a Storyboard
The storyboard is our design intent for the animation. It is like a road map to help us plan and then
guide us through the process. .s:..
Animation Wizard
The Animation Wizard automates t he creation of three types of animation motion: rotation, explode,
and collapse.
: Rotation
The rotation option rotates the model (part or assembly) about an axis a set amount of turns. -~

: Explode
The explode option takes the exploded view in an assembly and converts it to an animation.

: Collapse
The collapse option reverses the explode settings to animate a return from the exploded state.

Save Animation
Use Save Animation to generate a movie file from t he completed animation.
Creating Simple Animations 23

Point-to-point (Key Point) Animations


sed to create .','ithin the Animation motion study type, animations are done point-to-point. As the name implies, point-
s implest and ::::-point animations have components move from one point in space to another. Each of these locations
:::ers. We use the .s captured by a key point on the timeline in the MotionManager interface. These are also called Key
::oint animations because the key points control the location of each component

o<ed and all ::::nmponents are scheduled such that they are to be at point A at o seconds and at point Bat 1 second,
2s. The results of :~c. When the animation is run, they move in a direct path from one point to the next
nd also allow
Exploded Views
,',"nen we create exploded views of assemblies, we are creating a schedule of point-to-point moves for
::-:e various components. Exploded views are a useful way to create the basic moves for some
=.-.imations .
.=xploded views may at first appear to be a little off-subject when talking about creating animations
2l"'il. -::mever, exploded views can be a source for movement in other animations and some of the tools
=-:ailable in exploded views are not found in the MotionManager.
_s plan and then
Case Study: Exploded Views
-this case study, we will create and edit a simple exploded view of an assembly and explore the basic
_::-inciples of point-to-point animations.
-otation, explode,
Procedure
Open an assembly file.
:::Jen Dart Gun Explode.sldasm from the Lesson
'::Junt of turns. 2 ,Case Study\ Dart Gun Explode folder.

Create an exploded view.


- c:nimat ion. '.'ake the configuration Case Study active.
:::::ick Insert, Exploded View from the menu.
exploded state.
24 Chapter 2

3 Move the Arrow.


Select the Arrow part. The move t riad will appear.
Drag the green arrow. Using the ru ler, move the Arrow to about SOmm.

Click in the graphics area to end the step.

4 Complete second step.


Select the Arrow part.
Drag the red arrow. Using the ruler, move the Arrow to about 200mm.

Click OK to stop adding exploded views.

Animating Exploded Views


The movement of components between their collapsed and exploded
views can be animated through the Animation Controller.

Where to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Right-click ExplView in the ConfigurationManager. Animate collapse or Animate
explode

Animation Controller
The Animation Controller becomes active whenever an Animation Controller ~
Animate explode or Animate collapse is selected. jKJ <Jn e> ll> 1>1 .. Iii I rill IB q 4-t I ~; ~"' I
J , 4.00 / 4.00 sec.

Playback Options
There are several options for replaying the animation. The basic controls are essentially the same as
those on the most common audio or video recorders/players:

1<1 Start <ll Rewind l> Play


II> Fast Forward 1>1 End II Pause
Iii Stop riJI Save as AVI
... Normal q Loop
* Reciprocate ---
- --
._

l>x; Slow Play !>XZ Fast Play


1.76 }4.00 sec. Progress Bar

Important! When the Animation Controller is active (visib le). most other commands are disabled. The
Animation Controller must be closed to regain access to the commands.
26 Chapter 2

Review
Creating an exploded view in the assembly file allowed us to quickly create point-to-point paths for both
parts and assemblies. If we need mult iple paths for components t hat explode along t he same direction.
we have the auto-space tool, which is not available elsewhere. We will see that starting wit h an exploded
view can be very helpful when a lot of individual paths are needed in the animat ion.
When creating the exploded views. all the mates were ignored and not solved.
There were things that cou ld not be done when creating an exploded view, such as rotating components
or changing the timing of the events or total length of the animation. To create a more customized
animation, we must use the MotionManager.

The Animation Study Type


As noted in the Introduction, there are three motion study types t hat can be used to create animations.
The first of these three that we will discuss is Animation. The primary method of creating animation
motion in the Animation motion study is by using key points to define the location of components at
specific times. In addition to this key point animation. components can be driven either by motors or by
other components through mates.
Key point animation of components is on ly ava ilable in the Animat ion motion study type and not in either
Basic Motion or Motion Analysis.

Animation Wizard
The Animat ion Wizard can be used to automate the animation process and Rotate, Explode, or Collapse
an assembly. Any combination of t hese types can be used in the creation of the animation. It can also be
used to import motion from physics-based studies created in Basic Motion and SolidWorks Motion.
Rotate
The rotate option rotates the model (part or assembly) a set amount of turns about one of t he three
screen axes.

Explode
The explode option takes the exploded view in an assembly and converts it to an animat ion. -.:
Collapse
The collapse option reverses the explode settings to animate a return from the exploded state.

Where to Find It
MotionManager Toolbar: click Animation Wizard ~
Shortcut Menu: Right-click in the timeline, Animation Wizard
Creating Simple Animations 27

Stages in the Process


::~:Ti
paths for bot h -;he key st ages in the creation of an animation include:
-:e same direction, The storyboard
g with an exploded This is the design intent of the animation.

s; Basic paths
These define part movement and viewpoint.
:cting components Edited paths
:-e customized Once the basic paths are defined, they can be refined for a smooth flow.
Recording the animation
This makes it viewable on other computers and available for import into ot her documents.
::reate animations. The Storyboard
Eating animation .; storyboard is the design intent of an animation and lays out the overall plan for the animation.
;~ components at Storyboards can be in various forms, ranging from a simple !ist of events to a series of sketches with a
e i !::Jy motors or by descript ion of the action. The more events planned for the animation, however, the more important it is
::o have a good, detailed storyboard. Throughout this book, each case st udy will have some sort of
::2 and not in either storyboa rd, but they wil! be in different fo rmats to show some of t he options. Some may be as little as
a sentence describing what is t o happen. Others wi!! be in table format and some wi!! have screen-shots
:o show key events. There are no hard and fast rules as to what the storyboard should !oak !ike or exactly
Nhat it should contain. Even if you do not write down the storyboard information, you should always
xplode, or Collapse ~hink through the process and what you are trying to create and how it will be used .
.ction. It can also be
::~;'o'orks Motion. Storyboard Development
.\ good animation tel!s a story. To he!p deve lop you r story, there are several questions to ask yourse lf:

:...:: one of the three What is the purpose of the animation?


: Sales
: Marketing
= Design review
cllimation. : Assembly instructions
: Service and maintenance
=xploded state. : Training
28 Chapter 2

What type of output do I need?


: Standalone video
: Object for importing into another program (e.g.. PowerPoint. Word)
: Video loop
: Web
: E-mail attachment
: Sequence of pict ures
What size will the output be?
: This is driven by the output type
: Standa lone videos are generally full screen
: Web videos are much smaller to allow faster transmission

Case Study: Animation Wizard


This project will use an exist ing assembly to generate an animation that includes the basic animation
funct ions to rot ate the assembly, explode and a collapse of the explode. The Animat ion Wizard will be
used to leverage the mot ion created in an exploded view.
Creating Simple Animations 29

Storyboard
:...:r purpose in this first animation is to demonstrate the Animation Wizard. To do t his, we will create a
:=.::quence which involves three animat ion types combined into one cont inuo us animation. The types are
rtotate Model. Explode, and Collapse.

~
Rotate
Model Explode Collapse

Dl ~ ID I ID I

~
I D II D I ... ID

~1 ~ 1 ~ 1 I ~ I ~,
I D it O l .a ~..........., ID
=basic animation
: ':::i1 Wizard will be l I D II D I ~

.... ,
,....._~~

-
ID
~

I~'
~ ~

D l !D D ! ID
' o l
ol to D D D

~
~

01 ~.,_~ 10 1 ID I D D
<~
~ ID

-
~~':,- <~.(t':,-
D l to I ID I D D ID
. 4IIIIIIIF

I~
O l D D D
'o l
ol
0 1 J,
~-
-~
l o
101 ID I
<~

~
D
0
D
D ~
D
ID

<~.(t':,- ~~':.-
O l ~:~ ID I ID I D D to
~~
O l ID D D D ID
ol .........
~ I~
l o D D
0 1 ._.., r to ~ ~ D D
<'~
M'...
~
~
O l IO I ID I D D ID
Dl ~ 10 1 ID I ~~ ~':,- D D ID
30 Chapter 2

Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the assembly Tool Vise f rom the Chapter 2 \ Case Study\
Tool Vise folder.

2 Set time bar.


Click t he Motion Study 1 tab.

Select Animation from the drop-down list.

Drag the time bar to o seconds as the start point.

lili)SolidWorks File Edt ~ Insert Tools Dcontrol Soatap

~~J
-
C~ts
~
Show

~
~ Tool Vise (Default<Defd_Disploy! "-
~ Sensors
_.. tAl Annotations
->~ ~ Ughts, Cameras ond Scene
<& Frorl:
<& Top
Ay
<& Right Z .!
1. o.nn v
>

0 sec 10 sec 15 sec 20 sec


I 1 I I 1 I I 1 I I
"- .=J ~Tool V"ISC (Defd<Oefa.I:J lisplayl
@ Orientation and Camera Views
fJ I&! Lights, Cameras and Scene
IL ~ (f) Sadcle<l > (Defauit<<Defi
.._ ~ () comp<><.nd center member <1
i ~ (-) . _ comp<><.nd member<2
-tJ ~ (-)upper plote < l > (Defaull:l
~ ~ (-)upper plate<2> (Default!
.tJ ~ (-)lower plate < ! > (Defaull:r
1

:n ~(-l ri.,

lklder Defned Eciting Assembly


Creating Simple Animations 31

Rotate Model
- he Animat ion Wizard gives us three choices fo r t he rotational
axis. The X, Y. and Z axis for rotation is always relat ive to our
:1ew screen, not the axes of the model.
/ ,

~ /: :::.ockwise and counterclockwise directions are based on viewing


I ../ -..r: 4 : -:e origin from the positive X, Y. or Z axis.
Z Axis
- ne blue arrows in t he graphic show the direction for clockwise

~
-:Jtation.

J elete Existing Paths


,','hen we use the Animation Wizard, t he results can be added to
:xisting paths on the timeline, or we can select Delete all
existing paths, and the Animation Wizard will remove all paths from the t ime line so t hat we are starting
~om scratch.

Add a rotation. Seit an Animotion Type ~


:::iick the Animation Wizard ~
? -EIA This wizard "i help )'1lU to aeate sinple
"'*"-ns aliomalicaly.
:., the first page of the wizard, select

~
To be9n. seled the type d anirMtjon
.} ~ 'fO<J want to create and cick Nect.
~otate model.
--
~~
.......,
- ::nsta-1\30
/ .o ::~
~.so, select Delete all existing pat hs.
- B X Colapoe

: iick Next. Import mot.on fmm B.-: ro~ot.cn

:.t] Delete al exisUlg ~ lmpo.1 mot.on fmm f,lotJon klarl"$

Explode and Colapse are available any afte< an explode view has been aeated
Basic Motion Is available any after a sinulation has been calculated in motion study.
Motion Malysis is availoble any J the SoidWorks Motion add-in Is loaded and ...,._.,
have been calculaled in a motion study.

<E..."'Ck I Next > II Ca1ce! II Help l


Ci:a
20 s ec
I I I I

~ ~~
>

:f) 0
32 Chapter 2

4 Select axis of rotation. Selt a:~ Ax& of Rotation


On the second page of t he wizard, select
Select "" 8lds d -
Y-axis and Clockwise. Xi!Xis

oY...os
Keep the Number of rotations at 1.

Click Next. NunOer d rd2llions 1

5 Set animation control options. Ammation Control Options


On the third page of the wizard, set t he
To cortrol the speed d the rinalion. se1 the
Duration to 5 seconds and the Start Time dtmion d the ..m lriMilon below
lllr.mon {<econds)' ~
to o seconds. To delay the movemert d objects et the
beginrjng d the rinalion. set the oll!rt tine.
Click Finish. Start Tme (seconds) 0
Creating Simple Animations 33

5 View key frame.


- he timeline shows that the Orientation and Camera Views changes at each key point (one-second
,__
1tervals) across the key frame.

t~J~ ~~ il" 0 sec


111111 I II
J2 sec
liiJliJII
J4 sec
111111111
J
."' ~ ~ Tool 111se (oefaut<Oetouit_Display
@ Oroentotion <Yld Camera Views
b ~ Uo#cs, Cameras and Scene
IIWi>dc>W>e _.. ~ (f) sadde<l > (Defoui:<<Oef"'l
;t ~ ()compound center merrber <l
.-, ~ ()upper compound member<2
_., ~ ()upper plate<! > (Defauiti'
;t ~ ()upper plate<2> (Defoultll
b ~ ()lower plate<!> (Defaut<d
-" ~ ()lower plote<2> (Defaut<<il <

Play from start.


~ Help
::::ick Play from start ~ to see the rotation in real time. You can
::.so drag the time bar to see the animation.
' :r::e This is a complete animation and cou ld be saved as a movie

-=-
"""""""""""'the
5
_,.a !he
=.e {AVl) now. However, we will add more informat ion to the
::1imation before recording it
theD~time
=:::r more information, see Recording Animations on page 41.

S<plode
-:,e Explode option uses t he exploded view of the assembly to generate an animation.

- ~An~
_j ~
- , e details of how the Animation Wizard converts SolidWorks exploded views to an animation will be
=:scussed in How Explode Works on page 54.
Jte Before you create an exploded animation, the assembly must already contain an exploded view.
::~u cannot create an exploded view in MotionManager.
34 Chapter 2

8 Explode. Select an Animation Type

Click Animation Wizard ~-


Ths 1\izard 1\ill help you t o create srnpie
animations automaticaly.
On the fi rst page of the wizard, select To begi1, se!ect the type of animation
you want to create and dick Next.
Explode. l Rotate model

(() , Explode
Clear Delete all existing paths and click
' l Colapse
Next. hnport motion from Bas1c Motion

n Delete al existing paths Import mofion from U.otJon Ma~ps

Exp!ode and Co!apse ore available only after an explode view has been created.

Basic Motion is avaiable onl-1 after a simulation has been calculated in a motion study.

MctDl Analysis is avaiable only if the SolidWorks Motion addin is loaded and =ults
have been C<llculated in a motion stud-J.

< Eack Next > J I Cancel I\ Help

9 Set the time. Animatio n Control Options

On t he second page of the wizard, set the


To control the speed of the aninalion, selthe
Duration t o 5 seconds and the Start Time to duation of the entire ani:nation below.
Dt.ration {seconds): !l
5 seconds.
To delay the movemert of objects at the
beginning of the animation. sel the start line.
This makes t he explosion end at 10 seconds. Start Tme (secoods): 5

Click Finish.

< Back Finish II Cancel II Help


Creating Simple Animations 35

:o View timeline.
The model rotates once and explodes.
~~

f~
x"iol.
I'i? I~ 'ib: ~ 'i1 10 sec
I I I I I t I I I
12 sec
, , , ,, ,,II
14 sec
I I I I
I II ' {
16 sec
IJ I I ' l i l t
IBJ sec
lttlt J II
jl 0 secI
Ll .l t I

"" d ~ Tool Vise (Default<Defaul_Display


Orientation and Camera Views
..,e !;;} Ughts, Cameras and Scene
~ ~ (f) Saddle<!> (DefaulDefa!

~ (-) compound center member< !


.. -
~Mabon
Efl ~ (-) upper compound member<2j
"'*"' &; ~ (-)upper plate<!> (Defauit

-
Pnalys;s

=e!n treaed

::n eCIOiionstudy.
.tJ ~ (-)upper plate<2> (Default~
i:il ~(-)lower plate<!> (Default(!
ltJ ~ (-)lower plate<2> (Default[tl
1

<
6
(;
l::aiEd ..,.; results

Explode key points.


::.Xpand the lower plate component. There are three subfeatures: Move, Explode, and Appearance.
~ ~ ~
.Ve can see that t he explode steps are listed both under the part it self and the explode feature.

- - lVI~ 'ib: ~ 'ill 10 sec 12 sec 14sec


-
16 sec 18 sec 11 sec

: : I '
I I I f It t I I ll tlltt l I I l l I lilt llltlttl l II ttlll I I II'
.il ~(-) upper plate<!> (Defaultll

"-"
lllllliD:n_ oe!the ce ~(-)upper plate<2> (Default <<h
- ~
:
a ~ () lower plate<!> (Default<<!
Move

-"*
!"C"ct the d Explode
o:fle:mttine. fl'
Appearance
Efl ~ Motes n Tool Vise
il '% (-)lower plate<2> (Default<<!>
., ~ (-) eccentric<J>(Default<<Del
Oll ~ (-)eccentric<4>(DefaultDell <
t ct=t
View Orientation
::ne of the three things that we can create in an animation is the specific viewpoints or camera motion.
Jepending on your workflow choice, you may or may not want to create the viewpoint movement at the
=ame time as the component motion. As animations increase in complexit y, however, it is generally
:asier to create the component mot ion without creating the viewpoint motion. Once all the components
~ ~
1ove as desired, then the view orientations can be created separately.

n ere are two sets of choices with view orientation key points. During the phase of our animation where
;e a re creating the component movement, we can either create view key points or disable the creation
::f t hese key points.

Juring the playback portion, we can either have the viewpoint or camera move, or we can disab le the
1ovement in order to see what is happening from a different view.
36 Chapter 2

Creating Viewpoint Keys


All viewpoint motion is recorded in the time line associated with t he Orientation and Camer a Views
component. The Orientation and Camera Views timeline can be thought of as inst ructions to the
cameraman to move the camera {our viewpoint) or to zoom the camera in and out. If Disable View Key
Creation is not selected, viewpoints are recorded every time you pan, zoom, rotate, roll, or change
camera position. If Disable View Key Creation is selected, keys are not created for t he viewpo ints.

Where to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Right-click Orientation and Camera Views in the MotionManager design tree,
Disable View Key Creation

Viewpoint Playback --
~

When checking t he animat ion, it is sometimes easier to check the component motion with viewpoints
ot her than those that have been recorded with the animation. The playback of view keys can be disabled
separately from components.

Where to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Right-click Orientation and Camera Views in the MotionManager design tree,
Disable Playback of View Keys
12 Unlock view orientation. ' ~ ' Qisable Playback of View Keys
Clear Disable View Key Creation to unlock it and allow view orientation @ D!<able View Key Creation
changes to be recorded. The Orientation and Camera Views icon image View Orientation
t!idefShow Tree Items ...
changes, removing the red circle and diagonal line.
Customize !::J.eru

13 Adjust time bar.


Drag the t ime bar to the end of t he animat ion (10 seconds). Click in the graphics
window and use Zoom In/Out (gJ or other view manipulation methods t o size the
assembly to fit within the window.

10 sec
I t 111 1 1 t l
12 sec
11111 111 1
I" sec
1111111 1 1
j6 sec
t l tl l l ll l
j8 sec
II f t l l i t I
10 sec
I 1 I 111
:er 5
"'" .:=- ~Tool \lise (Defd: <Defd:_Q;splay
~ Orientotion and c........ Views
l>. ~ Lirjlts, Cameras and Scene +

. ... ..
"' ~(f) Sadde<I >(Defau~<<Def~ +
_.. ~
()compound center member <!
.. ~
() ~rcOfTli)Olnl member<2
+
+
.....
.. ~
()o..werplate<I >(Defid<
.._ ~
(-)o..werplate <2>(Defd<
0 ~ (-)lower plate<!> (Defd<<!

+
+

~Move I<
Note When t he assembly is zoomed, the Orientation and Camera Views key frame is extended to
the position of the t ime bar.
Creating Simple Animations 37

..! Lock view orientation.


:amera Views ~ight-click t he Orientation and Camera Views component and select Disable View Key Creation t o
.ctions to the :;-event further view changes f rom being recorded .
;able View Key
Modifying Key Points
or change
1 e timeline contains both single key points and key frames. Key points can be deleted, suppressed,
tiewpoints.
=tided to the timeline, or moved by dragging.

:::: her changes are based on key point type. Interpolation Mode and Appearance changes can be applied
2~ design tree,
: ::; ma ny. but not all. types.

3 Drag key point.


::::1ag the rightmost key point of the Orientation and Camera Views key frame back to 6 seconds .
~h viewpoints
- ,is will force the view scale change to be complete 1 second after t he rot ation ends.
::an be disabled
6 seconds

~~~~~ ~ 0sec
1I 1 I I J I I I !
j2sec
I I I I I ll I I
J4sec
I I I I I I I I
J6sec
I I I I I I I I I
jBsec J
I I I I I I I I
110secI
I I I I I
e;- design tree. ~ Tool \lise (Default <Default_Display

+
,. ;J

@ Orientation and Camera Vie'NS + + + ~

.
ffi ~ Lights1 Cameras and Scene
(b ~ (f) Saddle<!> (DefaultDefa


~of \liew Keys (ti ~ ()compound center member<!
mLoy Creation __ ~ ()upper compound member<2
it! ~ () upper plate<!> (Default!
rtDln
-eenems...
oJ ~ ()upper plate<2> (Default!
S ~ ()lower plate<!> (Default(
Move I<
- .". :
"~

Interpolation Modes
.Vhen we play an animation, SolidWorks interpolates the position of each compo nent between each key
::oint based on the setting of Frames per Second and the time between key point s. As an example, if a
_, :::art must move 100mm between two key points that are 2 seconds apart and the Frames per Second is
set at 10 frames per second, SolidWo rks will divide the move into 20 segments (2 seconds X 10 frames
:::Jer second}. SolidWorks will capture the image of where t he part is at 0 seconds. then it will move it
2head 1/10 of a second (Smm} and capture another image. This will repeat until t he last image is captured
at 2 seconds. All togethe r there will be 21 images, as it captured an image at 0 seconds plus 20 mo re
thro ugh the movement.

~s extended to
38 Chapter 2

The default interpolation mode for all moves is linear, so that if we command a part to change position ~- lSi:
between time 0 and time 1 second, it will move at a constant velocity between 0 and 1 second. That
means that it will have a step function for velocity and an infinite acceleration at o seconds and infinite
deceleration at 1 second. Nothing in the physical world can move with these characteristics; however, in
some animations it is acceptable. When sudden speed changes are not acceptable, the Interpolation
Mode can be changed t o make the transition more realistic.
The Interpolation Mode can be changed to set the transitional effect of key point(s) as they change with
time. In addition to t he default interpolation of Linear, there are four other interpo lation modes t o
modify the movement.

Mode Description
Linear Constant rate of change
IL
Snap
u No interpolation, immediate change

Ease in Accelerating rate of change


Ll
Ease out Decelerating rate of change
t= ::cp:
Ease in/Ease out Accelerating to decelerating rate of change
ll:
To see this visually, play the animation Interpolation Assembly.mp4. The five blocks all start at the
left edge and move to the right edge at the same time. Each block has only two key points. one at the
start position and one at the end position. Each uses a different interpolation mode.
All change color at the same time. So they are all grey at o seconds, cyan at 4 seconds. and red at
10 seconds.
Creating Simple Animations 39

i::l change position 3elow is a composite image showing what happens when the animat ion is played.
1 - second. That
::conds and infinite
''"";sties; however, in
Snap
:--e Interpolation w
tS ~hey change with
Ease In I II I
:::on modes to
Lioeoc ~
Ease Out
I II
::ase In/Ease Out I I
I I
!
I
l
D I
Distance
T ~o T ~ 2 T=4 T=6 T ~8 Tal Q
Color change II
I I I I I
~ I components start at the left edge at o seconds and are at the right edge at 10 seconds.
Snap: The component stays at the position of the first key point {left edge) untillO seconds. when it
~stantaneously jumps to the second key point.

all start at the


- ;<S ::ase In: St arts slowly and builds up speed to reach the second key point at 10 seconds.
:mints, one at the
~in ear: Moves exactly the same amount during each time interva l.
::ase Out: The component must move quickly in the beginning so that it can slow down smoothly at the
~cs, and red at
end and still be at the second key point at 10 seconds.
::ase In/Ease Out: St arts slowly like Ease In and ends slowly like Ease Out and must move very fast in
:1e middle. At the midpoint of the animation, Linear and Ease In/Ease Out are at the same place,
30 percent of the full travel.
:1ere to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Right-dick a key point in the time line, Interpolation mode. select the type.
:J te The rate of acceleration and deceleration cannot be edited.
40 Chapter 2

16 Change interpolation mode.


Right-click the end key point of t he Orientation and Camera Views and se lect Interpolation mode,
Ease out. Float the cursor over the key point to see the setting.

[Animation vJ ~ te> f> - J [ll!l ~ ~ ~ G) WJ+ ~ & ~


'ii' l~'ib ~ ~ I I
2 sec
1I I I f I I I I
14Is eI c I I I I I I I
16Isec
I I I J I
18Isec
I I I f I t 1 1
1
a ~ Tool \'ise (Defd)
Onent~bon and Camera VIews-
ct. lfiJ Lights, Comeros ond Scene + Orient ation and Camera \l'iews 6 sec
~=*Isometric t:
~ ~ (f)Sadde < l>
!B ~ (-) CCfTllOUOd center member<!>
&> ~ (-)upper ccmgound member<Z>
+
+ *'.

(<, ~(-)'-"P""plate<l>
ttl~ (-)'-"P""plote<Z>
~(-)lowerplate<l>

17 Play.
Play the animation to see the modified effect. The zooming occurs more quickly but not instantaneously.

Collapse
Collapse is the mirror image of the Explode animation. The sequence of the key points in the explode is
reversed.
Manually reversing the direction of a path will be discussed in Reverse Path on page 138.
18 Collapse. Select ~n Ani~tion T)pe
Add a Collapse using the Animation Wizard.
This '"'Izard >Ail help )'OU to creii!lte simple
Set a Duration of 5 seconds with a Start or1malions altomatically.
To be!;n. oe!ec! the type of ar-ima!ion
time of 10 seconds. you wart to create ond dick Next.
r P.otae model
The collapse directly follows the explode. ' Explode
@Colapse
1rt'I)Ort mO!Ion from 8a"c J.!ot.an

n Delete al exisl61g paths


Explode and Colapse are avar..ble orit after"" ""!'lode view has been created
:-x:=
Basic MOOon is available oriJ after a oioolalion has been cabJaled in o mcmn otudy.
Motion J\nai;'Sis is available only if the ScidWOiko Motion add1n is lc<!ded and results
have been calculated in motion stua,.

Ne>t > II c..,ceJ II Help


Creating Simple Animations 41

~opying Key Points


rpolation mode, Ef points can be copied t o re-use the properties within the key. The copy is placed along the same line
~= applies its properties at t hat position.
::e Using right-click Copy and right-click Paste copies the key point with properties in the same
a sec. I I t I I I
,-.=nner. However, using right-click Copy and right-click Place Key copies the key point without
::: -:::perties.

~ Copy key point.


=-ess Ctrl and drag the initial key point of t he Orientation and Camera Views key frame to the end

.. ~
: =~::-te current line (15 seconds) and drop it. This action copies the key point and its properties t o a new
: :ation. The copied key point returns the Orientation and Camera Views to the in itial state.

~ ~ ~ II> > &J J [!! vj -+ fJii ~ l..fl i- @ ~ ~ ~

i;,stantaneously.
l.tl~ ~ ~ .g " 0 s ec
1 I I
5 sec
1 I I
10 s ec
1 I I
\15~ec
- ~ Tool Vise (Defoull:)

:~... ~t
@ Orientation and Camera Views
:. ~ Lights, Cameras and Scene


= ~(f) Saddle< ! >
, the explode is :.:;:
:.
~(-)compound center member < l >
~(-) upper compound member<2 >


)8_
= ~(-) upper plate <! >

:: Copy key point.
- -e view returns to t he initial state too soon because it starts as soon as the zoom out completes. To
.oe""''lie
=" this, we need t o copy the key point from 6 seconds (the point where t he zoom out is complet e) t o
-= seconds. Because these two key points are the same. the view will rema in constant from 6 to 12
~
"""- ~=:onds.

=-ess Ctrl and drag the key point at 6 seconds of t he Orientation and Camera Views t o 12 seconds

- aea.d
-
....~
~-j dro p it.

Recording Animations
: "lee the animation has been completed and plays properly in t he
~ :clicn Sudy. : -;1e line, it can be saved as a movie or series of images. When we ~~
Tool~'i!:e. i5Vi

eC ;nl res<Jb -e:::ord the animation, MotionManager will record a series of still

~ ~
---,ages that will be played back in rapid sequence. These images
::-e t he digital equ iva lent of the frames of movie film. To make the ~
TOCli \U-OOCXJ.fx%'9
'U
1'"ooiV~ 1.bmp
~
Too1 Vce~br:'41
u
TooiV~.bmp

::--:imation usable outside of SolidWorks, it must be recorded in a


=::::rmat compatible with media player software. Two
~ ~ ~ ~
::msiderations when recording the animation will be t he size and Tocl \'ise-<XXl4.~ Tooi'Jisle-0005.bnlJ Tool 't1se-ooo6.~ Too1VIsi!-Cl007.bmp

:ompression.
42 Chapter 2

Video File Format


There are a variety of file fo rmats in which to save video files. MotionManager only uses one of t hese:
AudioVisual Interleaving, or AVI (*.avi). AVI is Microsoft's Video for Windows file format. native to the
Windows Media Player.

Image File Formats


Image files can be created at set time intervals, generating a series of numbered files. In Chapt er 15, we
will discuss the use of images to create video files. MotionManager supports the creation of the
following image file types for output:
Series of Windows Bitmaps (* .bmp)
Series of Truvision Targa files(*.tga)
Renderer
The image can be set to the default SolidWorks screen or PhotoView if Photo View 360 is installed and
added in. If PhotoView is selected, it builds each frame using the scene, appearances, and lighting
applied to the model.
Image Size and Aspect Ratio
The Image Size and Aspect Ratio option allows for the setting of standard or custom aspect ratios,
image size, or a specified camera aspect ratio.
CODEC
CODEC is short for COmpressor/DECompressor or COder/DECoder depending on which reference you
use. CODEC is any technology used to compress and decompress data. Different technologies perform
this in different ways with either hardware, software, or a combination of the two.
The CODECs available on each computer may be different and will depend on the video products t hat
have been loaded. SolidWorks uses whatever CODECs are installed on your system. It is important to
keep this in mind when choosing the CODEC to compress your video files as the destination computers
must also have the same CODEC installed.
The CODEC you use with SolidWorks is also specific to 32- or 64-bit versions. As more than half of
SolidWorks commercial seats are 64-bit, this book was written using a 64-bit version of SolidWorks and
the CODECs available for 64-bit systems. As essentially all media playback systems are 32-bit. both 32-
and 64-bit versions of the CODECs have to be loaded. The primary CO DEC used in t his book is from
TechSmith as it is readily available and free. If you do not have the CODEC from TechSmith, visit their
website at www.techsmith.com and download and insta ll the TSCC CODEC. If you are using 32-bit
SolidWorks, you only need the default 32-bit CODEC; if you are using 64-bit SolidWorks, you must
download both versions and inst all them. The 64-bit version will t hen be used to compress the video
files and the 32-bit version will be used to decompress the video file for the media player.
Creating Simple Animations 43

- rame Rate
~ses one of these: _,imation is based on a principle of human sight called persistence of vision. lf you view a series of
-.at, native to the -::!ated still images in quick succession, you perceive them as continuous motion. Each individua l image
s referred to as a frame, and the illusion of motion comes from the fact t hat your visual system retains
=ach frame for a short time after you see it.
s .n Chapter 15, we =-arne Rate is measured in frames per second (fps) and will determine how many frames are produced
eation of the =:;-the screen or video. Frame rate is controlled separately for the screen and video and does not have
::be the same value. ln Chapter 16, we will discuss when they should be the same and why.
=:~ complex animations. keep t he frame rate low (3-5 fps) for testing purposes. Once you are sure t hat
=.eryt hing moves as planned, increase the frame rate for t he final output. As a fra me of reference,
.-~tio n pictures are recorded at 24 fps . Television standards are 30 fps in t he United St ates (NTSC) and

)50 is installed and =~ fps (PAL) in Europe. At rates higher than this, the human eye cannot really t ell the difference. Frame

5 , and lighting :::es between 15 and 20 fps will tend to give good results in your animations. lf the frame rat e is too
s :w, the motion will appear jerky. You can also record at too high a frame rate and again get jerky
-:tion. This comes from exceeding the capabilities of your computer graphics.

~ aspect ratios, ~ere to Find It


'.1otionManagerToolbar: Click Motion Study Properties ~. type Frames per second in the
4-opertyManager [sets the frames per second for the computer screen]
'.1otionManagerToolbar: Click Save Animation .5IJ, type Frames per second in the dialog box [sets the
1ich reference you =;-ames per second for the AVl file]
:;mologies perform
>-artial Animations
==-.:ial animations can be recorded by specifying the specific t ime range to render.
::eo products t hat
<: is important to
l~,ati o n computers

:;;ethan half of
of SolidWorks and
a-e 32-bit, both 32-
;:::".is book is from
:-Smith, visit their
~are using 32-bit
:rks, you must
~;Jre ss t he video
::layer.
44 Chapter 2

Key Frame
Key frames are frames wit h all the information for the entire frame. Other frames may only record
information that has changed from the previous frame.
When recording videos with a stationary background, you can reduce the number of key frames that are ::1

recorded to reduce the size of the video file. There is no specific number of key frames to record. The
default value is to record a key frame every eight frames. To see the effect of not recording enough key
frames, set it to a higher value and observe the results. In the images below you can see t hat t he image
gets noisier as the number of frames between key frames increases. You can see that the color is no
longer uniform, particularly in the areas indicated by t he arrows.

-
~- -
-'

Image Quality
The quality of the image recorded is set within SolidWorks. To change the image quality, from the Tools
menu, select Options, Document Properties, Image Quality. The time required to record the animation
will be affected by the image quality. The higher the quality. the longer the time t o render.

Video File Output Size


The size of the video file will be determined by a combinat ion of the following settings:
Total t ime
This is a linear relationship. With all other settings remaining constant. doubling the length of the
video doubles the file size.

Frame size
The frame size determines the number of pixels that make up each frame. Doubling the frame size
quadruples the number of pixels and therefore quadruples the fi le size.
Creating Simple Animations 45

Frame rate
r.ray only record The total number of frames that are recorded will be equal to the frame rate t imes the length of the
video plus one additional frame at 0 seconds. Doubling t he frame rat e dou bles t he file size.

ey frames that are Key frame


:-:es to record. The The effect of the key frame is hard to quantify because it de pends on t he individual animation and
=!::Jiding enough key the amount of change from frame to frame.
~ see that the image
CODEC
-at the color is no CODECs are also hard to quantify because different CODECs use different methods to achieve
compression.
"'ere to Find It
~ \ilotionManager Toolbar: Save Animation ~
IP-:)(edure
Save. ~ S.ve Animation to File ~
: ::k Save Animation ill and set the following
Sve in: ,.. Tool Vise T @ " lml
:::ions:
No items: m atch your search.

:=eneral Settings
=ne name: Tool Vise
Save as type: Microsoft AVI file
~very 40 frames
~enderer: SolidWorks screen

Re """"'' Tool Vise.avi S.ve


~ge Size and Aspect Ratio
..c..ty, from the Tools :ustom aspect ratio: 4:3 I
S.ve as type: Microsoft AVI fie (".aVI) ::J l SchedUe

ecord the animation Renderer: ISolidWorics screen l I Cancel


~m e Information Help
-ender. =-ames per second: 10
=:ntire animation: selected
lm"'le Size and Aspect Ratio

El 1680
2] Fbced aspect ratio
UJ 1260

rn
Fr""'" Information
Fromes per second~
~Entire animation
l
c -gs: :. ::k Save to complete the dialog. Use camera aspect ratio rme ranQe
10\ Cuotom aspect ratio (~idth : height) ] 15 to 15
[ 4 :3
; :'le length of the

g the frame size


46 Chapter 2

2 Set video compression. Video Compression


Set the video compression as f ollows:
Corr4><essot: OK

Compressor (CODEC): TechSmith Screen Capture Codec


ITechS!Mh Scteen Captue Co I Caned I
, -
Compression Quality: 85 , I Comgt.re... I
Key Frame Every 8 frames [iJ Key Frame Eve<y 8 rnom..
1 ~ .. 1
Click OK.

We chose the TechSmith Screen Capture Codec because it is available in both 32- and 64-bit versions
and is also free and readily available. If you on ly intend to play t he animation on your own computer,
experiment with the other CODECs you may have installed.

The animation begins to play and record the movie. During the recording process, an image is captured,
then the time line is advanced based on t he frame rate (1/10 second). Another image is captured and so =-=-=-
on until the end of the time line. We have a 15 second animation at 10 f ps which is 150 frames plus one
additional frame at time zero for a total of 151 f rames.

3 Play movie.
Play the movie in an appropriate media -= :-::--
player. The default Windows Media Player
can be used.

4 Save and close all files.

--.:.-:

- =-~
.: =-=-- -
Creating Simple Animations 47

Dragging a Component
OK
:-he process of dragging a component to display motion can be captured as an animation.
o=Co l ~
General Sequence
I Cor/9Jre... I Nhen you are moving components to create animations, the general sequence is as follows:
lanes
I PlJ.... I
Drag the time bar to the starting time.
2. Move the parts to their initial position or orientation.
3- Drag the time bar to the ending time.
c 64-bit versions
~- Move the parts to their final position or orientation.
- own computer,
Procedure
Open the assembly.
..mage is captured,
Open the assembly Motion from t he Chapter 2\Case St udy\ Mot ion fo lder.
5 captured and so
~ ;rames plus one :-he defau lt view orient ation and position will be used as the initial position fo r the
2nimation.

::; Select motion study.


Select the Motion Study l tab.

Timeline Colors
- he timeline changes color depending on the situation. After a 0 sec 15 sec j10 sec


1 I I I I I I I I I I
step is completed, an imations require calculation t o complete
:hem.

- he small yellow strip in the t ime line (top right} indicates that the
2nimation requires calculation by using Calculate Simulation ~
::Jr Play from Start ~ -

After the animation has been ca lculated (center right), the


:imeline changes to yellow for t he duration of the animat ion.
.f changes are made to t he animation (lower right). reca lculation
.
-~0 sec

-------

I

-----
I
'-
1-..!l l
j5sec
I I
I
1- 1
110 sec
I I

:s required and the yellow includes a hatch.


.
1
0 sec

.- - - - - -
I

~------

=======~
I
10 sec
I I


48 Chapter 2

3 Drag the time bar.


Drag the time bar to 10 seconds. This marks the end of the animation.

4 Drag component.
Drag a vertex, face, or edge of the arm component, turning the crank clockwise and
less than halfway around as shown.

Play the animation. The driving motion (crank.sldadm) is shown in a green key
frame while the driven motion of the yokes, spider, and pins is in yellow.

1171 ~ ~ -~ 'i3 10 sec I I


15 sec
I I I I
1 0 sec
I I
.0. I I
B ~Motion (Default<Default_Displ y state
Orientation and Camera Views
[ ~ Lights, Cameras and Scene

11 ~ (f) bracket<! > (DefaultDefaul::>
[rl ~ (-) Voke_M< l > (Default Default
(;; ~ (-) spider<! > (Default Defd>.


~ (-) Voke_F <l > (Default< <Default:
I) ~(-) pin<l> (LONGLONG>_Photcj
Ill ~ (-) pin<2> (SHORT < <SHORT>_D;,
fB ~ (-) pin<3> (SHORT SHORT>_Dis
1

Ill ~ (-) crank<! > (Default<Default_Dis


IB lijllijl Mates
...
Tip The movement is based upon the starting and ending positions. If you turn the crank more than halfway
around, the motion will move in the opposite direction using the shorter path.

Creating Reversed Animations


There are many cases where we need a mirror image of an animation, such as the explode-collapse
sequence we creat ed earlier. In other cases, it may be easier to create the animation backward, working
from the ending position to the starting position. Within the MotionManager, entire animations or
specific key frames can be easily reversed. This will be covered in more depth under Reverse Path on
page 138.
Where to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Select the keys to be reversed, right-click one of the keys, Reverse Path

5 Reverse the animation.


Select bot h the key points of the crank key frame using either window selection or Ctrl+select.
Right-click on one of the key points of the path and select Reverse Path.

Play the animation to rebuild it.


Creating Simple Animations 49

1otion Study Tabs


.'::>tion study tabs can be added, renamed, duplicated or deleted. Multiple tabs can be added and used
-::create multiple motion studies of the same assembly. New tabs are empty and hold blank motion
=::!dies.

~ ere to Find It
1:. .'lienu: Insert, New Motion Study
~ Shortcut Menu: Right-click any motion study tab, click Create New Motion Study
- =rename, duplicate, or delete a mot ion study, right-click the motion study Duplicate
t=:J and click the appropriate choice from the menu. Rename
Delete
: Rename the animation tab. Create New Motion Study
:; ght-click t he tab Mot ion Study l and click Rename. Create New Design Study

- 'Je the name Drag ~ or.ag [.

Save and close all files.

.J evtew
.

- ;nore than halfway 'olile this was a very simple demonstration of dragging components, we can see that all the mates were
~:::ved , making this an easy way to have many components move based on the motion of just one
:::mponent. Within the Animation study, mates are solved unless we suppress them. When we used the
,->imation Wizard to create the explode and collapse, we did not have to sup press the mates as it was
::X;Jiode-collapse :::ne automatically by the Animation Wizard.
- :Jackward, working
e animations or ',e could also see that using the drag method, creating rotary motion could be tedious as we have to
=- Reverse Path on :-eate at least three key points per revolution. Later we will learn how to do this with other methods
.1ich will make the process much easier.

rse Path

::- Ctrl+select.
Editing the Time line

Upon successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:
Understand how exploded views are imported into a
motion study.

Zoom t he t imeline display.

Scale t he length of th e t ime line by dragging.

Understand the color codes used f or key points and key


frames.

Select and move key points in the timeline.


52 Chapter 3

Editing the Timeline


This project will use an existing assembly to generate an Explode animation. The timeline of the
animation will be edited to explain options with key points and components.

e soJidWorks F;l, Edt! VIew Insert Tools JOcontrol S~p W"tndow H$ 1} LJ t~ ~ ~

) t'
Insert ~ ~
lilear
.@
,....ove
ti m
Assembly Reference
~: ~ ~ 'l? Jr} ~
Mate Smart Component Show
FeabXI!S Geometry
New Bil of Exploded Explode lnstant30
~Is Compon...
Fasteners Heiden Motion Materia!s \rl!'W li1e
Components Study Sketch

Da1: Goo Explode (DefaUt <DefaUt "'


~Sensors
.:!l }J Annotations
1iJ .6) Lights, Cameras and Scene
<:S>- Front Plane
<:S>- Top Plane
z
A ,(
y

<:S>- Right Plane

< > * Isometric


lArWnation v EE) It> I> ill
l l ? l iiiilo~'iil\1 iJ 10 sec
I I I I f I I I l
12 sec
I I I I J I I I I
14 sec
1 I I I I I I I I
16 sec
I I I I I I t I I
18 sec
t I I 1 J 1 1 t 1
i3 ~ Dart Goo Explode (Default<Def..uli:_Di
~ ( rtmi:'.YI'Al a1d Carret~ Y~W$
&; ~ Lights, came.-as and Scene
:.J ~(f)Ma<lBody-I <I>(Best<<Best>
11 ~ (-)Nozzle-!< ! > (Default<<Def
IJ ~ (-)EndCap-I<I >(DefaultDefa
;3 ~ (-)PI\Jnger-I < I >(Default Defa<.l
-"' ~ (-) FirQerGrij>-1<1>(Defa<AtDe
lti ~ (-) Atrow-1<1 >(DefaUt<<DefaUtl
"' ~ (-) Nozzle-1<2> (Default<<Defd
a, ~ (-) PIA Rr9-1<1> (DefaUI:<<Defa
----
::.. ~iJl Mates I<
I Motion v1 Com feted Motion Stu
under Defred Editing Assembly

Topics
The topics covered in this chapter include:
How explode works
The details of how an exploded view becomes an an imation are discussed.
Zooming and scaling the time line
Manipulation of the timeline for visibility and control is discussed.
Timeline symbols
The color coding of the key points and changebars can be interpreted and modified.
Editing the Timeline 53

Moving key points


? of t he <ey points can be selected, deleted, moved, and copied to manipulate the animat ion.
Changing displays and appearances
::::omponent displays (hide/show, t ransparency, display, and appearance) can be manipu lated across
? - d~
:1e timeline.
~
l'll:lntD ))
5:oryboard
- - s sequence involves creating an Explode
.~1 ~

~- -:1ation and edit ing the key point s and D D

..
- 0"'

::-ponents in the timeline. The final


D D
a- 1ation includes simultaneous explode
Timeline D D
-:; :es for multiple components, a shortened
Editing
-?line. and transparency changes to a D D
::-;:>onent

~
~ 10,, I~
- ~ 10
tc 11 0 se
I I I I I
D l
D l ID
Dl ID
~

i J~ 01
D l
Dl
-

~
~
10
'- I D
ID
>
I
:!1 0 D ~ D
(})

Dl ' ID
D l -~ ~ID
Dl I D
54 Chapter 3

Case Study: Editing the Timeline


In this example, an Explode animation is created and manipulated by editing the key point settings and
positions.
Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the assembly Dart Gun Explode from the
Chapter 3\Case Study\Dart Gun Explode folder.
Several components of t he assembly are in a suppressed state.

2 Animate explode.
Right-click the top level icon and click Animate explode. Watch the
animation to see which components are moving.
When done, collapse the assembly.

How Explode Works


The explode steps in the assembly are mapped into the MotionManager design tree as key frames in
order (Explode Step l . Explode Step 2. etc.} using the same default time span for each one.
The key frames are placed end to end. If multiple components are used in the same step, the key frames
share the same start and end times. The time assigned t o each changebar is equal, derived from t he
overall time set in the Animation Wizard divided by the number of explode steps.

Explode Step 1 Explode Step 5


Explode Step 3

10 s
I
c
I I I 1 I ! I
12 se
I I I I I t t I I
14 se
I I I I I I I I I
16 sec
I I I I

8 .J ExpiViewl

:

~ Explode SteplH
~ Explode Step2
~ Explode Step3
+
+
+ I
0


~ Explode Step<!

j

~ Explode stepS
~

l
Explode Step6 :
~ Explode step7
1- + t -
l
Explode Step 2
Explode Step 4

Explode Step 6
Explode Step 7
Editing the Timeline 55

3 Explode.
~ point settings and ~sing theAnimation Wizard ~ . create an Explode that
-as a Duration of 7 seconds and a Start Time of
3 seconds.
~
@'
_ ,
,;
>~~---
./~
'I
..... -----.

v.
Play the animation.
=: ::e that each st ep takes 1 second because there were 7 steps and the animation was created for
- ~

.4 ,('~ .
-:- ~:onds.
~. ~ v~ fe> ,.. - j rm ..,'..,. lA a It> + ~ ~ ~ .'!;;1
~~ ~'ibl:~ i.l 1 0 s ec 12sec 14s ec - 16 sec 8 s ec

._,.
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I It I ,I I I I 1 I I I I I I I
~ :Jert Gu'l Explode (OefaUt<DefaUt_Oi


Onort.ation and Camera Views

e as key fra mes in


:- each one.
: ep. the key frames
-
- -- - -

--
cerived from the

..
"'t H ~Rri<J- I <I >(DefaUt<<Defa
-=om in.
=.:xun In ~ in the lower right corner of the Motion Manager to expand the time line display and
-=-e ::etail.
-- ~ ~ -- Ill> J [Irl - v' -+liJ i& l 4'1+ ~ /it> Ejf ,;,J
~ ii ~ ~ {J 10 s ec
I I I I l1 I II
j1s ec1ft
II I II I
12sec l1 1 13 s ec It
I I II
j4 s ec I I IiI I I I I II I li t I I I
15 s ec
I II I It I I I
16 se
II I



t

=
~
~
- .::.:~ -::: ::.-z-:ge ;:.-y cf :l-,e ::~:-g..:: >st enaxs t'le vie\'/ of the timeline.
56 Chapter 3

Scaling the Timeline


The time line can be scaled, up or down, by pressing and holding the Alt key while dragging t he right key
point of t he t op level assembly component. All the changebars are sca led by the same factor. For
example, scaling the change bar from an end time of 5 seconds to 10 seconds doub les the length of the
animation and each changebar.

6 Scale the timeline.


Scale the whole timeline by selecting the right key point of the Dart Gun Explode component and
Alt+drag it to 14 seconds.

ljAnrnation v ~ It> fP - - - - - J j!EI " 1 -+ ~ ~ 1~1 + @ ~ t; gj


1 17 1~ ~ ~ iJ 10sec
1 111 1 1 I I I
12 sec
111111111
14sec
111111111
16sec
111111111
18sec
1111111 I I
110 secl 1
I Ill I I I
112sec
I 1111 1 111
1
s ~Dart G<.n Explode (Default<Defd_Di
<I) Orientation and Camera VIews
~ ~ Lll#s, Cameras and Scene ~

... ~ (f)ManBody1<1>(8estllest>l
lil ~ ()Nozzle-! <I> (Default<<Oefaull


-
1%1 ~()End Cap-1<1> (DefaultDefa l


r:tJ ~()Plunger I <I> (DefauitDefac
~; ~ () F'noer Grip-! <I> (DefaultD<
do ~ () Atrow-1<1> (Default<<Oefaultl
1


... ~ () Nozzle-! <:2> (DefaultDefd
"" ~ ()PuiRing-l<l>(Default<<Defa
w 8181 Mates

All of the key frames are stretched equally. We can see that each step now takes 2 seconds
( 14 + 7 = 2 }. If we had just dragged the key, only t he end time would have changed but all the st eps
would have still been 1 second.

7 Disable view orientation changes.


Drag the time bar to the beginning of the timeline (o seconds) and click in the graphics window.
Zoom the assembly to fit.

Right-click the Orientation and Camera Views component and se lect ~Orientation and Camera Views
Disable Playback of View Keys. The view orientation will not change along the
timeline.
Editing the Timeline 57

Timeline Symbols
:he right key - ne time line uses color coding to graphically display information about components, key points. and key
:::or. For -ames.
ength of the
Components
::::;mponents are mapped from the SolidWorks assembly (* .sldasm) file 8 ~ (f) fYlain Body-! < I > (Best<<Best
-~o the MotionManager design t ree automatically. They include the top- Move
,dlExplode
:::onent and :::el assembly, parts, subassemblies, mates. lights, cameras, and
Appearance
:: 1ulations. A single Orientation and Camera Views component is also tB ~ Mates in Dart Gl.l1 Explode-!
::::::led. Each part and subassembly component can be expanded to show
==:Jr sub-components: Move, Explode, Appearance, and Mates in <component name>.
12 sec
I I 1 1 111 I

~ey Points

~ --e Key Points are used to control charact eristics of the associated component or view.

Symbol Description

+ General (Unsuppressed)

0 General (Suppressed)

nds
Not yet solved

c: the steps Position cannot be


reached

:e Right-clicking a red key point and selecting Replace Key updates the status for that key point. It
-.~dow. ::: ..:seful when a change, such as unsuppressing a mate. allows motion where it was previously prevented.
=y Frames
- -e area between key points is called a key frame.
an and Camera Views
-
58 Chapter 3

Change bars
The changebars are used to connect key points and transition between them.

Description Symbol
Overall animation duration

Orientation and Camera Views

Disable Playback of View Keys selected

Driving Motion

Driven Motion (no key points)
Explode t-------
Appearance

Mate dimension

Note Interim key po ints and key frames (bordered) may appear for
components that are driven indirectly. They may become driving at
a later time.

Editing Key Points


Key point s can be moved, copied, and set to precise times very easily.

Drag Key Point


Key points can be dragged from one point on the t imeline to another.

Control Drag Key Point


Press Ctrl and drag a key point to copy it to another location on the timeline.

Copy/Paste Key Point


Select a key point and press Ctrl-C to copy a key point and then select a new location on the timeline
and press Ctri-V t o paste it.

Drag Multiple Key Points


To move multiple key points, window-select or Ctrl select them on the timeline, then drag the group
together to the new location.
Editing the Timeline 59

Edit Key Point Time


:oce a key point has been entered on the timeline, it s position (time) can be
:::lit ed simply by moving it Getting a key point to a specific time can be done by
=~oming in close on the time line or by a more precise method of editing the key
-::lint time.
- -:e time can eit her be entered as the exact time by selecting Exact Time ~ or
::s an offset from the current location by selecting Offset t .
1ere to Find It -.1' X ~ () ~?
Shortcut Menu: Right-click a key point on the timeline, click Edit Key Point
Time fP .

.1oving the Time Bar


- -:e time bar can be moved simply by dragging it to the desired time. If precise positioning is needed,
l.ove Time Bar can be used to input a precise time.
~ere to Find It <fll Move Time Bar

Shortcut Menu: Right-click in the timeline, Move Time Bar, ~~~


~- 70s .-
enter the desired time. Select~
-.1' X ~~+ t?
iG
+ =.dit the Sequence
Animation Wiz..-d.. .

-::he next steps, we will change the start and end t ime of different components so they all move at the
::c-ne t ime.

;:he t imeline

; the group
6o Chapter 3

8 Drag key points.


Drag the key points for t he Nozz1e-1<1> to align with t he
start and end points of the End Cap-1 < 1 > component.

Repeat for the Nozz1e-1 <2> and Arrow-1<1> components.

1 '\71~ ~ ~ iJ 0111111111
sec 12 sec I
I Ill !Ill
I" sec
Ill! I I I I'
16 sec
,,, , ,,,,,
18 sec
,,,,,,,,,
j1 0 sec
, , , , ,,, ,,
112 sec 1
I I I , , , , , , ..._

~Dart Gun Explode (Delatit<Defa<J~_Di


~ Onentat1on and Came1a V~ews
&, (6] Lio;!hts, Comeros ond Scene
.tJ ~ (f)MainBodyl< l > (Best< <Best>
1.: ~ ()illoz2iel < l >(DeldDelaul
-- I +
:E ~ () End(ap-1<1> (Del.ut<<Delo
ct. ~ ( )Pkrogerl<l>(Delault<<Def...
~-
: + + +
+
"' '% ()FtnQer Gr""l < l >(Defaut<<D< + + :
tl
a:J
a:J
~
~ () Arrow I <! > (Default Defaut,
~() Nozzle I <2> (Default Defouli
~ () Pul Rng-1< 1> (Delatit<<Defo
i01 Mates -
-
~t I

+
Tip Moving a key point changes the t iming of t he action. It does not affect the distance or direct ion of the
act ion.

9 Adjust Finger Grip key points.


Drag the first key point of the Finger Grip-1 < l > component to line up with the end of the
En d Cap-1 < l > component.

Move the second key point (highlighted) about 2 seconds after the start.

