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chapter 16

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chapter 16

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Stagnation Properties

!

Consider a fluid flowing into a diffuser at a velocity V , temperature T,

pressure P, and enthalpy h, etc. Here the ordinary properties T, P, h, etc.

are called the static properties; that is, they are measured relative to the

flow at the flow velocity. The diffuser is sufficiently long and the exit area

is sufficiently large that the fluid is brought to rest (zero velocity) at the

diffuser exit while no work or heat transfer is done. The resulting state is

called the stagnation state.

h

! ho

V !

T Diffuser Vo

P To

Etc. Po

Etc.

We apply the first law per unit mass for one entrance, one exit, and neglect

the potential energies. Let the inlet state be unsubscripted and the exit or

stagnation state have the subscript o.

!2 !2

V V

qnet +h+ = wnet + ho + o

2 2

Since the exit velocity, work, and heat transfer are zero,

!2

V

ho = h +

2

Chapter 16 -1

The term ho is called the stagnation enthalpy (some authors call this the

total enthalpy). It is the enthalpy the fluid attains when brought to rest

adiabatically while no work is done.

If, in addition, the process is also reversible, the process is isentropic, and

the inlet and exit entropies are equal.

so = s

The stagnation enthalpy and entropy define the stagnation state and the

isentropic stagnation pressure, Po. The actual stagnation pressure for

irreversible flows will be somewhat less than the isentropic stagnation

pressure as shown below.

!

V2

2

Example 16-1

Steam at 400oC, 1.0 MPa, and 300 m/s flows through a pipe. Find the

properties of the steam at the stagnation state.

Chapter 16 -2

h = 3263.9 kJ/kg s = 7.4561 kJ/kgK

Then

!2

V

ho = h +

2

FG 300 mIJ 2

kJ

kJ H sK kg

= 3263.9 +

kg 2 m2

1000 2

s

kJ

= 3308.9

kg

and

kJ

so = s = 7.4561

kg K

ho = h( Po , so )

We can find Po by trial and error (or try the EES solution for problem 2-

26). The resulting stagnation properties are

Chapter 16 -3

Po = 118

. MPa

To = 422.6o C

1 kg

o = = 3.719 3

vo m

!2

V

ho h =

2

For ideal gases with constant specific heats, the enthalpy difference

becomes

!2

V

CP (To T ) =

2

where To is defined as the stagnation temperature.

!2

V

To T =

2C P

For the isentropic process, the stagnation pressure can be determined from

Chapter 16 -4

To P FG IJ ( k 1)/ k

T

= o

P H K

or

Po T FG IJ k /( k 1)

P

= o

T H K

Using variable specific heat data

Po Po / Pref PR @To

= =

P P / Pref PR @T

Example 16-2

An aircraft flies in air at 5000 m with a velocity of 250 m/s. At 5000 m, air

has a temperature of 255.7 K and a pressure of 54.05 kPa. Find To and Po.

!2

V

To = T +

2C P

FG 250 mIJ kJ

2

= 255.7 K +

H sK kg

2

kJ m

2(1005

. ) 1000 2

kg K s

= ( 255.7 + 311

. )K

= 286.8 K

Chapter 16 -5

FT I

P = PG J

k /( k 1)

HTK

o

o

F 286.8 K IJ

= 54.05G

1.4 /(1.4 1)

H 255.7 K K

= 80.77 kPa

Properties

h1

!

V1 Work

T1 CV

P1 h2

Etc. !

V2

Heat T2

P2

Etc.

Q" net

F

+ m" G h +

V

!

I

+ gzJ

2

= W"net

F

+ m" G h +

V

! 2

I

+ gzJ

inletsH 2 K

i

i

H 2 K

outlets

e

e

Since

Chapter 16 -6

!2

V

ho = h +

2

inlets

b g

Q" net + m" i ho + gz i = W"net + m" bh

outlets

e o + gz g e

b

W"net = m" (ho1 ho 2 ) + g ( z1 z2 ) g

If we neglect the change in potential energy, this becomes

b

W"net = m" ho1 ho 2 g

For ideal gases we write this as

W"net = mC b

" P To1 To 2 g

Conservation of Energy for a Nozzle

exit and neglect elevation changes; then the conservation of energy

becomes

But

m" 1 = m" 2

Then

ho1 = ho 2

Chapter 16 -7

Thus the stagnation enthalpy remains constant throughout the nozzle. At

any cross section in the nozzle, the stagnation enthalpy is the same as that

at the entrance.

