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Chapter 16: Thermodynamics of High-Speed Gas Flow

Stagnation Properties
!
Consider a fluid flowing into a diffuser at a velocity V , temperature T,
pressure P, and enthalpy h, etc. Here the ordinary properties T, P, h, etc.
are called the static properties; that is, they are measured relative to the
flow at the flow velocity. The diffuser is sufficiently long and the exit area
is sufficiently large that the fluid is brought to rest (zero velocity) at the
diffuser exit while no work or heat transfer is done. The resulting state is
called the stagnation state.

h
! ho
V !
T Diffuser Vo
P To
Etc. Po
Etc.

We apply the first law per unit mass for one entrance, one exit, and neglect
the potential energies. Let the inlet state be unsubscripted and the exit or
stagnation state have the subscript o.
!2 !2
V V
qnet +h+ = wnet + ho + o
2 2
Since the exit velocity, work, and heat transfer are zero,
!2
V
ho = h +
2

Chapter 16 -1
The term ho is called the stagnation enthalpy (some authors call this the
total enthalpy). It is the enthalpy the fluid attains when brought to rest
adiabatically while no work is done.

If, in addition, the process is also reversible, the process is isentropic, and
the inlet and exit entropies are equal.

so = s
The stagnation enthalpy and entropy define the stagnation state and the
isentropic stagnation pressure, Po. The actual stagnation pressure for
irreversible flows will be somewhat less than the isentropic stagnation
pressure as shown below.

!
V2
2

Example 16-1

Steam at 400oC, 1.0 MPa, and 300 m/s flows through a pipe. Find the
properties of the steam at the stagnation state.

At T = 400oC and P = 1.0 Mpa,

Chapter 16 -2
h = 3263.9 kJ/kg s = 7.4561 kJ/kgK

Then
!2
V
ho = h +
2
FG 300 mIJ 2
kJ
kJ H sK kg
= 3263.9 +
kg 2 m2
1000 2
s
kJ
= 3308.9
kg
and

kJ
so = s = 7.4561
kg K

ho = h( Po , so )
We can find Po by trial and error (or try the EES solution for problem 2-
26). The resulting stagnation properties are

Chapter 16 -3
Po = 118
. MPa
To = 422.6o C
1 kg
o = = 3.719 3
vo m

Ideal Gas Result

Rewrite the equation defining the stagnation enthalpy as


!2
V
ho h =
2
For ideal gases with constant specific heats, the enthalpy difference
becomes
!2
V
CP (To T ) =
2
where To is defined as the stagnation temperature.

!2
V
To T =
2C P
For the isentropic process, the stagnation pressure can be determined from

Chapter 16 -4
To P FG IJ ( k 1)/ k

T
= o
P H K
or

Po T FG IJ k /( k 1)

P
= o
T H K
Using variable specific heat data

Po Po / Pref PR @To
= =
P P / Pref PR @T

Example 16-2

An aircraft flies in air at 5000 m with a velocity of 250 m/s. At 5000 m, air
has a temperature of 255.7 K and a pressure of 54.05 kPa. Find To and Po.
!2
V
To = T +
2C P
FG 250 mIJ kJ
2

= 255.7 K +
H sK kg
2
kJ m
2(1005
. ) 1000 2
kg K s
= ( 255.7 + 311
. )K
= 286.8 K

Chapter 16 -5
FT I
P = PG J
k /( k 1)

HTK
o
o

F 286.8 K IJ
= 54.05G
1.4 /(1.4 1)

H 255.7 K K
= 80.77 kPa

Conservation of Energy for Control Volumes Using Stagnation


Properties

h1
!
V1 Work
T1 CV
P1 h2
Etc. !
V2
Heat T2
P2
Etc.