~~~~ ~ 'lit! iJ 0 sec


, , , , , , .. ,
12 sec
,,, , ,,,,,
14 sec
,,,.~,,,,
16 sec
,,,,,,,, ,
18 sec
"'''''''
110 sec
1 111 11111
112 sec
lll t l ltll
11
.::. ~ Dart Gun Explode (Delid<Defoui:_Di
~ Or ~ntJtm ,-,nd .amera V~ews
IB ~ Lights, Cameras a nd Scene
c!l ~ (f) Main Body I < I> (BestBest >l
. ~ ()Nozzle l < l >(Default<<Deloul
+
[ ~ () EndCop-1 <1> (Delault<<Delo
+
+
() Pl.rooer l < I> (Deld< <Del.._
( ) FinQer Grip I <!> (Delaui:De
- +
------ - I

I)
IE
~
;}
( ) Arrow! <I > (Default <<Delauii:
'%
( ) Nozzle I <2 > (Default<<Defoull
'%
()Puii RinQ l < l > (Defaui:<<Defo
(iljjl Mates
1

--- +

Editing the Timeline 61

: Box-select.
Select multiple key points (not t he top level key point) by dragging a selection box around them. Drag
:-:em to the left to 10 seconds. The top level key point will automatically move with the others.

I.YJ~~~Ie 0sec
111111111
j2 sec
1 1 111111 1
14 sec
1111 1111 1
j6sec
11 1 111111
jBsec
111111 111
jl 0 sec
lillil!ll
j12 sec
I I I L}IJII
1.
- ~ o..rt Gun Explode I (Defoult<Defoult_Display Stat

-
~ rl'.er.tatJOf'land \.an'lfl'faVti'WS

~
- aJ Lights, G>meras and Scene
.:. ~ (f) MoO> Bodyl<l>(Best<<llest>_PhotoW

-
r-
.,. ~ ()Noz>lel<l>
,. ~ ()ErdCap-1<1>

-
~
- ~ Pil.ngerl<l>


-
-" ~ Fnger Grip I <I>
- ~ ()Arrow-1< 1>
.:. ~()Nozzle I <2>
12 s ec


1l 1 I l l
11 ~ ~ PuiRr.Ql < l>
=II Motes
: .e Because we have moved the end key points for all the components, the key point for the top leve l
J2rt Gun Explode moves to 10 seconds as well because there is no motion aft er this point.

..~- Save the assembly.

Sc :e the assembly and the animation .

-: Set the time bar.


:-::g the time bar to the starting position (o seconds) of the animation.
:tion of the
:::~m ponent Appearance
: points can be created to control the appearance of components. The procedure is the same as for
::~;Jonent position: move the time bar. change the appearance. This will be covered in more depth in
~ : -::;Jter 5: Animating Appearances and Properties.

~ Set to transparent. ~ ' Invert Selection


:: _51t-click the Finger Grip component in the Motion Manager Component (Finge r Grip I )

12 sec !1
I
: "=:;;gn tree and select Change Transparency. The component ~
Hide
Isolate
I l l IIIII
=.-sparency changes immediately. 6<[ Chonge Transparenc~ _ _
Component Display '
Set the time bar. ).. I Move wlh Triad

: :g the time bar to the ending position of the animation . Move ..


Matenal

---
. . Appearance
- Set to opaque. (j' Component Properties .
=5 ::-click the Finger Grip component in the MotionManager
::.:2:: gn tree and clear Change Transparency. The component
~-sparency is removed.
~ Zoom to 5elecWn

Hide/Show Tree Items .

Custorrize Menu
..,.-;:-- - ~ -----~-----------------------------------------""'!!!------

62 Chapter 3

16 Play the animation.


Play the animation using Play from start ~-The
component start s in a transparent state and
t ransitions back to an opaque state. Expand the
Finger Grip component in the MotionManager
design t ree to see the key frame added for t he
Appearance.

I.YJ~ 'ib ~ ~ 10 sec


..f. ! I I !IIlli
12 sec
I l l d 1 1 11
14 sec
11 111 1111
16 sec
11 1 111111
j8 sec
11111111 1
10 sec
1 lll llltl
112 sec
1 1 1 11 1 1 ( 1
j
B ~Dart Gun Explode-! (Oefault<OefatOt_Disp!ay stab


~ Orlffit&Jon and Comera lf.ews
~ Li!#s, Comeras and Scene
(fJ ~(f) Main Body-1<1> (Be>t<<Best>_PhotoWor~
ffl ~(-)Nozzle-! <I>
~(-)EndCap-1<1 >
!l3 ~ PILnger-1<1 >
S ~ Fnger Grip-! <1 >

Move
,dJ Explode
-
-
(l Appearance
9 ~ Mates in Dart Gun Explode-!
Ill ~ (-)Arr.,..,..l<l>
!ll ~ (-) Nozzle-1<2> : -
IE ~ PuiRing l<l >
tfJ lj11j1Mates -"

Tip Expanding t he component distinguishes the individual key frames of the component so that t hey are
easier to see and edit. If the component is not expanded, the key frames appear overla pped.
Editing the Timeline 63

- Set interpolation.
:::rag t he left Appearance key point, lining it up wit h t he start of it s movement as shown. Set the
nterpolation Mode for t he right key point to Ease Out 1'::::.

110 sec
~ ~Dart~ (Defa~~;;:~~s~ ::.~ 1
0sec
l l tllll!l
12 sec
ll t d t tll
14 sec
1 11111111
j6sec
, ,,,,,,, ,
j8sec
llltl t lll ' ' ''' ' "'
112 sec
,,,,,,,,,
1
Explode-!


~ Or~entotoon and Camero V>OW>
..: ~ Lights, Cameras and Scene

-
~ (f)MainBody-l<l>(Best<<Best>_PhotoWorl<!


-
,_ ~ (-)Nozzle-! < !>
.:. ~ (-)End Cap-1<1 >
z ~ Plunger- ! <I>
= ~ FingerGrp-1<1>
!:C 12 s ec
I I I I t1 t I I t
j ~Move
d Explode __. -
e- Appearance
.r.. .] Mates in Dart Gun Explode-!
.:; ~ (-) Arrow-1<1>
:. ~ (-)Nozzle-1<2> t
.:; ~Pu'IRing-1<1>
: f j Mates -
~ Play the animation.
--e transit ion from t ransparent to opaque begins just
=:; ~he component starts to move along the explode

=c-::1.

: Save and close all files.


~at they are

~
View Orientations

Upon successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:
Understand how the view orientation can be manipulated
during the animation.
Lock and unlock the view orientation.
Suppress the view orient ation.
Use Zoom to Selection.
66 Chapter 4

View Orientations
Establishing and moving the viewpoint are important considerations in creating a good animation. In
movies, this is the view we see in the camera.

In this chapter, we will explore one method of creating our point of view in the video, and that is through
t he use of t he standard SolidWorks view tools.

Topics
The topics covered in this chapt er include:

View orientation
The Orientation and Camera Views component is used to record the zoom, pan, rotation, and roll
of t he model.
Locking and unlocking the view orientation
Using Disable View Key Creation locks and unlocks
the view orientation and determines whether or
not Orientation and Camera Views key point s are added to the timeline.

Suppressing the Orientation and Camera Views


Suppress prevents the model view from changing during playback, or while you are editing the
animation.

Zoom to Selection
The Zoom to selection option zooms a selected component.

Perspective
When we create models in SolidWorks, we generally do it with pers pective off to make the modeling
process easier. With perspective off, para llel edges are parallel. In the physical world, perspect ive
makes parallel edges appear to converge at some distant point.

Viewpoints
There are two ways to establish our viewpoint in SolidWorks. The first is to use the Pan, Zoom, Rotate,
and Roll tools to est ablish the view. The second way is to use a camera, just as if we were creating a
video with a video camera. Both methods can achieve the same results as fa r as the view of t he model
on the screen; however, the camera option will give us some additional tools to create more realistic
images, such as depth of field. We will discuss the camera in Chapter 11 thro ugh Chapter 12.

When we use the Pan, Zoom, Rotate, and Roll tools in SolidWorks, our general percept ion is that we are
moving the model. This is usually the result of looking at the model through a computer monitor that is
stationary on our desk. However, the reality is that the model is fixed in model space and we are moving
our point of view through these tools.
View Orientations 67

Positioning the Viewpoint


ltion. In 1 e primary too ls for changing the viewpoint are Zoom, Pan, Rotate, and Roll. These tools can be
s elected in several diffe rent ways.
s through 7oolbar Buttons
--.e following toolbar buttons are available:

I"" Zoom to Fit: Zooms in or out so the entire model is visible.

~ Zoom to Area: Zooms in on a portion of the view that you se lect by dragging a bounding box. The
:;:;-~ter of the box is marked with a plus (+) sign.
n, and roll
~ Zoom In/Out: Zooms in as you press and hold the left mouse button and drag the mouse up. Zooms
:...:t as you drag the mouse down.

rhether or ~ Zoom to Selection: Zooms to the size of the selected entities.

tZ Rotate View: Rotates the view as you press and hold the left mouse button and drag t he mouse
=::-::.md the screen.
~ th e
.2 Ro ll View: Rotates the view about an axis normal to the screen as you press and hold t he left mouse
:-_::on and drag the mouse .

.:. Pan View: Scrolls the view parallel to face of your monitor.

ddle Mouse Button Functions


modeling --= 'llidd le or wheel mouse button on a three-button mouse can be used to dynamically manipulate the
pective ::s: :ay. Using the middle or wheel mouse button you can do the fo llowing:

Function Button Wheel

32Jtate Press and hold the middle mouse Press and hold the wheel mouse
n, Rotate,
button. As you move the mouse, the button. As you move the mouse, the
::>ating a
view rotates freely. view rotates freely.
the model
3..3tate about Click the middle mouse button on the Click the wheel mouse button on the
ealistic
.;s:ometry geometry. As you move the mouse, the geometry. As you move the mouse, the
view rotates about that selected view rotates about that geometry.
1at we are geometry.
tor that is The geometry can be a vertex, edge,
removing axis, or temporary axis.

~il or Scroll Press and hold the Ctrl key together Press and hold the Ctrl key together
with the middle mouse button. The with the wheel mouse button. The
view will scroll as you drag the mouse. view will scroll as you drag the mouse.
68 Chapter 4
r -.:;
Function Button Wheel

Zoom Press and hold the Shift key together Spin the wheel mouse button. The
with the middle mouse button. The view will zoom larger as you spin the
view will zoom larger as you drag the wheel downward, smaller as you spin
mouse upward, smaller as you drag the wheel upward.
the mouse downward.
Zoom to Fit Double-click the middle mouse Double-click the wheel button.
button.

Arrow Keys Left/Right arrow keys Up/Down arrow keys


Arrow keys can be used to rotate the viewpoint about the
three axes of the computer monitor. The up and down
arrow keys rotate the viewpoint about a horizontal X axis
through t he center of the monitor.
The right and left arrow keys rotate t he viewpoint about
a vertical Y axis through the center of the monitor.
Pressing and holding the Alt key while using the right or
left arrow keys will rotate the viewpoint about the Z axis
normal to the monitor screen. /
Alt + Left/Right
Holding the Shift key with the arrow keys changes the arrow keys
rotation to 90. -sa
Adjusting the Arrow Key Movement
The amount of move ment caused by t he arrow keys is controlled in the SolidWorks Options. The default
value is 15, which is generally good when modeling, but may be too much when trying to position the
model for an animation. To use t he arrow keys for small movements, change the arrow key movement to
l degree. This is essentially small enough to nudge the viewpoint slightly.

Where to Find It
Menu Bar: click Options ~. System Options, View
Menu: Tools, Options, System Options, View
View Orientations 69

Reference Triad

on. The
tJ spin the
- ;-.e viewpoint can be moved by selecting different aspects of the reference triad. This can
::every helpful when creating key points to rotate the model. As noted above, the standard
.:ew tools rotate the view about t he screen axes, while the reference triad allows you to
~~.
f "
s you spin -3tat e about the model axes.

Action Result
ton. Select an axis See the view normal to the screen.
Select an axis that is Change the view direction 180 degrees.
normal to the screen
crrow keys
Shift+ select Rotate go degrees about the axis.
Ctrl +Shift+ select Rotate go degrees in the opposite direction.
Alt +select Rotate about the axis by the arrow keys increment specified in
Tools> Options> System Options> View.
:i:s
Ctrl + Alt + select Rotate in the opposite direction.

'amed Views Orientation ~

=: - ce we estab lish a viewpoint, we can save it so that we can easily return t o the same I I~ ~ ~ 4'
::::sition. We can save the existing viewpoint, section view, or camera view for later use.

-: save the current view as a named view, press the Spacebar to open the Orientation
:: .:::og. Click New View ~ and type the name of t he view.
,_ The default -=:::hange the viewpo int to a named view, double-click the named view.
osition the
1ovement to .::.'Tied views are particularly useful when creating animations as we can establish our
?Npoints for the animation before we start animating the components.

-ere to Find It
.:enu: View, Modify, Orientation
.eyboard Shortcut: Spacebar
70 Chapter 4

Perspective View
We normally do not create solid models in perspective views because it is generally easier to view
parallel edges as parallel. When rendering we are trying t o make t he final output appear as it would to
our eyes. For this, a perspective view is very helpful. If we are not using a camera, we must add
perspective manually. If we are using a camera, the perspective will be determined by the lens we use.

Where to Find It
Menu: View, Display, Perspective
Heads-up View Toolbar: View Settings, click Perspective ~

Modify Perspective View


Perspective in t he real world, as well as in SolidWorks, is related t o the size of [CYI' . '. VJJ
the object being observed and the distance of that object from the observer. You ' )(

can modify the perspective by specifying the observer position as Object Sizes Observer Position 1t
,___ ---,:::---"'1
Away in the Perspective View dialog box. e/ 3
View Orientations 71

- he smaller the value, the closer the observer position is t o the object and therefore the greater the
;ier to view amount of perspective distortion. For finer adjustments, use decimal values, e.g. 3.5.
- as it would to
.ust add
-e lens we use.

Rr Position *
:I

Perspective - 0.1 Perspective - 1

Perspective - 3 Perspective - Off

-e-e to Find It
.'enu: View, Modify, Perspective
; You must be in a perspective view to change the perspective setting.
72 Chapter 4

View Orientation States


The Orientation and Camera Views feature is standard on all MotionManager t imelines. It resides
below the top level feature in the MotionManager design tree. It is used to control manipulation of the
view during the animation. View manipulation can be changed using the Zoom, Pan Rotate, and Roll
tools.

Disable View Key Creation


Disable View Key Creation is the default condition applied to new timelines. With Disable View Key
Creation selected, new view key points are not added as you change your viewpoint of the model. This
allows you to concentrate on creating t he component motion wit hout adding unintentional view changes.

Disable View Key Creation Cleared


When the Disable View Key Creation is cleared, changes you make to the Orientation and Camera
Views are recorded as key points at the time bar in the timeline.

Disable Playback of View Keys


With Disable Playback of View Keys selected, all key points in the timeline for the Orientation and
Camera Views are grayed out and ignored. Disable Playback of View Keys prevents the model view
from changing during playback, or while you are editing the animation. It is helpful for editing the
t imeline after it has been recorded.

Disable Playback of View Keys Cleared


With Disable Playback of View Keys cleared, all viewpoint changes recorded in the Orientation and
Camera Views feature will be shown during playback.

Orientation and Camera Views State Symbol Description


Disable View Key Creation (Disable View changes ignored by the timeline
Playback of View Keys cleared)
Disable View Key Creation Cleared ~ View changes captured by the timeline
(Disable Playback of View Keys cleared)
Disable Playback of View Keys ~ Disables all Orientation and Camera
Views key frames

Creating View Key Points


Viewpoints are only controlled by key points. The general method to create view key points is the same
as creating key points for component position. You place the time bar at the time at which you want to
create a key point. then change the viewpoint to the desired position. Key point s can either be created
automatically or manually.
View Orientations 73

-::1 you are manipulating the view for the animation, the general sequence is as follows:
:resides
Right-click the Orientation and Camera Views component and clear the Disab le View Key
on of the
Creation option.
1d Roll
Jrag the time bar to the ending time.
Change the view orientation to the final orientation.
Select Disable View Key Creation to prevent further unwanted changes.
ew Key
odel. This
,'iew Orientation Changes
=.:' orientation changes can be captured in the animation to enhance t he visual display. The view
Nchanges.
-.::-::pulation tools are those found in core SolidWorks.

Camera
Establishing Shots and Leaders
- ;)U play a video file one time through by just double-clicking on it in Windows Explorer, Windows must

:-::=.1 t he default video player and then start showing the video. At the end of the video. the video player
::lose automatically right at that point. If your motion starts right at t ime zero and ends at the end
:.ion and ;:-= :1e video file, it is difficult for the people watching the video to get oriented and it looks
.odel view .:~-ofessiona!.
g the
~.:::1er than start motion at time zero, it is much easier on the people watching if you wait one or two
~,e: :mds. This allows the player to open and have enough time for people to look at the player and
=.:;)gnize what they are looking at. In the video industry, this is called an establishing shot as it
3.tion and :s:c:blishes the time and location of the scene. At the end of the video, you also want to allow the motion
::stop and leave the still image on the screen for a second or two before t he video player closes. This
: :.vs people viewing the video to recognize the video is over because motion stopped rather than
:::c:use the player suddenly disappeared.
time line .: :1e video is intended to be a seamless loop, establishing shots and leaders are not used as you are
:::<ing for a seamless transition between the playbacks. The motion at the end of the video must match
1e timeline --=motion at the beginning of the video.
- s also good practice to allow view changes to come to a complete stop and pause before changing
d Camera : -ection. Except for special effects. you do not see cameras suddenly changing direction in movies and
-= evision as it is very hard for the viewer to follow the action. Adding a pause between directional view
:-;:.,ges should be accompanied with an interpolation mode that slows the viewpoint motion before it
~::ps and starts the motion slowly in the new direction.
sis the same
1 you want to - c:ddition to the reason above, having beginning and ending leaders and establishing shots allows more
er be created - ~:nes in post-processing to account for video transitions between clips.
74 Chapter 4

Case Study: Viewpoints


This project will use an existing assembly to show how to change and record viewpoints.

Storyboard
0 0
Our animation will show the light exploding and
collapsing as we change our view to better see 0 0
the process. To organize our work, we create a 0 0
.
View
simple storyboard by just listing the things we Orientations 0 0
want to do in the animation. The basic storyboard 0 0
might look like t his:

P escripfio"'
0
0
"{(';'
II'~ t?
C)~'f)
0
0
0 0
C,....e~fe ~ sf~r+i"'J vieVV'.
0 0
S.+~r+ vvifL, I seco,.,d o~ vid e o c. ..
~
2
vvifL, ,.,ofL,i"'J """ovi"'J.
0
.....
.,q-p'
()
0
0 0
3 cL,~"'de + L..e vieVV' fo s L..o vv 0 ~~ 0
f L..e cofl ~psed s+~+e.
Cl 0
Zoo""" ov+ ~s f L..e ~sse""" b /'1 0 0
explodes so +L..~+ ~II f l...e
0 0
co"""po.-.e ,.,fs re""""'"i"' vis ible.
0 0
5 Rof~fe fL, e e>(p/oded
~sse"""h/'1 fo f[,e opposife
oie,.,f~fi o.-..

G Coll~pse ~.-.d z.oo""" i.-..

7 Add I s eco.-.d o~ v ideo vvif L,


.-.ofL,;"'J """ovi"'J.

Play the file Views.mp4 from the Videos folder t o see the desired results.
View Orientations 75

ocedure
Open the assembly.
::::len the assembly Views from the
:-.::mpter 4\Case Study\ Views folder.

~~
Examine the assembly.
- -is assembly has one configuration and an exploded view.

= Create named views.


o :;: turn the assembly to the same pos ition as when it was opened.

:J 0

0
0
:>ess the spacebar. The View Orientation dialog will appear.

:: ick New View ~ . Type Start for the name of the view.

:J~
~
D Create another view.
:: \plode the assembly. Zoom, Pan, and Rotate as necessary to get
-e view shown. We want the assembly aligned roughly on the
::~een diagonal with all the components visible on the screen. 1\
,
~
-~
~~
::~eate a named view called Explodedl.

Create another view.


:::Jllapse the assembly. Press F on the keyboard to Zoom to Fit.
()'~
::~eate a named view called Collapsedl.

-sing this method, t he only view effect between Explodedl and


::::;llapsedl is the zoom. The model should not otherwise move on the screen.

Create another view.


.:.(plode the assembly. Zoom, Pan, and Rotate as necessary t o get
-e view shown. We want the assembly aligned rough ly on the t::)~\l
3~reen diagonal. but reversed f rom the named view Explode l , with
1\~
~ <t?Q)....
::. , the components visible on the screen.
'
::-eate a named view called Exploded2.

Create another view.


::Jllapse the assembly. Press F on the keyboard to Zoom to Fit.
~~
::-eate a named view called Collapsed2.
76 Chapter 4

8 Check the views.


We should now have the fo llowing views:

Explodedl Exploded2

Start
,~ ~ "g;,'
C{'(!j

Collapsedl Collapsed2

Views Explod ed! and Collapsed! shou ld be the same model orient ation, only different zoom levels t o
insure all the pa rts are visible on the screen. The same applies to views Exploded2 and Collapsed2.

9 Create a motion study.


Creat e a new motion study. Name it Views.

Select Animation for the Type of Study.


View Orientations n

a Disable view creation. 8 W 'IIC 'I'i:::. \ V Ii:ICUI L , Ur.::I C U II.. V l=:tt fa y o.H C U::

3y default Disable View Key Creation should be selected; ' '


---rake sure that it has been selected.

,'.'ith this option selected. we can change our viewpoint as we

~
"'~ :-eate the component motion without creating any view key points. We do this just to make it easier to
~et the component motion the way we want it without accidently creating view key points.

,
' Add component motion.
', e need to add motion that explodes the assembly an d t hen collapses it. The easiest way to do this is
~~:h the Animation Wizard.

_se the Animation Wizard to add an explode motion starting at 2 seconds with a duration of 5 seconds.
-::d collapse motion at 8 seconds wit h a du ration of 5 seconds.

: Play the animation.


~
--e parts should explode and collapse at the appropriate times and t he view should not change.

:: Change viewpoint.
: ve the time bar t o 7 seconds. Press the spacebar and do uble-click the named view Exploded!.

- Play the animation.


--..s animation should be exactly the same as in step 12.
- -E-e are several things we can learn from this:

3ecause we have Disable View Key Creation selected, no view key point was added at 7 seconds.
=1en though we have Disable View Key Creation selected. there was an initial view key created at
:seconds. When we play the animation from the beginning, the viewpoint will change to t his initial
:oom levels to
:::y point.
Collapsed2.
',e can change our viewpoint while the animation is playing.
='.'le move the time bar to any place other than 0 seconds. we can change our viewpoint and the
::..1imation will play at that viewpoint.
~ . we wilt add some viewpoint changes.

Unlock view orientation.


=- =the time bar to 0 seconds.
-=L- .-click Orientation and Camera Views and clear
_ante View Key Creation.

- :ilis option cleared. each time we change the model view. it will be recorde d as a key point. For
= :; this is the same as Autokey tfl is for components and appearances.
78 Chapter 4

16 Add a viewpoint.
Move the time bar to 7 seconds. This is where our assembly is fully exploded.
Press the spacebar. The View Orientation dialog will appear. Double-dick the named view Explodedl.
A key point is aut omatica lly added to Orientation and Camera Views at 7 seconds.

17 Play the animation.


The viewpoint starts changing at 0 seconds. We would rather have the viewpoint hold fo r 1 second
before it starts t o move. To make it hold position, we need to copy t he view key point from 0 to 1 second.
Select the Orientation and Camera Views key point at 0 seconds, press and hold Ctrl and drag the
key point to 1 second.
Note The most common method to copy a key point is to press Ctrl and drag the key point, which makes
a copy of it. The exception is when copying a key point from time zero. All components must have a key
point at 0 seconds, so if you try to drag a key point from o seconds, you will copy it even without the use
of the Ctrl key.

18 Add additional viewpoint.


Move the time bar to 8 seconds. Press t he spacebar and double-dick the named view Exploded2.

19 Play the animation.


The viewpoint now holds posit ion from 0 to 1 second and then changes to Explodedl. At 7 seconds it
quickly changes to Exploded2. This change is too fast and we would like to slow it down. To do this, we
need to give it more t ime.
Drag the Orientation and Camera View key point at 7 seconds to 6 seconds, then drag the key point
from 8 seconds to 9 seconds.

20 Play the animation.


While this is better, having a viewpoint go from one change to the next without a pause may be t oo jerky
for some. To fix this, we can copy t he key points from 6 and 9 seconds and let them hold the viewpoint
positions for a second.

21 Adjust the timing.


Ctrl+drag the key point at 6 seconds to 5 seconds.
Ctrl+drag the key point at 9 seconds to 10 seconds.
View Orientations 79

::2 Disable view creation.


~ight-click Or ientation and Camera Views and select Disable View Key Creation.

:plodedl. Jnce we have t he basic key points t o control the views. we want to avoid accidently adding key points
there none were intended.

:3 Add key point manually.


'.~ove the t ime bar to 13 seconds, the end of the animation.
:cond
o 1 second. ::1ange to the named view Collapsed2. Notice that no key point is created because we have Disable
liew Key Creation selected.
d drag the
Select Orientation and Camera Views in the MotionManager design tree. then click Add/Update
?Cey t+] on the MotionManager toolbar. A key point has now been added for this final position.
1ich makes
have a key _.. Play the animation.
out t he use :=.xamine the res ults.

:=diting Viewpoint Keys


>ce we see the component motion and viewpoint changes together. we may want to adjust the views
~oded2. :=::ause parts are off the screen during an explode step, the model isn't in t he correct position for
-::ximum visual impact. or any number of other reasons.

seconds it - : update a viewpoint key:


J do this, we
Move t he time bar to the time of the key point to be updat ed.
Adjust the view using Pan, Zoom, Rotate, or Roll as necessary.
! key point - In the MotionManager design tree, select Orientation and Camera Views.
Click Add/Update Key i:J on the MotionManager toolbar.
- Adjust a viewpoint.
rbe too jerky ::would like the first and last viewpoints to be zoomed in so that the model completely fi lls t he screen.
he viewpoint
:1e t he time bar to 13 seconds.
Z-:xlm in until the model fills the screen.
3-:: :=ct Orientation and Camera Views in the MotionManager design tree.
:[ : -< Add/Update Key [t_+, on the MotionManager t oolbar.

_: Play the animation.