To1 = To 2

Thus the stagnation temperature remains constant through out the nozzle.

At any cross section in the nozzle, the stagnation temperature is the same as

that at the entrance.

Assuming an isentropic process for flow through the nozzle, we can write

for the entrance and exit states

Po 2 F T I

=G J

k /( k 1)

HT K

o2

Po1 o1

So we see that the stagnation pressure is also constant through out the

nozzle for isentropic flow.

We want to show that the stagnation properties are related to the Mach

number M of the flow where

!

V

M=

C

and C is the speed of sound in the fluid. But first we need to define the

speed of sound in the fluid.

velocity dependent upon the state of the fluid. The velocity with which this

pressure wave moves through the fluid is called the velocity of sound, or

the sonic velocity.

Chapter 16 -8

Consider a small pressure wave caused by a small piston displacement in a

tube filled with an ideal gas as shown below.

Piston

Moving wave front

!

dV h + dh C h Stationary

P + dP P Fluid

+ d

!

V

!

dV

0 x

P + dP

P

0 x

It is easier to work with a control volume moving with the wave front as

shown below.

Control volume

traveling with

the wave front

!

h + dh C- dV C h

P + dP P

+ d

Chapter 16 -9

Apply the conservation of energy for steady-flow with no heat transfer, no

work, and neglect the potential energies.

! 2

C 2

(C dV )

h+ = (h + dh) +

2 2

! !2

C2 (C 2CdV + dV )

2

h+ = (h + dh) +

2 2

!

Cancel terms and neglect dV 2 ; we have

!

dh CdV = 0

!

Now, apply the conservation of mass or continuity equation m" = AV to the

control volume.

!

AC = ( + d ) A(C dV )

! !

AC = A( C dV + Cd d dV )

!

Cancel terms and neglect the higher-order terms like d dV . We have

!

C d dV = 0

dh = T ds + v dP

1

dh = T ds + dP

Let's assume the process to be isentropic; then ds = 0 and

Chapter 16 -10

1

dh = dP

Using the results of the first law

1 !

dh = dP = C dV

! C d

dV =

Now

1

dP = C

C d FG IJ

H K

Thus

dP

= C2

d

FG P IJ = C2

H K s

used to show that the speed of sound is determined from

Chapter 16 -11

C2 = k

FG P IJ

H K T

P = RT

FG P IJ = RT

H K T

C 2 = kRT

C = kRT

Example 16-3

At 5000 m, T = 255.7 K.

m2

1000 2

kJ s

C = 14

. (0.287 )(255.7 K )

kg K kJ

kg

m

= 320.5

s

Notice that the temperature used for the speed of sound is the static

(normal) temperature.

Chapter 16 -12

Example 16-4

Find the speed of sound in steam where the pressure is 1 Mpa and the

temperature is 350oC.

At P = 1 MPa, T = 350oC,

C=

FG P IJ

H K s

F I

=

GG P JJ

GH FGH v1IJK JK

s

about 1 MPa. Consider using P 0.025 MPa at the entropy value s =

7.3011 kJ/kgK, to find the corresponding specific volumes.

m2

1000 2

(1025 975) kPa s kJ

C=

FG 1 1 kgIJ kJ m3 kPa

H

10.2773 10.2882 m3 K kg

m

= 6055

.

s

behavior?

Chapter 16 -13

m2

1000 2

kJ s

C = 13

. (0.4615 )(350 + 273) K

kg K kJ

kg

m

= 6114

.

s

Mach Number

!