The steady-flow conservation of energy for the above figure is

Q" net
F
+ m" G h +
V
!
I
+ gzJ
2
= W"net
F
+ m" G h +
V
! 2
I
+ gzJ
inletsH 2 K
i
i
H 2 K
outlets
e
e

Since

Chapter 16 -6
!2
V
ho = h +
2

inlets
b g
Q" net + m" i ho + gz i = W"net + m" bh
outlets
e o + gz g e

For no heat transfer, one entrance, one exit, this reduces to

b
W"net = m" (ho1 ho 2 ) + g ( z1 z2 ) g
If we neglect the change in potential energy, this becomes

b
W"net = m" ho1 ho 2 g
For ideal gases we write this as

W"net = mC b
" P To1 To 2 g
Conservation of Energy for a Nozzle

We assume steady-flow, no heat transfer, no work, one entrance, and one


exit and neglect elevation changes; then the conservation of energy
becomes

m" 1ho1 = m" 2 ho 2

But
m" 1 = m" 2

Then

ho1 = ho 2

Chapter 16 -7
Thus the stagnation enthalpy remains constant throughout the nozzle. At
any cross section in the nozzle, the stagnation enthalpy is the same as that
at the entrance.

For ideal gases this last result becomes

To1 = To 2

Thus the stagnation temperature remains constant through out the nozzle.
At any cross section in the nozzle, the stagnation temperature is the same as
that at the entrance.

Assuming an isentropic process for flow through the nozzle, we can write
for the entrance and exit states

Po 2 F T I
=G J
k /( k 1)

HT K
o2

Po1 o1

So we see that the stagnation pressure is also constant through out the
nozzle for isentropic flow.

Velocity of Sound and Mach Number

We want to show that the stagnation properties are related to the Mach
number M of the flow where
!
V
M=
C

and C is the speed of sound in the fluid. But first we need to define the
speed of sound in the fluid.

A pressure disturbance propagates through a compressible fluid with a


velocity dependent upon the state of the fluid. The velocity with which this
pressure wave moves through the fluid is called the velocity of sound, or
the sonic velocity.

Chapter 16 -8
Consider a small pressure wave caused by a small piston displacement in a
tube filled with an ideal gas as shown below.

Piston
Moving wave front

!
dV h + dh C h Stationary
P + dP P Fluid
+ d

!
V

!
dV
0 x

P + dP
P
0 x

It is easier to work with a control volume moving with the wave front as
shown below.

Control volume
traveling with
the wave front

!
h + dh C- dV C h
P + dP P
+ d

Chapter 16 -9
Apply the conservation of energy for steady-flow with no heat transfer, no
work, and neglect the potential energies.
! 2
C 2
(C dV )
h+ = (h + dh) +
2 2
! !2
C2 (C 2CdV + dV )
2
h+ = (h + dh) +
2 2
!
Cancel terms and neglect dV 2 ; we have
!
dh CdV = 0
!
Now, apply the conservation of mass or continuity equation m" = AV to the
control volume.
!
AC = ( + d ) A(C dV )
! !
AC = A( C dV + Cd d dV )
!
Cancel terms and neglect the higher-order terms like d dV . We have
!
C d dV = 0

Also, we consider the property relation

dh = T ds + v dP
1
dh = T ds + dP

Let's assume the process to be isentropic; then ds = 0 and

Chapter 16 -10
1
dh = dP

Using the results of the first law

1 !
dh = dP = C dV

From the continuity equation

! C d
dV =

Now

1
dP = C
C d FG IJ
H K
Thus

dP
= C2
d

Since the process is assumed to be isentropic, the above becomes

FG P IJ = C2
H K s

For a general thermodynamic substance, the results of Chapter 11 may be


used to show that the speed of sound is determined from

Chapter 16 -11
C2 = k
FG P IJ
H K T

where k is the ratio of specific heats, k = CP/CV.

Ideal Gas Result

For ideal gases

P = RT
FG P IJ = RT
H K T

C 2 = kRT
C = kRT
Example 16-3

Find the speed of sound in air at an altitude of 5000 m.

At 5000 m, T = 255.7 K.

m2
1000 2
kJ s
C = 14
. (0.287 )(255.7 K )
kg K kJ
kg
m
= 320.5
s

Notice that the temperature used for the speed of sound is the static
(normal) temperature.

Chapter 16 -12
Example 16-4

Find the speed of sound in steam where the pressure is 1 Mpa and the
temperature is 350oC.