--=animation now ends with the model filling the screen.
So Chapter 4

27 Adjust a viewpoint.
Now we can do the same thing to the init ial view.
Move the t ime bar to 0 seconds.
Zoom in until the model fi lls the screen.
Select Or ientation and Camera Views in the MotionManager design t ree.
Click Add/Update Key ~ on the MotionManager toolbar.
28 Play the animation.
The animation starts at the correct view point, but it zooms out before starting the transition to t he
Exploded l viewpoint. The pro blem is with t he key point at 1 second because it is still t he original
starting view.

29 Fix the key points.


To fix t his problem. we can just delete the viewpoint key at 1 second and t hen copy t he key point from
0 seconds to 1 second.
Select the Orientat ion and Camera Views key point at 1 second and press Delete.
Ctrl+drag (or just drag} the key point at 0 seconds t o 1 second.

30 Add leader.
We have a one second leader/establishing shot at t he beginning of the animation. but not at the end.
Drag the topmost key point for the assembly from 13 seconds to 14 seconds. The animation is now one
second longer. but there is no motion during this last second.

31 Change interpolation mode.


All viewpoint changes are current ly linear because that is the default interpolation mode. To smooth out
the view changes, we will change t he interpolation mode to Ease in/Ease out.
Window-select the six Orientat ion and Camera Views key points between one and 13 seconds. Right-
click any of the selected key points and click Interpolation mode, Ease in/Ease out.

32 Play the animation.


The viewpoints now move as we want.
View Orientations 81

Further Tweaking
Could we do anything else to this animation? It would not be difficult to continue to make fu rther
adjustments to the animation to correct the viewpoints or timing to make sure the t ransition speeds are
just the way we want them. In this case. we could make adjustments to make sure all the parts remain
visible on the screen at all times. For a smoother animation. an Ease In/Ease Out interpolation mode can
be added to all the key points for the components to make the motion smoother.
Ne will not make any further adjustments to this animation as the method and steps have already been
: overed. For practice. you can make further adjustments until you are satisfied with the results.
33 Save and close the file.
:ion to the
original
Perspective View Effect
.':/hen we animate views. wit h perspective on. there are cases where the model appears t o zoom in and
::!.lt on its own, resulting in a very unnatural animation. This is a result of the way perspective is
:y point from :::lculated based on the bounding box of the model.
=:specially with a perspective view. cameras define the viewpoint more reliably than noncamera views.
',"ith a camera, the field of view is fixed and doesn't change with t he size of the model. Cameras will be
:.scussed later starting with Chapter 11.
~e following case study will demonstrate this effect.
Jt at the end.
Case Study: Visual Bloom
::ion is now one _s~ng the Sarrus Mechanism we will explore the effects of perspective
~-:::l how the viewpoint changes based on the bounding box.
C..ocedure
:. To smooth out Open an assembly.
:::en Machine.sldasm from the Case Study\ Sarrus Mechanism
=-: ::1er. This is a simple kinematic mechanism.
3 seconds. Right-
Open a motion study.
:::<:il the motion study named Perspective.

Set views .
. :1 the time bar at o seconds. change to the Front view.
:'.::::r Disable View Key Creation and Disable Playback of View Keys.
-::rr- on Perspective by clicking View, Display. Perspective from the menu.
82 Chapter 4

4 Modify perspective.
To make sure we see t he total effect of visual blooming, we want a large perspective.
Click View, Modify, Perspective and set the Observer Position to 1. This is equivalent to standing very
close to the assembly.
Zoom in so that the assembly will fill most of the screen. This will make it easier to see the results.

5 Motion driver.
A rotary motor has already been added to the Wheel and set it to rotate at 15 rpm. We will discuss the
use of motors in a later chapter, but for now this will drive the wheel several revolutions.

6 Calculate the animation.


As the Wheel rotates, the viewpoint zooms in and out as shown in the composite image below. This has
been recorded as Video Bloom.mp4 in the Videos folder.

::.e
View Orientations 83

Bounding Box
When perspective is selected, the viewpoint is calculated at each frame. The viewpoint is determined by
ding very ::he bounding box of the model which, is based on the extents of the model. The extents change as the
:Jox structure expands and contracts.

esults. ~ Bounding Box

iscuss the 0
''- This has

, some animations, t his may not be noticeable as the components that form the extents of the model
::-e not in motion, so the bounding box does not change. In this case, t he width of the assembly does not
: l ange, but the height does, as shown above.

Change configuration.
-:J demonstrate the effect of the bounding box, change the configuration of the assembly to t he
: Jnfiguration Wit h Frame. In this configuration the part Ba se has some additional geometry that is
::rger than the moving components.
: :Jam as necessary so t hat t he assembly fills the height of the screen.

Ill.
~
84 Chapter 4

8 Play the animation.


We can see that the bounding box does not change size as the components move. This has been
recorded as With Frame.avi in the Videos folder.

Bounding Box

While this extra geometry on the Base helps to describe what is happening, we do not want it in our
animation. Instead of adding geometry to an existing part, another approach is to add an additional part
that keeps the bounding box from changing size and then make the part invisible.

9 Change configuration.
Change back to the Default configuration.

10 Hide added part.


Move the time bar to o seconds.
Unsuppress the part Spacer. Like the previous example, this geometry will keep the bounding box from
changing size, but it is a separate part, so we can hide it.

11 Hide the Spacer.


Right-click the part Spacer and click Hide Components on the menu.

12 Play the animation.


Notice that the animation still shows the zoom in and out from the perspective. This is because the
bounding box is based on the visible components and the Spacer is not visible. You can tell the part is
hidden from the hollow icon in the Featu reManager design tree.

13 Show the Spacer.


With the t ime bar at a seconds, right-click the part Spacer and click Show Components on the menu.
View Orientations 85

14 Change transparency.
s been Right-click the part Spacer and click Appearances. Edit the appearance.
Change the Transparency amount t o 1.00 by moving the Transparency slider to 1.00

the far right under Advanced, Illumination. SpeaJiar amount:

Click OK. 1.00 ;:


J
5peaJiar color:
15 Examine the part.
Notice t hat the part icon is still solid because the part is not hidden. The part is
5peaJiar spread:
showing, but is 100 percent transparent. So, while hiding a component and making 0 .689999998

it transparent give us the same visual results. we do not get the same view
results.
i6 Change display style.
While the shaded face of the Spacer is transparent, the edges are not. In order
to conceal t he edges, change the display mode to Shaded. LOO

7 Play the animation. l lnlnous intensity:

7he view should now be steady as the bounding box shou ld not change. This has
1ant it in our :Jeen recorded as With Spacer.avi in the Videos folder.
=dditiona\ part 8 Save and close all files.

-portant! While the method of adding a spacer part to the assembly works. it is generally not a
-:1eferred method to solve this problem unless you are so far along on the animation that changing all
:1e views may not be an effective way to use your time.
Alt ernative Methods
-addition to the methods shown there are alternatives for fixing this condition:
nding box from Turn off perspective
If we turn off perspective. the viewpoint will not change. Whether or not this is a good solution
depends on t he animation you are making and how important the perspective view is. If perspective
is important for the realism of the animation, then this is not a suitable choice.
Add a part
'J we add a very small part or parts to the assembly at t he limits of where we need the bounding box
because the
:o be, they could hold the bounding box size. These parts could be so small that it is not visible. but
1tell the part is .-;ill keep the size of the bounding box fixed.
Use a camera
:::ameras are much more stable for viewpoints and have many other options that generally make t hem
ts on the menu. :1e option of choice in serious animations. In Chapter 11, we will explore how to set up and use
:ameras in our animations.
Animating Appearances
and Properties

Upon successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:
Change the appearance of components along the timeline.
Use display states to change animation appearances.
Change the component display.
Add lights to the animation.
Render animations using Photo View 360.
88 Chapter 5

Animating Appearances
The visual properties of a component can change across the time line. Any appearance attribute can bE
animated. This includes color, transparency, the hide/show state, and the applied appearance.

Topics
Controlling appearances
Component appearance can be controlled through the standard SolidWorks tools.
Display states
Display states are used t o control and recall appearances in the same way named views are used tc
control and recall viewpoints.
Display Pane
The Disp lay Pane provides a listing of visual properties assigned to components as we ll as a way tc
change the properties.
Animating lights
Lights can be animated to change their position and aim point as well as properties such as intensit
and color.
Rendering animations with PhotoView 360
For added realism, photorealistic rendering of animations can be done using Photo View 360.
Animating Appearances and Properties 89

:hanging Displays and Appearances


ibute can be -: ::aimate an appearance, set the time and edit the appearance using the PropertyManager. Visibility,
1Ce. ~-sparency, display, and appearance can be set differently at different times using key points. For
:. =-nple, a component can begin the animation hidden and be shown at the end. The key point changed
:s ::ased on the position of the time bar.
--=chart below lists the display and appearance options available for components.

3ption Suboptions Description


; are used to
;-!ide and Show ~ None Toggles the visibility of the
component
las a way to Change Transparency ~ None Toggles the transparency of the
component to 75 percent

as intensity ~so late Dialog Hides all other components


except those selected
Component Display Wireframe ~ Changes the display of the
' 360. component from the Default
Hidden Lines Visible fQ1) Display set by the assembly

Hidden Lines Removed ~


Shaded With Edges ~

Shaded ~
Default Display

Appearance ~ Appearance ~ Changes the appearance of the


component.
90 Chapter 5

Interpolation Modes for Visual Properties


Transitions across the timeline for visual properties can be set using Interpolation Modes. The default
mode is linear interpolation. just as it is for component s. The interpolation mode can be changed in
exactly the same way as it is done for component movements. For more information, see Interpolation
Modes on page 37.
To see this visually, play the animation Appearance Interpolation Modes.mp4. In t he composite
image below, each flashlight has most of its components change from opaque to transparent in 10
seconds. The interpolation mode is diffe rent for each flashlight for comparison.

Snap

~~
;>

Ease in

~
5

Linear

~!!f.> =
Ease Out

~ !!!f:.

Ease In/Ease Out


- ...c
T=O T =2 T=4 T=6 T=8 T = 10 -.s -
Animating Appearances and Properties 91

Case Study: Component Visibility Changes


"he default ---..sis a simple case study to demonstrate how to hide
nged in ::::oj)onents and change their transparency. Play the file
erpolotion 7.:.e-:vs.mp4 from the Videos folde r for this lesson to see
-=intended result.
nposite 5~oryboard
1t in 10 -: ..mdersta nd the sequence of events, we write a s imple
::::oyboard that looks like this:

~
S+ep Tir"Vte Pesc.r-ipfio"'
0- l Esf... blisl-.i"8 sl-.of
I - 2 Hide fl-.e Re-C'Iec.for- c:."''d Le"'s c.Over-
~
3 2-3 Hide fl-.e Swivel c:."'~d Locki"B Pi"'s
-= 3-5 Hide fl-.e Mi"'' ic..fvr-e Bvlb

~
-::> 3-<S Hide fl-.e Hec:.d c:."''d Swivel Clip
6 5-7 Hide fl-.e Rov"'d Swivel Cc:.p
7 7-8 Hide fl-.e svbc:.s5er"Vtbl'1 c.or"Vtpo"'e"'fs Clip c:."'~d Swifc.l-.
p~ g 7- 10 Cl-.c.."Be fl-.e fr-c:."''spc:.r-e"''c.'1 o-C' fl-.e svbc:.sSer"V\bl'1
c.or"Vtpo"'e"'f Holder-
tO - II E"'d lec:.der- 1 "''O c.l-.c:."Bes
p~
-ocedure
Open an assembly.
:::en Views.sldasm f rom the Chapter 5\Case Study folder.
=10
--.sis the same assembly we were working with in the previous chapter.

Create a motion study.


=.-eate a new motion study. Name it Appearances.

::::.ect Animation fo r the Type of Study.


3 Hide component.
Hide these components using the schedu,e .s.:ec ~r -:::
but the table below is just for clarity.
The basic procedure is to move the time bar to the end ;::~E ::; g-: _ ~ :-~ :=-::::-e-: c:nd die~ Hid:
Copy the key from 0 seconds to the start time of the hide.

Hide Components St art Hide End Hide


(seconds} (seconds}
Reflector and Lens Cover 2

Swivel and both Locking Pin components 2 3


Miniature Bulb 3 5
Head and Swivel Clip 3 6

Round Swivel Cap 5 7


Subassembly components Clip and Switch 7 8

4 Change transparency.
Change transparency for the su bassembly component Holder using the schedule listed be low.

Change Transparency Start Change End Change


(seconds} (seconds}
Subassembly component Holder 7 10

Note When a change of visibility is applied to a component, it is applied at the position of t he time bar.
If t here were no existing visibility changes, as is the case in this example, the key frame starts at the
o seconds and extends to the current time bar position. The change occurs using linear interpolat ion
between t hose times. The key points on either end of the key frame can be moved.

5 Add an establishing shot/end leader.


We have the establishing shot because our first change started at 1 second, but the animation ends at
the end of the last change so we need to extend the animation one second.
Drag the end key point fo r the top level icon to the right to 11 seconds.
6 Change interpolation mode.
Window-select all t he key points after o seconds. Right-dick one of the selected key points and cha nge
t he interpolation mode to Ease in/Ease out.
Animating Appearances and Properties 93

View timeline.
(!1e storyboard, - -=completed timeline looks like t his.

~W3~~ ~ 0s ec I
I I I I I I I I
12s ec
I I I I ( I I I I
14 sec
I I I I l I I I I
16s ec
I t I I ( I I I f
IBs ec
I I I I I I I I I
110 s ecII
I I I I I I
~ Views_& (Default)
and click Hide.
{I) Orientation and Camera Views
- :aJ l ights, Cameras and Scene
~ (f) Base_&<l>
~Move
Hide d Explode
:onds) flo Appear.mce
+ ~ Mates in Views_&
~ (f) Holder_&<l>
~ ~r@i~l'
>" ~ () Switch_&<l>
..__.
..__.
-
-
-
~
~
~
() Round Swivel Cap_&<l>
() Swivel_&<l>
() Battory AA_&<l >
..__.
-

~
~
() Head_&<l>
() Miniature Bulb_&<l>

-

~ ( )Battery AA_&<2>
~ ()locking Pin_&<l >
~()Locking Pin_&<2>
..__.
.___.
..__.
..__.
- ~ ()Swivel Cfip_&<l>
~ ( ) Reflector_&<l>
- ~ ()Lens Cover_&<l>
~ () BatteryCover_&<l> >
. fi Mates

below.

Change
... View key point properties.
: use over a key point. The callout will show the visual
[ Switch....S.l > 8sec
=o @J=Ioo% lL: rJ ~ lL:
?
onds) =-::;Jerties of the component at that t ime.

Play.
==y t he animation. It should look like the Views.mp4 animation provided with the course files.
lf the time bar.
starts at the
interpolat ion

nation ends at

Its and change


94 Chapter 5

Display States
Display st ates are the visual settings counterpart to configurations.
Display states are used to set the visibility, appearance, display mode
and transparency of components at the assembly level. In a part, display
states can be used primarily to change the appearance or t ransparency
of features, but can also be use to change the display state or hide/show
bodies. A display state is often associated with a specific configuration
but may also be common to all configurations.

Display states can make it easier to set the ap pearances in an


animation. In the previous chapter, named views were used to provide
predefined views that could be used in the animation. With appearances,
display states can be used the same way but are much more useful. Named views really only affected
single keys on the timeline and could easily be used again by editing a single key and then copying it to
another location. With appearances. it is not as easy to just copy and paste as the changes may affect
many components. By using display states, we can set the appearance of every component at once. If
we then choose to edit one or two of the appearances and then determine that t he edits are not what
we want it is easier to go back to the display state than to try to undo all the individual edits.

Stored Display States


The display states are stored separately from the configurations
B ~ Support_Frame_& Configuration(s) (RH_Burners)
under the ConfigurationManager tab. They may be linked together !) {jf Tables
so that each configuration has a specific disp lay state assigned, or LH_Burners I Supp ort_Frame_& I
Planks_i>last!C I Support_Frame_&]
the configurations and display states may be independent from Planks_Wood [ Support_Frame_&]
each other. Each configuration has at least one display state. RH_Burners I Support_Frame_&]
Smgle_Tray! Support_Frame_& I

J Link Display States to Configurations


Animating Appearances and Properties 95

Display States vs. Configurations


Jisplay states are used to capt ure changes in the appearance of components. Configurations are used
:o create alternate versions of assemblies by suppression, positioning, and differences in mate values.

Configurations Display States


Suppress/Resolve components Hide/Show components
Component positioning No equivalent
Select part material properties Assembly-based Appearances
Select part configurations No equivalent
Select part appearances Assembly-based Appearances
lffected
t ing it to No equivalent Display Mode (HLR, Shaded)
lY affect No equivalent Assembly-based Transparency
once. If
1ot what Set numeric values (mates) No equivalent

Display Pane
- he display settings can be controlled and visualized through the
~~ fSib GJ ft&f
Jisplay Pane of the FeatureManager. Clicking on the icon in t he row
(RH_Burners) ~--==-
t'lith the component name brings up a menu to change it. It can be used ~Mfi:IOOWJ
~ sensors
:o change a component at any level of the assembly. [t, ~ Amotaticns

~II Ef, ~ lights, Cameras ..-.d Scene


~ Front Plane ~
,)
~ Top ~'~Me ~
~ Right Plane ~
t. Origin t.
~ (f) Base<! > ~~
1 ~ Rcx.nd Swivel Cop< I > ~~0
~ (} SMvel < l > ~ ~Ll
S ~ ()Ba~ryAA< l> ~ ~ Ll
B ~(-)Heod<l> ~ ~ LI
l3l ~ () Minib..re Bulb< l > ~~0
00 ~ () Ba~AA<2> ~ lr.J L1
1!J ~ ()Locking Pin< I > ~ ~ Ll
1B ~() Locking Pin<2> ~ ~ Ll
&, ~ ( ) SwiveHlp<l> ~ ~ .t:l
~(-) Reflector <!> ~~0
1!J ~(-}Lens Cover<! > ~ lr.J 0
IE ~ Battery Cover< I>> ~ ~ Ll
_l'tl ~@ Matl!s
96 Chapter 5

The column options include:

Option Icon Description


Hide and Show A toggle that can be set to Hide or Show a component

Display Modes The display mode sets the display of individual


components:
Wireframe
Hidden Lines Visible
Hidden Lines Removed
Shaded With Edges
Shaded
Default Display (of the assembly)
Appearances Sets the appearance

Transparency A toggle that turns component Transparency on or off


=-
Setting these visibilit y options can be done through the Display Pane, the Assembly toolbar, or by right-
clicking a component. Regardless of how the setting is creat ed, it is shown in the Display Pane.
Display Pane Icons
The icons used in the Display Pane are used as both a visual display of the current r (omponent
state and as a method of changing the setting. The appearance options use one ~ Appearance s-
or two triangles to represent, for example, the part appearance (lower) and the
component appearance (upper) or override.
If there is only a single {lower) t riangle, the part appearance is used as t he
\_Part Appearance
assembly component appearance.
3
Selecting Display Pane Options
One way t o select options for a component in the Display Pane is to dick the icon you want t o change
in the row of the component you want to change.

=
Animating Appearances and Properties 97

--other way is to right-click on the component row in the Display Pane. '<:omponent (Swivell}

- -;s method shows all the options availab le for that compone nt in one fb .!:!ide
-:nu. @ ~irefi-ame
l Htdden Lines Visible
ponent ['JJ
J eating Display States (j
Hidden lines Removed
~ded l',lth Edges
-=create a new Display Stat e, right-click in the ConfigurationManager rJ Sh~tded
=:-d then click Add Display State. A new display state will be added. fill ~faUt Display

e- A!!~Jearance
-:he FeatureManager design tree, expand the Display Pane. 6,! g,ange Tr.,...porency
Co~Tl>onent Display Stole
:= -ange the display properties as necessary. Display sta~ ( DefauJt_oiSPI<iv state-1>
@ Add[)isp!ay State ---

~ Bename Dispkly St>lte


E!:jl Oear AI Iop level OVerrides
Customize Menu

Case Study: Changing Appearances


- ;:his case st udy. we want to show the product in the different appearances in which we intend to sell
: 0 1ay the Display States.mp4 file from the Videos fo lder for t his lesson to see the intended result

n or off Storyboard - - - --- - - - - - -


D D
--e storyboard is quite simple; we want t he

~
=:ssembly to spin continually. At each rotation, we D D
!r, or by right- .::nt the appearances to change to reflect the D D
?ane. : .=.;erent color schemes in which t he assembly will Display
D '-- D
States
': e manufactured. D D

- Component
Appearance

- Part
Sfep

2
Tio'Vle

0 - I

I - 17
Pescripfio"'
Esfc:..h/isL,;"'J sl.,of
Rofc:..fe c:..SSeo'Vlhl'1
D
D

D
D
!to
'
D

D
D

~
Appearance cov"'ferc.f ockvvise D D

3 0 - I Pe.(:'c:..vlf color scL,eo'Vle D D


D "-._ D
L{ 2 - b Reed c olor scL,eo'Vle
nt to change D D

~
5 b - 10 6ree"' color s cl.,eo'Vle
D D
b 10 - IL/ Bl ve col or scL,e o'Vle D D

7 H- 18 Yellovv color scl.,e o'Vle D


...._ D

8 17 - 18 E "'ed 1ec:..eder
98 Chapter 5

Procedure
1 Utilize the assembly.
--
Continue with the assembly Views. ~ --c

- -= --
2 Change to Model view.
Move the time bar to o seconds so that all the appearances are at the starting values.

Select the Model tab.


Important! Because the assembly has on ly one display state, that state is whatever the appearances
are currently set to in the assembly. If we left the t ime bar at the end of t he animation, t he default
display state would look like the model at the end of the animation, rather t han t he beginning.

3 Create display states.


In the ConfigurationManager, clear Link Display States to Configurations. Because we cannot change
configurations in an animation, we want to be able to use each display state in whichever configurat ion
we use.
Right-click in the ConfigurationManager and click Add Display State. Create four disp lays and name
them Red. Green. Blue, and Yellow. At this point, all the new display states will be t he same as the
Default.

4 Change appearances.
We are going to apply appearances to only four components. - ==:. =,
Double-click the display state Red to make it active.
In the FeatureManager design t ree, expand the Display Pane by clicking >> -..::.:: I

Select the components Holder and Head.


_ .....
-,::.
Select the Appearances tab in the Task Pane.
Expand the Plastics folder and select High Gloss. :::_ .
In the bottom pane, double-click red high gloss plastic.
The Display Pane will now show that the red appearance
' Component ~
is attached in the assembly at the component level and
the green appearance is attached at the part level. ~}~ (f) Holder_:& <l> ~~~
. Part _ , /
Animating Appearances and Properties 99

:; Add additional appearances.


_se t he same procedure to apply t he various appearances at the component level. All appearances are
- gh gloss plastic.

Component Display State

Red Green Blue Yellow

Holder red green blue yellow


e ap pearances
Head red green blue yellow
, the default
~ ning. Switch white black white black

Locking Pins white black white black


cannot change
~rconfiguration :Jte As color schemes and appearance choices are very subject ive, you should not feel bound to use
:-:e exact choices shown in t he table. The important thing is that you have fo ur extra display states in
::::ldit ion to the default display state.
3ys and name
:? same as the : Return to default display state.
::::eturn the assembly to the Default Display State.

Create a motion study.


:reate a new motion study. Name it Display States.

Select Animation for the Type of Study.

Add rotation.
~asition the model in the named view Start.
.....se the Animation Wizard to rotat e the model about t he Y axis four times for a duration of 8 seconds,
;;~arting at 1 second.

~ Play the animation.


- his rotation does not look very good as the model is rotating about theY axis of the screen rather t han
:'leY axis of the model. This rotation makes the model appear to wobble in space rather than rotate.

~ - ::l fix this, we will redo the rotation using a technique of modifying key points.
~~~
~ - ote Later in the book, we will explore the use of cameras to control our viewpoints. A camera would
::e preferred for this animation, but we will make do with the view controls for now.
100 Chapter 5

10 Delete the view keys.


In the timeline. window-select all the view keys except the key at 0 seconds. Press Delete.

IAnination v
1
~ II>- ~ J [l!l ~ .... Ill ;,:a l_fl + @ 3 ~ ~ E)
I 'ii' l~ 'ik ~ 'L 0 sec
1 ft
12 sec It
14 s ec f1
16 s ec It
IB sec I

!
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

8 ~ ~O<Ma!S (Defa_jt)

I
A
@ Orientlltion and Camera V~e.ws
I6J Lights, Cameras <nl Seen~

(tl
.to ~ (f) Base<! >

11 Create rotation.
Move the time bar t o 1 second.

Change to the Right view.


Click in the graphics area to change the focus, then press the down arrow on the keyboard twice. With
the standard settings in SolidWorks. t his will rotate the model 30 degrees about the horizontal axis of
the screen.

Select Orientation and Camera Views in the Motion Manager design tree. then click Add/Update Key
[~+] on t he MotionManager toolbar.

Move the time bar t o 2 seconds.


Press the up arrow on the keyboard twice; this rotates t he model to the back to t he right view. Hold Shift
and press the right arrow key; this rotates the model to the back view. Press the down arrow on the
keyboard twice. This positions the model t o look like it has rot ated about it's Y axis.
Select Orientation and Camera Views in the MotionManager design tree. then click Add/Update Key
[t-+J on the MotionManager toolbar.
Move the t ime bar to 3 seconds and repeat t he arrow combination. then create a key point. Do the same
at 4 seconds. You should now have key points to rotate the 270 degrees.
Note This process appears tedious but once you create a couple of key points. it actually goes very
quickly.
Tip To make it easier to position t he time bar over the key points, zoom in on the timeline by using ~~~
the zoom tools in t he lower right of the timeline.
Animating Appearances and Properties 101

.:. Play the animation.


~. --:s rotation looks better because the model appears to rotat e around its vertical axis rather than t he
~:-e en axis.

A i<:rJ , :J
::serve the reference triad as the animation plays. You will see that Y

--:model is in fact rotating about the Y axis of the assembly.


z J{

3 Copy key points.


: .v that the rotation looks correct, we will copy it three times to get a total of fo ur rotations. We did
-:.: create a key point that woul d return the viewpoint to the starting view as we can just copy the
=::aiting view key point to finish the rotation. Because we need several rotations, we will not create this
2Si: key point yet.

d twice. With 1dow-select the key points from 1 second to 4 seconds.


zontal axis of : :rl+drag the key point from 1 second to 5 seconds. Because all the key points were selected, all are
:::lied.
i/UpdateKey =:;:>eat the copy process twice more to 9 seconds and 13 seconds.
:u should now have key points to 16 seconds. We need one final key point to return the model to the
=-st position of the rotation, so copy the key point from 1 second to 17 seconds.
?W.Hold Shift - Play the animation.
row on the --is rotation looks bett er.
e can now add the appearance changes.
:!/Update Key
3raphics Display Modes
:;en creating or recording an animation, we can use either OpenGL or Rea iView graphics display
. Do the same -::~des.If installed, Photo View 360 can also be used to create photorealistic animations. Photo View 360
::n only be used during the recording portion as it must render each frame individually and is not
f goes very : mamic like OpenGL and Real View.

3 Change graphics dis play mode.


- _rn on ReaiView graphics display by clicking View, Display, ReaiView Graphics from the menu.
sing ~ ~E).
102 Chapter 5

16 Add appearance key points.


Make sure that AutoKey [f] is selected.
Move t he time bar to 2 second. In the ConfigurationManager, double-click the Red display state.

Move the time bar to 6 seconds. In the ConfigurationManager, double-dick the Green display state.

Move the time bar to 10 seconds. In the ConfigurationManager, double-click the Blue display state.
Move the t ime bar to 14 seconds. In the Configuration Manager, double-click t he Yellow display state.

17 Examine the callouts.


Mouse over the key points fo r the Holder part and notice how the callout shows the appearance
assigned at t hat key point.

. 1!; % (f) Hold er_&<! >


dJ Explode
1 t
~ Hokier_5.1> 2_sr:c-
~ % c>Clip_&<l> ~o% e=
It, ~ ( ) Swit<h_&<l . _ " _
~ Holder~l> 6 sec
J=< _,.=I!QI @>=o%
~~ Holder
r <l> !Osee
e>=i:J~=o%
__.!__ ___ _ ___._ .__...,__ _ _ _...,
k_
~~H~lder <1>14se<
~ e>=D- @.=o%
_ _~----._ - r
~

18 Play the animation.


At each complete revolution of the assembly, the appearance changes.

19 Modify the animation.


The appearances are in constant change as the assembly rotates, which is not very appealing. We want
t o add additional key points so that the appearances change between the time the model is viewed in
the right view and when it is viewed in the back view. This will make the appearances change during 90
degrees of rotation and then hold the appearance for 270 degrees of rotation.

We could copy and paste the key points, but because we are dealing with appearances, we have to make
sure we copy all the appearance key points for each view. That might get tedious and it is easy to make
an error. Because we have display states, it is just a matter of moving the time bar to specific times anc
changing to the display state.
Move the time bar to 1 second. Change to the Default display state.

Move the time bar to 5 seconds. Change to the Red display state.

Move the time bar to 9 seconds. Change to the Green display state.
Move the time bar to 13 seconds. Change to the Blue display state.

20 Play the animation.


This looks a little better as the appearances change fast er and hold for most of the revolutions so we
can study the co lors before the appearance changes again.
Animating Appearances and Properties 103

2' Save the assembly.

1y state. Rotation by Reference Triad


1 e method of creating a view rotation about an axis of the assembly worked reasonably well, but there
splay state.
" as a significant number of keystrokes involved as well as a lack of flexi bility getting the assembly
play state. :-iented the way we would like. An alternate method is to use the Reference Triad to change the
.ewpoint. The specific keyst rokes involved were covered in Reference Triad on page 6g.
display state.
Case Study: Reference Triad
- this case st udy, we will use a copy of the previous motion study and create a new view rotation based
Jearance
:., the model starting in the t rimetric view and rotating about the Y axis of the assembly. Play the
:ews_Reference Triad.mp4 file from the Videos folder fo r this lesson to see the intended resu lt.

P..ocedure
Duplicate the motion study.
:: ght -click the Display States motion study tab, created in the previous case study, and click Duplicate.
=ena me this study Reference Triad.

Delete keys.
::.ete all the Orientation and Camera View keys except the one at 0 seconds.

aling. We want First key point.


el is viewed in ':.ve the t ime bar to o seconds.
mge during go
: :ar Disable View Key Creation so t hat we do not have to manually record the key points.

:-.ent the model in the Trimetric view.


e have to make
s easy to make ' -:.ve t he time bar to 2 seconds. Press and hold both Shift and Ctrl.
Shift+ Ctrl + Click~ '
!Cific times and --:n click theY axis arrow of the reference triad. The viewpoint will
-::ate go degrees counterclockwise about the Y axis.

e If t he refe rence triad is not visible, it can be turned on in t he zA,,


:;: .idWorks Options under System Options, Display/Selection,
- :Splay reference triad.

olutions so we
104 Chapter 5

4 Add views.
Move the time bar to 3 seconds and then press and hold both Shift and Ctrt then click the Y axis arrow
of the reference t riad.
Repeat this procedure again at 4 seconds.
Click Disable View Key Creation to avoid adding additional view key points.
Copy the key point from 0 seconds to 1 second. We now have a 1 second in leader and then keys at 1. 2,
3. and 4 seconds rep resenting the four points of the rotation.

5 Copy keys.
Select the keys from 1 to 4 seconds and copy them to 5. 9. and 13 seconds.
Copy the key from 2 seconds to 17 seconds to complete the fi na l rotation.

6 Play.
This animation should look almost the same as the previous case study.
Using the reference triad to rotate t he model, we could have used any initial orientation of the assembly
and quickly created the first rotation about any axis of the assembly. Copying and pasting t he initial four
key points provided a quick method to get a consistent rot ation of the assembly with little work.
5i
7 Save.
Save and close t he assembly.
Animating Appearances and Properties 105

Animating Lights
e Y axis arrow _:ghts can also be controlled in an animation. The position and properties can be controlled with key
.::lints just as appearances, viewpoints, and component position can.
--ere are two things t o keep in mind wit h lights:
The maximum number of lights in a model is nine.
This is a limit in SolidWorks and is not specific to animations.
en keys at 1, 2,
Lights cannot be attached to geometry.
Light position can only be controlled by specifying its position in space either through Cartesian or
spherical coordinates. They cannot be attached to other objects.
Scene and Environment
=::::enes create t he setting around our model. Without a scene. the model would always be displayed with
-"Jthing around it. It could not cast shadows as t here would be nothing for t he shadow to fall upon .
.=ovironments provide a 30 world around our model to provide something to be seen in the reflections
:1 t he mode l and t o provide more realistic lighting.
"' t he assembly
the initial four ',ilen we create animations, t he scene is not controlled by the MotionManager as it is neither listed in
:~e MotionManager design t ree nor are there key points on the timeline. You can create several AVI files
-cle work.
: "' the same animation with different scenery by simply changing the scenery selection and recording
:~e animation again.

:..ock to Model or View


',1 en we use scenery elements or light s. the relationship between t he model and scenery or lighting can
.:e either of two types. Lock to Model or Lock to Scene.
:ur common perception is that when we use the view tools Rotate, Zoom, Pan, or Roll, t he model moves.
- reality, however. the model stays fixed and we move our viewpoint relat ive to it.
_ock to Model kee ps the scenery or lights attached to the model. Imagine a studio with the lights on
::-ipods resting on the floor. The camera (our viewpoint) is held in our hands. To rotate, pan. zoom. or ro ll.
;e move our viewpoint. That is, we move the camera to a new locat ion. When scenes or lights are locked
::J the model, t hey maintain their posit ion with respect to t he model regardless of viewpoint position.
.~len you change your viewpoint. only the camera changes position.

~ck to View keeps the scenery or lights attached to the camera. As you move the camera. the light
eeps its position relative t o the camera and moves with the camera. For scenery this would be
=quivalent to the camera and scenery being attached t o the floor, an d then moving the model.
106 Chapter 5

Lighting
Proper lighting can greatly enhance the quality of the animation. The same principles used by
photographers and videographers work well in SolidWorks and Photo View 360.

Lights are created and positioned in SolidWorks. If Photo View 360 is going to be used to render the
animation, it has a few additional controls to refine the qua lity of the light and shadows. For more
information on Photo View 360, see the book Photorealistic Rendering Using SolidWorks and
Photo View 360 Step-by-Step available through the So lidWorks webstore: http://store.solidworks.com,
or Amazon.com.

Types of Lights
SolidWorks and Photo View 360 use several different types of lights:

Ambient
In the physical world, ambient light illuminates the model evenly from all directions. In a room with
white walls, the level of ambient light is high, because t he light reflects off the walls and other objects.
In SolidWorks, ambient light is a brightness control fo r the entire scene that simulates the effect of
real world ambient light. The ambient light has no effect in Photo View 360 as light from the scene is
actually calculated.
Directional
Directional light comes from a source t hat is infinitely far away from the model. It is a collimated light
source consisting of parallel rays arriving from a single direction. like t he sun. The central ray of a
directional light points directly at the center of the mode l.

Spot
A spot light is a restricted, focused light with a cone-shaped beam that is brightest at its center. A
spot light can be aimed at a specific area of the model. You can adjust the position and distance of
the light source relative to the model. and the cone angle through which the beam spreads.

Point
A point light comes from a very small light source locat ed at a specific coordinate in the model space.
This type of light source emits light in all directions. The effect is like a t iny light bulb floating in space
Lighting appearances
Lighting appearances are used t o make a surface act as a light source. These can simulate LEOs, neon
tubes, backlit LCDs, and area lights.
Environmental lighting
Environmental lighting. also called image-based lighting, is the closest type of lighting to the real
world. It uses high dynamic range images and indirect lighting to light the model and scene. Image-
based lighting is only used in Phot oView 360, and not in OpenG L or ReaiView.
Animating Appearances and Properties 107

Creating Lights
J epending on the scene used, SolidWorks creates two or more lights when you select a scene. Each part
::::1d assembly t emplate has a scene and its associated lights set as a defau lt. These are normally
..;mbient and Directional! and possibly Directional2.
'.'here to Find It
Menu: View, Lights and Camera, Add [Directional/Spot/Point] Light.
Shortcut Menu: Right-click either the Lights and Cameras fo lder or any light in the Lights folder,
Add (Directional/Spot/Point] Light
ote There is only one ambient light. You cannot delete it nor add any more.

Shadows
::1adows are important to t he process of creating realistic animations. They can be used t o do the
=:11lowing:
:s.
Define spatial relationships
Without shadows. the relative position between objects may be difficult t o understand. The soap
bottle in the left image looks like it is sitting on the wood surface. Adding shadows shows that it is
actually floating above the surface.

--
CE

:-
108 Chapter 5

Reveal alternate angles


Shadows can be used to show a side profile to help define the overall shape of an object. The shadows
in this example show both the front and side profile of the bott le.

Add contrast
When the subject and background are of similar tone, a shadow can help to separate the two.
Animating Appearances and Properties 109

Add to the composition of the image


ldows Shadows can be used to break up a background pattern or to help lead the viewer's eye to the subject.

Indicate off-screen space


The shadow in the above picture can also be used t o indicate that there are other objects just out of
).
view. This helps to show that the world is larger than just the image.
:lhotoView 360 supports shadows and has controls for individual shadows.

Lighting Coordinates
Spot and point lights can be positioned using Cartesian or spherical coordinates. Directional lights can
:::nly be positioned using spherical coordinates because they always point at the origin of t he part or
assembly. The origin of the coordinate system is always the model origin. The direction of the axis
depends on whether the scenery is locked to model or locked to view.
Nhen the scenery is locked to the model, the principal directions are relative to the Front reference
:>lane.
'Nhen the scenery is locked to the view. the principal directions are relative to the face of our monitor.
no Chapter 5

Positioning Lights
The position of directional, spot, and point lights can be adjusted either of two ways:

Numerical input
a Dragging the light by its manipulator

Spot Lights
Spot lights are probably the most useful lights available to add realism to the rendering. They most
closely represent the properties of the lights used by professional photographers in a studio.
Spot lights are restricted, focused lights with a cone-shape beam that is brightest at the center. Spot
lights can be aimed at a specific area of the model. The position of the spot light can also be adjusted
relative to the model. Cone angle and edge properties can be adjusted to add more realism.

Where to Find It
Menu: View, Lights and Camera, Add Spot Light
Shortcut Menu: Right-click either the Lights and Cameras folder or any light in the Lights folder,
Add Spot Light

Adjusting the Light Positions


The spot light position, target, and cone angle can all be adjusted by dragging the manipulators. When
the manipulators are used, the position information is updated in the PropertyManager.
For consistency, the lighting values will be given as their numerical values. You should practice adjusting
the lights by numeric input and dragging the lights to gain practice at both.

Lights in Animations
Most properties of lights can be animated in the same way as anything else in a point-to-point
an imation. That is, set the time, then edit the light to set the properties as the light should appear at
that time. There is also a shortcut menu to turn the light on or off at any point in time. Turning a light or
or off will change its brightness from or to 0, respectively.

Photo View 360 uses a separate set of controls for lights as the primary method of lighting is image
based instead of discrete lights.

Keep Light
Scenes in SolidWorks have lights associated with them. You have to be careful and recognize that whe-
changing scenes, SolidWorks may try to delete some of the lights you have added to your an imation. T:
prevent this, for any light you wish to animate, go to the light properties and select Keep light when
scene changes.
Animating Appearances and Properties 111

Case Study: Lighting


-this case study we will add lights and scenery to our animation.
"
r"
~~
tey most
io. ~~ .-- ~
..
~ "I
'dft ~-
. )\

!nter. Spot
e adjusted
Storyboard
',e want to start with the model centered on a black -- --
::~e en.

- -:e lights will fade up, then change position and fade to
Lights
-- --
;hts fo lder, :.ack. A spot light will then turn on and pan along the
-odel. Play the video Lights.mp4 fo und in the Videos
- -
:ors. When
=:tder.

S+ep Ti~e P esc...-i p+i o"'


-- -
r-' -.
~ .~
r, f.f."
-
-
--
e adjusting
2
0- I

1 -3
s+...h/isL..i"'J sL..o+, "'o li:jL..+
Pirec.+io"'a./ /i:jL..+ ~...de i"'
-- ~~ -...
-..::::::....... ' --
" ' '"- . J.

int
3 3-5 Pi rec.+io"'"'/ /i:jL..+ c.L....."'de
posi+io"' -
- t~\Jt'"'
--
3ppear at
g a light on
4
5
5-7
8
Pi..-ec.+io"'.._/ /i:jL..+ ~...de ov+
Tv..-"' o"' spo+ li:jL..+ --
is image
G 8- 12 P "'"' spo+ /i:jL..+ .,./o"'d ~od e / ..
7 12 Spo+ li:jL..+ o~~

8 12 - 13 "'d le...de..-, 1'\0 c.L.. ..."'des


that when
Procedure
mation. To
Begin setup.
;h t when
Jpen the assembly Lights from the Lights folder. This is the same assembly that we have been working
Nith earlier in this chapt er.

::: Turn on ReaiView.


112 Chapter 5

3 Examine lights.
Examine the Lights folder in the DisplayManager. There are just three lights. Ambient, Dir ectionall,
and Directional2.
Note If you have Photo View 360 turned on. each directional light will have two icons. one for its status
in SolidWorks and the other for its status in Photo View 360. If PhotoView 360 is not turned on. there
will be on ly one status icon next to each light as shown at right

4 Create a motion study.


Create a new mot ion study. Name it Lights.
Select Animation for the Type of Study.

5 Change scenery.
Select the Appearance, Scenes and Decals tab on t he Task Pane.
Expand the Scenes folde r and select Studio Scenes.
In the bottom pane. double-click the scene Reflective Floor Black.

6 Check the lights.


Examine the DisplayManager and the MotionManager design tree. When we
changed the scene, the number of lights changed. There should now be t he ~ Scene (Reflective Floor Blade)

Ambient light plus three directional lights. With PhotoView 360 added in, "Oo tal
Lights
: Seen~ Dlumination
there is also an icon for Scene Illumination. <:( Ambient
9' ~ DirectionaB
9' (j::J Oirectionat2
9' r$J Oirectional4
~Camera
J..
Walk-through

7 Turn Lights off. 8 ~ Lig hts (DI!fau~)


.@ Orientati on and Camera Views
Move the time bar to 0 seconds. E' {;a) Lights, Cameras and Scene
)01; Scene lllumination

Expand the Lights, Cameras and Scene folder in the MotionManager <:(Ambient
0 ~ Dtrectlonall
design tree. 0 r$' Dtrtct1on~12
Right-click each of the lights and click Off in SolidWorks from the menu.

8 Turn lights on.


Move the time bar to 4 seconds.
Select the two directional lights. then right-dick and click On in SolidWorks from the menu.
Animating Appearances and Properties 113

Play the animation.


lctional l , - -:e default interpolation mode is linear, so both lights should smooth ly increase in intensity between
::nd 4 seconds.
r its status - te If we wanted the lights to snap on at 3 seconds, we cou ld just change the interpolat ion mode t o
l on, t here Snap.

: Hold the lights constant.


~=fore we change the light positions, we want to hold them in position for a second. Copy the key points
=:::.- the two lights from 4 seconds to 5 seconds.

Move the lights.


'::~ve
the time bar to 9 seconds.
::: ght-click the first directional light and ~
: .ick Properties. This will open t he [j Keep lght when scene
dlanges
:>opertyManager for the light and also
: -::Jw the manipulator that can be used
-:::drag the light to a new position. 0
(jig j . -
_ock to model should already be !lrigltness:

:tJve Floor Black) :elected. If not, select it. 0.7


j
lnlnation
:: ~ange the light position:
0.4
ona13 )-
onat2 Longitude: -lSOdeg
onal4
Latitude: 6Sdeg Ughl..!!2!ition ~~
; ( 7Locktomodel )
Brightness: 0.7.
) L009tude:

::.:ck OK. - l SOdeg .:


j - - r
mer-a VieNS
Q Latitude:
: Edit the second light.
d Scene
>on
'.'ith the time bar still at 8 seconds, edit L 65deg
.)
:-e properties of the other directional
sht.
:::nange the properties:
Longitude: -lOOdeg
Latitude: -2Sdeg
Brightness: 1.0 .
3 Play the animation .
.'{e can see the movement of the light t hrough the reflections from t he different surfaces.
114 Chapter 5

14 Turn off the lights.


Move t he time bar to 11 seconds. Right-click each light and click Off.

15 Copy key points.


Copy the two lighting key points from 9 seconds to 10 seconds to hold the lights in position for one
second before beginning to dim.
16 Examine the callouts.
The call outs for lights will show the major properties. if the
light is on or off, and the color of the light. '-4--~~~-~------"

Specularity
17 Add a spot light. Brightness
Right-click the Lights, Cameras and Scene folder in the ' - - - - - Ambient
MotionManager design tree and click Add Spot Light.
Click OK to accept the default position and values.

18 Turn the spot light off.


With the time bar at 0 seconds. right-click Spotl in t he MotionManager design tree and click Off.

19 Move to first position.


Move the time bar to 13 seconds.
' Car~sian
Turn the spot light On. [l) Lod<tD model

Right-click Spotl in the MotionManager design


tree and click Properties.
Select Spherical fo r Co-ordinate System and
select Lock to model. ' )-.

Position the light as shown. This places light


200mm from the model, perpendicular to the
axis of the model (Longitude godeg) and on t he /v Omm :
1111 I I 4 I I I I i j ; JIJ 't11f'

Top plane (Latitude odeg). /zrotm :


uuq f)jji]Jii! l iJ Hn w

The target point is roughly on the surface of the


model X = 20mm, at the vertical midpoint
Y = Omm. and near the rear of the model
Z = 60mm. Use the triad in the lower left corner of the screen to visualize the different directions.

Set the Cone Angle to Sdeg.

Click OK.
Animating Appearances and Properties 115

:J Turn the spot light off.


: npy the key point that we just created to 13 seconds. Move the time bar t o 12 seconds, right-click
Spotl in the Motion Manager design tree and click Off. The resu lt is t hat at 12 seconds the spot light is
or one ::.med properly and has all the same properties as at 13 seconds, except that it is turned off.

: Move to second position. ~~osition ~

: ave the time bar to 16 seconds. Co-<>rdinate System:

~
" Spherical

J . :=::lit the properties of the spot light to those


Cartesian

~.J] Lod tn model


s1own. The only difference will be that the
)pecularit y
k ightness :::rget point has moved to Z = -somm, which
\mbient :: 'TlS the spot light near the front of the model. ~

:: Play the animation. Odeg


r j
o:

.:e do not get what we expected from 11 to 16 ~0 200mm >


Ill I It II II j I I 11 1! lt'tl., ...
seconds. Instead of a beam of light traveling
:;,ong the model, it just looks like constant /x 20mm >:
X '" " I II II I I I ll_lj lj1#P"'
. Off. .umination. / _p
y Omm.
" " 1 I ii I I I I I i\ I j) '10'11~

/ , -somm

~
:3 Turn off RealView. 111 111 I I I I I 11 I II IJr"ll'

1::1~

~
-:.~rn off RealView and play the animation. 1 0

I
"!:Jw we get what we expected.

rlealView Lighting
l = --=:ealView only uses t he first three lights applied to the model and treats them all as directional lights
-<=gardless of their actual type. Because of t his, the second section of the animation looks different in
-1-' T =-I
,=-,
:::;eaiView as compared to OpenGL.
~
!IIJl1J:a1ij - ,e three images be low were captured from the same frame of the animation. In OpenGL and
:::;hotoView 360, we see just the light from t he spot light. In RealView, the spot light looks like a
IW
'~="' :::rectionallight.
~ ...
F:-
:-rrrffj;ji'J
1:

t ions.
116 Chapter 5

24 Save and close the assembly.

Lighting Properties That Can Be Animated


Not all properties are available for all light types. If t he property is available, then it can be controlled
in an animation.
On/Off
Each light can be turned on or off at different times in the animation. There are separate controls for
OpenG L/Rea lView and PhotoView 360.
Light position
Light positions can be changed by specifying locations at specific times.

Light target
The aim point of a spot light can be changed with time.
Light color
Light color can be edited at any point along the timeline.

Brightness
The bright ness controls can be changed individually for Phot oView 360 and OpenGL/ReaiView to
allow lights to get brighter or dimmer with time.
Specularity
Specularity only affects lights used in SolidWorks for OpenGL and RealView. In Photo View 360,
specularity is a property of appearances and not lights.
Cone angle
The cone angle of a spot light can be changed with time in OpenGL and PhotoView 360. It cannot be
changed in ReaiView as all lights are considered directional in Rea lView regardless of their actual
type.
f
Shadows
Shadow controls used for Photo View 360 can be adjusted during the animation and the shadow car.
be t urned on or off. Note however that there is no interpolation between on and off, so you either
have shadows or you do not.
a Fog
The fog distance can be changed with time to allow the fog to ext end further from the light or recede
into it. Fog itself can be turned on or off during the animation, but like shadows, there is no
interpolation between on and off.
Animating Appearances and Properties 117

Rendered Animations
:::lhotoView 360 provides photorealistic renderings of animations. Just like with SolidWorks OpenGL or
~ealView rendering, Photo View 360 can render an animation either as an AVI file or a series of image
=ties. To render a photorealistic animation, PhotoView 360 must be available and turned on.
tntrolled
_ust like with OpenGL and RealView, the AVI is recorded frame by frame, based on the frame rate
:'los en. However, each frame must be individually rendered before it can be saved. Therefore. if you had
:: 20-second animation that was going to be recorded 20 frames per second, that would be 401 frames.
trois for
=you did a test render of a single frame and it took three minutes to render, it would take about 1,203
inutes or a little more than 20 hours to render the entire animation. Knowing this, it is very important
::J have everything set correctly before the final recording.

-:Jiearn more about PhotoView 360, see the book Photorealistic Rendering Using SolidWorks and
:::>,i oto View 360 Step-by-Step ava ilable from the SolidWorks webstore: http://store.solidworks.com, or
~azon.com.

Case Study: Rendering an Animation


-. this case study, we will take an assembly that
::.1eady has an animat ion set up and create a
-endered animation using Photo View 360.
?w to
-:;iay the file PV Render TS.avi to see the final
-esult.

60,

Procedure
1not be Start PhotoView 360.
ctual Start Photo View 360 using Tools, Add-ins, PhotoView 360.

Open the assembly.


: ;3en the assembly PV Render found in the Chapter 5\Case Study\ PV Render folder.
ow can
ither

recede
118 Chapter 5

3 Open DisplayManager.
Click the DisplayManager Tab ~ at the top of the FeatureManager
design tree.
Click View Appearances ~ and then select Hierarchy for the sort order.
We can see that appearances have been attached to the model.
'e.
9 ~ Com ponents
3
blue high gloss plastic
. ~ Pu ll Ring 12@PW Render
~ Pull Ringl-l @PW Render
~ Ma in Body l -l@PW Render
r? ~ yellow high gloss plastic
~ Nozzlel-2@PW Render
~ Nozzle l -l@PW Render
8 yellow high gloss plastic<2>
~End Ca() l 2il!l PW Render
~ End Cap 1-l C PW Ren der
S . . shiny resin green
~ Finger Gnp l-lPW Render
'?ti2 Features
R ~ red high gloss plastic
ti2
Boss Extrudel
~~ CirPatternl
8 ~Part
r- 1it m atte rubber
~ Band2' PW Render
p 4f m atte rubber<2>
~ Band'PW Ren der
~ V yellow high gloss plastic<3>
~ Arrowl

Click View Scene, Lights, and Cameras fjl; and you can see the ~ @ ~
scene and lights that are applied to the model. !===:~~~~~-~ ~-m-~
- ~~~
~ esScene (Backdrop - Grey with Overhead Light)
~ Background (Environment)
@ Environment (Backd rop Wrth Overhead Spotlight;.
~ G;] l ights
~ ~ Scene lltumination
' , <v Am bient
q- o$J Directiona ll
q- o$J Directionall
~ Cam era
J... Walk-through