V

M=

C

M <1 flow is subsonic

M =1 flow is sonic

M >1 flow is supersonic

Example 16-5

In the air and steam examples above, find the Mach number if the air

velocity is 250 m/s and the steam velocity is 300 m/s.

m

250

M air = s = 0.780

m

320.5

s

m

300

M steam = s = 0.495

m

6055

.

s

Chapter 16 -14

The flow parameters To/T, Po/P, o/, etc. are related to the flow Mach

number. Let's consider ideal gases, then

!2

V

To = T +

2C P

!2

To V

= 1+

T 2CP T

but

k 1 k 1

CP = R or =

k 1 CP kR

!2

To V ( k 1)

= 1+

T 2T kR

and

C 2 = kRT

so

!2

To ( k 1) V

= 1+

T 2 C2

( k 1) 2

= 1+ M

2

The pressure ratio is given by

Chapter 16 -15

Po T FG IJ k /( k 1)

P

= o

T H K

F ( k 1) M IJ

= G1 +

k /( k 1)

H 2 K

2

o T FG IJ 1/( k 1)

= o

T H K

F (k 1) M IJ

= G1 +

1/( k 1)

H 2 K

2

See Table A-15 for the inverse of these values (P/Po, T/To, and /o) when

k = 1.4.

For the Mach number equal to 1, the sonic location, the static properties are

denoted with a superscript *. This condition, when M = 1, is called the

sonic condition. When M = 1 and k = 1.4, the static-to-stagnation ratios are

T* 2

= = 0.83333

To k + 1

P* FG IJ

2

k /( k 1)

Po

=

H K

k +1

= 0.52828

*

=G

F 2 IJ 1/( k 1)

o H k + 1K = 0.63394

Chapter 16 -16

Effect of Area Changes on Flow Parameters

Consider the isentropic steady flow of an ideal gas through the nozzle

shown below.

200 kPa

Air

m" = 3 kg/s

P = 1500 kPa

T! = 1200 K

V 0

Step 0 1 2

nozzle at a flow rate of 3 kg/s. The air enters the duct at a low velocity at a

pressure of 1500 kPa and a temperature of 1200 K and it expands in the

duct to a pressure of 100 kPa. The duct is designed so that the flow process

is isentropic. Determine the pressure, temperature, velocity, flow area,

speed of sound, and Mach number at each point along the duct axis that

corresponds to a pressure drop of 200 kPa.

Since the inlet velocity is low, the stagnation properties equal the static

properties.

After the first 200 kPa pressure drop, we have

F PI

T=TG J

( k 1)/ k

F 1300 kPa IJ

= 1200 K G

(1.4 1)/1.4

HPKo

o H 1500 kPa K

= 11519

. K

Chapter 16 -17

!

V = 2C P (T0 T )

m2

1000 2

kJ s

= 2(1005

. )(1200 11519

. )K

kg K kJ

kg

m

= 310.77

s

P (1300kPa ) kJ

= = 3

RT (0.287 kJ )(11519. K ) kPa

m

kg K

kg

= 3.932 3

m

kg

3

m" 104 cm2

s

A= ! =

V (3.9322 kg )(310.77 m ) m2

m3 s

= 24.55cm2

m2

1000 2

kJ s

C = kRT = 14

. (0.287 )(11519

. K)

kg K kJ

kg

m

= 680.33

s

Chapter 16 -18

! 310.77 m

V s = 0.457

M= =

C 680.33 m

s

Now we tabulate the results for the other 200 kPa increments in the

pressure.

!

P T V C A M

Step kPa K m/s kg/m 3

m/s cm2

0 1500 1200 0 4.3554 694.38 0

1 1300 1151.9 310.77 3.9322 680.33 24.55 0.457

2 1100 1098.2 452.15 3.4899 664.28 19.01 0.681

3 900 1037.0 572.18 3.0239 645.51 17.34 0.886

4 792.4 1000.0 633.88 2.7611 633.88 17.14 1.000

5 700 965.2 786.83 2.5270 622.75 17.28 1.103

6 500 876.7 805.90 1.9871 593.52 18.73 1.358

7 300 757.7 942.69 1.3796 551.75 23.07 1.709

8 100 553.6 1139.62 0.6294 471.61 41.82 2.416

Note that at P = 797.42 kPa, M = 1.000, and this state is the critical state.

Now let's see why these relations work this way. Consider the nozzle and

control volume shown below.

Nozzle

h

P

T!

V

h + dh

P + dP

T! + dT !

V + dV

+ d

Chapter 16 -19

The first law for the control volume is

! !

dh + VdV = 0

!