At P = 1 MPa, T = 350oC,

C=
FG P IJ
H K s

F I
=
GG P JJ
GH FGH v1IJK JK
s

Here, we approximate the partial derivative by perturbating the pressure


about 1 MPa. Consider using P 0.025 MPa at the entropy value s =
7.3011 kJ/kgK, to find the corresponding specific volumes.

m2
1000 2
(1025 975) kPa s kJ
C=
FG 1 1 kgIJ kJ m3 kPa
H
10.2773 10.2882 m3 K kg
m
= 6055
.
s

What is the speed of sound for steam at 350oC assuming ideal-gas


behavior?

Assume k = 1.3, then

Chapter 16 -13
m2
1000 2
kJ s
C = 13
. (0.4615 )(350 + 273) K
kg K kJ
kg
m
= 6114
.
s

Mach Number

The Mach number M is defined as


!
V
M=
C
M <1 flow is subsonic
M =1 flow is sonic
M >1 flow is supersonic

Example 16-5

In the air and steam examples above, find the Mach number if the air
velocity is 250 m/s and the steam velocity is 300 m/s.
m
250
M air = s = 0.780
m
320.5
s
m
300
M steam = s = 0.495
m
6055
.
s

Chapter 16 -14
The flow parameters To/T, Po/P, o/, etc. are related to the flow Mach
number. Let's consider ideal gases, then
!2
V
To = T +
2C P
!2
To V
= 1+
T 2CP T
but

k 1 k 1
CP = R or =
k 1 CP kR

!2
To V ( k 1)
= 1+
T 2T kR
and

C 2 = kRT
so
!2
To ( k 1) V
= 1+
T 2 C2
( k 1) 2
= 1+ M
2
The pressure ratio is given by

Chapter 16 -15
Po T FG IJ k /( k 1)

P
= o
T H K
F ( k 1) M IJ
= G1 +
k /( k 1)

H 2 K
2

We can show the density ratio to be

o T FG IJ 1/( k 1)


= o
T H K
F (k 1) M IJ
= G1 +
1/( k 1)

H 2 K
2

See Table A-15 for the inverse of these values (P/Po, T/To, and /o) when
k = 1.4.

For the Mach number equal to 1, the sonic location, the static properties are
denoted with a superscript *. This condition, when M = 1, is called the
sonic condition. When M = 1 and k = 1.4, the static-to-stagnation ratios are

T* 2
= = 0.83333
To k + 1
P* FG IJ
2
k /( k 1)

Po
=
H K
k +1
= 0.52828

*
=G
F 2 IJ 1/( k 1)

o H k + 1K = 0.63394

Chapter 16 -16
Effect of Area Changes on Flow Parameters

Consider the isentropic steady flow of an ideal gas through the nozzle
shown below.

200 kPa
Air
m" = 3 kg/s
P = 1500 kPa
T! = 1200 K
V 0

Step 0 1 2

Air flows steadily through a varying-cross-sectional-area duct such as a


nozzle at a flow rate of 3 kg/s. The air enters the duct at a low velocity at a
pressure of 1500 kPa and a temperature of 1200 K and it expands in the
duct to a pressure of 100 kPa. The duct is designed so that the flow process
is isentropic. Determine the pressure, temperature, velocity, flow area,
speed of sound, and Mach number at each point along the duct axis that
corresponds to a pressure drop of 200 kPa.

Since the inlet velocity is low, the stagnation properties equal the static
properties.

To = T1 = 1200 K , Po = P1 = 1500 kPa


After the first 200 kPa pressure drop, we have

F PI
T=TG J
( k 1)/ k
F 1300 kPa IJ
= 1200 K G
(1.4 1)/1.4

HPKo
o H 1500 kPa K
= 11519
. K

Chapter 16 -17
!
V = 2C P (T0 T )
m2
1000 2
kJ s
= 2(1005
. )(1200 11519
. )K
kg K kJ
kg
m
= 310.77
s

P (1300kPa ) kJ
= = 3
RT (0.287 kJ )(11519. K ) kPa
m
kg K
kg
= 3.932 3
m

kg
3
m" 104 cm2
s
A= ! =
V (3.9322 kg )(310.77 m ) m2
m3 s
= 24.55cm2

m2
1000 2
kJ s
C = kRT = 14
. (0.287 )(11519
. K)
kg K kJ
kg
m
= 680.33
s

Chapter 16 -18
! 310.77 m
V s = 0.457
M= =
C 680.33 m
s
Now we tabulate the results for the other 200 kPa increments in the
pressure.