4 Examine the animation.


Select the Completed Motion Study tab.
Play the animation. The lower pull ring is pulled back slowly and then released where it moves fo rwarc
rapidly. Just before t he pull ring ends its travel, the arrow starts to move and then t ravels to the right
side of the screen. Notice also that the elastic band lengthens as t he pull ring moves. The method to
create this action will be covered in Chapter 8.
Animating Appearances and Properties 119

~
?hotoView 360 Check
=:e.core creating a rendered animation, it is a good idea to make sure the PhotoView 360 settings are
:::-rect. You should create several test renderings to see how the rendered frames will look at different
: : ints along the time line. The number of test renderings is very subjective, but you want to make sure
:lor ~ting is correct as parts move and that there is not a dark frame as the viewpo int and lights are not
~
:::posite each other at some point creating dark shadows.
s>der

--e test renderings also provide an estimate of how long it will take to render the entire animation since
:.-e test renders give you the time to render a single frame and you know how many frames will be in
b-
~ ::-e animation based on total length and frame rate.
0..

onder
Run test renders.
'ove the time bar to 3 s econds and render the image. This is the point where the pull ring is fully
:xtended. Also do a test render of the final frame of the animation. Each of these frames should look
:::s shown below.

<3>

~
.:;
bt)

!Spotlight)

forward
1e right
1od to
120 Chapter 5

6 Save the animation to file. lt!l Save Animation to File


Click Save Animation !!I] and save the
Save il. PW Render
animation using the PhotoView as the Renderer
Name Date modified T)
and 3 Frames per second. Use a Custom aspect --" Rendered Images 6/22/20114:58 PM Fi
ratio of 16:9.

We are using t hree f rames per second only to


speed up the process. You can certainly use a
"'
higher rate, but it will take longer to create the Ale name: PW Render.avi Save j
rendered animation. Save as type: ~soft AVI filer.avi) y I I
Schedule

Click Save.
Renderer: u~~;:,:t~
oVIe:.::.w===--- y.!J;J] I ~ I
~::::J
Image Sizo and Aspect Ratio Frame Information

0 12B(J ID no Frames per second ~


PJ Axed aspect ratiO I~ Entire animation

Us.. camera a<;>e<t ratio r.-nerange


@ OJstDm aspect ratio ("'idth : heqlt) 7.05 to 7
16 :9

Select t he Microsoft Video 1 CODEC. Video Compression

Click OK. Compressor: I OK

lt.:::Mcro=ofl
:::..::'.ld=eo=-,:..._--~
yI 1 Cancel
Compression Quality: 85
LJ >
I ConfigUre... I
frames
l _Ab_o~t_._
L.
.. ..JI

7 Check PhotoView progress. PhotoView Pf09ress


The progr ess window will keep you info rmed about wher e
PhotoView rendering in progress;
you are in the process by telling you which frame is being 0 Show preview and final render wr.dows
(this option takes effect on the next frame)
rendered, plus the elapsed and estimated time remaining.
Render Status

You have th e option to show the preview and fi nal render Rendering: Completed Motion Sb.Jdy

Frame: 23 of 106
windows during th e rendering process. This is an ind ividual
Tme elapso.d : 10:16
choice. If you are cont inuing to work on other things while
Estimated lime n:rnaoq: 38:17
the animation is being rendered, you probably do not want
t he windows taking over your screen. If you are rendering on
a machine that is only doing t he render task, having the
windows v isible can be usef ul t o see if problems occur.
Animating Appearances and Properties 121

ote If you choose a different setup, you may receive the following message:
;]~ ~.2e Microsoft Video l compressor has been known to produce corrupt AVIs at the image
T) ze and keyframe rate you have chosen, especially for motion studies that contain periods
PM Fi _: inactivity.
-:::save t ime, the completed animation is provided as PV Render MS.avi in the Videos fo lder.

Play the animation.


-~e animation is now much better as we have
iave J
~:-:ad ows to give us better spacial relationships
...oole I
~Wx:e~ l
:::1d more realistic appearances for the individual
::=ils.
~
- -;e background, however, does not look correct.
~ecause we did test renders of individual
- cmes and we know that the Photo View 360
~ettings are correct, these problems must be a
-;;suit of the CODEC that we used. In this case. the Microsoft Video 1 CO DEC does not support a
;:c..fficient color range to get a smooth gradient background.

31oosing A CODEC
__st as we did a test render of selected points on the time!ine to make sure PhotoView 360 was set
::::irectly, we also need to record a test animation to determine if a CODEC will work correctly with our
::..,imation. We do not want to spend many hours waiting for a rendered animation to finish, only to find
: -at there was a problem with the CODE C. The easiest way to test the CODEC is to create a rendered
~-:imation of just a few frames. There are two ways to create just a few frames:

Use a low frame rate Frame Information

Frames per second 25


Frame rates can be set to values less than one. So if you set a fra me rate to 0.25,
o~ Entre animation
one frame will be captured every 4 seconds. With this option, you will get sample
r. ' Tlrne rlM'lge
frames throughout the animation. 0 tx> 7

- Record a very small time slice


Frame Information
By only recording a fraction of a second. you will get just a few frames (based on
Frames per second 20
the frame rate). With this option. you will get successive frames which will tell you O Enli<eriN!tion
if you have enough key frames. (!" Tme r.Mlge

tx> 6.2
122 Chapter 5

Another approach is not to use a CODEC and record the animation uncompressed. The advantage to this
is that you should get a very clean animation. However, the file will be very large. For this animation, t he
uncompressed file at 20 frames per second was 371 MB as compared to about 25 MB for Microsoft
Video 1. The large file size can also cause a playback problem depending on the capabilities of the
computer used to play the finished animation. Uncompressed video files sometimes play back unevenly
if the computer cannot process the information fast enough. We will talk about uncompressed video
again in Chapter 15.

9 Save the animation to file.


Click Save Animation iiJ and save the animation using PhotoView as the Renderer and 3 Frames per
second. Use a Custom aspect ratio of 16:9.
lf you are using the 32-bit version of SolidWorks, select t he Cinepak Codec by Radius for the
Compressor.
This animation has been recorded as PV Render CP.avi at 20 frames per second and saved in the
Videos fo lder, just to save time.

10 Play the animation.


The animation is now much better as the background
is now rendered correctly.
11 Repeat.
Record the animation one more time using the
TechSmith Screen Capture CODEC and compare the
three videos.
This animation has also been recorded as
PV Render TS.avi at 20 frames per second and saved in the Videos folder, just to save time. Of t he
three. the TechSmith Screen Capture CODEC gives the best results, but it also has a slightly larger file
size.

Saving a Series of Images


Rather than saving an animation as a video (AVI) file. you can break it down to individual images using
the Series of Windows bitmaps (*.BMP) or Truevision Targas (*.TGA) options. There are several reasons
why a series of images may be desira ble:
You may need a series of still images for a static disp lay. Having the images created from the
animation insures the images are evenly spaced in time and can be done with very little add itional
work.
Animating Appearances and Properties 123

~to this The most common use of image output is to use the images to create a video file. While this may
:ion. the appear counterintuitive at first because we still want a video file, saving the individual frames as
>soft separate image files provides flexibility and better quality control. It also requires less computer
the memory as each image comes out of memory once saved. We will discuss the use of rendered image
nevenly output in more detail in Chapter 15.
video
: Save images. ~ Save Animafion to File ~
::: :ck Save Animation ~ and use Series of
Save in' +' PW Render @ ~' 8
.'lindows Bitmaps (*.bmp) as the type.
~ Rendered Images
1es per _se the default name PV Render.bmp for t he
- 2 name.

_se the same Frame Information as used in AVI


:;eation, 3 Frames per second and
=ntire animation.
Rle name. PW Render bmp ~
1 the
ISeries of Windows Bitmaps('bmp) :] ~
Renderer: [~hotoV"M!W J J I Dlneel
~
lrMge Size ond Aspect Ratio Frome InfOrmation

a =
[J] Fixed aSPeCt ratio
ID no Frames per second

@' Enti'e aMI<!lion


3

Use camera aspect rabo r rrner~

"<Custom OSl)eCI ratio {VIidth : heq;lt) 6 to 6.2


l!!m

~ Select image names.


C ck Save.
. Of the
- l e message "The images will be saved with the names PV Render-OOOO.bmp, PV Render-
rger file
JOOl.bmp, and so on:' appears.

::: ick OK.


~susing
reasons

1e
itional
124 Chapter 5

14 View resulting images.


The images are snapped based on t he frame information that was set. With three f rames per second
and a seven-second animation, there should be 22 images (3 X 7 +l)

PV PV PV PV PV PV
Rend er-OOOO.bm Render-OOOl.bm Render-0002.bm Render-D003.bm Render-0004.bm Render-OOOS.bm
p p p p p p

PV PV PV PV PV PV
Render-0006. bm Render-0007 .bm Render-0008 .bm Render-0009.bm Render-OOlO.bm Render-OOll.bm
p p p p p p

PV PV PV PV PV PV
Render-0012.bm Render-0013.bm Render-0014.bm Render-0015.bm Render-0016.bm Render-0017.bm
p p p p p p

PV PV PV PV
Render-0018.bm Render-0019.bm Render-0020.bm Render-0021.bm
p p p p

Note The resulting images can be combined into an "animation" using image animation softwar e.

15 Save and close all files.


Free Component Motion

Upon successful completion of this chapter,


:m you will be able to:
Animate the movement and rotation of components.
Use Move Component and Move with Triad to position
;:n
components.
Understand loca l and globa l mates.
Reverse the direction of a path.

:rn
126 Chapter 6

Overview
So far, we have learned that there are three things that change in an animation: component position,
properties, and viewpoint. In the previous chapters, we learned the basics of each of these three items
In this and t he following chapters, we will expand the methods to move components, views, and
appearances, starting with free component motion.

Topics
The topics covered in this chapter include:
Motion study properties
The three types of motion studies have different propert ies that can be adjusted.
Move with Triad
The triad option can be used to move or rotate free components.
Reverse Path
A series of key points in a path can be reversed manually.

Editing a key point


Key points can be manually adjusted.

How Are Animations Calculated?


As our animations become more complex, it is important to understand how SolidWorks ca lcu lates
animations. It is also important to understand that Animation motion studies are calculated different!'
from the two physics-based animations, Basic Motion and Motion Analysis. The methods used to
calculate physics-based motion studies will be discussed in Chapter 9.

Master Animator/Assistant Animator


In the days of hand-drawn animations, there were two types of animators, the Master (or Key) Animate-
and the Assistant Animators. The master animator drew all the key frames or key points. These were
the specific points and timing of the animation action that conveyed the story. Drawing all the "tweer
or "inbetween" frames was left to the assist ant animators. This is essentially the same workflow we usE
to create our animations. We, as the master animators, tell SolidWorks where components are to be a:
:
specific times. So lidWorks then does the work of the assist ant animators to determine all the
inbetween points based on the frame rate and motion drivers.

How Are the "lnbetween" Points Calculated?


In Animation motion studies, all driving parts have known start points, end points, and a specific amour~
of time to get between the two. As parts do not interact by contact and the physical properties do no:
matter, the solver just has to divide up the distance based on the number of frames between start an:
end.
Free Component Motion 127

n Animation motion studies, the frame rate is the controlling parameter, so given the dist ance, time and
tion, -cumber of frames. it is a simple matter of determining the position of each driving component at each
items. !:rame.

::lne of the major diferentiators between


cnimations in SolidWorks and exporting the
1odel to another type of animation program
.s that in SolidWorks. mates are solved at
each frame. The significance of this is that
01ith a complicated kinematic system, we
:auld add a single driving motion to one
: omponent and have hundreds of other
: omponents move as a result. lf you export
~he model to an animation program. the
action of the mates must be recreated in
::hat program manually, which could take a
significant amount of work.
=>lay the file Radial Engine.mp4 from the Videos folder. Only a single motion driver, a constant speed
-otary motor. was used to create this animation. There are 331 components and 136 mates that are
3t es
evaluated at each frame.
:erently
to The Solution Process
-he process of calculating and recording an animation is very simp le.
r. Record the image at 0 seconds.
nimator 2. Move the driving components ahead one frame.
=were 3. Rebuild the model (mates and then in-context features are solved}.
"tween" 4. Record the image.
1we use 5. lf at t he end of the animation, stop; if not, go back to step 2.
to be at
There are two important things to recognize about this process. First is that components take the
shortest route between their key point positions. Second is the importance of step 3. This step is
significant because it allows in-context features to be solved at every frame. We will explore this in
Chapter 8. We will also see later t hat in physics-based animations, the model is not rebuilt at each frame.
amount so in-context features do not rebuild and update.
s do not
tart and
128 Chapter 6

Free Component Motion


Free component motion is the motion of components that do not have mates {or the mates are
suppressed). Generally it is applied where dragging and explode mot ion are insufficient to describe the
path. There are two basic tools available: Move/Rotate Component and Move With Triad.
When key points are not created by some other means. such as t he Animation Wizard, the basic process
in creating an animation is this:
1. Move the t imeline to a specific time.
2. Move t he specific component or components to the desired location for that time.
3. Add a key point.
Note This is exactly the same procedure as changing viewpoints or appearances.

Keys
Creating and editing key points are the primary controls over component animation. Keys can be createc
automatically or manually. They can have bot h their position and time edited.
Auto key
When you select Autokey ~. the MotionManager places key points aut omat ically based on your actions
wit h the model. With Autokey selected, any action, such as changing the posit ion of a model or its
appearance, will create a new key at the position of the timeline.

Where to Find It
MotionManager Toolbar: Select Autokey ~

Place Key
Place Key is used t o manually add a key for t he selected component at the current location of t he
time bar.

Where to Find It
MotionManager Toolbar: Click Place Key ~

Replace Key
Replace Key is used to change the properties of an existing key.

Where to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Right-click an existing key, Replace Key
MotionManager Toolbar: Select a component in the MotionManager design tree, Replace Key ~

Note The same toolbar icon ~ is used to add, replace, and updat e keys.
Free Component Motion 129

Motion Study Properties


; are All three of the motion study types used in the MotionManager have their own set of properties or
lescribe the 8ptions. The more complex the motion study type, the more properties available. Because we have only
:,een working in the Animation motion study, we will look only at those properties now.
rsic process Animation Properties ~J5l~ F~ l
-;-here is only one opt ion or property when using the Animation motion study ,.,~m.lli ~~~

~pe, Frames per second. This valu e, multiplied by the length of the animation, 1 )(
specifies the total number of frames that are captured. This value does not Animation ~

f rames per second:


affect the playback speed.
r20 ~
::we set the Frames per second to 10, then when we calcu late an animation, t he II ""illlwtl!!' l'llltiP"~
1

:Josition of each component will be calculated every 0.1 seconds. This setting is
1dependent of the frames per second when recording the animation to an AVI file.
1 be created
':here to Find It
MotionManager Toolbar: Click Motion Study Properties .lj

M ove and Rotate Component


our actions
- he Move Component and Rotate Component
l or it s
:~:JO ls can be used to freely move or rotate
: omponent s in space as long as t hey are not
: onstrained by a mate.
Move Component
Use Move Component [@) with the options
of the Free Drag, Along Assembly XYZ, Along
Entity, By Delta XYZ, and To XYZ Position
to refine the movement

Rotate Component
Use Rotate Component (@] with the options
Free Drag, About Entity, and By Delta XYZ to refine the rotation.
=::~r more information on Move Component and Rotate Component, refer to the SolidWorks Essentials
::-aining manuaL
Key ~
130 Chapter 6

Triad
The Triad is a tool that allows components to be moved along or
rotated about visible X, Y. and Z axes or within the three ort hogonal
planes XY. YZ, ZX. The symbol contains three arms (arrows), t hree
wings {plane between arms). three rings. and a single center sphere.

Where to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Right-click a component in either the
Feature Manager design tree, t he MotionManager design tree, or
the graphics area. Move with Triad.

Triad Move and Rotate


For axial movement, drag the arm indicating the direction you want to move {X, Y, or Z). You can also
drag the wing to move in that plane (XY, YZ, or XZ).
For axial rotation, either left- or right-drag the ring indicating t he axis you want to rot ate about {X, Y. o;-
Z).

Drag Rulers
When you drag an axis or ring. drag rulers appear
and can be used to accurately position the
component.
For more precise movements, right-dick on the
center sphere and select one of the translation or
rotation boxes.

Translate XYZ
Use the Show Translate XYZ Box to move a component to a specific position in space,
using the assembly Origin as the zero position. Click in the box, set t he value, and
press OK.
Translate Delta XYZ
Use the Show Translate Delta XYZ Box t o move a component incrementally from its
current location in the X, Y. or Z directions of t he triad. Click in the box, set t he value, and
press OK.
Triad Rotate
Use t he Show Rotate Delta XYZ Box to rotate a component incrementally about t he X. Y,
or Z axes of the triad. Click in the box. set the va lue. and press OK.
Free Component Motion 131

: :e The rotation angle is based on right-hand rule to determine the


....
:ouu-
~. :.-ection of positive rotation. Using your right hand, point your th umb in t he
:Jsitive direction of the axis. Curl your fingers to indicate a positive direction
: = rotation.
::e -
a~e

.a;.e J

~eorienting the Triad


- -;e triad axes are copied from the assembly coordinate
5 stem but they can be changed to localized axes. Right-click
.so -~e center sphere, select Move to Selection, and drop it on
-odel edge or face to orient it to that geometry. You can also
_5e Align t o, Align with Component Origin, or Align with
{. c-
~sem bly Origin to change the position and orientation of the
- :ad.

-I
II

) Mates
:ehave seen in previous examples that mates are solved in motion studies. To create free motion, the
- Jtion must adhere to any mate on the component. To make a component move in a direction that the
-ates will not allow, the constraining mates must be suppressed.

~
--- Global Mates
:;sn- ', 1en the Model tab is selected, any mate that is added to the assembly is listed in the FeatureManager
:esign tree and is considered to be a global mate. Global mat es will appear in all studies.
,'.'hen we creat e a motion study, the assembly mates are repeated in the Motion Manager design t ree as
:cal mates .
5T'"
eDT
~ ~o cal
Mates
=a motion study tab is selected. any mate added is a local mate and only applies to that study.

=a motion study tab is selected when a mate is suppressed, that mate is only suppressed in that motion
~ 5tudy. In effect, each motion study can have its own set of mates. just like configurations.
~;:I;:;:
iC.i<l
132 Chapter 6

Case Study: Free Component Motion


This project will use an existing assembly to animate a bolt and nut being moved. rotated and "screwed"
into place. Animating the motion of a threaded component. such as a bolt or nut, occurs in many videos
so we will cover several different methods to achieve this motion.

Storyboard
This sequence involves creating an animation D D
by moving and rotating a component to
D 0
si mulate a nut being turned and removed
followed by the bolt. Play the video Free Free CJ D
Motion
Motion.avi found in the Videos folder to see D D
the intended motion.
D D
Sfep Ti~e Pesc,-ip fi o..-.
D D
0- I Es+~hlisf...i"'d sf...o+
D D
2 1- 2 Ro+~+e vieiN" fo see ff...e ..-.vf. D D
.3 2-5 Re~ove ..-.vf. Nvf ,-o+~+es
D D
IN"f...e ..-. ff...,-e~ds e'23"'ded ~"'d
s+ops ,-o+~+ i"'d w/..,e"' 0~~ hoi+. D D
i-f 4-5 Ro+~+e vieiN" fo see ff...e hoff. D D
5 4- 6 Re~ove +f...e hoff. D D
6 6 - 7 Ro+~+e +f...e hoff fo vertic~/. D D
7 7 - 8 M ove hoff vertic~/. D CJ
8 8 - 9 P~vse D D
9 9- 15 Reverse sfeps 2 ff...,-v 7. D D
10 15- 16 "'d fe~de,-

Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the assembly Free Motion from the Case Study\Free Motion folder.
There are two predefined views, Bolt and Nut, that will be used during the animation.
Free Component Motion 133

Create a motion study.


;crewed" ~ight-click the Motion Study l tab and select Create New Motion Study.
'Yvideos ~ight-click the new tab and click Rename. Type Bolt and Nut for the new name.

3 Disable view creation.


~ight-clickOrientation and Camera Views in the MotionManager design tree. Make sure that
CJ
Disable View Key Creation is selected and also select Disable Playback of View Keys .
, CJ
;.,s we have seen in previous chapters, with these two options selected, we can change our viewpoint as
CJ 1eeded to help us select components without either creating or playing back the views. Once we have
CJ .:he component motion set correctly, then we can create the views we desire.

CJ 4 Check the mates.


_ , CJ ::xamine both the FeatureManager design tree and MotionManager design tree. There are two fo lders
Jnder Mates, one for the mates associated with the Bolt and Nut, and one for all the other mates.
CJ ::xpand the Bolt and Nut folder so you can see the individual mates.

CJ ,f you try to move either the Bolt or the Nut, t hey can only rot ate, but all other degrees of freedom are
-emoved.
CJ
,n the FeatureManager design tree, suppress one of the four mates in the Bolt and Nut folder. Notice
that it also suppresses in the MotionManager design tree.
' CJ
CJ
Click the tab for Motion Study l. The mate is also suppressed in this motion study.
CJ
Jnsuppress the mat e.
CJ
5 Suppress local mates.
CJ Change back to the mot ion study Bolt and Nut. In the MotionManager design t ree. suppress the fou r
CJ mates in the Bolt and Nut folder. Notice that t hey are suppressed in both the MotionManager design
~ree and also in the FeatureManager design tree.
CJ
Click the tab for Motion Study l. The four mates are not suppressed in t his motion study, nor the
i=eatureManager design tree.
Nhen mates are suppressed, with a motion study selected, the mates are only suppressed in that
-notion study.
134 Chapter 6

6 Add a distance mate.


Select the Model tab.
Add a Distance mate between the two surfaces shown. Use
the default distance.
Select each motion study t ab and notice t hat this mate has
been added to both studies because it is a global mate.

7 Delete the distance mate.


With the Bolt and Nut motion study active, delete the
Distance mate.

The mate has been removed from both the FeatureManager


design tree and the MotionManager design tree.
Select the Motion Study 1 tab. The distance mate is still
listed in both t he Feat ureManager design tree and t he MotionManager design tree. When we deleted
t he mate with a motion study active, the mate is only deleted from that study and no others because it
is a local mate.
Select the Model tab. Delete the distance mate.
Examine t he motion studies and note that the distance mat e has been removed from all st udies because
it was a global mat e.
8 Change view.
Change to the Bolt view by pressing the Spacebar and then double-clicking the view Bolt.

9 Add a key point.


Make sure that Autokey (] is selected in the Motion Manager toolbar.
We are going to set up the motion of the bolt first. We need it to keep its position during the t ime t he
nut will be unscrewed and removed. This will require a key point that is a duplicate of the key point at
o seconds.
Set the t ime bar to 7 seconds.
In the Motion Manager design tree, select the short bolt. Click Add/Update Key ~ on the
MotionManager toolbar.
Because the short bolt is in the same position as at 0 seconds, t his key effective ly holds t he bo lt in
position.
Free Component Motion 135

- Move.
Set the time bar to 9 seconds.
:::::ght-click the short bolt component and select Move with
-;;tad.

: ~ag the blue axis and use the drag ruler to move the Bolt
=-:lOUt SOmm.

. .,..0

' 47. - ...


..,.,. - 4'10 ~.I' . ...#

Rotate.
ow t hat t he bolt is retracted from the hole. we can rotate it.
Set t he time bar to 10 seconds.
we deleted
:light-click the short bolt component and select Move with
s because it
-;riad.
:::;ag the red ring and use the drag ruler to rotate the Bolt
_,,s :~ :. ---
godeg. " 1 ~""
/
jies because ,~' /
: Play the animation. tJ~
I
!.~era 7-second delay, the bolt should extract itself from the
-ole and then rotate.
3 Edit key points.
- ~er seeing the animation, we would like t he bolt to move a greater distance from the part before it
otates.
the time the '. 'ove the time bar t o 8 seconds.
key point at
~ight-click the short bolt component and select Move with Triad.
::ight-click on the center sphere and select the Show Translate Delta XYZ Box.
,','e want to move t he bolt 2Smm more in the +Z direction. Type 25 in the Delta Z box and click OK.
e
' .ow that t he component is moved, we must update the key point to reflect this new posit ion. Right-click
:1e key point at 8 seconds for the short bolt and click Replace Key l~ ,_
he bolt in
136 Chapter 6

Scrub the Timeline


Instea d of actually playing the animation, we can just drag the t ime bar and watch the motion at specif:
times. In most video editing programs this is called scru bbing the timeline.

14 Scrub the timeline.


Drag the time bar from 7 t o 10 seconds. The bolt now comes out 2Smm further at 8 seconds but it movES
back toward the base from 8 to 10 seconds because we haven't yet changed the key point at 10 seconcs

Move the time bar to 10 seconds.

Right-click the short b olt component and select Move with Triad.

Right-click on the center s phere and select the Show Translate Delta XYZ Box.

Type 25 in the Delta Z box and click OK.


Right-click the key point at 10 seconds for the short bolt and click Replace Key ~

Note We could have dragged the bolt in steps 10 and 11; however, we used the numerical input just tc
achieve more accuracy.

15 Move the bolt.


At 11 seconds, move the bolt somm in the -Y direction by either dragging or numerical input.

Motion of the Nut


Now let us turn our attention to the nut. The motion of the nut needs to combine both rotation and
translation during the time when it is being unscrewed fro m t he bolt. Once it is disengaged, it can movr
straight back like the bolt did.

16 Copy a key point.


We don't want the nut to move for the first second of the animation; therefore, we need to ad d a key
point at 1 second that is the same as at 0 seconds.

Right-click the nut key point at 0 seconds and click Copy.


Right-click in the timeline at about the 2 second point and click Paste.

17 Adjust the key point time. Edit lime


Depending on how far we were zoomed in, the key may or may not have been .oos
placed exactly at 2 seconds, but it is easy to correct if we were off slightly.
Right-click the newly pasted key point and click Edit Key Point Time.

Select Exact Time (2:) and type 2.0.


Click OK.
Free Component Motion 137

Move and rotate the Nut.


:-z-:ge to the named view Nut.

:.e the time bar to 2.5 seconds.


=--:= t-click the nut<l> component and select Move with Triad.
-~eres

;;:-::.:t3 ~~-t-click on the center sphere and select the Show Translate Delta XYZ Box.

- : e -3 for Delta Z. It is minus 3 because we are going to move in the -Z direction.

: :< OK.

_;::ue the time bar at the same position.

=51t-click on t he center sphere and select the Show Rotate Delta XYZ Box. Set the value fo r Delta Z
: -go and click OK. Click in the graphics area to end the process.

: Repeat the process.


!S"r : :
=: J eat the process three more times using the same small increments t o creat e a smooth motio n. Our
=-c. is to have the nut move 3mm as it rotates go deg in each half-second.

Time (seconds) Translate Z (mm) Rotate Delta Z (degrees)

2.5 -3 -go
tr.c:
m::>t-e I 3
3.S
-3
-3
-go

-go

4 -3 -go
I
<e.
:Jte The key point we created in step 18 is included in the table.

::J Move.
'love the time bar to 5 seconds.

to:: _ _ _ ,
~gain, using the t riad, move the nut in the -z direction somm more.
:' Calculate.
;;:::::a.. : lick Calculate, t hen play the animation.

:2 Examine the timeline.


- he bolt does not start until2 seconds after t he nut fin ishes its movement. We would like to change t he
:iming so that the bolt starts moving at 4 seconds, right aft er t he nut has unscrewed.
138 Chapter 6

23 Move a key frame.


We could move the individual key points for the bolt. but that would be tedious. Instead we can move
them all together.
Window-select the four key points for the bolt. This selects the entire key frame.
Drag the key frame to the left until the first key point is at 4 seconds.

'1 0 sec
1 I I I I I I 1 I
12 sec
1 1 1 1 I I I II
14 sec I
I I I I I I I I
16 sec
I I I I j I l I I
18 sec
I l I I I 1 I I I
110 secI
I I I I I I I I

B ~ Free Motion_& (Default< Delau


~ Ontntabon and Camtra V!t\
{+1 ~ Lights, Cameras. and Scene
+ ~ (f) base_&< l> (DefaultDe
~ ()short bolt_&<l> (Default
i
- ~ () nut_&<l > (Default Defl
! ~ ()long bolt_&<l> (Default

[5B~~~ ~
i
10 sec
ll tt!t lll
12 sec
t l ttl tt ll
14 sec
I l l j l11 I I
'16 s ec
l l lt lt tll
18 sec
l l l tf l l l l
110 sec
I I I 1 !1 J I I

8 ~ Free Molton_& (Oefault<Defau


~ ~ntntabcn and Came: a
+ ~
:1e;.
Lights1 Cameras and Scene

'< ~ (f) base_&<l> (Default De
' ~
1 ~
()short bolt_&<l > (Default
nut_&<l> (OefaultDef .-t f

(-)

!i ~ (-) long bolt_&<l> (Default<

Reverse Path
The Reverse Path option is used to reverse the direction of a path of key points. In this example. t he
path will be reversed to place the bolt into the hole.

Where to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Right-click t he key points of a key frame. Reverse Path

24 Copy key frame.


Window-select the key frame for the short bolt (four key points). Right -dick the last key point and clic'
Copy.
Right-click in the timeline at about 9 seconds and click Paste.