The continuity equation for the control volume m" = AV yields

!

d dA dV

+ + ! =0

A V

dP

Tds = dh =0

and the Mach Number relation

!2

dP V

= C2 = 2

d M

dA dP

= ! 2 (1 M 2 )

A V

Chapter 16 -20

A nozzle is a device

! that increases fluid velocity while causing its pressure

to drop; thus, dV > 0, dP < 0.

Nozzle Results

dA dP

= ! 2 (1 M 2 )

A V

Subsonic: M < 1 dP(1 M 2 ) < 0 dA < 0

Sonic: M = 1 dP (1 M 2 ) = 0 dA = 0

Supersonic: M > 1 dP(1 M 2 ) > 0 dA > 0

To accelerate subsonic flow, the nozzle flow area must first decrease in the

flow direction. The flow area reaches a minimum at the point where the

Mach number is unity. To continue to accelerate the flow to supersonic

conditions, the flow area must increase.

pressure to rise; thus, d V < 0, dP > 0.

Diffuser Results

dA dP

= ! 2 (1 M 2 )

A V

Subsonic: M < 1 dP(1 M 2 ) > 0 dA > 0

Sonic: M = 1 dP (1 M 2 ) = 0 dA = 0

Supersonic: M > 1 dP(1 M 2 ) < 0 dA < 0

To diffuse supersonic flow, the diffuser flow area must first decrease in the

flow direction. The flow area reaches a minimum at the point where the

Mach number is unity. To continue to diffuse the flow to subsonic

conditions, the flow area must increase.

Chapter 16 -21

Equation of Mass Flow Rate through a Nozzle

Let's obtain an expression for the flow rate through a converging nozzle at

any location as a function of the pressure at that location. The mass flow

rate is given by

!

m" = AV

The velocity of the flow is related to the static and stagnation enthalpies.

! T

V = 2( ho h) = 2CP (T0 T ) = 2C P T0 (1 )

To

and

T

=

FG IJ

P

( k 1)/ k

To H K

Po

! F F PI

2C T G 1 G J

( k 1)/ k

I

V= P 0

H HPK o

JK

Write the mass flow rate as

!

m" = AV o

o

=

P FG IJ 1/ k

o Po H K

We note from the ideal-gas relations that

Chapter 16 -22

Po

o =

RTo

m" = APo

2k FG P IJ 2/ k

F PI

G J

( k +1)/ k

Now let's make a plot of mass flow rate versus the static-to-stagnation

pressure ratio.

0.16

0.14

0.12

m [kg/s ]

0.10

Dia.=1 cm

0.08

T o=1200 K

0.06

P o=1500 kPa

0.04

0.02

0.00

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

P*/P o P/P o

Chapter 16 -23

This plot shows there is a value of P/Po that makes the mass flow rate a

maximum. To find that mass flow rate, we note

dm"

=0

FG IJ

P

d

H K

Po

The result is

P 2 FG IJ k /( k 1)

P*

Po

=

k +1 H K =

Po

So the pressure ratio that makes the mass flow rate a maximum is the same

pressure ratio at which the Mach number is unity at the flow cross-sectional

area. This value of the pressure ratio is called the critical pressure ratio for

nozzle flow. For pressure ratios less than the critical value, the nozzle is

said to be choked. When the nozzle is choked, the mass flow rate is the

maximum possible for the flow area, stagnation pressure, and stagnation

temperature. Reducing the pressure ratio below the critical value will not

increase the mass flow rate.

What is the expression for mass flow rate when the nozzle is choked?

Using

Po FG

k 1 2 IJ k /( k 1)

P

= 1+

H 2

M

K

The mass flow rate becomes

Chapter 16 -24

LM OP

k M M PP

m" = APo

RT M F k 1

MN GH1 + 2 M IJK

( k +1)/[ 2 ( k 1)]

o 2

PQ

When the Mach number is unity, M = 1, A = A*

k FG

2 IJ ( k +1)/[ 2 ( k 1)]

m" = A* Po

H

RTo k + 1 K

Taking the ratio of the last two results gives the ratio of the area of the flow

A at a given Mach number to the area where the Mach number is unity, A*.