Summary of Results for Nozzle Problem


!
P T V C A M
Step kPa K m/s kg/m 3
m/s cm2
0 1500 1200 0 4.3554 694.38 0
1 1300 1151.9 310.77 3.9322 680.33 24.55 0.457
2 1100 1098.2 452.15 3.4899 664.28 19.01 0.681
3 900 1037.0 572.18 3.0239 645.51 17.34 0.886
4 792.4 1000.0 633.88 2.7611 633.88 17.14 1.000
5 700 965.2 786.83 2.5270 622.75 17.28 1.103
6 500 876.7 805.90 1.9871 593.52 18.73 1.358
7 300 757.7 942.69 1.3796 551.75 23.07 1.709
8 100 553.6 1139.62 0.6294 471.61 41.82 2.416

Note that at P = 797.42 kPa, M = 1.000, and this state is the critical state.

Now let's see why these relations work this way. Consider the nozzle and
control volume shown below.

Nozzle
h
P
T!
V
h + dh
P + dP
T! + dT !
V + dV
+ d

Chapter 16 -19
The first law for the control volume is
! !
dh + VdV = 0
!
The continuity equation for the control volume m" = AV yields
!
d dA dV
+ + ! =0
A V

Also, we consider the property relation for an isentropic process

dP
Tds = dh =0

and the Mach Number relation
!2
dP V
= C2 = 2
d M

Putting these four relations together yields

dA dP
= ! 2 (1 M 2 )
A V

Chapter 16 -20
A nozzle is a device
! that increases fluid velocity while causing its pressure
to drop; thus, dV > 0, dP < 0.

Nozzle Results
dA dP
= ! 2 (1 M 2 )
A V
Subsonic: M < 1 dP(1 M 2 ) < 0 dA < 0
Sonic: M = 1 dP (1 M 2 ) = 0 dA = 0
Supersonic: M > 1 dP(1 M 2 ) > 0 dA > 0

To accelerate subsonic flow, the nozzle flow area must first decrease in the
flow direction. The flow area reaches a minimum at the point where the
Mach number is unity. To continue to accelerate the flow to supersonic
conditions, the flow area must increase.

Note that the throat of a nozzle is the minimum flow area.

A diffuser is a device that! decreases fluid velocity while causing its


pressure to rise; thus, d V < 0, dP > 0.

Diffuser Results
dA dP
= ! 2 (1 M 2 )
A V
Subsonic: M < 1 dP(1 M 2 ) > 0 dA > 0
Sonic: M = 1 dP (1 M 2 ) = 0 dA = 0
Supersonic: M > 1 dP(1 M 2 ) < 0 dA < 0

To diffuse supersonic flow, the diffuser flow area must first decrease in the
flow direction. The flow area reaches a minimum at the point where the
Mach number is unity. To continue to diffuse the flow to subsonic
conditions, the flow area must increase.

Chapter 16 -21
Equation of Mass Flow Rate through a Nozzle

Let's obtain an expression for the flow rate through a converging nozzle at
any location as a function of the pressure at that location. The mass flow
rate is given by
!
m" = AV
The velocity of the flow is related to the static and stagnation enthalpies.

! T
V = 2( ho h) = 2CP (T0 T ) = 2C P T0 (1 )
To
and
T
=
FG IJ
P
( k 1)/ k

To H K
Po

! F F PI
2C T G 1 G J
( k 1)/ k
I
V= P 0
H HPK o
JK
Write the mass flow rate as

!
m" = AV o
o


=
P FG IJ 1/ k

o Po H K
We note from the ideal-gas relations that

Chapter 16 -22
Po
o =
RTo

m" = APo
2k FG P IJ 2/ k
F PI
G J
( k +1)/ k

( k 1) RTo HPK o HPK o

What pressure ratios make the mass flow rate zero?