25 Reverse.
Select the copied key points. then right-click on any of the selected key points and click Reverse Path.

10 sec
l l l l l t tl l
12 sec
ll tl l t l l '
14 sec l t
Il l I I ll
16 sec
1111 11 111
18 sec
, , ,,,,,,,
110 s ecItt
Ill I I I
112 sec
,,,,, ,, ,

"- ~ Free Molton_& (Oefoult<Defau



..
~ Onentahon and Camera V1ev
~ {&) Lights, Cameras and Scene
~ (f) base_&<l> (Default De
+ ~()short bolt_&<l> (Defa ult I ~~~~~
Bolt Extraction Bolt Insertion
+ ~ ( ) nut_&<l> (DefaultDd
.$ ~ (-)long bolt_&<l> (Default
Free Component Motion 139

: Repeat.
: =:;.y. Paste, and Reverse the key frame for the nut so that the new key frame starts at 12 seconds.
~- Calculate and play the animation.
--== animation should now do the following:
~nscrew and remove the nut
~emove and rotate the bolt
~ause for 1 second
""'s ert the bolt
.;dd and screw on the nut
:t'.!'estion
-:- did we do the rotations in go-degree increments instead of 360 or 180 degrees?
.:..-.swer
=::don't use 360 degrees because the component would be in the same position at successive key
:.::~1ts so there would be no rotation. If we use 180 degrees, we don't know which way the software will
-:::ate the component as both directions are equal distance. Also, after rotating 180 degrees. it could
=erse and rotat e in the opposite direction to get back to 360.
= ;e are going to rotate something full circle, we need to insure that the shortest route between key
'E :c ..1t is in the desired direction.

::)rtant! Components will take the shortest path from one key point to the next.
:3 Change viewpoint.
:ve the time bar to 2 seconds.
::C-::nge to the named view Nut.

-- ::,eMot ion Manager design tree, select Orientation and Camera Views. Click Add/Update Key tfJ.
=:e:::ause Disable View Key Creation is selected. we had to add this key point manually.

-= Create the establishing shot.


e- :-cg the Orientation and Camera Views key point from o seconds to 1 second. This will hold the init ial
::wpoint for one second before t he change to t he Nut viewpoint begins.
:. : Add view changes.
_se the named views to change the viewpoint from Nut to Bolt between 4 seconds and 5 seconds. Have
: :hange back to the view Nut from 10 seconds to 12 seconds.
140 Chapter 6

31 Create the end leader.


Drag the end key point for the animation to 16 seconds to hold the animation at its final position for one
second.

32 Change interpolation mode.


Change t he interpolation mode for all Orientation and Camera Views key points to Ease in/Ease out

33 Calculate and play.


Check your work t o make sure everything moves as it should, t hen leave the assembly open for the nex:
case study.

Case Study: Alternate Solution - Motor


The process of creating a motion path for unscrewing the nut was very tedious because we could not
create rotations of 180 degrees or more. An alternate approach is to use a rotary motor. Motors will be
covered in greater det ail in the next chapter so we will only use a basic function of a motor as an
introduction.
In this animation, we want t he same motion as before. We will use the key points for t he short bolt jus:
as they are, but will replace the key points for the nut.

Duplicate Study
When creating different but similar animations, existing motion studies can be duplicated. Th is duplicate
study can then be edited as necessary to create a new animation.
Where to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Right-click an existing motion study tab, click Duplicate

Procedure
1 Duplicate the Bolt and Nut study.
Right-click the Bolt and Nut motion study tab and click Duplicate.
Rename the new study Bolt and Nut-Motor.

2 Delete key frames.


Delete the two key frames for the Nut. Window-select all the key frames for t he nut and press Delete
Free Component Motion 141

Calculate.
iE : _ need to recalculate the motion study at this point as you can see that even though the key points
-.: -e been deleted, the MotionManager still has the motion path in memory for the nut. If you play the
:::;- r ation without recalculating. the nut will still move. Once you recalculate, the yellow change bars will
-~ emoved.

(ID~ ~ ~ tJII 0 sec


I 1 ~'1 ::!1 j5se1c I -<-!'""'"-
- 1: : - 1
jlO sec
I I
"~
- 1 I
j1 5s1ec
~ Free Motion_& (Default<Defaut.
.--.
%-, .-. ./
{i) Orientation and C.metll Viev
- .i:iJ
lights, Cameras and Scene
- ~ (f) base_&<l> (Default De
- ~ (-)short bolt_&<l> (Default
- ~ (-) nut_&<l> (Default Del
- ~ (-)long bolt_&<l> (Default11

b= Add linear motion.


C::Ai+drag the key point for the Nut from o to 2 seconds.
c:e the t ime bar to 5 seconds.
15:
_sE the triad to move the nut about somm in the -z direction.
Reverse path.
~y. Paste, and Reverse the key frame for the nut so that the new key frame starts at 12 seconds.
::=
Calculate.
: ::.< Calculate and then play the animation. It should be exactly like the previous animation except that
~-2 nut does not rotate.

=-=
142 Chapter 6

7 Add a motor. '' I I

Click Motor ~ on the MotionManager toolbar.


Select Rotary Motor. then select the edge shown on the nut.
f11otor Type
I ~Rotary Motor
Make sure that the rotation is counterclockwise so that it looks like the nut is I E!) Linear Motor (Actuator)

unscrewing. Compon.e nt/Direction

0 ~1-1
~ @~~!-i t!i$
l~ 1.~.-C_ ______,

~o t
Click ~1e gr llPh to enlorge

8 Set the motion.


There are many ways to set up the motor to unscrew the nut and later screw it back on. For this case
study we will use the Constant Speed option. This allows us to specify t he rotational speed of the mote-
Select Constant Speed for the Motor Type. Type 60 RPM for the Speed.
Click OK.

9 Select options.
Click Motion Study Properties in the MotionManager toolbar. Set the Frames per second t o 24.
Note The rotation speed of a component and the frame rate have to be set to values that make the r.:
appear to rotate correctly. We will discuss this problem, which is called the stroboscopic effect, in mo~
detail in Chapter 16.

10 Calculate.
Calculate and play the animation. The nut turns for the entire animation. We do not want t he nut to stc.-
rotating until2 seconds, when it starts to move along the bolt.

On/Off
Motors can be turned on or off at key points. If a motor is on, but not rotat ing, it locks the posit ion.
Shortcut Menu: Right-click a motor, click On or Off
Free Component Motion 143

Adjust the motor.


r: the time bar to o seconds. Right-d ick the motor in the MotionManager design tree and select Off.
::.r: the time bar to 2 seconds and right-dick the motor and select On.

_ Calculate.
- = :!.!late and play the animation.

--=-;,otor now drives the nut when it starts to move along the bolt. To sto p the rotatio n, scrub t he
-:line to find the point where t he nut is clear of the bolt, about 2.75 seconds. Right-dick the motor
:.: set its speed to 0 RPM.

: Change interpolation mode.


-.5 :1e motor is now defined, it will rotate at 60 RPM at 2 seconds and 0 RPM at 2.75 seconds. Between
-Ese two points it will linearly interpolate the speed so that it uniformly slows down between the two
:o= <ts. This is not what we want as we just want the motor to spin at constant speed of 60 RPM and
-= suddenly stop at 2.75 seconds. To fix this, right-dick the key point at 2.75 seconds and change the
.-::-potation mode to Snap.

- Calculate.
:=.:ulate and play the animation. The nut should now rotate in the correct direction only when it is being
-=-:oved from the bolt.

= Edit motor.
--=motor needs to rotate in the other direction during the t ime the nut is being screwed onto t he bolt.
':.1e the time bar to 14.25 seconds. Edit the motor and set the speed to 60 RPM, then click
=:verse Direction 3).

:.ve the time bar to 15 seconds. Edit the motor and set the speed to o RPM, t hen click
=:verse Direction 3).
e
:cange the interpolation mode for each of these key points to Snap.
144 Chapter 6

16 Calculate.
Calcu late and play the animation.
This time the motion is correct. but we have an error on the timeline shown in red.

mJ~W'ili 'lb 110 sec


I 1 - 1- 1
115 s1
S ~ Free Motion_& (Default< Defau ~
@ Orientation and Camera Vi
f:tl ~ Lights, Cameras and Scene
..} RctaryMotor4

Ill ~ (f) ba.e_&<l> (OefaultD
, ~ (-)short bolt_&<l> (Dofault1
~ (-) nut_&<l> (DefaultDef
(+J
. -.--.-. .--.--.1/f'"-fr -----
----~
....
If ~ (-)long bolt_&<l> (Default<1

What's Wrong?
When the key points were first created t hat moved the nut along the Z axis. the key points not only he:
the posit ion of the nut along the Z direction, but also the rotational position of the nut. Because the n:..-
has been rotated by the motor, it is not rotated to the same orientation.
To solve t his problem, we just have to update the keys that are red.

17 Replace the key.


Move the time bar to 5 seconds.
Right-click the key t hat is red and click Replace Key. This updates the key so that the key captures tr=
angular position correctly.
Once this key is updated, you must recalculate and then replace t he next key in line. The reason forth-
is that each key position, in this particular case. depends on the key point before it.

10 s ecI : 115

+++ .....
I
I? ~ Free Motion_& (Defau lt<Defaut

...

@ Orientation and Camera Vi
-.' ] Lights. Cameras and Scene

!t
~ RotaryMotor4
~ (f) base_&<l> (DefaultDe
<> ~ (-) short bolt_&<l> (Default


.,. ~ (-) nut_&<l> (DefaultDef
$ ~ (-)long bolt_&<l> (Default
Free Component Motion 145

::e What happens if a key continues to stay red? If the animation is playing correct ly, you can consider
--::, leaving it as is. Leaving a red key point in an animation is similar to leaving a sketch underdefined
- en creating features. While we generally do not want underdefined sketches, there are some cases
-ere an underdefined sketch may be acceptable. One example would be a centerline being used for
- 1 oring that does not have its length defined. ln that case, changes to the length of the centerline will
-c:: affect the way the model rebuilds. ln an animation, the question is one of how the animation looks.
:: ::-~e recording is acceptable, you may consider le aving the key red and moving on to the next task.

B Calculate and play the animation.


-- 5 time the animation should not have any red key points and works just like the previous case study.

Sase Study: Alternate Solution - Mate


- - 5 case study will explore an alternative to creating the motion of the rotat ing nut and that is to use
=:::::rew mate.
ocedure
Duplicate the Bolt and Nut-Motor study.
=5;,t-click the Bolt and Nut-Motor motion study tab and click Duplicate.
=-=l ame the new study Screw Mate.

Delete motors.
~ ==:ete the rotary motor from the Motion Manager design tree. This motor is only deleted from this
-:::tion study and will still be present in the Bolt and Nut-Motor motion study.
_ Play.
==.y the animation. The bolt and nut should move as before except t hat the nut does not rotate.
146 Chapter 6

Screw Mate
The screw mate constrains two components to be concentric, and also adds a pitch relationship betwee-
the translation of one component to the rotation of the other.

4 Add a screw mate.


Move the time bar to 0 seconds.
Add a screw mate between the nut and the surface
of the base as shown.
Select Distance/revolution and enter 2mm.
Note We are adding the mate to the base part ~rdHates

rather than the bolt part because the base is a fixed [-~Ha~
component and does not move. In the physical world, rMechanical Mates
the bolt and nut interact; however, our only concern (Q) cam
is t o make an animat ion so we just need the motion ~lfnge
to be correct. ~Gear
~ Rack. Pinion
The distance per revolution is subjective. You could
f)Scre'N
calculate t he actual value based on the threads on r Revolu tlons,lnm
10' Disl:llnce/revolution
the parts; however. this does not always lead to a
2.000nrn
good animation as the nut could rotate too fast and
~
, l./JReverse
not show very well at certain frame rates. Univer.,O Joint

Examine the results.


I r~ate aligvnent:

5 L_ftil ~
Because a motion study was active when we added -
this mate, it only appears in this motion study as a local mate. It does not appear in the Feature Manage-
design tree.

6 Calculate and play.


The nut rotates both on and off as it moves.
We do not want t o have the nut rot ate after it is clear of the bolt. To stop the rotation, we can suppress
the mate at the appropriate time.

7 Suppress the screw mate.


Scrub the t imeline and visually locate the point where the nut clears the end of the bolt. This should:::.,;:
about 2.75 seconds. With the time bar still at this position, suppress the screw mate.
Free Component Motion 147

Calculate and play.


j)betwe;:- --e nut now only rot ates as it is being removed from the bolt and then stops rotating. To have it rotate
-:en it is moving back onto the bolt, repeat step 7 to locate the app ropriate time to unsuppress t he
-~te. This will be about 14.25 seconds.

Calculate and play.


- -e animation should now look just like the previous t wo case studies.

: Save and close all files.

reManager

n suppress

5 should be
Motion Drivers

Upon successful completlon of thls chapter,


you wlll be able to:
Use filters in the MotionManager to reduce clutter.
Drag components to drive motion.
Use mates to drive motion.
Use motors to drive motion.
Understand the different methods to define motor output.
Understand the implications of the 100/360 Rule.
150 Chapter 7
---------------------------------------- -- ------------ -
\

Motion Drivers
Motion can be driven in several different ways. To this point, we have created most motion by dragging
components to positions either through exploded views or by direct movement using the Move
Component command or triad. We have also seen that many other components move through the
solution of their mates to other moving components. In t his chapter we will learn about creating motio:-
through the other motion drivers used in animation motion studies, mates and motors.

Topics
The topics covered in this chapter include:
Dragging a component
Manual dragging of components can be used to create motion.

Using mates
Angle. distance, and path mates can be used as motion drivers. Mates also transmit motion to othe-
components.
Using motors
There are two motor types, linear and rotary, each of which can have its mot ion described in differen~
ways.
Using simulation motion drivers
Simulation motion drivers, which include motors, springs, gravity, and contact. can be use t o drive
physics-based animations.

Dragging Components
Setting the t ime and dragging a part into its new position is the classic animation workflow. However, i:
has several disadvantages. First, it can be hard to drag the right part into just the right position. Secane
this type of motion doesn't work in physics-based (Basic Motion and Motion Analysis) study types wher
we are animating dynamic motion systems.
When posit ioning components, key points will be created by default at t he current time bar position an'
time you drag a part. When you do not want key points to be created automatically, dear AutoKey W
on the MotionManager toolbar. Then you can position parts free ly and use Place Key or Add/Update
Keys [~+j to create the keys.

Mates
Mates can drive motion in three ways, either by unsuppressing a mate, by solving a mate with a moving
compone nt, or through dimensional changes with the distance, angle, and path mates.
Motion Drivers 151

Suppressing/Unsuppressing Mates
on by dragging - f-Je suppression state of a mat e can be controlled by key points on the timeline. You can suppress or
=Move _nsuppress a mate at any t ime in a motion study. Thus, you can suppress mates that are used only for
rough the -:ositioning components while modelling the assembly. And. you can unsuppress mates that are only
eating motion ~sed to guide the animation. You can also use different mates at different times in the animation for
::ifferent types of motion.
Jnsuppressing a mate will not smoothly move components into a position t hat satisfies the mate.
~ather, t he components will jump into position. If you want a smooth motion. you must define key point s
7or the components at the time t he mate is unsuppressed. so the component is in the correct position
Nhen the mate is unsuppressed. You can do this using Place Key from the context menu on a key point
:Jr Add/Update Keys on t he MotionManager toolbar.

otion to other Distance and Angle Mates


) istance and angle mates are a reliable way to drive mot ion in a motion study. You can specify the
dimensions ~xactly. there is never any ambiguity about the interpolated positions in between the keys.
and you won't accidentally move a component and change the va lue of the key.
=din different
Nhen mates are edited, suppressed, or unsuppressed with a motion study active. the edit s are
::onsidered local mates and only apply to the active motion study.
1se to drive .\s with all motion, using interpolation modes lets you fine-tune t he motion. For example. using Ease In
creates an accelerat ing motion. while Ease Out creates a decelerating motion.
Path Mates
w. However, it The path mat e is useful in animations where a component needs t o move along a 20 or 3D path. It is
.ition. Second. superior to using contact as it solves faster and will give consistent results. To use a path mate. a vertex
iy types when or point on the component is mated to a path curve. The position of the vertex along the curve can then
be specified at different key points along the timeline.
r position any Mates in Subassemblies
AutoKey [F Solving mates can be a difficult process. so you need to have a good idea of how mates work. It is
\dd/Update important to realize that subassemblies are rigid by default. which means that the individual mates of
the subassembly will not solve during the animation, unless the subassembly is made flexible.
You have to be careful when dragging part s inside f lexible subassemblies. If t he part is fixed. then you
11ith a moving will be moving the subassembly itself, and that can res ult in undesired results. It is better to fix the
subassembly in the top leve l assembly. and float the part inside the subassembly.
Generally. the more mates you have. the more problems you are likely to have.
152 Chapter 1

To speed the solution of an animation. turn off all of the mates that you can on the components you're
moving. Components with no mates will move correctly.
Tip Use mates to define the endpoints and then suppress them while t he parts are moving.
When you are using mates to drive motion, the driving mates need to be in the top level assembly anc
not subassemblies. For assemblies where motion is driven by a subassembly component. the animatioi
can solve much quicker if you dissolve t he subassembly so that t he components and mat es move into
the top level assembly. If you are going to do this. you should create a copy of the original files and make
a copy for the intended purpose of creating the animation as t he structu re change may not be what is
needed for manufacturing or PDM.

Mating Strategies
There are different strategies for mating components when you need to create animations.
Mate the assembly for animation.
This isn't always possible as there may be mates needed for the assembly that will not work well i:-
motion studies. such as limit mates and width mates.
Create a copy of the assembly.
This works well if we have to make several different animations from the assembly because we ca-
change the mates at the global level. which will then apply t o each animation.
The only problem will be that the copied assembly will be nonassociative to the original assemb ly ar.:
not show assembly changes. This may not be a problem, however, if all t he changes are to t he
individual components of the assembly.

Create local mates.


This has the advantage of keeping everything in one assembly. If you have to make multiple
animations, you can add all the local mates to the first motion study before adding key points, anc
then duplicate t he study as many t imes as required.
Motion Drivers 153

ts you're Animating Robots


~obots have many degrees of freedom and several motions that need to
::!e cont rolled simultaneously. While there are many motions to consider,
-::Jbot animations generally only requ ire us to control linear and rotary
nbly anc 1otion.
nimatior
\'hen animating a robot. consider:
ove into
ild make Most motion drivers are linear or rot ary. These can be animated wit h
what is either mates {distance or angle) or motors (linear or rotary).
Mates are easier to control if they do not have to change alignment
(negative values).
Mates need to be applied to mimic the drivers in the real assembly in
that they should be created between connected parts.
If t he assembly already contains distance or angle mat es. these
t< well in mat es can be used to drive the motion of the assembly. Mates can
also be added as local mates in the MotionManager design tree to
avoid changing the primary mates in the assembly.
? we can The value of the mate is set at different time positions to produce the
an imation.

nbly anc Mate or Motor?


he 3oth mates and motors might be used to drive different aspects of the motion. One thing to consider
Nhen deciding which to use will be the range of motion. Rotary motion that goes more than 360 degrees
s generally easier to do with a rotary motor. Linear motion is frequently easier with a distance mate.
Where is zero?
1ts. and 3oth angle mates and distance mates are easier to animat e if the mat es always have t he same sign.
.Vhile we can edit t he time line to cha nge the mate orientation, this may take more time to set up and
:le more confusing to edit. Rather than change the existing mates in the assemb ly, it may be easier to
) st suppress the assembly mate in the MotionManager design tree and add a loca l mate so t hat
distance and angle values are always positive.
Nhen using motors, there really is no zero reference as there is with mates. When a motor is turned on,
the component will start from wherever it happens to be.
154 Chapter 7

Mate Organization
With larger and more complex assemblies, the number of mates can make it difficult to find the specif.:
mates we are using in the MateGroup fo lder of t he FeatureManager design tree and MotionManage-
design tree. Two ways to make the process easier are to rename the mates so that their names are
descript ive of what they control, and to use folders to group the mates we will animate into one fo lde-
and all the mates that we will not use into another folder.

Case Study: Robot Motion


This case study will be used to examine motion
driven by both mates and motors. We will create the
same animation using different combinations of
mates and motors just to compare the differences.

Storyboard
D 0
Play the video Robotl.mp4 to see the intended
results. The robot actions are as follows: D 0
D 0
S +ep Ti"'Vte Pescrip+io..., Robot
D 0
I 0- I Es+ .... hl isl.,i"'J sl.,o+

r
D 0

2 I- 2 Ro+....+e hc..se 90. D 0


D 0
3 2-3 Ro+....+e +L.,e +oo/
l.,oriz.o...,+.... l/'1. D 0
D D
'-( 3-'-f R o+....+e .(:ore.... r"'Vt.
D D
5 '-f-5 Ex+e...,d .(:orec..r"'Vt.

"
D D
D 0

5-G Ro+c..+e vvris+ '-f5. D 0


D D
D 0

D 0
Motion Drivers 155

- this first animation, all the motion is less than 360 degrees. So, we will use just mates to control
::Jmponent positions.

Part 1: Mates
4-ocedure
Open the assembly.
:pen the assembly Robot from the Chapter 7 \ Case Study\ Robotl folder.

Examine the assembly.


:e can see that t here are six different rotational elements
0 cJid one with linear motion.
c::
1 the assembly as it is now constructed, all the positions
;::;
::~ th ese components are controlled by angle or distance
1 ates. The mates of interest to us for an animation have
c:: ::;een renamed to make it easier to find the correct mate.
0 =xamine each mate to determine what it cont rols and
:here the zero angle is located.

0 ~lso note that all the mates are in the top level assembly
0 es there are no subassemblies. In the second part of this
0 :::ase study, we will see the effect s of having subassemblies
... 0 ::hen we try to create an animation .
0

0
D

D
156 Chapter 7

3 Organize mates. ~ i~ Mates


+LJ Other Matts
In the FeatureManager design tree, select all the 8t::JControl Mat~
angle and distance mates. Right-click any of the - rl fcr~arm Nen~1cn , rcbct.uj..ptr a:. :._&.~ 1 > rcbct_fcreann_&< 1"'
D Lower-Base (robot_ba~&<l >,robot_lower_axis_&<l>)
select ed mates and click Add to New Folder from D Arm -Low..- (robot_arm_right_&<l> ,robot_lower_axis_&<l>)
the menu. Name the folder Control Mates. D Upper-Arm (robot_upper_axiS_&<l>,robot_arm_nght_&<l>)
D Forearm-Upper (robot_upper_axis_&<l> ,robot_torearm_&<l>)
D Wrist-Forearm (robot_forearm_&<l>,robot_wrist_&<l>}
Se lect the remaining mates and add t hem to a new D Flang e-Wrist (robot_wrist_&<l>,robot_f lange_&<l>)

fold er. Call the folder Other Mates.


Tip The mates can be in any order; however, t he order of the angle mates in the Control Mates folder is
the sequence order in which the mates will move the assembly components. You do not have to have them in
this order, but you will see in the next few steps that it is easier to control t he animation when the mates are
in this particular order. The distance mate is not in the correct location, but we will see why t his does not
matter in the following steps.
4 Create a motion study.
Right-click the Motion Study 1 tab and select Create New Motion Study.
Right-click the new tab and click Rename. Type Robot-1 fo r the new name.

5 Disable view creation.


Right-click Orient ation and Camera Views in the MotionManager design tree and select Disable
View Key Creation and Disable Playback of View Keys.

6 Examine the mates.


Notice that it is easier to see t he mat es of interest in t he MotionManager design tree because all the
other mates are collapsed under t heir own fo lder.
Important! Each mate in the Control Mates folder is between adjacent parts, just as t he motion
controllers in the physica l assembly would be.
Motion Drivers 157

Set values. s D Arm-tower (robot_ann_right<l>,roboUow..-_axis<l >l


ile first task is to change the values of the angle mates. For each tl ~wJe
r-~_&,1> ""1ate, expand the mate in the MotionManager design tree to show the Angle. Right-click Angle and
>)
&<1>) : lick Edit Dimension .
_&<1>)
m_&<l>) Set the mates for the angle mates using the times and values in the chart below.
1.>)

Mate Name Time Change to Value


(seconds)

I
Jlder is
Lower-Base 2 goo
them in
3tes are Arm-Lower 3 45
s not
Upper-Arm 3 135

Forearm-Upper 4 goo

Wrist-Forearm 6 45

Flange-Wrist 7 270

~ Change a mate.
sable
.'{e want the tool to extend lOOmm at 4 seconds. The distance mate Extension is from the back of the
:x>mponent robot_upper_a:xis to the end of the cylinder on the component robot_forearm. The
:ay in which this mate is defined causes us a problem in that we would have to do this move in two
all the s~eps. We would first have to reduce the mate dimension to zero. Then reverse alignment to move it t he
-emaining 73 mm. If this is the only move we are going to make with this mate, it might be okay. However,
::we are going to make several moves, then we would create a lot of extra work.
ion
'1ove the time bar to 0 seconds.
~ight-click the mate forearm extension in the MotionManager design tree and click Suppress.
158 Chapter 7

9 Create a new mate.


We are going to create a local mate in the motion study that will be used :::E - -
in several motion studies we will set up. Rather than suppress the mate
we are not going to use in the Motion Manager design tree, which would
make that suppression state part of the motion study, we can instead
suppress the mate globa lly.

Select the Model tab. Suppress the mate forearm extension.

Select the Robot-1 tab. Add a new distance mate between the two faces
shown on the component robot_upper_axis and t he component
robot_forearm. Set the dist ance to O.Omm.

Note The t wo components have been moved apart in the graphic just to
s how the faces more clearly.

Notice that this mate only appears in t he MotionManager design tree and not in the FeatureManager
design t ree because this is a local mate and is associat ed only with this motion study. We cannot add
this mate to the Control Mates folder because it does not exist in the Feature Manager design tree.

10 Rename the mate.


Rename the mate to Extension-2. --,
11 Extend the robot_forearm. -'E'WC=-
Move the time bar to 5 seconds. Edit the Distance for the Extens ion2 mate to lOOmm.

12 Calculate.
Calculate the motion study.

All the components should move correctly except that they all start moving at o seconds instead of in
sequence.

0 sec
1 I I I I f1 I I I
jl I
sec
I I I f 11 I I
j2 sec
I I I I / 1 I I I
j3sec
I I I I 11 I I I
14sec I /
1 1I I I I I I
jSsec
I I I I J I I I I
j6se.c If
I I I I I I

8 \jl~ Mates
clJ D Other Mates
$- D Centro! Mates
@. rl forearm exter.s1on (ro

Lower-Base(ro~ot_~,l !ii~~ii~~iiiii!!!!!!!!i!!!!l!!!!
l! l (} Arm pLower (robot_an 1

$. D
D Forarm-Upper (ro~otjI
! D
. D Wrist-Forarm (robot_!
i fh D Flange-Wrist (robot_v
tE H Local Extension_2 (robot_,1
Motion Drl-vers l59

: Edit the timeline.


=::.:the timeline by using the Ctrl+drag method to copy the starting key points for the mates as shown,
~ :nat each motion takes one second. The two mates Arm-Lower and Upper-Arm should move
-=-sether.

= ~i1 ~ ~ 't"J ~ jOsec


1 1 111 1 .11 1
j1 sec
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
j2 sec
t l t LI I I II
j3 sec
1 1 1 1 1 1 .-11 1
J4sec ..
1 1 111111 1
j5 sec
I III I
,
H I II
j61 s11111
ec _
- 1 11 ~

_] Ottte< Motes
_] Control Motes
rl forearm ~tten~on {ro t
+ D Lower Base (robot_b,, + t t
+ D Arm-Lower (robot_a . f t t
D Upper-Arm (robot_up, f t __ t
' D Fororm-Upper (robot_ t
+ D Wrist-Forarm (robot_~ f
D Flange-Wrist (robot_v
- r-J Local Extension_2 (robot_ f t

- e You can see the advantage of arranging the angle mates in sequence order as it is easy to follow
; -e motion across the timeline.

- Calculate.
:clculate the motion study. This animation looks a little better.

:: Copy and reverse.


: -:::Jy all the key points to 8 seconds, then reverse their direction. You should now have the complete
sequence.
; Save.
=:.ave the assembly but leave the file open as we will continue with it in the next sect ion.
160 Chapter 7

Mate Problems in Animations


During t he calculation of an animation, the mates must be solved at each frame. Occasionally, mat es can
flip and solve incorrectly. This is most typical when there is a series of mates as we have in this model.
In the robot, this can result in two different problems.
If the Forearm-Upper mate flips, the robot_wrist will appea r to turn in the opposite direction.

If the Upper-Arm mate changes direction, the robot_forearm will not move to the horizontal positior

If these flips occur while you are making changes to other motion drivers, you can ignore them until
everything else is set up and the model has been rebuilt. If the problems still exist after a rebuild, you
have two choices; either edit the mate that is not solving correctly, or use a different type of motion
driver such as a motor.
Motion Drivers 161

ionManager Filters
-z:es~ -=nworki ng with larger assemblies, the Motion Manager design tree can get very cluttered and long
-.s T:::-::.C :e:oause by default it shows every entity that can be animated. This can be problematic when trying to
=::-dinate keys for multiple entities. The long tree can result in a lot of scrolling. which can be
~-;b erso me.
"':Jn.

-=::void t his, t here are several tree filters which can be used in a motion study. These are No Filter, Filter
--irnated, Filter Driving, and Filter Selected.

=ilter Type Description


o Filter V' m:JiiW
~ 'il!:s 'i] 10.s~c. 4 sec
l . l I 1 I I I I I
EJ ~ Robot!_& (Default<D.t'ault_Di<pla)ll~---------------------
: .ick No Filter to remove all ~ Onentat10n and Camera V1ev.s

=,ters. This is the default 1. @sJ Lights, Cameras and Scene t


~ ~ (f) robot_base_&<l> (Defoult< < t
: ::tting and all items are shown. [ ~ robot_lower_axls_&<l> (Default'.
c+, ~ robot_arm_right_&<l> (Default
~ ~ robot_arm_left_&<l> -> (Defau t
:Jos:::.:- [+} ~ robot_upper_i5xis_&<l> (Defaut
(~ ~ robot_forearm_&<l> (Default<
til ~ robot_wrist_&<l> (DefaultDrf
$ ~ robot_fla nge_&<l> (Defaultr,lf
s fil!Jl Mate<
3 CJ Othor Mates
. .~!:, Coincident21 (robot_low~f
@ Concentric31 (robot_lowll~f
.~!:, Coincident31 (robot_! owl f
@ Concentric4 (robot_arm ~
@ Concentric321 (robot_a1
;(_ Coincident321 {robot_arrf
@ Concentric331 (robot_up
@ Conc entric341 (robot_fo!
.~!:, Coincident341 (robot_fo/
1
@ Concentric361 (robot_wr :
.~!:, Coincident361 (robot_wr J
.~!:, Coincident362 (robot_ba J
@ Concentridl (robot_bas f
1
I Uilti! @ Concentric21 (robot_!owi J
S [J Control Mates
Jtld.yc_ e 1-4 forearm <XlenO>on (robot
!? D Lower-Base (robot_base_ f t .-
-:otior ~ D Arm-Lower (robot_arm_r1f
ffi D Upper-Arm (robot_uppei
1 j
[+} D Forarm-Upper (robot_uplf t ' J
l+J D Wrist-Forarm (robot_for< f t
1: D Flange-Wrist (robot_wri<lf
It> H Local Extension_2 (robot_for~
162 Chapter 7

Filter Type Description

Filter Animated ~
?!iil~ ~ ~~ ~o~s~C 1
8 ~ Robotl_& (Default<Default_Displa)111> - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - -- - -
Click Filter Animated to show b ~ robotJower_axis_&<l> (Defau~ f
1
1 ~ robot_arm_right_&<l> (Defaultlf
only items that change or . ~ robot_arm_left_&<l> -> (Defau f
move. When select ed, this will 1: ~ robot_upper_axis_&<l> (Defautl
ltl ~ robot_forearm_&<l> (Default<l .
show every entity that moves [+] ~ robot_wrist_&<l > (DefaultD1
1
or changes as a result of the ~. (Defau~l~f

!!l'!!!'iiilllili
1;, robot_flange_&<l>
8 @~ Mates
animation. Components which SLJ Control Mates
move only as a res ult of being +} D Arm-Lower (robot_arm_rl f,

mated to another moving CiJ D Upper-Arm (robot_uppel f


D
liJ D
lower-Base (robot_base_
t
BForarm -Upper (robot_uf>l f
component will show when this I+J D
Wrist-Forarm (robot_for<l f
filt er is selected. (:fJ D
Flange-Wri.st (robot_wri<lf
G H l ocal Extension_2 (robot_for f t ==--1

Filter Driving ~ 'ii' ~(!il~ ~~ ~0 1s~c 1 2sec j4sec


I 1 I
~ RoboU_& (Default<Default_Disr>l)>l~' l~-----------------
I f I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

8
Click Filter Driving t o show 8 ~il Mates
8 CJ Control Mates
only items that cause changes.
This shows every entity which $ D Arm-lower (robot_arm_r ' t
-ffiJC 1
Upper-Arm (robot_uppe f! ! l
D lower-Base(mbot_base_l I llll
' i i'ti i i
has a motion driver or key 'tl D Forarm-Upper (robot_up! f I t
directly attached to it. It does ffi D Wrist-Forarm (robot_for< f
dl D FlangeWrist (robot_wri~ f
not show components t hat only (+"- H local Extension_2 (robot_for ~ J.
move as a result of mates.

Filter Selected ~ 'ii' ~ ~~ ~~~0 I sec


I I

8 ~. RoboU_& (Default<Default_DisplaJ,'~~~-----------------
Se lect items, t hen click Filter 11 ~ .
l+ ~
Selected .
B Wi~ Mates
g.LJ ijtffll$1"1
00 H forearm extens1on (robot
tt.

r+J
D
D
(robot_
Upper-Anm (robot_uppej base_~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Arm-l ower (robot_arm_r
~ D lower-Base
i:P
Forarm-Upper (robot_uf>l

'
f

t
00- D_ Wrist-Forarm (robot_fon;.
ltl D Flange-Wrist (robot_wrisl
Motion Drivers 163

- .e If you have Filter Animated or Filter Driving selected, any part which you select in the
= r:tureManager design t ree or the graphics area will then become temporarily visible in the
.Csec
~~_,.:::tionM a n ager design tree. Also, if you select any folder or subassembly, all of the items in that folder
-::subassembly will then be shown.

otors
:::::ors are very useful because they can be used in all three mot ion study types: Animation, Basic
::::ion, and Motion Analysis. Once a motor is defined it wil l be listed in all three study types.
::::ors support rotational and linear motion. They can be defined as constant speed, distance,
:s::llating segment, data point. expression, or servo. A constant speed motor can also be key framed,
:.==:ning different speeds at different times. The speed will interpolate smoothly (depending on the
r-:::::rpolat ion mode you choose). including directional changes. The motor will slow down, stop, and
=::::: elerate when it s direct ion reverses. unless t he interpolation mode is set to Snap.

~tor Types
~.::h linear and rot ary motor driving motion can be defined in up to seven different ways. Each type has
Csec
--=.~y options in defining the motion.