Then

=

NH k + 1K H 2 K Q

2

A* M

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

A/A*

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Chapter 16 -25

From the above plot we note that for each A/A* there are two values of M:

one for subsonic flow at that area ratio and one for supersonic flow at that

area ratio. The area ratio is unity when the Mach number is equal to one.

reservoir at pressure Pr and temperature Tr. The reservoir is large enough

that the velocity in the reservoir is zero.

Let's plot the ratio P/Po along the length of the nozzle, the mass flow rate

through the nozzle, and the exit plane pressure Pe as the back pressure Pb is

varied. Let's consider isentropic flow so that Po is constant throughout the

nozzle.

!

Vr

Chapter 16 -26

1. Pb = Po, Pb /Po = 1. No flow occurs. Pe = Pb, Me=0.

2. Pb > P* or P*/Po < Pb /Po < 1. Flow begins to increase as the back

pressure is lowered. Pe = Pb, Me < 1.

as the back pressure is lowered to the critical pressure. Pe = Pb, Me=1.

4. Pb < P* or Pb /Po < P*/Po < 1. Flow is still choked and does not increase

as the back pressure is lowered below the critical pressure, pressure

drop from Pe to Pb occurs outside the nozzle. Pe = P*, Me=1.

Chapter 16 -27

Consider the converging-diverging nozzle shown below.

!

Vi

Let's plot the ratio P/Po and the Mach number along the length of the

nozzle as the back pressure Pb is varied. Let's consider isentropic flow so

that Po is constant throughout the nozzle.

Chapter 16 -28

Po > PB > PC > P* or P*/Po < PC/Po < PB/Po < 1. Flow begins to

increase as the back pressure is lowered. The velocity increases in the

converging section but M < 1 at the throat; thus, the diverging section

acts as a diffuser with the velocity decreasing and pressure increasing.

The flow remains subsonic through the nozzle. Pe = Pb and Me < 1.

the throat. Flow increases to its maximum value at choked conditions;

velocity increases to the speed of sound at the throat, but the converging

section acts as a diffuser with velocity decreasing and pressure

increasing. Pe = Pb, Me < 1.

PC > Pb > PE or PE/Po < Pb/Po < PC/Po < 1. The fluid that achieved

sonic velocity at the throat continues to accelerate to supersonic

velocities in the diverging section as the pressure drops. This

acceleration comes to a sudden stop, however, as a normal shock

develops at a section between the throat and the exit plane. The flow

across the shock is highly irreversible. The normal shock moves

downstream away from the throat as Pb is decreased and approaches the

nozzle exit plane as Pb approaches PE. When Pb = PE, the normal shock

forms at the exit plane of the nozzle. The flow is supersonic through

the entire diverging section in this case, and it can be approximated as

isentropic. However, the fluid velocity drops to subsonic levels just

before leaving the nozzle as it crosses the normal shock.

PE > Pb > 0 or 0 < Pb/Po < PE/Po < 1. The flow in the diverging section

is supersonic, and the fluids expand to PF at the nozzle exit with no

normal shock forming within the nozzle. Thus the flow through the

nozzle can be approximated as isentropic. When Pb = PF, no shocks

occur within or outside the nozzle. When Pb < PF, irreversible mixing

and expansion waves occur downstream of the exit plane or the nozzle.

When Pb > PF, however, the pressure of the fluid increases from PF to

Pb irreversibly in the wake or the nozzle exit, creating what are called

oblique shocks.

Chapter 16 -29

Example 16-6

Air leaves the turbine of a turbojet engine and enters a convergent nozzle at

400 K, 871 kPa, with a velocity of 180 m/s. The nozzle has an exit area of

730 cm2. Determine the mass flow rate through the nozzle for back

pressures of 700 kPa, 528 kPa, and 100 kPa, assuming isentropic flow.

Air

flow PB = 700 kPa

P = 871 kPa = 528 kPa

T! = 400 K = 100 kPa

V = 180 m/s

!2

V

To = T +

2CP

kJ

(180m / s) 2 kg

To = 400 K +

FG

kJ m2 IJ

2 1005

.

H

kg K

1000 2

s K

= (400 + 161

. ) K = 4161

. K

FT I F . KI

k 1.4

P = PG J

1.4 1

= 871 kPa G

H 400 K JK

k 1 4161

HTK

o

o

= 1000 kPa

Chapter 16 -30

For air k = 1.4 and Table A-15 applies. The critical pressure ratio is

P*/Po = 0.528.