Do these values make sense?

Now let's make a plot of mass flow rate versus the static-to-stagnation
pressure ratio.

0.16

0.14

0.12
m [kg/s ]

0.10
Dia.=1 cm
0.08
T o=1200 K
0.06
P o=1500 kPa
0.04

0.02

0.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

P*/P o P/P o

Chapter 16 -23
This plot shows there is a value of P/Po that makes the mass flow rate a
maximum. To find that mass flow rate, we note

dm"
=0
FG IJ
P
d
H K
Po
The result is

P 2 FG IJ k /( k 1)
P*
Po
=
k +1 H K =
Po

So the pressure ratio that makes the mass flow rate a maximum is the same
pressure ratio at which the Mach number is unity at the flow cross-sectional
area. This value of the pressure ratio is called the critical pressure ratio for
nozzle flow. For pressure ratios less than the critical value, the nozzle is
said to be choked. When the nozzle is choked, the mass flow rate is the
maximum possible for the flow area, stagnation pressure, and stagnation
temperature. Reducing the pressure ratio below the critical value will not
increase the mass flow rate.

What is the expression for mass flow rate when the nozzle is choked?

Using

Po FG
k 1 2 IJ k /( k 1)

P
= 1+
H 2
M
K
The mass flow rate becomes

Chapter 16 -24
LM OP
k M M PP
m" = APo
RT M F k 1
MN GH1 + 2 M IJK
( k +1)/[ 2 ( k 1)]
o 2
PQ
When the Mach number is unity, M = 1, A = A*

k FG
2 IJ ( k +1)/[ 2 ( k 1)]

m" = A* Po
H
RTo k + 1 K
Taking the ratio of the last two results gives the ratio of the area of the flow
A at a given Mach number to the area where the Mach number is unity, A*.

Then

A 1 LMFG 2 IJ FG1 + k 1 M IJ OP ( k +1)/[ 2 ( k 1)]

=
NH k + 1K H 2 K Q
2

A* M

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5
A/A*

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Chapter 16 -25
From the above plot we note that for each A/A* there are two values of M:
one for subsonic flow at that area ratio and one for supersonic flow at that
area ratio. The area ratio is unity when the Mach number is equal to one.

Effect of Back Pressure on Flow through a Converging Nozzle

Consider the converging nozzle shown below. The flow is supplied by a


reservoir at pressure Pr and temperature Tr. The reservoir is large enough
that the velocity in the reservoir is zero.

Let's plot the ratio P/Po along the length of the nozzle, the mass flow rate
through the nozzle, and the exit plane pressure Pe as the back pressure Pb is
varied. Let's consider isentropic flow so that Po is constant throughout the
nozzle.

!
Vr

Chapter 16 -26
1. Pb = Po, Pb /Po = 1. No flow occurs. Pe = Pb, Me=0.

2. Pb > P* or P*/Po < Pb /Po < 1. Flow begins to increase as the back
pressure is lowered. Pe = Pb, Me < 1.

3. Pb = P* or P*/Po = Pb /Po < 1. Flow increases to the choked flow limit


as the back pressure is lowered to the critical pressure. Pe = Pb, Me=1.

4. Pb < P* or Pb /Po < P*/Po < 1. Flow is still choked and does not increase
as the back pressure is lowered below the critical pressure, pressure
drop from Pe to Pb occurs outside the nozzle. Pe = P*, Me=1.

5. Pb = 0. Results are the same as for item 4.

Chapter 16 -27
Consider the converging-diverging nozzle shown below.

!
Vi

Let's plot the ratio P/Po and the Mach number along the length of the
nozzle as the back pressure Pb is varied. Let's consider isentropic flow so
that Po is constant throughout the nozzle.

PA = Po, or PA/Po = 1. No flow occurs. Pe = Pb, Me = 0.