,_.or Type Description Inputs Inputs c


0
(Rotary Motor) (Linear Motor) :p
0
c~
0 V1
c:P...ll::
0 0 .....
~~~
.5c ~ro ;go
<(COlfl

==nstant The motor drives Constant speed in Constant speed X X X


:Leed at a constant RPM in mm/second or
sec
speed. inches/second
~a nce The motor will Displacement in Displacement in mm or X X X

-.-........ I
move for a fixed degrees inches
distance or
Start time in seconds Start time in seconds
number of
degrees. End time in seconds End time in seconds

- :scillating Oscillating motion


is sinusoidal
motion at a
specific distance
at a specified
frequency.
Displacement in
degrees
Frequency in Hz
Phase shift
Displacement in mm or
inches
Frequency in Hz
Phase shift
X X X
164 Chapter 7

Motor Type Description Inputs Inputs c:::


0
(Rotary Motor} (Linear Motor) ~
0
c;::::;E:
0 lll
c::: .;::: ~
0 0 ....
-~:::;E:~
.5 -~ ;g
c::: ro o
<(COli)

Segments Motion is driven Displacement in Displacement in mm or L L X


by a set of degrees at intervals inches at intervals
piecewise
or or
continuous data
segments. Velocity in degrees/ Velocity in mm or
second at intervals inches/second at
intervals
or
or
Acceleration in
degreesfsecond./\2 at Acceleration in mm or
intervals inches/second./\2 at
intervals
Start and end values
for X Start and end values
for X
Segment interpolation _J
Segment interpolation
Data Points Motion is driven Displacement in Displacement in mm or X X X
by a tabular set of degrees at intervals inches at intervals
values. A curve is
or or
fit to the data
points using one Velocity in degrees/ Velocity in mm or
of three possible second at intervals inches/second at
curve fits. intervals
or
or
Acceleration in
degreesfsecond./\2 at Acceleration in mm or
intervals inches/second./\2 at
intervals
Value vs. Time
Value vs. Time
---
-
- --
Motion Drivers 165

c: , ::rt:or Type Description Inputs Inputs c:


0 0
:;:; (Rotary Motor) (Linear Motor) :;:;
0 0
c::E c::E
0 Ill 0 Ill
c::;:;~
c: .;::; ~
0 0 L..
0 0 L..

- :E 0 -~~~
~ u~
.5c: "Virt1 ;:g0 .5 -~ ;g
c: rt1 0
<(a:ll/') <(COli')

L L X ~~ession The motor can be Displacement in Displacement in mm or L L X


driven by an degrees at intervals inches at intervals
expression
or or
created from
existing variables Velocity in degrees/ Velocity in mm or
and constants. second at intervals inches/second at
intervals
or
or
Acceleration in
degrees/second"2 at Acceleration in mm or
intervals inches/second"2 at
intervals

.5t:r-r::l Motor The motor used to Displacement in Displacement in mm or X


implement control degrees at intervals inches at intervals

X X X
actions for event-
based, triggered
motion.
or
Velocity in degrees/
or
Velocity in mm or
second at intervals inches/second at
intervals
or
or
Acceleration in
degrees/second"2 at Acceleration in mm or
intervals inches/second"2 at
intervals

~ -- :tion available
_ ~-..ted functionality
166 Chapter 7

Note When using an Expression to define the motor for Animation and Basic Motion. Time is the onl)
variable available. If additional variables are needed, the motion study type must be Motion Analysis s:
that plots can be generated, which in turn create variables that can be used in the expression. For mar:
information, see the training course So/idWorks Motion available from your SolidWorks reseller.

Motor Principles
Motors move components in a selected direction, but they are not fo rces. Motor strength does not var
based on component size or mass. For example. a small cube moves at the same speed as a large cubE
if you set the velocity of the motor to the same value in both cases.
If something causes the reference point of t he motor direction t o change, the motor continues to movE
the component in the new direction. This can occur, for example, if t here is a collision between the
component that is moved by the motor and another component
Do not add more than one motor of the same type to the same component
Mot ion due to motors supersedes motion due t o any other driving element If you have a motor movir5
a component t o t he left, and a spring pulling a component to the right, the component moves to the le~

Recalculating Studies
Motion studies do not automatically recalculate t he animation every time you change something. This
saves a lot of time not having to wait for the animation to recalculate. If you make a change and do no-
recalculate. then click Play. you will see the previously calculated results. You must press Calculat e whe-
you want to see t he results of t he edits you have made.
Tip Before recalculating a motion study aft er a change, move the time bar t o o seconds and do a forced
rebuild {Ctrl+Q) to make sure that all nonanimation changes are also rebuilt
Motion Drivers 167

the only Defining a Motor


alysis so 'Nhen you define a motor, there are three inputs
or more :hat control what is actually moved:
:!f.
c Motor Location
The Motor Location is the component to be
not vary moved by the motor. In the fan example at right,
ge cube this would be the fan blade component.
Motor Direction
t o move Motor Direction is defined by an edge or axis. In
1the the fan example, the axis of the motor shaft or
the circular edge of the fan hub could be used to
define the direction.
Component to Move Relative to
moving
This is the component that the moving
1the le~
component moves relative to. In the fan example,
the fan blade moves relative to the motor
ng. This housing.
d do no:
-::ortant! If you do not define the "relative to" component, SolidWorks assumes t he motor is attached
3te whe-
-::ground. If the motor position is not going to move, this is acceptable. If, however, t he mot or position
-25 to move, the animation will fail to so lve. We will explore this problem later in t his chapter.
forced
Part 2: Distance Motor
=1 that we have one animation of this robot. let's replace some of the mates with motors just to
="'lpare the process. We will start by using a rotary mot or to rotate t he lower -base, and a linear motor
-:: 1ove the robot_for earm. For both of these motors. we will use the distance option to describe t he
-:;:ion of the motor.
... -~edure
Create a copy of the motion study.
~5 .t-click the Robot-1 motion study tab and click Duplicate.
:-:e the new study Robot-2.

Delete keys.
=~ :::te all the keys after 6 seconds. These are all the keys for the mirror part of the animation.
168 Chapter 7

Motor Options
When using a rotary or linear motor, we have the option t o have t he motor move a f ixed distance,
specifying a st art time and duration. Notice that this is sim ilar to the way the Animation Wizard was
used. One difference is that we need t o specify an additional component that will tell the motor what i:
is to move in relation t o.

3 Suppress mate.
We are going t o use a rotary motor t o rotate the component robot_lower_axis relative to the
robot_base.

To avoid conflict. we must suppress t he angle mate Lower-Base.

Move the time bar t o 1 second. Right-dick the mate Lower-Base and click Suppress.

We should also re move t he existing keys. Select the key points for the Lower-Base at 2 and 13 seconds
and delete t hem.

Note We could have left t he key on the timeline and it would not have been calculated; however, it is
cleaner to re move it to avoid confusion if we need to troubleshoot a problem.

Where is Zero?
We did not suppress t he mate at t ime zero because we want to make sure the animation starts from th::
same point as the previous animation. Mot ors do not have an absolute set of coordinates; instead, th::
coordinat es a re based on where the components a re when the motor is turned on.
--
170 Chapter 7

Add a linear moto r t o the robot_forearm. The component has an axis feature which shou ld be selecte:
for the direct ion. This will keep the motor aligned with the part.

Have the motor drive the component lOOmm, starting at 4 seconds with a duration of 1 second.

i'ill
11otor Type

~ Rotary Motor

125.00 ,.--- - - -- - - - - - , Notion

Distance
100.00

I / l OOmm

--
75.00

i
'E

"
4.00s
50.00

g. 25 00 ~ l.OOS
0
0.00 +-~--'

-2 5.00 +-+--i-+-+-+-+--+-i--t-+-+4
0.0 1.1 2.2 3.3 4 .4 55 6 .6 7.7 3.8 9 9 11.0
Tme (s ) t,
did< the graph to enlarge

6 Calculate.
Calculate the animation.

The first part of t he animation should look just the same as with all. mates.

Important! Because we are creating multiple motion studies in the same assembly file, it is im portar:
t o ret urn the time bar to 0 seconds before changing studies. When moving between motion studies, yc_
may get the following message:

Due to model changes, the following components or features cannot be set t o their
previously-specified locations or valu es at t he start of the animation.
This will be followed by a list. Generally you can select No and recalculat e t he study; however, you mu::
evaluate the actions yo u took in the other motion studies before deciding whether to update the sta-:
positions or not.
Motion Drivers 171

ld be selected ~eversing the Motion


=2'/ersing the animation when we use motors requires some additional work.

:econd. =o;e examine the timeline we can see that there is only one key point for each motor. but the changebar
=:G:ends throughout the entire animation. The reason for this is t hat in the case of the rotary motor. we
-=:d the motor to move between 1 and 2 seconds. but from 2 seconds unt il the end of the animation, the
::ltor is still on and holding its distance at go degrees.

I.YI~~'il!\1 ~ 0s ec
11 1 1111111
12 s ec
II I I 11 1 I I
j4s ec
llllltt l l
16s ec
I I l lli tll
18s ec
I l l 1 11 1 11
110
11 (1

- ~ Robot (Default)
Orient.tion and Camera \f~ews
:. .:aJ Lights, Cameras and Scene
fi RotaryMotor 1

8 UnearMotor 1 :~~~~~~~~
- ~ (I} robot_base<1> (Default)

:::ecause we used the distance option for the motors, to reverse the motion we will have to do two things.
=-st. we will need to add a second mot or to do the reverse rot ation. and then we will have to add key
=::ints to turn the motors on and off so that two motors are not fighting each ot her.

Add a rotary motor.


-:id a rotary motor. just like we did in step 4. except that we want t he direction revers ed and t he start
- 1 e to be 12 seconds.

Add a linear motor.


==peat the above procedure to add a second linear motor to retract the robot_forearm from 10 to
-: seconds.

Calculate.
:~tice that the components that should be moved by the motors
:::not move. The problem is that the two rotary motors and the
- r:o linear motors are in conflict with each other. as one motor is
t is important :.-ying to move a component while the other is trying to hold it
1n studies. you :::ationary.

their

:ver. you must


date the start
172 Chapter 7

10 Set motor on/off points.


Move the time bar to 0 seconds.
Right-click RotaryMotor2 in t he MotionManager design tree and click Off.
Repeat for LinearMotor2.
Move the time bar to 13 seconds.
Right-click RotaryMotorl in the MotionManager design tree and click Off.
Right-click RotaryMotor2 in the MotionManager design tree and click On.
Move the time bar to 10 seconds.
Right-click LinearMotor 1 in the MotionManager design tree and click Off.
Right-click LinearMotor2 in the MotionManager design tree and click On.
Move the time bar t o 0 seconds and press Ctri+Q to rebuild the model.

11 Calculate.
Calculate the animation. The animation should look just the same as it did with only mates driving tr:
motion.

Constant Speed Motor


The constant speed motor is also very easy to set up and run in a key frame animation. With a consta-
speed motor, the speed can be set at different key points. The motor direction can be changed at ea::-
key point and interpolation modes can be used to control the rate of change between key points.
To make a component move a given distance, we control the speed and amount of t ime that it is on.

Part 3: Constant Speed Motor


. i
In this part of the case study, we will use two constant speed motors to drive the robot instead of th:
displacement motors used in the last section. Rather than delete the existing motors and replace the-
we will only delete two of the motors and edit the defin ition of the other two.

Procedure
1 Create a copy of the motion study.
Right-click t he Robot-2 motion study tab and click Duplicate.
Name the new study Robot-3.
Motion Drivers 173

Examine the MotionManager design tree .


..::.::e that the motors are now RotaryMotor3 and RotaryMotor4. In the previous motion study. they
'=-: RotaryMotor l and RotaryMotor2. The new names indicate that they are different motors from
-E ::revious mot ion study and can be defined differently.

Delete motors.
:- 2 the time bar to o seconds.
:~:~:e the second rotary and linear motors (RotaryMotor4 and LinearMortor4).
:'i:ant! This only deletes them from this motion study and does not affect the motors in the other
- ; :Ji1 studies.

edit the rotary motor.


:~ =.e the two keys at 10 and 13 seconds that were used to turn the motors off.
- - :he rotary motor by right-clicking it in the MotionManager design tree and clicking Edit Feature.
c:-~e the Motor Type to Constant speed and the speed to 15 RPM. We selected 15 RPM because we
. ~he motor to turn go degrees in 1 second.
= ::: OK.

? lay the animation.


Calculate and when done, play the animation. The robot begins to spin at 1 second (when the angle
...-~ :.Ower-Base is suppressed) and spins for the entire animation.

::::::-;trol the rotation, we just have to turn the motor off after the robot has rotated go degrees.
,._ :-urn the motor on and off.
=~he time bar to o seconds. Right-click the motor RotaryMotor3 in the MotionManager design
~ :::-:d click Off.

~~... .a:: =:he t ime bar to 1 second. Right-click the rotary motor and click On.
= :he t ime bar to 2 seconds. Right-click the rotary motor and click Off. Now when the animat ion
:: : he motor will rotate for go degrees and stop.
174 Chapter 7

7 Reverse the motor.


There are two separate actions necessary to have this motor ret urn the robot to the initial position. Fir5""
it must be turned on. and secondly it must turn in the opposite direct ion.
Move the time bar to 13 seconds.
-I
Right-click the rotary motor in the Motion Manager design tree and click On. Sl

Again. right-click the rotary motor in the MotionManager design tree and click Edit Feature.
In the PropertyManager. click Reverse Direction ~ .

Click OK.
8 Stop the motor.
Move the time bar to 14 seconds. Right-click Rota:ryMotor3 and click Off.
Right-click the motor again and click Edit Feature. Reverse the motor direction.
Note If you do not reverse the direction of this key. the motor will try to spin in the direction opposi::
of that at time 13 seconds. resulting in the component going 45 degrees in one direction and 45 degreE
in the other direction.

9 Calculate.
Calculate and play the animation. While the robot_base moves as intended. the
robot_forearm does not return to the correct starting position because we removed the
linear motor that was supposed to do that. We will now edit the one existing linear motor to
retract the robot_forearm.

Constant Speed Motors-Alternate Method


With the rotary motor, we had the motor run at the same speed throughout the animation.
but turned it on and off at the appropriate times to get the desired motion. We could use
the same method with the linear motor; however. we will explore a different approach which is to chang:
its speed t o zero when we do not want it to move rather than turning it off. When a motor is on with zer:
speed. it is essentially a distance mate to hold the parts fixed.
Motion Drivers 175

-=:dit the linear motor.


~ :1e time bar to o seconds.
- : -e linear motor.
...
~ )(
------
MotorType --
~

~ Rotary MolD<
e:: Constant Speed for the Motion Function and Omm/s for the speed. l E!J L.in~or I-1<>1D< (ActuaiD<)

~ sure the direction is set to extend the forearm.


[component/Direction -
CQ IIJ.!.4b.ftxw,. 1 w B~
*i
ace keys.
- :>tor will be on for the entire animation. However, it will change speed ~ I l>#robot_~r_aXis:II
Axis <

: -ection at several points. We could sequentially move t he time bar and I ~ ~~l_lwer_~
-= :he motor at that point and then go to the next point. An alternat ive is ~MoHon *1
-~:2 all the keys first and then edit them. I Constant Speed

0 Omm/ s
=:ne time bar to 4 seconds. Select the linear motor and then click Place
on the MotionManager t oolbar.
- - e same procedure to place additional keys at S. 10, and 11 seconds.
l
I 0 Click the gr oph to niarge
-=:dit keys.
s :e time bar to 4 seconds. Right-click the linear motor and click Edit Feature.
s=the motor speed to lOOmm/s.
s :e time bar to 5 seconds and edit the linear motor. Confirm t hat the motor speed is Omm/s.
"' se we copied this key from o seconds, it should already be at zero.
- --e key at 10 seconds and set the motor speed t o 100mm/s and reverse the direct ion.
-- e key at 11 seconds and set the motor speed to omm/s.
~s you make the changes, you will get t he Update Initial Animation State message indicating
::sit ions cannot be set. Click No each time because the problem will be solved when all t he
~ents are made.

:::hange interpolation mode.


:-e-'=ault interpolat ion mode of linear will have the motor speed increase from 0 t o 100 between keys,
.- s not what we want. We want the motor to suddenly turn on and off.
-:::::.;-select the four keys for the linear motor between 4 and 11 seconds. Right-click any of the
-::::::1 keys and change the Interpolation Mode to Snap.
~e bui ld.
'= :1e time bar to 0 seconds. Press Ctri+Q to rebuild the model.
176 Chapter 7

15 Calculate and play.


We should have the exact same animation as we did using the other methods.

16 Save.
Leave t he assembly open for the next case study.

Function Builder
The Function Builder is a dialog box interface to define three types of motors or forces:

Data Point
A set of data points are used to create interpolated data sets as a functio n of time, cycle angle, a.-
motion study results.
Segment
Segments are used to define a piecewise continuous function of time or cycle angle. Each segmer.L
can use an interpolation method different from other segments.

Expression
Expressions are used to define a profile as a mathematical expression of time, cycle angle, or motic-
study results.
Motion Drivers 177

~er

p .._,.. I [k_;: _~~~J l expresskln J) IIIII Function Type


-
~@}
I V.U (y): ~c..,..,t (dog) I
Show~aphs: ~.......n ./Velocity ./Acceler-atiOn ~Jerlc IFit AI Graphs I
1..- Data Type
~tvoriable(x): Eme(s) ] ILQ.~
- - -
@ubic Splile
r
I :m.rpoiolion type: ] 15.0
10.0

~
I ~toato ...

,.
I';&
TrneCS
0 OOdeg
o50deg
J
Velue
~
t~ 5.0
~
~
g
10.0

5.0

fl // I

~ ::s 2 OOdeg
"ii u
~~
..
'.:..::S 700deg
- I
>
-5.0
dr ' 2-0
Tme(s)
4.0

::_1
':!I& 5 OOdeg
1.0 2.0 3.0
10 OOdeg
Tme(s) - 10.0
L
:Jtt:-.: addrow

Data Input -- -- -~

- - - - -.
I
I
40.0
I 200.0
i
f
-a.
20.0
1.0 _ _ ;~s) /o M 100.0 Trne(s)
l
I
-8 - -... 0
'i.
- -a 1,0 2t0 3.0 4.0

\1
~ ~
'jj -20.0
~ ~
-10.0 .... -100.0 I
<
I
I -60.0 -200.0
' '
L ~ -

- -
Hoke fu-oc1Jon ovalable fix- use elsewhere h d-is dorument Nan\0: lJ<er finbOn I

()( ll c.nceJ I! ~

- , e Function Build dialog will look different if Segments or Expression is selected as each has
~=-t data input requirements.
-~ :nput
- : ::1 be entered either by typing it direct ly into the data input table or by clicking Import Data and
=-:- -g a text ('''.txt ) or comma-separated variables ("'.csv) file containing the data.
178 Chapter 7

Data Export
Values for Data Point. Segment, and Expression types can be saved as external files for reuse in othe-
motion studies in different documents or internally in the current file for use in other mot ion studies ;-
the current file.
To save the current data set for use in other motion studies in t he current document. select Make
function available for use elsewhere in this document and then type a name for the function.

,./j Make fi.nction avaiable for use elsewhere in this doanlent Name: User function 1

To save the current data set for use in motion studies in other documents, click Save As ~ in the
Function Builder and save the file to a common location. The file will have the extension sldfnc
(SolidWorks Function).

Data Point Motors


As their name implies. Data Point motors use a set of data points to control displacement, velocity, c-
acceleration of the motor. Data points can either be typed in manually or read from an existing table.

Importing Data Points


Using imported data points. you can use your own motion data to control the displacement. velocity. c-
acceleration of t he motor. The data points can either be entered directly into the data input table or
from an existing text file. The file would be very similar to those used in other parts of SolidWorks wher~
the input data would be comma-delimited. The imported data file must be either a t ext file (*.txt) or
comma-separated variables file ("''.csv) format. An unlimited number of data points may be used, but tt-~E
minimum number of data points to be defined is four points.

The first column in the data point template is always time, while the ot her column is the displacemen~
velocity, or acceleration. These values can be manually defined or imported.
Selecting Load From File displays the standard Windows File, Open dialog t Sample data.b:t... [. = I @) ~
which allows the selection of a file that contains data point values. The file File Edit Format View Help

shou ld contain one data point per line. The data point consists of two p,o
l,. 5
2,2
values; the time and the value at that time. Commas are used as separators 2.5,7
3,5
between the values. The file is essentially free-format aside from t hese 4,10
-':E
restrictions.
Motion Drivers 179

: ..:rve Fitting
Data Time Value
:~:eyou have the data points entered, there are three ways
Point
=:a curve to the data points. To demonstrate the different
-~ e fit methods, we will use the data in the table at right. 0.00 0.0

2 1.00 0.5

3 2.00 2 .0

4 2.50 ].0

5 3 .00 5 .0

6 4.00 10.0

_ -;Ear
- .inear interpolation, straight lines are drawn between
=::oints wit hout any fitting. a; 10.0 !1
~
.,c
! 5.01

i:5

2.0 3.0 4.0


lime (s)

--=-.a
e - 'lla cubic spline interpolation method performs a local 1
- - s method requires information about points in the 10.0

:- of the interpo lation interval in order to define the "'...


~

-.-= : .ent s of the cubic polynomial. Consequently, each data ~


~ 5.0
..., an Akima spline affects only the nearby portion of the "'
~
'= 3ecause it uses local methods, an Akima interpolation i:5
~~--~+-~~-+--
::z :-_.ated very quickly. 1.0 20 3.0 4.0
Tirne (s)
- - . -na method produces good results for the value of the
-= '71ated function. This method also returns good
~.=:es for the first derivative of the approximated
:1 when the data points are evenly spaced. In instances
= :1e data points are unevenly spaced, the estimate of
"'5: derivative may be in error. The second derivative of
.;:;:;: -oximated function is unreliable with this method.
180 Chapter 7

Cubic
The cubic spline interpolation method performs a global fit.
Global methods use all the given points to calcu late the
coefficients for all interpolation intervals simultaneously.
]' 10.01 ~J
Therefore, each dat a point affects the entire cubic spline. If
you move one point. t he whole curve changes accordingly, l~ S.OI1 Lll

making a cubic spline rougher and harder to force into a 0 lj ~ .. I I


desired shape. This is especially noticeable for functions with 1 1.0 2.0 3-.o 4.o
linear portions. or that have sharp changes in the curve. In lime (s}

these cases, a cubic spline is almost always rougher t han an


Akima spline.

General Considerations
Both global {cubic) and local (Akima) methods work well on smoothly curving functions. -
The cubic spline interpolation method. though not as fast as Akima spline interpolation. produces gooc
, :::ka-.11
results for the value of the approximated function, as well as its first and second derivatives. The date:
points do not have to be evenly spaced. The solution process often requires estimates of derivatives o-=
the functions being defined. The smoother a derivative is. the easier it is for the solution process to
converge.

Part 4: Data Points Motor


While the above procedures worked, making edits can be difficult because we would have to modify
mult iple motors each t ime we want to make a change. If there were additional moves where t he
robot_lower_axis moved to several ot her positions. we might have a long list of motors to synchronize
An alt ernate approach would be t o use the Data Point fun ction for the motors where we can put all thE - :n:.. --
moves in a single list for each motor.

Procedure
l Create a copy of the motion study.
Right-click the Robot-3 motion st udy tab and click Duplicate.

Name the new study Robot-4.

2 Delete motor key points.


Move the time bar to 0 seconds.
Delete the key points for the two motors.

Turn on the rotary motor at o seconds.


Motion Drivers 181

Edit the rotary motor.


:-e~ge the Motor type to Data Points and click Edit, this will open the Function Builder and
~lacement. Enter the values shown for Time and Value.

:~ :::::t Linear for the Interpolation type. The displacement graph will display the curve shown below.

n Se9nert II~ oaa P<JO;. II Expression J


100.0
Value (y): ~t(dog) .:J ~
"' so.ot .r \
~tvarlabfe(x): (nme(s) I :3. 60.0
Qj

lnt.rpolalion type: ll.Olear I ~ 40.0


"'
1}
I- ~o..~...--I i5
20.0.1. '

rme s) Voluo
s O.OOdeg 5.0 10.0 15.0
.:s 90.00deg
Time {s)
Js
~

:Jet to add row


90 OOdeg
0 OOdeg l
- e this interpolation is satisfact ory for an animation where we are not concerned about velocity
_-c.-:ges and acceleration, we would like a smoother transition, something like Ease in/Ease out. Select
-=~kim a and then Cubic interpolation types just to see the differences. Ne ither of t hese interpolations
Nork for the robot so return to the Linear interpolation type. In the next section, we will use a
-=erent interpolation method that will give us a smoother result.
~--- .r
Akima I'i Cubic
250.0

!
00
300.0

'E 200.0
'
' II
I
~
"'
OJ

~
200.0

150.0
!:!
I
OJ

6 fjj 100.0
v u
~ 100.0 I
"' 50.0
0
i5
'
'
I
I
1}
i5
- ------- .... ..... .. I
I
5.0
Tune (s)
10.0 15.0
l
I

!
l: I I

5.0
I

Tune (s)
10.0
I I )

15.0
I
182 Chapter 7

4 Edit the linear motor.


Change the Motor type to Data Points and click Edit. Enter the values shown for Time and Value.
Select Linear for the Interpolation type, this will give us the curve shown below.

I[Q Segmerts [ !~!::{ Dae Pms IIh Expresskln ~


vaue (y): ~cement {11111} T I
Independontvanable (x): lrme {s) T I

Interpolation type: ILhear T I


[ ln1><>rtData... I
Trne(&) v.we
Os O.OOOnvn 4.0 6.0 s.o 10.0 12.0
4s 0.0001001
Time (s)
5$ 1oa.ooorrrn
10s 100.00011111
11s 0.00011111
Cick to add row

5 Calculate.
Calculate the animation.
We now have the same animation as before but with only two motors. If we need to add additional
motion to these motors, it is a simple matter of editing the table in Function Builder or creating a texc
file and importing it, whichever is easier.

6 Close all open files.

Part 5: Segments Motor


When using data points, there is only one interpolation method used for the entire data set. While thi~
may be acceptable for many situations, there are times, such as in this robot. where we need differen:
interpolation types for different parts of the data set. When the robot components are moving. we war..
a smooth start and stop. When a robot component is supposed to be stopped, we want it to remain
stationary. With t he data points method, we could not achieve both conditions because we needed linec:-
interpolation to keep the model stationary, but this did not allow for smooth movement between
stat ionary points. If we used Akima or cubic interpolation, we could never get the model stationary.
In this part of the case study, we will use the Segments motor to tailor the data set to achieve both
conditions.
Motion Drivers 183

edure
Edit the rotary motor.
:-c:-ge the Motor type to Segments and click Edit. This will lib Segmenls ~ ~~ Doto Points JIJ.. Expression I
:::F :he Function Builder. The data ent ry area will look similar Value {y}: IDisplacement {deg) 3
-:en we added data points but there are some slight Independent variable {x): ITrne (s) I
-=ences. Start X End X Vll:!ue Seqment Type
0 OOdeg
-.=::: Displacement for the Value (y}. Enter the values shown in Os 1s O.OIIdeg Cubic (Oefa
1$ Zs 90 Olldeg Cubic (De fa
E :<:~le. Note that the End X will also be t he Start X for t he 2s 13s 90.00deg Cu bic (Dehl
13s 14s OOOdeg Cubic (De fa
-:: --:Jw as we are defining a piecewise curve. By default, the 14s 15s OOOdeg Cubic (De fa
Click to add row
~ .1ent Type will be Cubic for each segment.

Seynent Interpolation Types


--:he segment type, t here are 10 different interpolation modes available.The table summarizes the
: -_s types of interpolation available using a change in value of one in one second.

~ic 3-4-S 1.0


1.0
Polynomial

0 .5 0.5

0 .2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

.:.ater 1.0 4-S-6-7 P 1.0


::E Polynomial

0.5 0.5

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.4 0 .6 0 .8 1.0

_.:.crter 1.0 s-6-7-8-g 1.0


~e Polynomial

0.5 0.5

0.2 0.4 0 .6 0 .8 1.0 0 .2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0


184 Chapter 7

Half 1.0 Cycloidal 1.0


Cosine

0.5 0.5

0.2 0.4 0.6 0 .8 1.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 !.C

Quadratic 1.0 Linear 1.0

0.5 0.5

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.2 0 .4 0.6 O.B !.C

2 Set interpolation modes.


Select the Segment Type cell for each of the segment s in turn and select Linear fo r the three segmer.::::
of the curve we want to be flat and 3-4-5 Polynomial for the segments where the curve changes vaiL=
The displacement graph will display the curve shown below.

lib Segmerns ~~~ ~ataPons [j _t; Expreso~n I


v.ue (y): !Displacement (deg) ~I

Independent variable (x): !Tome {s) ~I


Star! X End X Vaile Segmen!Type
O~OOdeg
(),5 1s 0 OOdeg li1ear (Oef
1s 2s 90.00de; :>4-5-Pot,m
2s 13s 9Q OO~ cg Linear (Oef
13s 14s O~OOt!e~ :>4-5-Pot,m
5.0 10.0 15.0
14s 1Ss 0 OOdeg Linear(Oef
Cick to ~dd row Tome (s)
Motion Drivers 185

Edit the linear motor.


.=::: the linear motor and use the table below to set up the segments. The displacement curve is shown
:-:: :w.

Segmerts II~ Data Pons j jJ; ExpressKlO ~


100.0
Value (y}: IDisplctment (mm} I 'E

1
..
::nd!:pendent variable (x}: lT""" (s} I c.,
- X End X Value
0 OOOmm
Segment Type
g
:;: so.of,'
:a 4s OOOOmm Linear (Def ~
0
:
Ss 1DO.OOOmm 3-4-S-Polyn I

---+~L+---+--
~
... 10s
11s
10o.ooomm
0 OOOmm
Linear (Del
3-4-S-Polyn
-
5.0 10.0 15.0
s 1Ss O.OOOmm Lilear (Oef
, ::icl1D add row Time (s)

Calculate.
--= ;novement of the two motors will now start up and slow down smoothly.
~ =. =:=.-iment with the other interpolation types to see the effects of the different options on the
=-~:E .,. . . ~at ion .

~ 6: Expression Motor
--::_: -emaining method that can be used with the Function Bui lder is to use an expression to drive a
-:::: r. Because the motor movements are direct steps between two values, a STEP function can be
..s-=-

:cedure
Edit the rotary motor.
:-,c-:ge the Motor type to Expression and click Edit. The data ent ry area will look different from when
_ ~:::ded data points and segments.
186 Chapter 7

Function Builder-Expressions
Expressions can be entered directly into the Expression Definit ion box or funct ions, variables,
constant s. and results f ro m mot ion studies can be added by double-clicking them in t he Expr ession
Elements area.

Function Builder

I[Q Sogmonts JJ ~ DNa P<*is IIh E'l)tessoo j


Volue (Y)' (Displacement (dog) ::::J Expression Elements
------
ABS(a) Absolute va!ue of expression
Expression Definition ACOS(a) Arc cosne of expres::ion an the range [OT-
Alltr(o) ~'1:-:l!f~t inb!Qer ~..tlcY..e nw~Of"li~ is not ge:
ANINT(a} ~~ti'l~toa.
ASIN(a) !Vc,..,. of express;on i'1 the range [.PI{2;
ATAN(o) /Vc tono;ent of expression i'1 the ranoe [-i'
ATAN2(al,.,2) Q,Jadrcnt correct arc tang~t of expr~
BISTOP(x,xdot,xl,x2,k,e,anax,d) Miode!s a ~p ~ement.
01EBY(x,x0re'O,al, ... ,a30) Evaluates a Ch~yshev polynorrtat at a I!Se!r

"' j_ __

J Velodty J] Accelerotion r-'rinun x value: 0 Ma)Qmum x "~: 14

t 2.637 v-o t 2.637 a 0

5.or : 5.0 5.0

~:::L
; ~:::LT :
N

~ 4.0 'M' 4.0


iE
3.0 :
'
:! 3.0
6
-a< 3.0
.lj
~ 2.0 : 'B 2.0 : ~ 2.0 ";;; 2.0
~
i5 1.0
.
: ~ 1.0 : ] 1.0 ~ 1.0

0.0 o.o ... _.:...._.., .. _,~-( 0.0 -+-<-+-+-<--~ 0.0 --+- -t- ~-+-_,_.._..._....

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 s.o
Tme(s) Tme(s) Tme (s) Tme(s)

I~ a< II c~ J['
2 Enter an expression.
In t he Expression Elements pane, scroll down until you locat e t he STEP function. Double-click STEP. Th~
will place the f unct ion into the Expression Definition pane with the cursor between t he two brackets
waiting for input of the variables. In t he Expression Element s pa ne select Variables and Constants f ror
t he list. The only variable ava ilable f or Animation and Basic Motion stu dy types is Time. Double-click
Time and it will be enter ed into t he expression at t he cursor.
Motion Drivers 187

'=-ow have a step function where the variable is Time. The next
- es are the time and value of the start of the step {xo. ho) and the 100.0 '
'
..::: .......
--= and va lue of the end of the step (xl, hl). Complete the expression c;;
., 80.0 '
- at it reads: STEP(Time,l,0,2,90). This says to move the moto r ::::. 60.0 '
'
;:;
-:; o t o go degrees between 1 and 2 seconds. E
8 40.0 :
"'
~
- ::mplete the rota ry motion, we must add a second step fu nction to 2D.O '

~--n the component back to its origina l position.


0
I
5.0 10.0
Time (s)

... ~--=:- type or use the Expression Elements to complete the function
": J
:=-.~

~ -~ ..,...
::=:at it reads: STEP(Time,l,0,2,90)+STEP(Time,l3,0,14,-90). 100.0 -I
-
~ :_..;r

r:t~
'= : :d not have to use go and 0 as the values for the second step as
-~::;;s start from wherever they happen to be located.
c;;
OJ
::::.
;:;
E
80.0

60.0
l

8 40.0

- Save t he function.
- .:. Save As ~ in t he Funct ion Builder and save t he same directory
_ -e assembly with the name Rotary Step for robot.sldfnc. I
"'
~
i5
20.0

--+--+--<
5 ..0 10.0 15.0

- c
Calcu late.
::ssembly should now move correctly.
l Time {s)

Save.
- ~ c:nd close t he assembly.
~

tssemblies
:-=assemblies can cause problems in t he solution of an animation if not set up corre ctly. If motio n is
= :1ed between different components of a s ubassembly, then the subassembly must either be flexible
:e dissolved.
,, .
-=~ :n drivers cannot be added to subassembly components. even if the subassembly is f lexible,
cr:=fore the subassembly must be dissolved for motion to be driven by those components.

=-:-t..d Subassemblies
:.E:S ~~~ass emblies are added to other assemblies as subassemblies, by default they are solved as rigid.
s -::-- --c:. :s, t he mates of the subassembly are not solved in the upper assembly and the subassembly acts
c .:::- .:5 =:t were a single rigid part.
188 Chapter 7

Flexible Subassemblies
Making a subassembly flexible allows t he individual components to move relative to each other with -
t he parent assembly. This means that subassembly mates must be solved during motion. This can slo
down the solution significantly.
In cases where we need the subassembly mates to be solved, the subassembly must Sotve as
be made flexible. When flexible, the assembly icon will change from rigid ~ to ({I I Flexible
flexible ~.Making a subassembly flexible is useful if the subassembly is being driven
by other moving components. such as a hydraulic cylinder that is attached at both ends.
Where to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Component Properties ~ . select Solve as, select Flexible

Case St udy: Subassemblies


In all of our case studies, all the components and mates have been in the top level assembly. When 2 -
assembly cont ains subassemblies, we can still create animations; however, we cannot drive motion
through subassembly mates.
In this case study, we will use the same robot that we used in t he previous case study except t hat sorE
of the components are now in a subassembly. We will explore the problems that this creates.
Procedure
1 Open the assembly.
Open the assembly Robot2.sldasm from the Robot2 fo lder.

2 Examine the assembly.


In this assembly, the parts shown in blue are now a separate subassembly.

3 Open the subassembly.


Open the subassembly robot-action.sldasm in its own window.
Motion Drivers 189

Examine the mates. 8 !jl!Jl MateGroupl


- the subassembly we have three angle mates and one D Flaf19"Wrist (roboUwist2< 1 >,roboUian~2 < 1 >)
D ForarmUpper (robot_upper_axis2<1>, roboUorearm 2<1>)
:. stance mate. D Wrtst-Forarm (robot_fore.,m-2<1>, robot_,...Jst2<1>)
H Distance! (robot_upper_axis-2<1>,robotJcrearm-2<1>)
@ Concentric341 (robot_forearm-2<1>, robot_wrist 2<1>)
' ake the window with the Robot-2 assembly active. @ Concentric331 (robot_upper_axis2<1>,robot_forearm2<1>)
@ Concentrlc361 (robot_wrist2<1>, robot_llange2<1>)
Create a motion study. _,(_ Coilcident3'1 I (robot_forearm-2<1>,robot_wrist2< I>)
_,(_ Cohcident361 (robot_wrist-2<1 >, robot_flange2<1>)
arne t he new study Robot lA.

r.: Examine the mates. 8 ~ ()robot-action< ! >


Move
-the MotionManager design tree, the subassembly , } Explode
-ates are not listed, so we cannot control them in an e AppellrM Ce
S ~ Mates n Robot2
=..-;mation of the Robot-2 asse mbly. @,.:1;. Concentric321 (robot_arm_ricj>l:-2<1>)
..( J:. Colncldent321 (robot_ann_ricj>l:-2<1>)
Drag a component. .i) DJ:.LWerArm(robot_arm_right-2<1>)
2r ~ (f) robot_upper_axis-2<1>
- - , to drag the robot-forearm component. You cannot s ~ robot_forearm-2<1>
ffi ~ robot_wrlst2<1>
:.<rend the robot-forearm.
tJ ~ roboU IMge-2<1>
8 !Jl!Jl Motes
Suppress a mate. il :J other Motes
ce =:it the subassembly robot-action and suppress the one 9 :::J Contol Motes
D U>PerArm (robot-action<! >,robot_arm_ricj>l:-2<1>)
:stance mate. Iii D Lower-Base (robot_base-2<1>,robot_lower_axis2<1>)
.., D Arm-lower (robot_arm_ri>;lht-2<1>,robotjower_axis-2<1>)
=::turn to editing the assembly Robot-2.

Drag a component.
- -v to drag the robot-forearm component. Even t hough this mate is s uppressed, the component will
-:t move because the subassembly is rigid.

: Make the subassembly flexible. Solve as

::: ght-click t he assembly robot-action and click Component Properties ~- For Solve ' Rigid
i FleXible
5 , se lect Flexible.

Examine the mates.


::~tice t hat making the s ubassembly flexible does not give us access to t he mates of t he subassembly
-the MotionManager design t ree.

: Drag a component.
- -y to drag the robot-forearm component. The robot-forearm will now ext end be cause the mates of
- e subassembly are being solved and the mate cont rolling this motion is sup pressed.

So. while allowing the mates of the subassembly t o be solved, making t he subassembly flexible does not
-:lp us gain access to the mates needed to drive the components. To gain access to t hese mat es, we
- Jst move t he m int o t he main assembly.
190 Chapter 7

Modifying the Structure of an Assembly


There are a number of tools that allow you to manage and modify t he organizational structure of an
assembly. When creating animations we are concerned primarily with getting the components and mate~
of interest into the t op level assembly.
The process of promoting components is accomplished in several ways:
Dissolve a subassemb ly.
1!1 Drag and drop component s into or out of subassemblies.

Use drag and drop to reorder compone nts within an assembly or subassembly.

Dissolving a Subassembly
You can dissolve a subassembly into individual components. This will move the components and mates 5
up one level in the assembly hierarchy.

Where to Find It
Shortcut Menu: Right-click the subassembly icon, Dissolve Subassembly
Menu: Select the subassembly, Edit, Dissolve Assembly

Reorganize Components Using Drag and Drop --


Components can be moved from one assembly t o another by dragging and dropping them in the
FeatureManager design tree. You can select one or more components using the Ctrl or Shift keys, ar:
=
move them in a single operation. The cursor will change to ' \ as the components are dragged and
drop ped onto a subassembly or the top level assembly. The components then become part of t hat
assemb ly.
- :C:l
Reorganize Components
Reorganize Components does essentially the same thing as dragging and dropping components
between assemblies except that it is done through a dialog box.

Where to Find It
II! Menu: Tools, Reorganize Components

Promoting and Demoting Components


Components can be moved from a subassembly t o the t op level assembly by dragging and dropping
them. They can also be moved between subassemblies, or from the top level assembly to a subassemt
When you reorganize the components at any level, the mates and any features that reference the
selected components are affected. Therefore, if you are reorganizing an assembly in order t o make c:-
animation. it is best to do it with a copy of t he assembly t o avoid any unintended consequences to yo...-
manufacturing data.
-=-
Motion Drivers 191

-- -:gs to keep in mind when reorganizing components:


.:ates of the component move to the mate group of the lowest common parent assembly.
'.'oving a fixed component from a subassembly to the top level assembly may overdefine the top level
:=ssembly.
=eatures that have external references will be deleted if the referenced component moves. A
- essage will appear t o inform you of this.
:::::~mponent pattern instances cannot be moved. Moving the component that is the seed for a
:::nponent pattern will delete the component pattern. A message will appear to inform you of t his.
=::;- ::dditional information on reorganizing assemblies, see the training manual Assembly Modeling.

.: Select Model tab.


:t ==t the Model tab. This is necessary to make sure the mat es are moved to the top level assembly as
-.c.::::l mates. If we have a motion study active, the moved mates will become local mates in that motion
::.u only.

; Dissolve the subassembly.


-=-~-click the robot-action subassemb ly and click Dissolve Subassembly.

--e-e will be an error message that shows that there are many warnings in the assembly from mates
c. ::re either overdefining the assembly or cannot be solved.
":a:'s Wrong
"" ::this looks like a major problem, it is caused by one. easy-to-correct problem. In t he subassembly,
::::mponent needed to be fixed to keep the assembly from moving. This was the component
-.-c:._upper_axis-2. Now that the components of the subassembly are in the main assembly, this part
::-ger needs the fixed relationship.

rloat the part.


=sc ~:he What's Wrong message.
--.: =eatureManager design tree. right-click the part robot_upper_axis-2 and click Float.

- =errors and warnings should have now cleared.


=xamine the mates.
-e mates from the subassemb ly are now in the main assembly and can be placed in the appropriate
c~-s.
<::

- cJld now proceed as we did in t he beginning of this chapter and drive the model through the mates
~=:o r s.
192 Chapter 7

17 Close all open files.

Troubleshooting Motor Problems


Motors are very versatile and easy to use; however. it is not uncommon that when new users start usir5
multiple motors they suddenly have animations that freeze and fail to solve. There is no numericallirr-
to the number of motors that can be added to an assembly. What limits the amount of motors in an
assembly is the ability of the computer hardware to process the motion fast enough.
There are two main reasons why motors do not solve:
Failure to specify the rotation relative to
If the component the motor is supposed to rotate relative to is not set. the motor is considered to 1:=
attached to ground.

Conflicts between motors


A motor that is set not to rotate is not the same thing as a motor that is off. If a motor's speed is se-
to zero. it essentia lly becomes a distance mate.
Troubleshooting a set of motors that will not solve is similar to solving a problem with mates that w;
not solve. You need to start by isolating the motors and determining if each motor will funct ion by itse =
If they all function correctly in isolat ion. the next step is to start turning them on. one by one. and findif5
the point at which the motion fails to solve. Using just those motors that are turned on, you must the-
check for conflicts.

Case Study: Motor Troubleshooting


In this case study we will examine a simple model of a desk fan.
It uses two motors to run. one t o rotate the fan blades and the
second to oscillate the fan. We will see the effects of not defining
the relative to component field.
Play the video Fan from the Videos folder. This shows the
motion we are trying to achieve with the two motors.

Procedure
1 Open the Fan.
Open the assembly Fan.sldasm from the lesson fo lder.

2 Create a motion study.


Create a new motion study and name it Troubleshooting.
=
Motion Drivers 193

.!,.dd a motor. -
Component/Dire<:tion: ~

:: :: ;-otary motor to t he part Fan rotary base. Name the motor Base lLJ j Face<l>~Fan rotary base-l J

-..c.:::on. t~ pac;< t>#Fanrotarybase-1 ']

-c:: s elect a Component to Move Relative to. l~ r H-. Jt


[r-1~ __2J
27
- ?the motor as fo llows: I Osclating

./ 135deg
~":'Lt:Jn: Oscillating
~ 0,1Hz A

~= :;[ement: 135deg
~ ~d~ ; \

=-=-ency: 0.10 Hz

as:: Shift: godeg

Set options. l :[] CJid< the grph 1D enlar~

-::Motion St udy Properties, set the frame rat e t o 10 fps.


:s
Calculate.
t: =en now oscillates from side to side as we expect. As we did not specify a component to rotate
2:
-=: <te to, t he motor rotates relative to ground (the assembly coordinate system).

Suppress the motor.


==the time bar t o 0 seconds.
::::::-ess t he motor.

Add a second motor. Component /Direction __ ~


--
:.: 2 rotary motor t o part Fan blades. Name the motor Blade Rotation. = fFace<l>@Fan blades I J

E<l>~an blades-1~
o:-:::t select a Component to Move Relative to.
- _j
- - e the motor as follows:
~lotion ~

Constl!nt Speed
- -=:ion: Constant Speed
0 35RPM

- .:.:.::d: 3SRPM

--E
Calculate.
=an blades now rotate as we expect. As we did not specify a component
~o t
CJid< the graph 1D enlar90
-:Jve relative to, this motor also rotates relative to ground.

Unsuppress motor.
=. e the t ime bar to 0 seconds.

_::sJppress the other motor.


194 Chapter 7

10 Calculate.
Even t hough both motors worked correct ly when ru n individually, toget her t he blades rotate but the
base does not.

Note In older versions of SolidWorks, you might get a different result where the base rotat es and t~
blades do not and t he t imeline may not solve and show red; however, the main point here is that t he
motors do not solve correct ly.

To see the effect of selecting the Component to Move Relative to, we will select the component in ea-
motor and observe the results.

11 Edit Base Rotation motor. ~Component/Direction


Move the time bar to 0 seconds. ILl ~"" rotaryba2 .

Edit the motor Bose Rotation. Select t he part Fan s tationary base for the
f?J IFace<l >#fan rotary ba2-.
Component to Move Relative to.
~~ ~tationary base- lCF '
12 Calculate.
The base still does not rotate. It is still rotating relative to ground because t he Fan stationary bas::
is a fixed component.

13 Edit Base Rotation motor.


Edit the motor and clear t he selection for Component to Move Relative to.

14 Edit Blade Rotation motor. ~mponent/Directlon


Edit the motor and select the component Fan motor fo r Component to Move I'Cl j Face < l>~Fan bladesl

Relative to. r.?JFW~esl

15 Calculate.
~ I IFan molxlrl~an
This time both motors work correct ly.

16 Close.
Save and close the assembly.

The init ial cause of t his problem was t he conflict between the t wo motors. Not specifying a Compone-
to Move Relative to fo r t he Blade Rotation mot or causes the motor position to stay fixed in space~
work correct ly. At t he same ti me, the Base Rotation motor was trying to move the Fan motor bt:
could not because it was fixed by the Blade Rotation moto r. SolidWorks could not solve both of thes
conditions simultaneous ly, which resulted in only one of the mot ors working correctly.

Important! When you have multiple motors in an animation and they do not solve correctly, t he mas-
likely cause is a conflict between what you have defined.
Motion Drivers 195

ling around a Closed Path


==.: ng motion around a closed path can sometimes lead to confusion as to why the moving component
'E5 in a given direction. We have used three different methods to move components, so we will

:-e the differences in how components move around a closed path using each of these methods. To
--:;w this works. we will look at three different methods to make a component move:

: -ect path
:::es/Paths
"::ors

: _=rt Path
--=--parts are set to move between two key points, the in-between points will be created using the
:::---:est distance between t he two key points. lt does not matter how you moved the component to
:-::.:,ish the two key points, only the position of the component at the actual key points .
.tedure
Open the assembly.
..E- the assembly Clock.sldasm. This is just a simple
s::-rbly with a clock fa ce and a minute and hour hand.

Create a motion study.


-=:::e an Animation motion study.
- 5 the Motion Study Properties. set the frame rate
-J fps.

Set first position.


_ 2 the time bar to o seconds, set the blue hand t o the
- : : .ock position.

Set second position


:: 2 the time bar to 4 seconds. Drag the blue hand all
-:e :ay around until it is back to the 12 o'clock position.

Play.
z ~he animation and the hand will not move. Even though we dragged the hand 360 from 12 to 12,

- - ~ey point s are at the same location so there is no movement.


196 Chapter 7

6 Set intermediate position.


Delete the key point at 4 seconds.
Drag the time bar to 2 seconds. Drag the blue hand to the 6 o'clock position.
Copy t he key point from o seconds to 4 seconds. We are doing this to make sure t he starting and end-:
positions are exactly the same. We have three key points now to make the red hand go from 12 to 6 c-o:
back to 12.

7 Play.
This time. the blue hand will move from 12 o'clock to 6 o'clock and then reverse direction back to
12 o'clock. The direction the hand moves will depend on exactly where you established the key points. :o
without mates to accurately position the hand, you might have been a little off on both positions. Tr::
hand moved in whichever direction was the shortest to get from 12 o'clock to 6 o'clock. As it had to retL-
to the same starting point. the shortest distance back to start was the reverse of the forward
movement.

8 Add key points.


Delete the key point at 2 seconds and move the key point from 4 seconds to 6 seconds.
Move the t ime bar to 2 seconds and position t he red hand at 4 o'clock.
Move the t ime bar to 4 seconds and position t he red hand at 8 o'clock.

9 Play.
The blue ha nd will now make one complete turn from 12 o'clock clockwise back to 12 o'clock.
Note We did not accurately place the keys fo r the three positions, but t he playback should still loa~
smooth as the differences in rotation rates will be so small that t hey will not be noticeable. lf you wc..-
more accuracy, you could use Position Only mates to set the position of the red hand at each key pc-

10 Continue rotation.
Now that the hand rotates one full t urn, how do we get it to rotate further? The easiest way is to jl.!s-
copy the keys.
Window-select the keys at 2, 4. and 6 seconds. Press and hold the Ctrl key and drag the three keys s:
that the copy of the key from 2 seconds is now at 8 seconds.

11 Play.
The red hand will now make t wo complete turns from 12 o'clock clockwise. In each case. t he closest
distance from the position at one key point to the next is always a clockwise rotation. If we needed
additional turns, we could just continue to copy keys.
Motion Drivers 197

-St1g Mates
--~ ~im e, we will use an angle mate to rotate the red hand. With mates, we can accurately specify a
.: :.:::on.

xedure
E,.:;lo Create a motion study.
::::::e another Animation motion study.

Add a mate.
c. 2 sure the time bar is at o seconds.
13. :~=::::e a new angle mate between the Right plane of the Base part and t he Right plane of the Slotted
-=..-~"'part. Set the mate angle to o deg.
F-"
~ ::-:s mate has been added while in a motion study, it is a local mate that only applies to this motion
_:/.

Add a second point. Modify


: 2 the time bar to 4 seconds. Dl@Angiel

~ .-
--e MotionManager design tree, double-click the Angle mat e to open the
::dify dialog box. ~ x e :? ~
- -c:e 360 and click OK.

Play.
--:E olue hand will rotate one turn because 0 degrees and 360 degrees are not the same point.

---

fS

5
.:....-
198 Chapter 7

The 100/360 Rule


When using mates or percentage/distance along path to move a component. the input values can be
from 0 degrees to 360 degrees or 0 percent to 100 percent. When we view these dimensions on a close:
path such as a circle or a closed spline, our perception is that 0 degrees and 360 degrees or 0 perce-
and 100 percent are the same point. While they may have the same X, Y, and Z coordinates, they are nc-
the same and SolidWorks sees them either 360 degrees apart or 100 percent apart.

0% 25% 50% 75%


0
100%

To see this difference, after the first rotation, we will make the red hand move around to the 4 o'cloc
position.

5 Add key point.


Move the time bar to 5.7 seconds.

Double-click the angle mate in the MotionManager design tree and change the angle to 120 deg.

6 Play.
The blue hand will make one rotation clockwise and then instead of continuing clockwise from 12 o'clc:'
to 4 o'clock, it will reverse and move counterclockwise.

Even though we see the motion as around a circle. the mate values are linear. When the mate got to
360 degrees. t he only way to get to 120 degrees was to go back through 359. 358. 357. etc.
Motion Drivers 199

-iow Do We Go Beyond 360 degrees/100 percent?


--=method to make it appear that the blue hand continues clockwise from 12 o'clock to 4 o'clock is
S?:: ~ 1ple, we just have to remember the basic principles of animation. The first principle is that the
-:?"" ~ .;nation is composed of still images played back in succession, and the second principle is that the

--- -ages are captured based on the frame rate. To make it appear that t he blue hand on ly turns clockwise,
ce just need to get it t o move from 360 degrees back to o degrees in less t ime t han successive frames.

Move to new position.


": te the time bar to about 5 seconds, The exact position is not import ant, only that it is between the
~E points at 4 and 5.7 seconds.

=.::: the angle mate and set it to o deg.


Play.
--: blue hand will make one clockwise rotat ion from o to 4 seconds, t hen move counterclockwise from
.: : 'clock back to 12 o'clock between 4 and 5 seconds and then move clockwise to 4 o'clock between 5
- : 5.7 seconds.
Adjust the key point. Edit lime
- :1e beginning of the case study, we set the frame rat e to 10 fps, so each ~.Ols
~-e is 0.1 seconds apart. What we need is for the counterclockwise rotation
..: : ::cur between the frame at 4.0 seconds and the next frame at 4.1 seconds. ~ X [~W !?

=_::5 ::-click the key point at 5 seconds and click Edit Key Point time. Type 4.01 seconds and then click
- - - his places this key very close to the key at 4 .0 seconds.

Play.
--~ ::::lue hand now completes one and one-third revolutions smoothly. There is a quick rewind at 4
.=t:: 1ds, but it is between frames so that it is not visible.
There is a very small timing error when we do this method because at 4.01 seco nds, the hand
:l:_ld not be at 0 degrees but really at 0.9 degrees. As you can see from the playback, this is so small
~-: .:: is not noticed and not worth the effort to make the timing exact. The alternative is to figure out
:..=:: Nhen the frame is captured at 4.1 seconds, the blue hand should be at 9.0 degrees and set that key

::tor Method
-::-:er way to get rotation is to just use a rotary motor as it is less work to set up and we do not have
: .: :her with the 100/360 Rule.
200 Chapter 7

Case Study: Path Mate


In t his case study, we will move a car
component around a t rack. The track will be a
winding road where the car must turn both
left and right.

Path Mate
The Path Mate is an Advanced Mate t hat
connects the vertex of a component to a path.
The component can be dragged along t hat
path using sett ings for Path Constraint, Pitch/
Yaw Control, and Roll Control. In an animation,
t he posit ion of the component can be
controlled by setting key point s that specify the dist ance along t he path either by percent or distar::

The path can be a single edge or multiple edges using t he Selection Manager.

Storyboard
The MGB sports car will drive along the road for one and
a half circuits of the course.
Play the video Movin g Car.m p4 to see the intended
results.
Moving Car ~~
D
0
....~ ~ =
0

0 ' - - - - -----'
Motion Drivers 201

~edure
Open the Road.
::21 the part Road.sldprt.
--5 ~s asimple flat plate part with the top surface split and
-==-ent appearances applied to simulate a roadway.

Open the car part.


:-:= the part MGB.sldprt.
==--~-:<ine the model and note that there are
-r:: sketches that each have just a single
: -:..We will attach the point in the sketch
....-:;d Tow point to the path curve to pull
t: :ar around the path. The point in the
.:::~ Trail point will be used to keep the
:::- 2 igned with the path.

:=.:c.- ::1f t he two points is about 7.34mm above


~E ::oint where each of the wheels rests on
t: 5 ound.

Create a path .
.: '.ant t he car to drive on the left side of
::t -:Jad (Well what did you expect? It's an
3 with a right-hand steering wheel). so we
"'=-== ~o create a path that will be halfway between the cent er line of t he road and the edge and 7.34mm
~ ? the ground. Each of the two lanes is 8omm wide.

-==:e a new plane 7.34mm above the ground and name it Car Path Plane.
-:::2:e a sketch on the Car Path Plane and use Offset Entities to offset the inside edge of the road
----:-~ toward the center of the road. This will create a path down the middle of the inside lane.

Create an assembly.
: ::.=:e a new assembly from the Road part and name the new assembly Moving Car.

Add the car.


::1e MGB part t o the assembly.
202 Chapter 7

6 Mat e the car to the path.


Add a path mate from the sketch point found in the Tow Point sketch to the
spline path you created in the Road part. [" Mots'( & AnalysB)

For Path, select Percent Along Path and a value of 0 .0 %. ~ate ~ -


Compontnt V~rt_
x::-:-:::-::--.

Note At this point t he MGB may have an orientation t hat is not level t o the ~ ~~ow point~MGS.:

road nor aligned to the direct ion of the road. We will solve t his problem in lat er Path Stl~ction:

steps.
I I Wi@@!ft@;{@R
7 Create a new motion study.
l [iltdionMan~
dar~es
Name the new study Car Motion and select Animation for the study type.
~nc:edM"'es
8 Adjust the frame rate. ..J Symmetn<

Click Motion Study Properties and adjust the frame rate to 2 0 frames per C-'~ \'Jidth

second. ~ Path Mate


Path
~ong Pa
_.::;t::..:....__~
h
9 Add a key point. P.; 0.000000%
Move the t ime bar to 8 seconds. Rip dimension
PitchJYaw
In the MotionManager design tree, right-click PathMatel and click
Edit Dimension. Change t he dimension t o 100% .

10 Perform a test run. ~ llntar,l mearCoupler

Calculate and play t he animation. ~ ~J t.ooomm


The MGB will make one lap around the track. However, the orientation will not tr. 30.00deg

I
change as we are just dragging a single point on the model. ..
r.!'

L___ - - - - - - - - -

The start and end points of the animation were at the same physical position,
but we know from the 100/360 Rule that the only way the animation can solve is to move linearly fro~
zero to 10 0.
Make sure that the car moves around the track counterclockwise when viewed from above. If it does
not, edit the direction of the path mate by selecting Flip dimension.
Motion Drivers 203

Modify the mate. Advanced Mates ~

'.iove the time bar to 0 seconds and then edit the path mate. 0 Symme tnc

Width
=or Pitch/Yaw, select Follow Path and X. This will make the X direction of the 0PathMat.o
'.;GB tangent to the path curve. If the car is pointing in the wrong direction. Path C~tr.,int:

::elect Flip to reverse t he tangency.


[&centAiongPath 3
~: ~ 0.000000%

=~r Roll, select Up Vector and then select t he surface of the road. Jl
~ Rp dmension
Pitdl/faw Control:
IFolow Pa1h ~I
Select Flip for the Pitch/Yaw and Roll as necessary t o cause the car to face in
l ox I Yl z
::-e correct direction with the tires on t he road. ::::Rp
Rei Control:
t.: Perform a test run. (Upvec~or ~]
Calculate and play the animat ion.
1 l.l> Vectx><
#HM'M
l : epending on your version and service pack of SolidWorks, this animation may I X l o YI Z

-L - -:::t solve. [JAip

-
~
/ linear;\..,..,.. Coupler
_imitations of the Path Mate
rHJl l.OOOn
.1ile the path mate works we ll in an animation with just one of the three options
::2~ to an option other than Free, it may frequently fail to solve when more t han
L:. 30.00deg
:-e option is set to something other than Free. If you select the Model tab and
- , the different combinations of options, they will all work. The problem arises
: - .y when the animation is solved in a motion study.
1ile this may appear to be a significant problem, we can easily solve it using other mates to keep the
::s upright and point along the road.
3 Edit the path mate .
t:~ly il:?-
.=:,t the path mate and set both Pitch/Yaw and Roll to Free.
- Add other mates.
-.:rl a coincident mate between t he sketch point found in the sket ch Trail Point in t he MGB, and the
: :::~6
:c::h curve. This will keep the MGB aligned with the road.
-.::l a parallel mate between a horizonta l edge on the MGB and the road. This will keep the car upright.

; Perform a test run.


- ;:,:::ulate and play the animat ion. The MGB should make one lap around the t rack.

: Continue the path.


--=next task is to make the MGB go another 50 percent around t he road.
: 1e the time bar to 12 seconds. Double-click PathMate l and edit the dimension to SO%.
204 Chapter 7

17 Perform a test run.


Calculate and play the animation.
For the first eight seconds, the MGB makes one lap counterclockwise around the track. Between 8 c'"':
12 seconds, it moves clockwise for half of a lap.

Path Mate Percent Scale


The problem is that the Percent Along Path sca le is linear from o to 100 percent. While we might assur=
that after you reach 100 percent, the scale resets to o percent, we know from the 100/360 Rule
(page 198) that it does not. To get from 100 percent to any other value, it must go backward along ti-=
scale.
To make the car continue around the track, we can use the method shown with the clock of creating ;:
reset key very close to the end key of the first lap.

18 Add a key point.


Move the time bar to about 8.5 seconds. The exact position is not important right now as it will be
moved later. Edit PathMatel and change its dimension to 0%.

19 Move the key point.


Right-click the key point we just created for PathMate l and click Edit Key Point Time. Enter 8.001s f:r
the t ime. We used 8.001 seconds because at 20 fram es per second, a frame will be recorded at eight
seconds when t he path mate is at 100 percent. Between 8 and 8.001 seconds, the path mate travels frc-
100 percent too percent. At 8.001 seconds the path mate starts moving toward 50 percent and t he ne~
frame is recorded at 8.05 seconds.
Unless you zoom in very close to the timeline, it looks like there is just a single key at 8 seconds.

20 Perform a test run.


Calcu late and play the animat ion.
The MGB should now move smoothly around the track 1.5 t imes in 12 seconds, but in some cases, the cc:-
may f lip direction during the reset. Additionally, after the model is saved and reopened, a list of mate
errors may appear.

What's Wrong?
Solving mates in an assembly is not a trivial problem as all mates have to be solved simu ltaneously. lt ..::
complicat ed by t he fact that there can be multiple solut ions fo r each mate, typically aligned and anti-
aligned, but based on the closest solution.
The problem in this particular an imation is the sequence in which the keys are solved. During the rese:..
t he tow point moves and then the mates are solved. As mates solve t o the closest solution, the t rail
point coincident mate can flip to the alternate solution, which makes the car change direction.
Motion Drivers 205

=::he component we were animating did not have a directional orientation, such as a sphere, we might
-=~have even not iced a component flipping and we would not have to make a correction.

,a c::JC '..-:Jther problem you may see is that an animation that already solved correctly, suddenly has over
::fined mates. In this animation, the simplest so lution is to try suppressing mates. In this animation, the
:c-allel mate can be suppressed and t he animation will run correctly.

IS~~ -=~e problems such as these may happen often in more complicated animation, so lt is important to
.:~erstand the causes and to have alternate solutions available. In t his case, we will look at four

ll..Q ... = ::. :ernatives.

-..n:ernative #1-Suppress the Reset


:-:.5:: --:::?easiest solut ion is to suppress the path mate during the reset.

:- Suppress the mate.


':.ve t he time bar to 8 seconds and suppress the path mate.
- '. C
:: Unsuppress the mate.
_-su ppress the path mate at 8.001 seconds. To locate t he correct key, we can zoom in on t he time line,
:- .1e can accurately position the time bar directly. Right-click in the t imeline and click Move Time Bar.
~G"..s =-::- - -:e 8.001 and click OK.
=5 _-suppress the path mate.
~::-
. -~ ._},

::: =- =~ Calculate.
~ = ::ulate
and play the animation. The car should now make one and a half laps of the track while
=-:inuing to point in the correct direction.
IS
-.aernative #2-Two Path Mates
-s:ead of having the path mate rewind in a very short period of time, an alternative would be to add a
sc:::md path mate. One path mate would drive t he car around the t rack for the first lap while the second
:-'E3 :c.~ mate is suppressed. At the end of the first lap, the first mate is suppress and the second mate is
--.c: _--s.Jp pressed to drive the car around the second lap. While this is a little more work, this method avoids
- -= very small discontinuity caused by the reset action and might be beneficial in animations where the
:::!" -:1ation viewpoint is zoomed in on the transition point.

.5 -..!ternative #3-Key Points


~a-- "' - e remember the clock example, we could drive the car by establishing three or more key point s along
-.o= ;Jath. Once they are created, we could just copy the key points to have the car do additional laps.
;:; ::s:;'

===
206 Chapter 7

Alternative #4-Path Mate Motor


Another method is to drive a component around a path by use of a motor.

Path Mate Motor


The path mate motor is used to prescribe motion of a point along a path. It is like a linear motor whE:
the direction is specify by a curve rather than a single direction. To use a path mate motor requires c
path mate t o be defined first. The path mate motor is only available in SolidWorks Motion.
Note If you do not have SolidWorks Motion installed, you will not be able t o do the following steps.

24 Create a new motion study.


Name the new motion study Path Mate Motor.

25 Suppress the path mate.


We could use the existing path mate, but as you will see, we will need to use different options within ::-e
mate. so we will use a different path mate for this motion study so that we can keep both motion st uc =:!
in the same assembly.

Move t he time bar to 0 seconds and suppress the three mates.

26 Add a mate.
With the time bar at 0 seconds, suppress the exist ing path mate.
Add a local path mate between t he Tow Point and the Car Path.

27 Set the mate options.


This time, we will use all three mate options. Set them as follows: 0 Symme!t1c

; J \Ydth
Path Constraint: Percent Along Path, Oo/o 0 Path Mate
Path Constraint:
Pitch/Yaw Control: Follow Path, X IPercent AionQ Path
~ 0 .000000%
Roll Control: Up Vector, Y, select t he surface of the road. 0 Fl4> dinension
Pitdl/Yaw Control:
IFolow Path -:
l @x l u Y I -
0 Fi4>
RoK control:
IUp vector
Up Vector

U!MFHMi
I X I @Y I ::
0 R;p
Motion Drivers 207

:..dd a motor. r--JotorType ::::

2::: Path Mate Motor, t hen select the local path mate. ~ Rotary r"iotor
El Lnear Motor (Actuator)
.':Jtion type to Constant Speed and soomm/s.
-
!lJ Path Ma~ l'.otor

-= OK. *

~
~1
te/Direction -

,; get a warning that this motor type is only available in Motion Analysis.
..!" p:tmi5i
-
~ js;1r.neS$Car Path~Roat::l_sj
2:5. % I Road_lll~~

~ Constant Speed . - .
-
~
1
"
0 SOOmm/s :

Turn on Add-ln.
L""g_j lo-..1
Add -Ins
:: Tools, Add-Ins.
Activ~ Add.;,; [ start ~ ~

B SolidWorks Prer:~ium Add ins


=:t SolidWorks Motion. n ~ e<o.mlorks 0
[l ~ F~tur~Wor1<s 0
- ::OK. n e PhotoV'!e'll 360 0
Of'~ ScanTo30 0
,...:;{;-(' <ni,.lNM "*<in n-i<- 0
Change the motion study type. r,/J (} SolidVIor1<s Motion J 0
-z-ge the motion study type to Motion Analysis. J ~ SOiaWorkS Routng 0 -
[l [ j SolldWorks Simulation 0
n S~dWorks Toolbox 0
Calculate. [l 'ij' ~dWorks Toolbox Browser 0
~ JM? Sofid'Norks Utiities 0
::~ ::date and play t he animation. The car will now travel about :-J SoidWorks Wor1cgrDt4J POM 2011 :::J J
I

-.-=e--quarters of a lap in the default animation t ime of five :J SoidWorks Workgr"'-" POM 2012 :::J
C~ToiAnalyst Ll '""
..?::: ild S. (::) SolidWorks Add-ins
[J Autotrace 0
_:-gt:hen t he animation to 12 seconds. The car will now t ravel [J ~d>'lorks Flow Simulation 2012 0
-:::st two laps of the track.
n ~o'Norks Part Reviewer 0 -
I OK I L cancd=:J ~
_ Close.
:C.e and close all files.
208 Chapter 7

Simulation Motion Drivers


Simulation elements, which also includes motors, can be applied t o model geometry to drive motion.
Motors can be applied to all types of motion studies. The others can only be used in the motion stu::
types Basic Motion and Motion Analysis.
Simulation Motion Drivers
These simulation element s can be used t o drive motion and apply realistic physics to t he animation.

Simulation Element Symbol Description


Motor @ Attaches a Rotary Motor or Linear Motor (actuator} to a
selected model edge or face
Spring 3 Creates a spring element attached between points

Contact ~ Defines contact between selected components

Gravity ~ Applies gravity to all components in the study

We will explore the use of simulation mot ion drivers in Chapter 9. Physics-based Motion.
nimating Parts

-.:;Jon successful completion of this chapter,


JU wi ll be able to:
c:.
~nimate the size and shape of parts within an assembly.
:=reate springs that expand and contract with motio n.
210 Chapter 8

Animating Parts
In the int roduction. it was mentioned that we animate assemblies and that all parts are rigid. We canr:-
animate the specific featu res of a part. such as changing t he depth of a blind ext rusion or the type c=
feature. However, through the use of in-context modeling, we can have the sizes of parts change bas=:
on the motion of other part s in the assembly. This is a very important topic as many of the advance:
animations created later in the book require the use of the techniques presented here. If you are nc~
familiar with in-context modeling, see the SolidWorks training course SolidWorks Assemblies availc:: = 5I

from your SolidWorks reseller.


There are t wo requirements to have a part change shape during an animation:
The animation must be created using the Animation motion study type.
In the Animation motion study, the solver moves all the driving components to their position for ec::-
frame, and then rebuilds the model and captures the image. In Basic Motion and SolidWorks Mor:::--
different so lvers are used to solve the equations of motion. The numerical methods used for the
solution may require many small steps and iterations to determine the solution. When these soh?"
are used, the positions of each component are recorded based on the frame rate set in the mot i:-
study properties. These solut ions do not rebuild the model nor generat e key points.
The feature that changes size or shape must be modeled in-context to other moving parts.
Modeling in-context will allow the feature definition t o be based on the motion of some other par.:
the assembly and at each re build will take the correct shape.

Topics
The topics covered in this chapter include:
Working with in-context parts
In-context parts are created within the assembly using adjacent geometry as references.
Consequently, changes are propagated.
Creating springs for animations
For springs to be part of an animation, they must elongat e and compress. This is contrary to t he
information in the int roduction where all parts are considered rigid. By creating springs as in-con::.3
parts. we can make them move as desired.
Animating Parts 211

=:ase Study: Animating In-Context Parts


-~is
example, the Band component represents a rubber band t hat stretches during t he firing of an
The Band component must be able to change size and shape as the pull ring part is pulled
.::...._-:'Ow .

-c< and then released.

~=ryboard
--::sequence involves creating animations by dragging 0 10

llo ~~ ~
c -ebuilding existing in-context parts.
0
2 the video file Toy Gun.mp4 from the Video In-Context
::sr. Our animation will show the pull ring being pulled Parts
c -eleased, followed by t he arrow flying off t o t he 0 0

~~,~~
~

--E <ey element in t his case study is creat ing t he black


~::which must change size as the pull ring moves.
01 10
Sfep Ti~e P esc.r-i pfi o"' 0 10
0 - I E s fe<.b/ is l..,i"'d s l..,o+ 0 0
I - L{ Pv// r-i"'d be<.c.k. 0 0
3 t..f- 5 Ri"'d r-e /e ...sed 0 0
~
4.8 - 8 Ar-r-ovv ~l ies o .(:.(: s c.r-ee .... 0 0
8 - 9

~~ ~ I~
-::> E"'d /ee<.der-

-xedure
Open the assembly. Ol ~ ~0
:::c:s!l the assembly incontext from the 01 0
- -,pter 8\Case Study\In-context folder.
--e default view orientation and position will be used as the initial position.
212 Chapter 8

2 Drag the Pull Ring.


Before we create an animation, we will first review how an in-
context feature works.
Drag the Pull Ring l < l > component away from the assembly as
shown. The black band does not change shape yet.

Rebuilding In-Context Parts


After a change, an in-context part will not update unt il the assembly is rebuilt. While the Model tat:.::.
active, we can just rebuild the model. If a motion study is active, the assembly will be rebuilt at eac-
frame when the animation is calculated.

3 Rebuild.
Click Rebuild [I] or press Ctrl+b.
The in-context part Band Top now expands to the correct lengt h.

4 Reset.
Return t he Pull Ring l <l> back to its original position and click
-
Rebuild.

--
Create an In-Context Part
Now that we have seen how t he in-context part works, we will
create t he second band for the lower Pull Ring. If you have never created in-context parts, reviev,1:;-c:
section Creating a Part in an Assembly, found in the SolidWorks Help.
The band will be created as a sweep with the sweep pat h anchored at the ends to the Main Body ~
the middle of the band constrained to the Pull Ring.

5 Hide parts.
To make it easier to concentrate on the new part, hide the two arrows and the parts Pull Ring l c:_;:.
Band Top.

6 Show temporary axes.


ln t he following sketch, we will relate the sweep path to t he axes in the middle of the holes used tc
capture the band.
Animating Parts 213

:reate a new part.


Insert Components, New Part from the menu. Depending on how your options are set, you may

, '= :o select a part template. Choose a template with millimeter units.

: :the Top plane in the part Main Body. This is now the Front plane of our new part. We are now
==.r. Sketch mode in Edit Part for our new part.
: r- ent to the Top view.

Create the sweep path.


:=.:e a centerline from the origin to the middle of the Pull Ring. The exact lengt h is not important as
.: constrain in later.
e:a:-
-=~ Mirror.
--;:::: Dynamic Mirror Entities ~ and create the sketch shown. The horizontal lines should be colinear
- e temporary axes of the holes.

,
.:.-.

r:C'i'

J ;,
> -

,... --
214 Chapter 8

10 Add dimensions.
Add the 2.Smm sketch fillets and dimensions shown to fu lly define t he sketch. The 1.2Smm dimensi: -
t ies the length of t his sketch to the inside silhouette edge of t he pull ring.

Coincident Coincident

Coincident

11 Exit the sketch.


Exit t he sketch and name it Path.

12 Rename and save.


Rename the new part Bottom Band and save it as an external f ile.

Return to Edit Assembly mode.


Animating Parts 215

3 Open the part. 02


--.,._,.-<- --
~r - __, ::>en the part Bottom Band in its own window.

:-eate t he sweep profile sket ch as a circle with a 2mm


:: ::;neter.

,=._~t the sketch. Rename the sketch Profile.


l_
- Create a sweep. '
:: .;eep the Profile sketch along the Path sketch.
..........
.
..........
..........
.... ..........
..........
..........
..........
...........

=: Complete the part.


:C::nplete the Bottom Band part by revolving a stopper at each end of
- =band.

: -ange the material of the part t o rubber.

: Show components.
::~e t he assembly window active.

=.. ~t Edit Part mode, so that you are in Edit Assembly mode.

= -'JW the arrows, Pull Ring 1, and Band Top.

- :!e the temporary axes.

- Create a motion study.


::-eate a new motion study. Name it Toy Gun.

S=.ect Animation for the Type of Study.


216 Chapter 8

18 Pull the ring. t

Move the time bar to 4 seconds. Move the lower puU ring 6Smm in
the -X direction as shown. The part Band Bott om wi(( not updat e yet
as the assembly has not rebuilt.

19 Copy key points.


Copy the key point for Pull Ring l < l > from o seconds to 1 second
and 5 seconds. This will hold t he puUring in position for the first
second of the animation and return it to the start position aft er it has been retracted.

20 Play the animation.


The Band Bottom wi(( update based on the new position of the
Pull Ring l < l >.

21 Arrow initial point.


The arrow should start to move before the plunger stops moving as
pressure in the cylinder wi(( be sufficient to move the arrow.
Set the time bar t o 4.8 seconds.
Select Arrow l <2 >.
Click Add/Update key. This key wi(( hold the arrow in posit ion unt il 4.8 seconds.

22 Drag the Arrow.


Move the time bar t o 8 seconds. Drag the Arrow l <2> away from the assembly until it is just off
screen.

23 Play the animation.


We have the key elements of the animation, but we can make a few
refinements.
24 Adjust interpolation modes.
When t he pul! ring is puUed back, it wilt be puUed quickly at first and
slow down as resist ance from t he band is met. Likewise, when
released, the puUring wiUmove rapidly at first and then slow down as
pressure builds in the cylinder and the force of the band is reduced. Also, we expect the arrow to me _
quickly at first and slow down due to air resistance. AI! three of t hese conditions can be met with th: -:
interpolation mode Ease Out.
Select the t hree key points at 4, s. and 8 seconds. Right-click any one of them and select t he
interpolation mode Ease Out.
Animating Parts 217

Save the animation to file.


:::c: e the animation using the SolidWorks Screen as the Renderer and 20 Frames per second .
.c~e the file Toy Gun.

Review the animation.


=;: the Toy Gun.mp4 file to check your work.

Save and close all files .

.n imating a Spring
'c -t of the mechanisms that are animated include springs. There are a few different methods to
, ~ate springs, but the method shown here works very well and gives a smooth result. To create an
-ated spring requires knowledge of two functions:

--context modeling
::Jtions of the Sweep feature

:ase Study: Create a Spring


--s Nill be a simple example to create the animation of a simple coil spring. Play t he
-ation Spring Assembly-l.mp4 from the Videos folder. We have a sinusoidal
-:::on in put and the spring compresses and elongates as we would expect. We will
::::e the spring first, then examine how and why it works.
c::-: -e case study t hat follows this one, we will use a spring in another assembly as a
-.:-e practical problem.

x edure
Open a part file.
,,. r:::~ End Plate.sldprt from the Spring folder. This is just a flat washe r.

Create an assembly.
::: t: t he End Plate part into a new assembly and save the assembly as Spring Assembly.
Add a second End Plate.
x a second instance of the End Plate to the assembly and mate it concentric to the first instance .
.s.= a Position Only mate to locate the second End Plate 185mm above the first End Plate. We are
-~a position only mate just to get an initial position fo r the second End Plate. Because the first End
-:.--=.-e is fixed, t he only movement allowed in this assembly is the movement of the second End Plate
.:-g the Y axis.
218 Chapter 8

4 Insert a new component.


Click Insert, Component. New Part from the menu.
Select the Front plane of the first instance of t he End Plate. This makes the Front plane of our r.~
part coincident with the Front plane of the End Plate.
We are now in Edit Sketch mode in our new part.

5 Create a sketch path. llil


Sketch a line fro m the top of the top End Plate to the
bottom of the bottom End Plate. The line should be fully
def ined and centered in the holes.
Exit the sketch. Name the sketch Path.

m m

6 Create a profile sketch.


Create a sketch on the Front plane.
Sketch a circle, lOmm in diameter and 2Smm from the origin.
Add a horizontal relationship to fully define the sketch.
Exit t he sketch. Name the sketch Profile.
Animating Parts 219

:reate a sweep. Profile a nd Path -- :::;~


~=a sweep using the two previous sketches as the path 0 I!Profie I
_ :-3file. ~ ('; Path =---:J
:ptions, select Twist Along Path for Orientation/twist !
\ options :::: j
Or!entation/IV.ist type:
Jefine by Turns and type 10 for the number of turns. lrw;stAiong Path :J
Define !2:
OK. I ~ ]
lfil 10. 00

l _[{] Sho~:t preview

=.xamine the spring.


er ~he spring in its own window. We have the same geometry as we would have
~ ~ed by sweeping a circle along a helical path; however, we will see that this one is
=:-for animation.

Trim the ends.


- -.c<e this more realistic, we will cut off t he two ends of the spring to creat e flat
~::es .

..r---n tothe assembly. We can see t hat the spring extends into both end plat es. We are
i the Edit Part mode, so we can cut the ends of the spring along the surfaces of the

==.:: ? lates.
220 Chapter 8

Create a sketch on the Front plane of the Spring. Sketch a line


coincident to the edge of the End Plate.
Extrude a cut through all in both directions.
Repeat t he procedure on the other end of the spring.

10 Rename and save.


The spring is currently an internal part in the assembly. Rename the part to Spring and save it as =.-
external part.

11 Create a motion study.


Select the Motion Study l tab.
To drive the animation, we will use a linear motor to move
the top End Plate.
Click Motor on the Motio nManager toolbar. Select Linear
Motor.

Select the top face of the End Plate as shown and make Monon
~~----------~
sure that the direction is down (-Y direction). osalating
,./~ 40mm I
~ I
Set the motor parameters as fo llows: ~ I
f't,. D.SHz
T I
Motor Type: Oscillating I10&: 9Ddeg

Displacement: 40mm
Frequency: 0.5 Hz
11 Phase Shift: godeg
I.D
L gra~: Chl: . erJarge
Animating Parts 221

-:--cse Shift
~ Shift controls the location along the sine curve where the start point is located. Wit h the phase
- : et to Odeg, the start point is at the most negative point on the sine curve. With a phase shift of
. ...25, the start point is on the vert ical midpoint of the curve which is usually associated with odeg.

E ~phs below show how the motion applied by the motor would change with the t hree different
...:=shifts.

~-----==---==~--~
::..=~t .vs. Tirr.e
@)
'9!3 I DISplacement .\ 'S. Time
@) I DISplacement .vs. Tim<! @)

s:;o-r-- - - - - -- - - --, 50.00 ,..------------~ sooo,----------~

I 40 00 I .o.oo
:::- 3000 :::- 3000
c: c:
E 2t1 oo E 20 oo
~ 10.06 ~ 10.QO
Q.

6 0.00 g 0.00
-10.00 l I I i : I I : : I I -1000 I I I I I I I I I I I
0 005 1 0 15 202 530 3540 4550 000 5 1.1 5202 5 3 03 540 4550 0.0 05 1.01.5 2 025 3 0 3 54 0 4.5 50
Tirne (s ) Trne (s ) T1111e (s)

Phase Shift = Odeg Phase Shift = godeg Phase Shift = 180deg

..-.a leu late the study.


Calculate. The study will be calculated for 5 seconds. which is the default time.

Dlay the animation .


.e : ::ring will first compress and then extend.
)oes This Work?
::Jat we have created the animat ion. we should examine why t his method works. At the beginning
-= :::ase study, it was said t hat there were t wo key element s, in-context design and the sweep options.
~= ::eep path fo r the spring is attached to the two end plates and does not have a specific dimension.
always be the distance between t he end faces. The bottom plate is fixed, so only the top plat e
=:;. As the top plate moves up and down. driven by the linear mot or. the length of the path changes.
E :econd feature is the sweep options. We choose Twist Along Path and a fixed number of turns,
e-==ore the sweep will always consist of 10 turns. no matter the length of the path.
.::;nbining in-context design with the proper sweep opt ion, we created a pretty good animat ion of
:::Jring.
222 Chapter 8

Rebuild Failures
When the animation calculates, it must rebuild the model at every frame. What happens if there is:
problem and SolidWorks cannot rebuild successfully? To see the result. we will make a small chang=
our assembly.

14 Edit the sweep.


Change the number of turns to 18.
Click Rebuild and then Calculate.

15 Examine the result.


The calculation will be slower than before and at
some point, the spring will disappear.
To see why, select the Model tab. Drag the
upper End Plate a short distance to compress
the spring. Click Rebuild. Repeat these steps. At '*' --
some point, t he spring will not rebuild. If you
examine the images. you can see that at some
point, the individual turns of the coil intersect.
Once the surfaces intersect, the model cannot
rebuild. So. th is is not an animation problem, but
rather a mode l-building problem.
Tip When model geometry disappears during part of an animation. it is generally because the geometry--
not be built. Finding the problem requires you to scrub the timeline to the point where the problem occ
and then move to just before that point and examine the geometric conditions.
16 Edit the sweep.
Change the number of turns back to 10.
Click Rebuild and Calculate.

Spring Diameter
Now that we have an animation, the next question is, is it good enough? One problem with this sv
animation is that the overall diameter of the coil stays the same through compression and expans::;-
real coil spring increases in diameter as the spring compresses and decreases as it elongates. If :-:
spring is seen from a distance in the animation, we could easily ignore t his effect. If. however, we ::r
going to be zoomed in close to a spring and require add itional rea lism, we can easily add this effe:-
Animating Parts 223

~odology
--e existing spring, the diameter of the coil is set by a fixed dimension. What we wa nt is the coil
a-eter to be a function of t he length of the spring. This can be done easily with an equation. We want
_ -c.ve an equation that will multiply the st arting coil radius dimension by the ratio of the starting spring
2 s-h to the actual spring length.

Coil Radius = Starting Coil Radius x Starting Spring Length


Actual Spring Length

c :-:e coil compresses, the ratio increases and the coil expands. As the coil elongates. the ratio
ec-eases and the coil contracts. We could make the effect more or less pronounced by multiplying by
=~"ficient. but for now this will be OK.

z ::he animation Spring Assembly-2.mp4. This is what we are trying to achieve .


Show the dimens ions.
-~-:-click the Annot at ions folder in the Feature Manager design tree and select Display Annotations,
:E:!Lay Feature Dimensions, and Display Reference Dimensions.

Add a reference dimension .


.:.: a Reference Dimension between the top of the upper End Plate and
(/) All ... :J--- l
E .::ottom of t he lower End Plate. This should be 18Smm if we are back
-e starting position. Rename this dimension Starting Length.

185

r]J lO

Add an equation. Modify


-=.?"'.:me the 2Smm dimension in t he Profile sketch to Coil Radius. Coil Radius~ofile J .
:-:'-.Jie-click the 2Smm dimension and type Coil Radius in the Modify box.
~
..,. ' '
- .
./ x e;:. ? ~
- -=< Tools, Equations from the menu.
:i.= :::t Ordered View ~ .
224 Chapter 8

In the graphics area, double-click the 2Smm Coil Radius dimension. This will place it in the Equation5 -...ase.
(

dialog as the dependant variable.


In t he Value/Equation box. type 25*(185/ and then click the reference dimension in the graphics area ::
add it to the equation. Type the closing parenthesis.
Click OK. The equation should evaluate to 2Smm.
- -~
Click OK.

Equabons. Global Vanables, and ()Jm~nsoons