P * = 0.528 Po

= 0.528(1000 kPa ) = 528 kPa

Therefore, for a back pressure of 528 kPa, M = 1 at the nozzle exit and the

flow is choked. For a back pressure of 700 kPa, the nozzle is not choked.

The flow rate will not increase for back pressures below 528 kPa.

PB 700 kPa P*

= = 0.700 >

Po 1000 kPa Po

Thus, PE = PB = 700 kPa. For this pressure ratio Table A-15 gives

M E = 0.7324

TE

= 0.9031

To

TE = 0.9031 To = 0.9031(4161

. K ) = 3758

. K

Chapter 16 -31

CE = kRTE

m2

1000 2

kJ s

= 14

. (0.287 )(3758

. K)

kg K kJ

kg

m

= 388.6

s

! m

VE = M E CE = (0.7324)(388.6 )

s

m

= 284.6

s

PE (700kPa ) kJ

E = = 3

RTE (0.287 kJ )( 3758

. K ) kPa

m

kg K

kg

= 6.4902 3

m

Then

!

m" = E AEVE

2

kg m m

= 6.4902 3 (730 cm2 )(284.6 )

m s (100 cm) 2

kg

= 134.8

s

Chapter 16 -32

For the back pressure of 528 kPa,

PE 528 kPa P*

= = 0.528 =

Po 1000 kPa Po

TE T *

= = 0.8333

To To

TE = 0.8333 To = 0.8333(4161

. K ) = 346.7 K

And since ME = 1,

!

VE = CE = kRTE

m2

1000 2

kJ s

= 14

. (0.287 )(346.7 K )

kg K kJ

kg

m

= 373.2

s

P* (528kPa ) kJ

E = = *

=

RT * (0.287 kJ )(346.7 K ) m3 kPa

kg K

kg

= 5.3064 3

m

Chapter 16 -33

!

m" = E AEVE

kg m m2

= 5.3064 3 (730 cm )(373.2 )

2

m s (100 cm) 2

kg

= 144.6

s

For a back pressure less than the critical pressure, 528 kPa in this case, the

nozzle is choked and the mass flow rate will be the same as that for the

critical pressure. Therefore, at a back pressure of 100 kPa the mass flow

rate will be 144.6 kg/s.

Example 16-7

Air enters this nozzle with a stagnation pressure of 1000 kPa and a

stagnation temperature of 500 K. The throat area is 8 cm2. Determine the

mass flow rate, exit pressure, exit temperature, exit Mach number, and exit

velocity for the following conditions:

Sonic velocity at the throat, diverging section acting as a diffuser.

A/A* = 2

Air

Po = 1000 kPa

To = 500 K

Throat

area = 8 cm2

Chapter 16 -34

For A/A* = 2, Table A-15 yields two Mach numbers, one > 1 and one < 1.

When the diverging section acts as a supersonic nozzle, we use the value

for M > 1. Then, for AE/A* = 2.0, ME = 2.197, PE/Po = 0.0939, and TE/To =

0.5089,

TE = 0.8333 To = 0.5089(500 K ) = 254.5 K

CE = kRTE

m2

1000 2

kJ s

= 14

. (0.287 )(254.5K )

kg K kJ

kg

m

= 319.7

s

! m m

VE = M E CE = 2.197(319.7 ) = 702.5

s s

The mass flow rate can be calculated at any known cross-sectional area

where the properties are known. It normally is best to use the throat

conditions. Since the flow has sonic conditions at the throat, Mt = 1, and

Tt T *

= = 0.8333

To To

Tt = 0.8333 To = 0.8333(500 K ) = 416.6 K

Chapter 16 -35

!