Chapter 16 -28
Po > PB > PC > P* or P*/Po < PC/Po < PB/Po < 1. Flow begins to
increase as the back pressure is lowered. The velocity increases in the
converging section but M < 1 at the throat; thus, the diverging section
acts as a diffuser with the velocity decreasing and pressure increasing.
The flow remains subsonic through the nozzle. Pe = Pb and Me < 1.

Pb = PC = P* or P*/Po = Pb/Po = PC/Po and Pb is adjusted so that M=1 at


the throat. Flow increases to its maximum value at choked conditions;
velocity increases to the speed of sound at the throat, but the converging
section acts as a diffuser with velocity decreasing and pressure
increasing. Pe = Pb, Me < 1.

PC > Pb > PE or PE/Po < Pb/Po < PC/Po < 1. The fluid that achieved
sonic velocity at the throat continues to accelerate to supersonic
velocities in the diverging section as the pressure drops. This
acceleration comes to a sudden stop, however, as a normal shock
develops at a section between the throat and the exit plane. The flow
across the shock is highly irreversible. The normal shock moves
downstream away from the throat as Pb is decreased and approaches the
nozzle exit plane as Pb approaches PE. When Pb = PE, the normal shock
forms at the exit plane of the nozzle. The flow is supersonic through
the entire diverging section in this case, and it can be approximated as
isentropic. However, the fluid velocity drops to subsonic levels just
before leaving the nozzle as it crosses the normal shock.

PE > Pb > 0 or 0 < Pb/Po < PE/Po < 1. The flow in the diverging section
is supersonic, and the fluids expand to PF at the nozzle exit with no
normal shock forming within the nozzle. Thus the flow through the
nozzle can be approximated as isentropic. When Pb = PF, no shocks
occur within or outside the nozzle. When Pb < PF, irreversible mixing
and expansion waves occur downstream of the exit plane or the nozzle.
When Pb > PF, however, the pressure of the fluid increases from PF to
Pb irreversibly in the wake or the nozzle exit, creating what are called
oblique shocks.

Chapter 16 -29
Example 16-6

Air leaves the turbine of a turbojet engine and enters a convergent nozzle at
400 K, 871 kPa, with a velocity of 180 m/s. The nozzle has an exit area of
730 cm2. Determine the mass flow rate through the nozzle for back
pressures of 700 kPa, 528 kPa, and 100 kPa, assuming isentropic flow.

Air
flow PB = 700 kPa
P = 871 kPa = 528 kPa
T! = 400 K = 100 kPa
V = 180 m/s

The stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure are


!2
V
To = T +
2CP
kJ
(180m / s) 2 kg
To = 400 K +
FG
kJ m2 IJ
2 1005
.
H
kg K
1000 2
s K
= (400 + 161
. ) K = 4161
. K

FT I F . KI
k 1.4

P = PG J
1.4 1
= 871 kPa G
H 400 K JK
k 1 4161
HTK
o
o

= 1000 kPa

Chapter 16 -30
For air k = 1.4 and Table A-15 applies. The critical pressure ratio is
P*/Po = 0.528.

The critical pressure for this nozzle is

P * = 0.528 Po
= 0.528(1000 kPa ) = 528 kPa

Therefore, for a back pressure of 528 kPa, M = 1 at the nozzle exit and the
flow is choked. For a back pressure of 700 kPa, the nozzle is not choked.
The flow rate will not increase for back pressures below 528 kPa.

For the back pressure of 700 kPa,

PB 700 kPa P*
= = 0.700 >
Po 1000 kPa Po

Thus, PE = PB = 700 kPa. For this pressure ratio Table A-15 gives

M E = 0.7324
TE
= 0.9031
To
TE = 0.9031 To = 0.9031(4161
. K ) = 3758
. K

Chapter 16 -31
CE = kRTE
m2
1000 2
kJ s
= 14
. (0.287 )(3758
. K)
kg K kJ
kg
m
= 388.6
s
! m
VE = M E CE = (0.7324)(388.6 )
s
m
= 284.6
s

PE (700kPa ) kJ
E = = 3
RTE (0.287 kJ )( 3758
. K ) kPa
m
kg K
kg
= 6.4902 3
m
Then
!
m" = E AEVE
2
kg m m
= 6.4902 3 (730 cm2 )(284.6 )
m s (100 cm) 2
kg
= 134.8
s

Chapter 16 -32
For the back pressure of 528 kPa,

PE 528 kPa P*
= = 0.528 =
Po 1000 kPa Po

This is the critical pressure ratio and ME = 1 and PE = PB = P* = 528 kPa.