~~~ 'ill' Fll ter AN Fields


E2h
I Name IValue I Equation I Evaluates to Icomments II OK I
l j "Coil Radus@l'rofile@Spring_&.< l >l = 25 ( l85/'RD3Annototions")
:
l 25nrn
I I canoo I
l Import...
I
I Export.
I
I Help I
n Autom.tic:aly rebuild []_] Ar1g<Jiar equation units: ~egr~ [./j Automatic solve ordor
[ ] Lnk to emrnallile:
~

20 Hide all the dimensions.


Right-click the Annotations folder in the FeatureManager design tree and clear Display Annotations
Display Feature Dimensions, and Display Reference Dimensions.

21 Calculate the study. Compressed Start Elo ngated


We now have motion where t he spring diameter is
a function of the length of the spring.

22 Close all open files.


Animating Parts 225

Case Study: Wheel Assembly


This assembly will allow us to explore not only the spri ng, but
different motion driver inputs. Play the animation
Steering_Suspension_System.mp4. This will be our initial
animation where we want to show the motion of the linkage as
~he wheel moves up and down. We will need to model t he spring
~o have a spring that will compress and elongate as the system
11oves.
Question
Nhy not use t he Spring on the MotionManager toolbar?
n e spring on the MotionManager toolbar is used to input spring forces and damping. We do not use it
"or several reasons:
The forces involved in this assembly are of no concern to us when creating an animation. only t he
movement of the components.
The spring image is only visible in preview and would not be visible in the animation.
We would have to use Basic Motion or Motion Analysis instead of Animation to have t he spring
available and we do not need any of the other Basic Motion or Motion Analysis tools, so the increase
in process time is not worth the effort.