Vt = Ct = kRTt

m2

1000 2

kJ s

= 14

. (0.287 )(416.6 K )

kg K kJ

kg

m

= 409.2

s

Pt P *

= = 0.528

Po Po

Pt = 0.528 Po = 0.528(1000 kPa ) = 528 kPa

P* (528kPa ) kJ

t = =

*

=

RT * (0.287 kJ )( 416.6 K ) m3 kPa

kg K

kg

= 4.416 3

m

!

m" = t AV

t t

2

kg m m

= 4.416 3 (8 cm2 )(409.2 )

m s (100 cm) 2

kg

= 1446

.

s

Chapter 16 -36

When the diverging section acts as a diffuser, we use M < 1. Then, for

AE /A* = 2.0, ME = 0.308, PE /Po = 0.936, and TE /To = 0.9812,

TE = 0.8333 To = 0.9812(500 K ) = 490.6 K

CE = kRTE

m2

1000 2

kJ s

= 14

. (0.287 )(490.6 K )

kg K kJ

kg

m

= 444.0

s

! m m

VE = M E CE = 0.308(444.0 ) = 136.7

s s

Since M = 1 at the throat, the mass flow rate is the same as that in the first

part because the nozzle is choked.

Normal Shocks

In some range of back pressure, the fluid that achieved a sonic velocity at

the throat of a converging-diverging nozzle and is accelerating to

supersonic velocities in the diverging section experiences a normal shock.

The normal shock causes a sudden rise in pressure and temperature and a

sudden drop in velocity to subsonic levels. Flow through the shock is

highly irreversible, and thus it cannot be approximated as isentropic. The

properties of an ideal gas with constant specific heats before (subscript x)

and after (subscript y) a shock are related by

Chapter 16 -37

Control volume

! !

Vx Vy

Mx > 1 Px Py My < 1

hx hy

Flow x y

sx sy

Shock wave

potential energy changes. We have the following

Conservation of mass

! !

x AVx = y AVy

! !

xVx = yVy

Conservation of energy

!2 !2

Vx Vy

hx + = hy +

2 2

hox = hoy

for ideal gases: Tox = Toy

Chapter 16 -38

Conservation of momentum

! !

A( Px Py ) = m" (Vy Vx )

Increase of entropy

s y sx 0

temperature is constant across the shock. However, the stagnation pressure

decreases across the shock because of irreversibilities. The ordinary

(static) temperature rises drastically because of the conversion of kinetic

energy into enthalpy due to a large drop in fluid velocity.

We can show that the following relations apply across the shock.

Ty 1 + M x2 ( k 1) / 2

=

Tx 1 + M y2 ( k 1) / 2

Py M x 1 + M x2 ( k 1) / 2

=

Px M y 1 + M y2 ( k 1) / 2

M x2 + 2 / ( k 1)

M = 2

2 M x2 k / ( k 1) 1

y

The entropy change across the shock is obtained by applying the entropy-

change equation for an ideal gas, constant properties, across the shock:

Ty Py

sy sx = C p ln R ln

Tx Px

Chapter 16 -39

Example 16-8

temperature of 260 K undergoes a normal shock. Determine the velocity

and static and stagnation conditions after the shock and the entropy change

across the shock.

! !

Vx Vx

Mx = =

Cx kRTx

m

600

= s

m2

1000 2

kJ s

1.4(0.287 )(260 K )

kg K kJ

kg

= 1856

.

Px Tx

= 0.1597, = 0.5921

Pox Tox

For Mx = 1.856, Table A-16 gives the following results.

Py y

M y = 0.6045, = 3852

. , = 2.4473

Px x

Ty Poy Poy

= 1574

. , = 0.7875, = 4.931

Tx Pox Px

Chapter 16 -40

From the conservation of mass with Ay = Ax

! !

V y y = Vx x

! m

! Vx 600

Vy = = s = 245.2 m

y 2.4473 s

x

Py

Py = Px = 60 kPa (3852

. ) = 2311

. kPa

Px

Ty

Ty = Tx = 260 K (1574

. ) = 409.2 K

Tx

Tx 260 K

Tox = = = 439.1 K = Toy

FG IJ

Tx 0.5921

H K

Tox

Px 60 kPa

Pox = = = 375.6 kPa

FG IJ

Px 01597

.

H KPox

Poy

Poy = Pox = 375.6 kPa (0.7875) = 2958

. kPa

Pox

Chapter 16 -41

The entropy change across the shock is

sy sx = CP ln

FG T IJ R lnFG P IJ

y y

HTK H PK

x x

lnb1574

. g 0.287 lnb3852

. g

kJ kJ

s y sx = 1005

.

kg K kg K

kJ

= 0.0688

kg K

Chapter 16 -42

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