TE T *
= = 0.8333
To To
TE = 0.8333 To = 0.8333(4161
. K ) = 346.7 K

And since ME = 1,
!
VE = CE = kRTE
m2
1000 2
kJ s
= 14
. (0.287 )(346.7 K )
kg K kJ
kg
m
= 373.2
s

P* (528kPa ) kJ
E = = *
=
RT * (0.287 kJ )(346.7 K ) m3 kPa
kg K
kg
= 5.3064 3
m

Chapter 16 -33
!
m" = E AEVE
kg m m2
= 5.3064 3 (730 cm )(373.2 )
2

m s (100 cm) 2
kg
= 144.6
s

For a back pressure less than the critical pressure, 528 kPa in this case, the
nozzle is choked and the mass flow rate will be the same as that for the
critical pressure. Therefore, at a back pressure of 100 kPa the mass flow
rate will be 144.6 kg/s.

Example 16-7

A converging-diverging nozzle has an exit-area-to-throat area ratio of 2.


Air enters this nozzle with a stagnation pressure of 1000 kPa and a
stagnation temperature of 500 K. The throat area is 8 cm2. Determine the
mass flow rate, exit pressure, exit temperature, exit Mach number, and exit
velocity for the following conditions:

Sonic velocity at the throat, diverging section acting as a nozzle.


Sonic velocity at the throat, diverging section acting as a diffuser.

A/A* = 2

Air
Po = 1000 kPa
To = 500 K
Throat
area = 8 cm2

Chapter 16 -34
For A/A* = 2, Table A-15 yields two Mach numbers, one > 1 and one < 1.

When the diverging section acts as a supersonic nozzle, we use the value
for M > 1. Then, for AE/A* = 2.0, ME = 2.197, PE/Po = 0.0939, and TE/To =
0.5089,

PE = 0.0939 Po = 0.0939(1000 kPa ) = 93.9 kPa


TE = 0.8333 To = 0.5089(500 K ) = 254.5 K

CE = kRTE
m2
1000 2
kJ s
= 14
. (0.287 )(254.5K )
kg K kJ
kg
m
= 319.7
s

! m m
VE = M E CE = 2.197(319.7 ) = 702.5
s s
The mass flow rate can be calculated at any known cross-sectional area
where the properties are known. It normally is best to use the throat
conditions. Since the flow has sonic conditions at the throat, Mt = 1, and

Tt T *
= = 0.8333
To To
Tt = 0.8333 To = 0.8333(500 K ) = 416.6 K

Chapter 16 -35
!
Vt = Ct = kRTt
m2
1000 2
kJ s
= 14
. (0.287 )(416.6 K )
kg K kJ
kg
m
= 409.2
s

Pt P *
= = 0.528
Po Po
Pt = 0.528 Po = 0.528(1000 kPa ) = 528 kPa
P* (528kPa ) kJ
t = =
*
=
RT * (0.287 kJ )( 416.6 K ) m3 kPa
kg K
kg
= 4.416 3
m
!
m" = t AV
t t
2
kg m m
= 4.416 3 (8 cm2 )(409.2 )
m s (100 cm) 2
kg
= 1446
.
s

Chapter 16 -36
When the diverging section acts as a diffuser, we use M < 1. Then, for
AE /A* = 2.0, ME = 0.308, PE /Po = 0.936, and TE /To = 0.9812,

PE = 0.0939 Po = 0.936(1000 kPa ) = 936 kPa


TE = 0.8333 To = 0.9812(500 K ) = 490.6 K

CE = kRTE
m2
1000 2
kJ s
= 14
. (0.287 )(490.6 K )
kg K kJ
kg
m
= 444.0
s

! m m
VE = M E CE = 0.308(444.0 ) = 136.7
s s
Since M = 1 at the throat, the mass flow rate is the same as that in the first
part because the nozzle is choked.