226 Chapter 8

Storyboard -
--
There are t hree motions needed in this animation. The tire starts from zero ""EO-
rotation and builds speed. It stops at the end of t he animation. The wheel --~-'

assembly must move up and down as if the tire is moving over an uneven Steering
surface. Lastly, the steering wheel should turn left and right. Suspension
~
System
~;:
There are several choices for driving this motion, so we will explore different
-..::;.
options to achieve the desired animation.
0 0 - -=:;:;r
-.=..e!
S+ep Tif"V!e Pesc.r-ip+ion
0 0
I 0- I Es+c.hlisL..i"'J sL..o+ (
0 0 - ~

2 I- 2 WL..ee/ c.c.c.eler-c.+es +o c. c.ons+c.n+


0 0
veloc.i+t ::E.<?:
0 0
3 3- 10 V er-+ic.c.l f"V!o+ion o{: VV'L..eel -ex
L{ 0 0
'-( - 10 S+eer-i"'J VV'L..ee/ +v.-ns /e{:+-r-JdL..+-
c.en+er-. 0 0
-
5 10- II WL..ee l s/oVV's doVV'n. 0 0 :-_--;::
b II - 12 0 0
0 0
~.:::.
-
Procedure E-. _.
We will first create a spring for the animation, and then drive the motion 0 0
......::: :
t hrough the wheel and steering wheel. 0 0 .....-_c-

Open an assembly file. 0 0 =


Open the assembly Steering_Suspension_System.sldasm from the
Wheel Assembly folder. 0 ~. 0 .::
0

0
~ 0

0 -- --
...r
~

~
-
::.:.a:=t:

= --
z::E
Animating Parts 227

2 Examine the assembly.


The fixed points in the system are t he base caps at the ends of
the upper and lower arms and the upper strut. There are also
two other fixed locations that hold the steering wheel and
linkage in place. This would be consistent with the way the
system works in a vehicle. The steering wheel is connected to
the suspension system through a rack-and-pinion mate.
Steering is controlled through an angle mate called Steering
Wheel Angle.

3 Create the spring part.


Clink Insert, Component, New Part.

Select the Right plane of the part Strut_Upper. This now becomes the Front plane of our new part.
~ename this part Spring and save it as an external file.

Create the path.


,'/e want the path to be co linear with t he axis of the two
~ruts so that the spring will be centered on the struts. Click
'l iew, Temporary Axes.
5 <etch a line and make it colinear with the axis of the
.s:.rut_Upper part.
- ::ld coincident relationships between the ends of the line
~d the edges of the spring retainers as shown.
Strut_lower
=xit the sketch.
mme the sketch Path.

!:: Create the profile.


:-eate a sketch on the Front plane of the Spring t--- - +- + - - 2 3
=<=it. (/) a

5:<etch a circle and add dimensions of 8mm for the


:. Emeter and 23mm from the path as shown.
=x.t the sketch.
lcme the sketch Profile.
228 Chapter 8

6 Create a sweep.
Sweep the Profile along the Path using Twist Along Path. Define
the sweep by Turns and 10 turns.
Trim the Spring?
Do we need to trim the ends of the spring? In this case, the ends of
the spring are not visible, so unless we intend to zoom in very close
to the ends of the spring. it is better to leave them as they are as
the processing time will be considerably shorter. Remember that
we are using in-context design to create the spring. If we trim the
ends of the spring, at each frame, SolidWorks will have to generat e
the sweep, then trim each end. By not trimming the ends, we
eliminate the calculations of trimming.

7 Exit Edit Component.

Driving the Motion


Instead of just applying a motion driver and running the an imation, let's review some of the different
motion drivers and see the differences in the end result.
We have discussed the following motion drivers:

Position
Mate
Motor
In this animation, there are three motions we would like to create: the turning of the steering wheel, the
vertical movement of the wheel due to bumps in the road, and the rotation of the t ire.

Steering wheel
The steering wheel only needs to rotate go degrees in either direction. The easiest control can be
achieved with an angle mate.

Tire rotation
The tire only needs to rotate in one direction, but at different speeds. This makes a rotary motor a
good choice, but there are several ways to define the motor.
Wheel assembly vertical motion
There is not a clear choice for this motion, so we will use three different methods and then compare
them. We will first use position, then mates, and then a linear motor.
Animating Parts 229

8 Create a motion study.

9 Input positions.
-:he Spindle_Acc part will move up and down to simulate the motion of the t ire going over bumps.
llove the time bar to 1 second. Move the position of the Spindle_Acc part about somm in the
'( direction using either Free Drag or Delta X,Y,Z.

"llove the time bar t o 2 seconds. Move t he position of t he Spin dle_Acc part about somm in the-Y
:!irection.
~epeat for 3 and 4 seconds, respectively.

G Calculate and play.


~sing discrete input positions. we were able to create an
::.1imation. However. the motion is a little jerky. The
1eel moves in a linear velocity and reverses
-:stantaneously. If you used Free Drag, the position of
--e wheel is imprecise; however, that may be OK
:::;>ending on the requirements of the output video.

Create a new motion study.


::3ther than deleting keys in the previous st udy, we will
_se a new study.

: Add a mate.
:.ve the time bar to o seconds.
:..-eate a distance mate between Pointl on the Spindle_Acc part and the Top plane of the assembly
..5 1g the default distance.

::"Jy the key for the distance mate to 2 and 4 seconds.


: 1e the time bar to 1 second. Ed it the distance mate and add lOOmm to the distance.
::-:y the key to 3 seconds.
:: Calculate and play.
-- s animation should be just like the previous animat ion in t hat the motion goes linearly between key
-;;: 1ts. Using t he dist ance mate gave us very precise control over t he dist ance and copying the key
_;e -ts made it easy to repeat the motion.
230 Chapter 8

14 Change interpolation.
Select all t he key points for the distance mate and change the interpolation mode to Ease In/Ease 0~

15 Calculate and play.


This is a little better because the direction changes are smoother.

16 Delete the distance mate.


Delete the distance mate from the mot ion study.

17 Create input motion.


We will add a motor t o drive the vertical motion of the wheel. In this first case, we will apply an
oscillating input to the Spindle_Acc part to show the motion of the spring and linkages.
Add a Linear Motor to the Spindle_Acc part by selecting Plane l wit hin the pa rt.

For direction, also select Planel in the part Spindle_Acc.


Important! You must use Plane l in the Spindle_Acc part and not a plane outside of the part. This pal.
has its internal orientation at angles to the assembly planes. which makes it difficult to apply the mote-
direction. Using Planel, we can orient the motor direction properly.
Select Oscillating for the motion type. The amplitude is lOOmm and t he frequency is 1Hz.

18 Calculate and play.


This time we have a smooth sinusoidal motion. For many types of animations, t his type of motion is
suitable. But what if we want smooth t ransitions that are not sinusoidal? We can use the linear motor
but with a different motion type.

19 Edit the motor. "l l,.,r l'<!oror.ro..l =J @ ~


Edit the Linear Motor. file Edit Forrnot View Help
o.o
1. , 0
Change t he motion type to Data Points and Displacement. 3,50
4 ,0
5 ,75
Click Import Data. Select the Linear Motor. txt file from the lesson folder. 6 , 25
7 ,50
The points provided will give both a quick impu lse t ype input at the 8,0
9,1.00
10,0
beginning and a slower impulse at the end. 11,01
lZ , O
Animating Parts 231

Select Cubic fo r the Interpolation type.

~nC.JOn Builder

!o Segllert lit! DoiP<*ts] l.h: ex.....- I


Vai.Je (y): (Displacement (mm) -=:J Show gtaphs: lllsolawnent J Velodty J Accderation J J<rlc

!ndepe:>dmtvarial:>le(x): [rme (s) ~1 i::lQ.~

!nt<rpoidtion type: ~

J
~J
100.0 I I

/\fv\~1 -
I llrport 0.121...
e r ~ 100.0
.s
[

I
Tme(s) VaUe
1 50.0
I
'E
.s
g
a-l5 ~
-100.0
12.0
Tme(s)

IDOO.O
'f 4JO.O

i' 200.0
.., soo.o f Tmt ()
.s q.o ~ t 2.0 4.o 6.o a.o 1o.o ~o

i-~71'
.sE -

"'
-"( -500.0
~ -100.0
-1000.0
-600.0

Make finction avoiob!e for use <!=\!Jere in this doa.ment Name: tJr...er f\xxbon 1

(l( )l c.nce I [ ~

:: Calculate and play.


--e Data Point option for a motor gives us a lot of control using tabular input. This is especially useful
-en we need a pulse input yet do not want infinite acceleration.

::' Add a rotary motor.


~d a Rotary Motor to the wheel.
5E:: the type as Constant Speed and enter a speed of oRPM.
::.-:Jy the key point to 1, 2, 10, and 11 seconds.
::::.~the key points at 2 and 10 seconds and change the motor speed to soRPM. This should make the
-;eel speed up from zero to soRPM between 1 and 2 seconds. hold soRPM until10 seconds. when it
- :::ws down to zero by 11 seconds.
232 Chapter 8

22 Turn the steering wheel.


The steering wheel is posit ioned by the mate Steering Wheel
Time Angle
Ph
(seconds} (degrees}
Angle. With the steering wheel set for the vehicle to roll straight
ahead, the mate angle is 180. This was done to avoid having to set 0 180
the angle to positions on either side of zero, which would be a 2 180
pro blem because of the 100/360 Rule.
4 270 .vpO!
.
Add key points and adjust the Steering Wheel Angle mate to the
values in the table. 6 180

23 Create viewpoints.
Add a starting viewpoint at 0 seconds to show the overall
8
10
go

180
.~
-- ~

assembly and then zoom in on just the suspension.

24 Change playback speed.


12 180

A 12 second animat ion is very short. Change t he playback speed to o.sx and play the animat ion.
.

--

25 Record the animation.


Leave the playback speed at O.Sx and record the animation. Notice that when you play back the
animation, it will be 24 seconds because the playback speed also affects the recording.
26 Close all open files.
Physics-based Motion

Upon successful completion of this chapter,


you will be able to:
Understand when to use physics-based motion studies.

Understand contact conditions in an animation.

Animate dynamic systems with springs.

Create animations using physical dynamics.


234 Chapter 9

Physics-based Motion
Up to this point in the book, we have been using t he Animation motion study type to create our - X:

animations. As a review. we only do three things in an animation:


Move components
1!1

Change viewpoints
Change properties

Other key concepts in the Animation study type:


Components were moved by these actions:
! Specifying their location at specific points in time (key points)
: Using angle or distance mates
: Using a motor
All other component motion was derived through the mates.
Parts were not solid and only interacted with ot her parts/assemblies through mat es. --
-~

The laws of physics were not considered and part s could change velocity instantaneously with infinit=
acceleration and pass t hrough each ot her.
The Animation st udy type was used when we either had free mot ion or kinematic motion.

Topics
The topics covered in this chapter include:
Physics motion drivers
There are many ways to drive component motion beyond dragging the components to locations anc
creating key points. These include physical properties found in the physical world such as gravity,
springs, and forces.

Combining motion
Motion created in a Basic Motion or Motion Analysis st udy type can be imported into an Animation
study type when needed.

a Physical dynamics
Physical dynamics allows components to become temporarily solid and able t o push on each other.

Terminology
Before discussing Basic Motion and SolidWorks Motion, it is impo rtant t o understand a few terms and
how they are used in this book.

Animation
An animation is any type of video that depicts motion. The motion may or may not be a simulation.
Physics-based Motion 235

Simulation
A simulation shows how components move. Simulations could be in the form of animations or they
could just be numerical data.
Analysis
Analysis is examination of the mot ion in order to understand or better draw conclusions from it. An
analysis could include an animation, or it could just be numerical data.
As stated in the introduction, our focus in this book is creating animations. We could get our animations
from simulations, which is what we will do with both Basic Motion and SolidWorks Motion. However, we
have no need to analyze the mechanisms we animate.

Motion Solutions
The way motion is calculated in the three types of motion studies is different and should be understood
::o insure that the animations you create will solve, and when they do not, to be able to troubleshoot the
::>roblem.
Animation Motion Studies
The solution to an Animation study is very straightforwa rd. The timeline defines the position of
driving components at specific times. SolidWorks moves the driving component in a direct line
between the two end positions. It interpolates the intermediate positions based on the time
difference between the key po ints, the number of frames per second, and the interpolation mode. All
active mates are solved and the assembly is rebuilt at each fra me.
Basic Motion Studies
In Basic Motion studies, the position of each component must be determined by the physics of the
situation. This takes into account the mass, inertia, gravity, and interaction with other components. At
each iteration, t he SolidWorks mates must also be solved. Basic Motion studies are solved using the
PhysX solver.
3ecause Basic Motion studies are used for animation, and not analysis, accuracy is reduced in order
to speed up the calculations. The user has little contro l over the solver or its settings.
!.'"" Motion Analysis Studies
SolidWorks Motion is used for analysis and has three different solvers that can be used based on the
:ype of motion to be solved and the loading conditions. Because SolidWorks Motion is designed for
analysis, it is more accurate than the solver in Basic Motion, but as a result runs slower.
236 Chapter 9

Animation of Physics-based Simulations


SolidWorks supports two levels of physical simulation: Basic Motion and SolidWorks Motion. Basic
Motion is a faster, less accurate. presentation-quality engine. It supports motors, springs. gravity. and
contact between parts. SolidWorks Motion is an analysis-quality simulator which adds forces and
dampers. and can output plots of the simulation results. Basic Motion is optimized for speed while
SolidWorks Motion is optim ized for accuracy. Another way to think about t hese two products. is to thin
of Basic Motion as SolidWorks MotionXpress.
When we animate a system with dynamic motion. we need to use either the Basic Motion or Motion
Analysis study type. We use these motion study types because we need to solve the physics of t he
problem. In the Animation motion studies. we did not solve the physics problem as the components ha::
no mass or volume. =

What changes when we shift to these physics-based motion study types? The only thing that changes 5:
is the way we create component motion. The way we handle viewpoints and appearances does not
change. -~

Motion is driven by motion drivers such as motors. springs. or gravity and not key points.
Key points are only created for viewpoints and appearances but not for component motion.
A physics-based solver is used to calculate the motion.
Components can interact with each other through contact.
The laws of physics can be used and we can consider mass and momentum.

Driving Motion
In physics-based motion studies, motion can be driven by gravity, springs, forces, or mot ors. Each has
different characteristics that can be controlled and are different in Basic Motion studies as compare:
to Motion Analysis studies.

Motors
Motors were discussed in Chapter 7. They can be used in physics-based motion studies in the same we. -;:: '25 i

as they are used in Animation motion studies except that there are additional options available in
Motion Analysis studies. The additional motor types are:
Path Mate Motor
The motor can be used to drive a component along a path mate.

Servo Motor
This motor is only available when using event-based motion. which requires SolidWorks Simulatior
Professional or Premium.
Physics-based Motion 237

Mates
Basic The types of mates used for Basic Motion and SolidWorks Motion are important for the solvers to be
vity, and able to solve the equations of motion.
and Only standard mates are supported in Basic Motion studies. Advanced and mechanical mates are not
while
supported. Therefore, these are the only mates that should be used in Basic Motion:
s to think
Coincident Parallel
Perpendicular Tangent
illation ~:~ Lock
Concentric
Jf the
Distance Angle
tents had
If we have other than standard mates in the assembly, there could be unpredictable and erratic behavior.

changes In SolidWorks Motion, most mate types are allowed and some mates not supported in Basic Motion,
5 not such as the hinge mat e, are preferred to avoid redundancies.

Redundant Mates
Many mates that are added to assemblies are redundant. While these mates may
not be a problem in the assembly itself, they can be a problem for the motion study
solution.
Consider the door and frame shown at right. The actual door uses two hinges to
share the load and provide the rigidity for proper alignment. This is necessary in
the physical world because everything has some flexibility. In SolidWorks, all
Kh has components are absolutely rigid, which means that only one hinge is necessary for
:mpared the motion study. These redundant mates can cause incorrect solutions in an
analysis and can cause the motion solvers to fail or give unpredictable results.
When a motion study does not run properly, you may have to analyze the existing
1meway mates and suppress mates that are redundant.
~ in
SolidWorks Motion can analyze the mates and rep lace redundant mates with
bushings. For more information on redundant mates, see the SolidWorks Motion training course.

ulation
238 Chapter 9

Motion Study Properties


Each motion study type has its own
set of options, but the settings
generally fall into two categories: j-:B;;;;sic:;;;;.;,
a I~;Otion ;;;:;':.;;;-----.::~::..t [ Basic Hotion
frames per second and contact Frames per secnnd:
fNotion Analysis
settings. [16 --~] Fram<!S per secnnd:
r llasic:lofotion
Geometry Aros~<'l' f2s
In Animation, t he frames per second 1-lotioaAnalysis
low Hil;h
set the number of t imes the motion 0 Anima"' dl.mg sm.iation
J Replace redJndant mates
would be calculated per second 3D COnmct Resolution: 0 with bushi:1gs

through interpolation. In Basic


3) Contact ~tion:
Motion and SolidWorks Motion,
' [ Hotion Analysis ~ l~N ~
numerical solvers are used to J
calculate component position based
on the appropriate laws of motion.
Gen:=~~~ I 0
O ~ts fur new motion
Use Precise Contact

=-~ l o'N
These solvers work in relatively [o.OO(iloooooo - ~
~T rTTT
small time steps that are much
smaller than those needed for the
..J I ! Pklt Defaults .. 0

1 Adv<m!d Options... 1
animation. In these two motion L..:::=
study types, frames per second
~ these settilgs as
controls the number of t imes the 0 defatJts fur new motion
studies
component position is recorded for 0
l
Show &I Motion Analysis
messages
playback.
With Basic Motion and SolidWorks Motion, components can essentially become solid. Because the
components are in fact mathematical volumes, the methods and the accuracy used to calculate the
boundaries of the components can be adjusted based on t he needs of the solution.
Physics-based Motion 239

Case Study: Ball Sorter


- -e ball sorter is a simple device where balls of various
~-=es roll down a trough propelled by gravity. Then,
:::sed on t he size of each ba ll, they fall into the
:=:::;Jropriate tray.

--is is a dynamic system as the path of each ball is


::,trolled by its mass, start ing position, and
-:eraction wit h the other balls.

Storyboard
D D
- :the start of t he animatio n, all t he balls are in t he -~::1
D ;:; D
:::ding area at t he t op of t he trough. At the end of
--e animation, all the balls will be in the appropriate
~~

II ~
D
Basic

.
-=y based on size. Motion D

.. ocedure D D

Open an assembly. D D
::en the assembly Sorter.sldasm from the D ?~
,,, t
D
-~a.pter 9 \ Case Study\ Ball Sorter fo lder. D I' ;;;:; ~ ..a! D

Examine the assembly. D D

:tice that t here are no mat es in this assembly and D ~ D


~
:~ 1y t he Sorter part is fixed. The motion of each of D D
-e balls will be determined by gravity, t he trough, D D
:::-:::1 inte raction with the other balls.
D D

Play the animation. D D


::: ::y the animation Ball Sorter.mp4 from the D D
:--a.pter 9 \ Case Study\ Videos fo lder. This is the
D !' - w ID
=.-Imation we will create.
240 Chapter 9

Gravity
Gravity is an important quantity when the weight of a part has an influence on its motion. such as a body
in free fall. In motion studies. gravity consists of two components:
Direction of the gravitational vector
1:1

Magnitude of the gravitational acceleration


The Gravity Properties allows you to specify the direction and magnitude of t he gravitational vector. YoL
can specify the gravitational vector by selecting the X. Y, and Z direction or by specifying a reference
plane. The magnitude must be entered separately. The defau lt value for the gravitational vector is the
Y direction and t he magnitude is g8o6.ssmm/sec 2 or the equivalent in the currently active units.

Where to Find It
MotionManager Toolbar: Click Gravity ~

4 Create a motion study.


Create a new motion study and name it Basic Motion.

Select Basic Motion for the Type of Study.

5 Add gravity.
Click Gravity on the Motion Manager t oolbar.
Observe the triad in the lower left corner of the graphics area and we can see
that the proper direction fo r gravity will be in the -Y direction. Select Y for the Ox 0v Oz
direction and the default value of gravity of g8o6.6Smm/s/\2. ~ 19806.6Smm/s A2 I:
Check the green arrow in the lower right
corner of the graphics area to make sure it
is pointing downward(-Y).lf it is pointing in
the +Y direction, dick Reverse Direction
~ in the PropertyManager.
Physics-based Motion 241

ote If you tried to apply gravity while in t he Animation motion study


:ype. you would have been warned that you needed to use either Basic
'-1otion or SolidWorks Motion study types. If you did not change to
::me of these motion study types and still tried to apply gravity, it
Nould appear in the Mot ionManager design t ree, but suppressed. jJAn:maijon

5 Calculate the study.


:lick Calculate.
- he study will calculate for 5 seconds (the default) and the balls
Nill all drop through the trough. While we are using a Basic
'.!lotion study type, that in it self does not make the components
solid, to do t hat we must define the component s t hat will require
::ontact to be calculated.

Contact
:::ontacts are defined between two or more bodies (a contact pair). During t he definition, whatever
~eature you pick on the parts, the corresponding body will be select ed (and used for the contact
~malys i s). As the motion study is solved, the software calculates if the pa rts interfere at each solution
step. In SolidWorks Motion, as soon as contact is determined, a fine r interference calculation is done
.Jetween the two bodies and from the ce nt er of gravity of the interference volume. An impact force is
:omput ed and t hen applied on both bodies. In a Basic Motion study, the calculat ions are not refined
Nhen contact is detected.
-o understand t he contact treatment in motion st udies, we first need to remember the original
<:ssu mption of motion st udies: all parts in the motion study are rigid. Cont act conditions are used to
simulate impact of the two or more colliding part s (which are not rigid in real life). Nearly without
exceptions, all impacts feature high relative velocity, which result in elasto-plast ic deformations with
severe localized st rains and significant changes in t he local geometry (geometry of the contact region}.
.;pproximations are t herefore necessary to achieve a solution .

.'/here to Find It
Motion Manager Toolbar: click Contact ~
242 Chapter 9

7 Add contact.
Move the time bar to o seconds.
Click Contact @':> on the Mot ion Manager toolbar. Select the Sorter and all the balls.
Click OK.

8 Calculate the study.


Click Calculate.

The balls now follow the trough and push each other based on their mass.

Contact Groups
Contact Groups can speed calculations by grouping components that do not int eract with each other.
When contact groups are created, components within a group do not interact with each other, but ead:
component in the group will interact with components in the other group.
Physics-based Motion 2 4 3

- Create contact groups. ~ fJI


',e would not normally creat e a contact ~ ~
~Jup for an animation such as t he sorter,
::St: wewill do it here just t o see what it
::Jes to the animation.
:::::it the feature Solid Body Contactl in
::-te MotionManager design tree.
Select Use contact groups. This will divide
~ I Ba! -13 @5orter
Bai-9@Sorter
Bai-14@Sorter
Bal-lS @Sorter
. Bai-!O<!!>Sorter
"
v

:.e selection into two groups. Delete the


, ~ ~ -'"''~
Sorter from the first group and put it into
:1e second group. The component s will
Number of contact pairs: 14
- ow be color-coded based on t heir group.
:::lick OK.

0 Calculate the st udy.


:::lick Calculate.
-;-his time, each ball acts as if t he other balls are not present, but the sorter is.

11 Remove contact g roups.


--~
t :: Obviously cont act groups are not called for in this animation, so edit the cont act feature and remove
E2: :-. the groups. Make sure the Sorter goes back int o the single group with the balls.
244 Chapter 9

Change the Animation Speed


The animation runs very fast with all motion ceasing in just over 3 seconds. In an Animation motion stuc
we could slow down the motion by extending the timeline for the top level component; however, this v.
not have t he same effect in a physics-based motion study as the speed of t he components is cont roiiE:.
by t he motion drivers.
In this motion study, the motion driver is gravity. So if we want t o slow the speed of the balls, we cou.:
either change the angle of the sorter relative to gravity or adjust the value of gravity. While it may see-
odd to adjust gravity, we have to remember that gravity is just a force and we can adjust that fo rce. -
addition, our purpose is to create a video and not an analysis. People viewing t he video have no way t:::
know that the value of gravity is something other than t he gravitational constant.

12 Adjust gravity.
In the Motion Study design tree, right-click Gravity and then Edit Feature.
Change the value from the default g8o6.6Smm/s"2 to 1S00mm/s" 2.
Click OK.

13 Lengthen the study.


Drag the key point for the assembly to 10 seconds. We have to do this because at 5 seconds, t he ball5
will all still be moving.

14 Calculate the study.


Click Calculate.
At this speed, the motion of the balls is easier to follow.

15 Change starting positions.


Move the time bar to 0 seconds.
Drag several of the balls to different starting positions.

16 Calculate the study.


Click Calculate.
This t ime we have a different animation because the balls have to move based on their starting position5
and the motion drivers and contact applied. This is the main reason we used the Basic Motion study typt:
instead of Animation.

17 Save and close the files.


Physics-based Motion 245

-imitations
-= ::reate animations using the Basic Motion study type, it is just as important to understand the
- ;:ations as the capabilities. Because Basic Motion is optimized for speed rather than accuracy, t here
: ::things that it cannot do. It is important t o understand the limitations so that you can decide either
: ..:se SolidWorks Motion for a more accurate solution or to create the animation using an Animation
~c-.:ion study.

~es

- ::Csic Motion only supports standard mates.

~~e friction is not available. SolidWorks Motion does support mate friction. which can be added
-:::ugh t he PropertyManager of the individual mate.
--= action of a motor may cause conflict with contact conditions if t he mot or action is t ransmitted
~-:mgh other than standard mates.

!otors
--=on ly variable that can be used in an expression is time. To use other variables in an expression
:-::.~ires So lidWorks Motion to define and solve the variable.

S=--1omotors are only available in SolidWorks Motion with SolidWorks Simulat ion Premium.

Jcmping
:::~.,ping is controlled by a global value that cannot be edited by the user. In SolidWorks Motion,
:c.1ping can be added t o springs or as a separate motion element.

-.:rce
- _-:::es (except for gravity) can only be applied in SolidWorks Motion; they are not available in Basic
::ion.

:Untact
:::::-:-ectly calculating contact is the result of several factors, including geometry accuracy, solver step
5.-=.e, solver methodology, and rate of closure. In Basic Motion, we have no direct cont rol over the solver
: =J size or the solver that is used. We on ly have limited cont rol over the geometric accuracy. With high
::sure rates, the solver can miss the contact because of the distance the geometry moves between
~=Js. Rolling contact is generally solved correctly in Basic Motion, but impact with high rates of closure
-c.v not, and could require SolidWorks Motion to be solved.
246 Chapter 9

Contact Friction
In Basic Motion, contact friction is set by the materials of the parts in contact. If parts in contact are
made from different materials, the average of the two friction values is used. The values of contact
friction cannot be changed in Basic Motion, other than changing t he material assigned to the parts. The
alternative is to use SolidWorks Motion where the values can be set manually.

Coefficient of Restitution
Basic Motion does not support a coefficient of restitution, so it is considered to be zero. Therefore wher
two objects collide, there will be no bounce. If the impact angle is other than go degrees, the parts wit.
continue to move; however, the angle of incidence will not equal the angle of reflection.

Case Study: Impact


This is just a simp le example to show how component s behave at impact in Basic Motion case studies.

Procedure
1 Open an assembly.
Open the assembly Impact.sldasm from the
Case Study\ Impact folder. The assembly contains a ball
with a starting position above the plate.

2 Play the video Impact-l.mp4.


This is what we would like to achieve: a ball drops and e
bounces up and down on the plate until it loses energy
and comes to rest.
e
3 Open an assembly.
Select the motion study 90 Deg Drop. This motion
study has already been set up. Contact has been defined


between the ball and the plate and gravity has been
applied.
Physics-based Motion 247

Calculate and play the animation.


- he ball drops and stops abruptly at the plate. This is
;:!so shown in the video Impact-2.mp4.

3 Change motion studies.


Select the motion study 45 Deg Dr op.
-
c Unsuppress a feature.
1 t he Feature Manager design t ree, unsuppress the feature Extrude-Thin l in the part Bounce Plate.

Play the video Impact-3.mp4.


nis is what we would like to achieve: a ball drops on t he
-:dined plate and bounces as it rolls down the s lope. At the
::::>ttom, it impacts a wa ll and bounces back up the slope and
-epeats until it loses energy and comes to rest.

_ Calculate and play the animation .


.!.gain, there is no bounce because there is no way to adjust t he
: ;)efficient of restitution in Basic Motion.This is also shown in
:::-~e video Impact-4.mp4.

:low Do You Get the Ball to Bounce?


~cause we cannot adjust the coeff icient of restitution in
3asic Motion, we must either use SolidWorks Motion {which
....as done for videos Impa ct-1 and Impact-3), or create the animations using key points, which could
=2 very time-consuming.

Save and close the assembly.


248 Chapter 9

Case Study: Geneva Wheel


The Geneva wheel is a very basic element in machine design used to turn constant rot ary motion into~
indexing output motion. In this case study, we will create a simple animation of a Geneva wheel to lear
more about the Basic Motion study type.

Storyboard
D D
We want a simple animation of the Geneva wheel in
motion. The input whee l will rotate four times and D D

the output wheel will rotate in steps based on the D D


motion of t he pin in the slot. Geneva Wheel D D

Procedure D D

1 Open an assembly. D D
Open the assembly Geneva Wheel.sldasm from D D
the lesson folder. D D
D D

D D

D D

D D

D D

D D
D D

D D
Physics-based Motion 249

2 Play the video. Angular Ds placement


~
?lay the completed video Geneva Wheel- l .mp4. ~

t:
N 180

~1-8: o J
~
:=rom t he motion in the video, we can see t hat the
, ot ion would be difficult to create with key points. If
Ne were to create plot s of the angu lar displacement ttl

g, 0.00 120
1

2.40 3 60
I I

4.80
>
6.00
I I

7 20
I

8 .40 10.00
and velocity of t he Out pu t Geneva wheel. we would ~ Time (sec)

see that the general shape of the curves could be


::>btained with key point motion, but the smoot h Angular Velocity
til
~a nsitions would be difficult.

IH l\ ,/~
-:-o have t he Ou t put Geneva wheel driven by t he
:::ont act of the pin on the Inpu t Disk. we will need to
use Basic Motion or Mot ion Analysis to create t he I /\ I
animation. 1 000 1.20 240 360 4.80 6 .00
TRne (sec)
7.20 8.40 10.00

3 Create a motion study.


Create a new motion study and name it Basic Motion.

Select Basic Motion fo r the Type of Study.

4 Add a motion driver.


Add a rotary motor t o t he Input Dis k to have it drive at
15RPM in the direct ion shown.

:J Calculate.
Calculate t he mot ion st udy. The default length of the
study will be 5 seconds .

.Ve can see that t he pin on t he Inpu t Disk moves t hrough


:he Out put Geneva wheel.

::l Add Contact.


~eturn the ti me bar t o a seconds.

Click Contact ~ on the Motion Manager t oolbar.

Select bot h the Output Gen eva wheel and the Inpu t Disk.

Click OK.
250 Chapter 9

7 Verify initial position.


If there is physical contact between the parts in the cont act group that prevents motion, the motor wit.
not be able to rotate.
Wit h t he time bar still at 0 seconds, make sure that two components are not in contact.

8 Calculate.
Click Calculate. The solver tries to calculate a solution, but the parts either do not move or just move
slightly and st op.
The assembly behaves as if t here is contact between t he parts. To understa nd what is happening, we
have to understand how contact is solved in Basic Motion.

Contact Options
Because contact is calculated from numerical representat ions of our
components, the geometry used in the mathematical model is not precise. In
other words, the smooth cylinders are not smooth, but rather are made up of
t riangles, or tessellation data. The coarseness of the tessellation will
J
determine how close the calculated contact is to real contact of solid object s. 30 c~ Resolution:
Also the amount of penetration can be controlled. The more accuracy we low

demand, the longer the calculation time. J

There are two contact settings in the Basic Motion study properties:

Geometry Accuracy
To calculate the contact between components, Basic Motion uses the tessellation of the surfaces.
The higher the accuracy, the smaller the tessellat ion triangles and the closer to actua l geometry thE
boundary becomes. This makes collision simulation more accurate, but requires more time to
compute.
Physics-based Motion 251

3D Contact Resolution
This controls the allowed amount of interpenetration between the bodies. Higher sett ings allow less
penetration but increase the solution time. Using higher values of 3D Contact Resolution produces
smoother motion, especially in tight-fit situations. For example, you can include contact information
before calculating the smooth motion of a ball rolling in a channel that has very little clearance.
n our assembly, the image quality has been adjusted to show the geometry as very smooth as shown in
:he left image. The default contact settings cause the Basic Motion solver to see the geometry more
.:ke t he image on the right because t he defau lt settings are relatively coarse to speed calculation. The
-esult is that individual facets of the tessellated model are making contact and stopping the motion.

- ::: allow our assembly to solve, we are going to have to improve geometrical accuracy to more closely
-=?resent what we see on the screen.
::te In t his assembly, the gap between the two parts has been purposely increased t o more vividly
:z;monstrate how contact works.

Change properties. Basic Motion ~

::: .ck Motion Study Properties .11 on the Motion Manager toolbar. Frames per second:

ll6 ~
- -e default value for Geometry Accuracy is 4. Move the slider t o 7.
Geometry Accurp ; 4 / 7
!5. l ow Jf JfHigh
1
t""E ~ Contact R~so~~;
l ow ~gh

r
252 Chapter 9

10 Calculate.
Calculat e the motion study.
The study now runs, but we can see a problem in that the motion of the Output Geneva wheel is no~
smooth and appears to bounce along the surface of the Input Disk.
There are two things causing this. The first is that while the tesselation triangles are small enough t o
allow motion, they still ap pear to be ridges to the solver. Second, the two parts penetrate each other
during t he motion.
To see the individual effects of the two cont act settings, we will maximize one setting and minimize the-
other.

11 Change properties. Basic Motion

Click Motion Study Properties ~ on the MotionManager toolbar. Frames pet second:

Move the Geometry Accuracy slider to 10. This is the maximum value for Basic 10
Geometry Accuracy: ' .
Motion and as smooth as the solver will allow. Low ~

Move the 3D Contact Resolution to 1 (far left).


7 ct Resolution: 1-i<jl

12 Calculate. .r
Calculate the motion study.
With the Geometry Accuracy at maximum we still have some bouncing. This is no longer a problem of
the tesselation dat a, but rather a result of the minimum value of 3D Contact Resolution.

13 Zoom in.
Move the time bar t o a position where the pin is engaged in the
slot and zoom in close. We can see that the pin is not tangent
to the surface of the slot but is penetrating it

Restoring Force
In the physical world, t he pin would not penetrate the sides of
t he slot; however, there would be some deformation of the
surfaces based on the materials and loads. In a numerical
simulation, the bodies are rigid. The solver used in Basic Motion
applies a restoring force based on the amount of penetration.
Physics-based Motion 253

=:emembering that our goal with Basic Motion is to create an animation video and not an analysis, the
::enetration of the parts is usua lly not a problem unless our viewpoint is very close to t he contact area
~a view where the penetration is noticeable. ln those cases, we can increase the 3D Contact Resolution.
-cases like the ball sorter in the previous case study, the penetration was not noticeable, so we could
"".!n the study with a low value for 3D Contact Resolution.

- Change properties.
C.ick Motion Study Properties ~ on the MotionManager toolbar.
'ove the 3D Contact Resolution to 10 (far right).

'5 Calculate.
C::!culate the motion study.
--e results are a little better but there is still a little bounce. The remaining bounce is caused by two
-- 1gs: the clearance between the two parts and the lack of friction. We ca nnot remove all the
:::netration in Basic Motion so even if we have a tight fit, the parts may still bounce. Basic Motion does
-::~directly support friction, so if we need to refine the animation further, we must use
S:;,idWorks Motion.

S Lengthen the study.


~ :Jur storyboard, we wanted four rotations of the Input Disk. We could either speed up the motor. or
E-:gthen the animation. Because the speed of the rotation is satisfactory, we will just lengthen t he total
~ 11ation.

:-ag the key point for the assembly from 5 seconds to 16 seconds (15 RPM equals one revo lution in
-seconds).
- Calculate.
=.: .::ulate the motion study. We now have four revolutions.

:: Examine the timeline .


.:::Ice that the only key point that is not at 0 seconds is the ending key point for the entire assemb ly.
:: position key points were generated for the motion of the two components.

[ 'V' )~ ~ ~ 'L 0 sec


1 I I
5 sec
1 I I
10 sec
1 I I
j15 *c
~ Geneva Wheel (Defat.it<Defd_Dts,
~Orientation ~ncl Camera Yiews +
- .d] Lights, Cameras and Scene +
~ RotaryMotor4
@ Sold Body Contact 4 f~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~9
f
: ~ ()Output Geneva wheel< I> (Del< +
.:. ~ ()Input Disk<l> (DefaultDefal -------""""---------------~
::; ~~:::,~omector<I>(Defou'tl ; ... " .I n a ; * ; . l
254 Chapter 9

19 Play video.
Play t he file Geneva Wheel-2.mp4.
Now that the basic motion has been established, we will add some viewpoint and appearance changes
to the animation to see how they are done in a Basic Motion st udy.
20 Add viewpoints.
Generate three viewpoints so that when the animation plays, the model will rotate about 60 degrees.
1. Right-click Orientation and Camera Views in t he Motio n Study t ree and clear Disable View Key
Creation.
2. Move the time ba r to 0 seconds.
3. Change to the Front view, then press the left arrow twice, fo llowed by the down arrow once.
4. Move the time bar to 8 seconds.
5. Change to the Front view, then press the down arrow once.
6. Move the time bar to 16 seconds.
7. Change to the Front view, then press the right arrow twice. followed by t he down arrow once.

21 Play the animation.


The viewpoint now changes through the animation.

22 Examine the timeline.


The t imeline is now a mixture of driven motion and key point motion as the Orientation and Camera
Views now has key points.

~~~~ 'il 10 secI I


5 s ec
1 I I llO s ec
I I
j15 ee
s ~Geneva Wheel (Defd;<Defd:_Displ.
@ Orient<lljoo and camera Views
~ U!tts. Camera< and Scene
(t RDtaryMobx'4
~ Solid l!ody Co<tact4
Ito ~(-)Otjp<J:Geneva...,.,.,.<l>(Def<
!~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ (-) IslU Disl l > (Defd;<<Defa
---------------------------------
f
~ (f) Gnllrd Comem>r<l > (Defd:
fi QS&i.\1iU
Physics-based Motion 255

.:3 Add appearances .


.:..s the Output Geneva wheel indexes to a new position, it will change to a new color. Make sure tha t
.Wtokey [f] is selected in the MotionManager toolbar.

Move the time bar to 2 seconds.


Change the appearance of the Output Geneva wheel to yellow high gloss plastic.
::.. Move the time bar to 6 seconds.
Change t he appearance of the Output Geneva wheel to red high gloss plastic.
-
.I Move the time bar t o 10 seconds.
Change t he appearance of the Output Geneva wheel to green high gloss plastic.
Move the time bar to 14 seconds.
Change the appearance of the Output Geneva wheel to blue high gloss plastic.
Change the interpolation mode for the four new key points to Snap.

: ..... Play the animation.


-c.e appeara nce now changes through the animation.

:s Examine the timeline.


--e ti meline for the Output Geneva wheel is now a mixture of driven motion (yellow) and key point
::oaearance (magenta). The key points on the part key frame are only associated with the appearance
~d not the motion.

L5tl ~ 'ih ~ ~ 0 sec 15 s 1c I :::1 1 ~ 1


po sec ::..,.""YL-r" lts yc

1 I I I I r I I
- ~Geneva Wheel (Defaul<Default_Displ) I.
@ Orientation and Camera Views
"' :aJ Lights, Cameras and Scene
@ RotaryMotor4
~~~~==~~~~~~~~~~ =::I

-
~ Solid Body Contact4
- ~(-)Outpui:Genevawheei<I>(Def;

- - t


. ..
Move
dJ Explode
e- Appearance
~ ~ Mates in Geneva Wheel
.: ~ (-)lnputDisk<l>(DefaultDef. ........----
: ~ (f)Gro...-.dConnector<I:=-(DefaUt
.: fi MateGroupl
_: Close all open files.
256 Chapter 9

Combining Motion
To this point. our animations have used either Animation for key point animations, or Basic Motion when
we have dynamic motion. Each module uses different solvers so that we cannot directly combine the
motion such t hat some components are driven by Basic Motion and others by key point s.
There are cases. however, when some of