Normal Shocks

In some range of back pressure, the fluid that achieved a sonic velocity at
the throat of a converging-diverging nozzle and is accelerating to
supersonic velocities in the diverging section experiences a normal shock.
The normal shock causes a sudden rise in pressure and temperature and a
sudden drop in velocity to subsonic levels. Flow through the shock is
highly irreversible, and thus it cannot be approximated as isentropic. The
properties of an ideal gas with constant specific heats before (subscript x)
and after (subscript y) a shock are related by

Chapter 16 -37
Control volume

! !
Vx Vy
Mx > 1 Px Py My < 1
hx hy
Flow x y
sx sy

Shock wave

We assume steady-flow with no heat and work interactions and no


potential energy changes. We have the following

Conservation of mass
! !
x AVx = y AVy
! !
xVx = yVy

Conservation of energy

!2 !2
Vx Vy
hx + = hy +
2 2
hox = hoy
for ideal gases: Tox = Toy

Chapter 16 -38
Conservation of momentum

Rearranging Eq. 16-14 and integrating yield


! !
A( Px Py ) = m" (Vy Vx )

Increase of entropy

s y sx 0

Thus, we see that from the conservation of energy, the stagnation


temperature is constant across the shock. However, the stagnation pressure
decreases across the shock because of irreversibilities. The ordinary
(static) temperature rises drastically because of the conversion of kinetic
energy into enthalpy due to a large drop in fluid velocity.

We can show that the following relations apply across the shock.

Ty 1 + M x2 ( k 1) / 2
=
Tx 1 + M y2 ( k 1) / 2
Py M x 1 + M x2 ( k 1) / 2
=
Px M y 1 + M y2 ( k 1) / 2
M x2 + 2 / ( k 1)
M = 2

2 M x2 k / ( k 1) 1
y

The entropy change across the shock is obtained by applying the entropy-
change equation for an ideal gas, constant properties, across the shock:

Ty Py
sy sx = C p ln R ln
Tx Px

Chapter 16 -39
Example 16-8

Air flowing with a velocity of 600 m/s, a pressure of 60 kPa, and a


temperature of 260 K undergoes a normal shock. Determine the velocity
and static and stagnation conditions after the shock and the entropy change
across the shock.

The Mach number before the shock is


! !
Vx Vx
Mx = =
Cx kRTx
m
600
= s
m2
1000 2
kJ s
1.4(0.287 )(260 K )
kg K kJ
kg
= 1856
.

For Mx = 1.856, Table A-15 gives

Px Tx
= 0.1597, = 0.5921
Pox Tox
For Mx = 1.856, Table A-16 gives the following results.

Py y
M y = 0.6045, = 3852
. , = 2.4473
Px x
Ty Poy Poy
= 1574
. , = 0.7875, = 4.931
Tx Pox Px

Chapter 16 -40
From the conservation of mass with Ay = Ax
! !
V y y = Vx x
! m
! Vx 600
Vy = = s = 245.2 m
y 2.4473 s
x

Py
Py = Px = 60 kPa (3852
. ) = 2311
. kPa
Px
Ty
Ty = Tx = 260 K (1574
. ) = 409.2 K
Tx

Tx 260 K
Tox = = = 439.1 K = Toy
FG IJ
Tx 0.5921
H K
Tox

Px 60 kPa
Pox = = = 375.6 kPa
FG IJ
Px 01597
.
H KPox

Poy
Poy = Pox = 375.6 kPa (0.7875) = 2958
. kPa
Pox

Chapter 16 -41
The entropy change across the shock is

sy sx = CP ln
FG T IJ R lnFG P IJ
y y

HTK H PK
x x

lnb1574
. g 0.287 lnb3852
. g
kJ kJ
s y sx = 1005
.
kg K kg K
kJ
= 0.0688
kg K

Chapter 16 -42