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Table of contents

PLAN & DESIGNS (situations)

1 A student wants to know whether the shape of a parachute affects the rate Statics PD 23

of descend of a parachutist. Plan and design an experiment to determine

the best shape for a parachute.

2 A form 4 student concluded that the weight of an object affects the rate at Dynamics PD 45

which that objects rolls down an incline plane. Plan and design an

experiment to investigate weight ant rate of an object down an incline

plane

3 The shape of a core does not affect the emf induced in the secondary coil Electromagnetism PD 67

of a transformer. Plan and design an experiment to investigate this

relationship between the shape of a core and the induced emf

4 During a lesson on transverse waves, a student asks the question: is Waves PD 89

periodic time affected by the tension in a slinky? Plan and design an

experiment to investigate the relationship between periodic time and

tension

5 Plan and design an experiment to determine whether the specific heat Thermal energy PD 10 11

capacity of a liquid depends on its density

6 A student wants to find out whether ice melts faster in alcoholic beverages Properties of matter PD 12 13

than non alcoholic beverages. Plan and design an experiment to investigate

this statement

electromagnet is affected by the number of turns in a solenoid

8 Plan and design an experiment to determine which of three sealed boxes, Current Electricity PD 16 17

A, B and C, each with terminals at both ends, contain nothing, a resistance

wire and a working diode.

9 Peter wants to know whether the shape of an object affects the rate at Properties of matter PD 18 19

which it rolls down an incline plane. Plan and design an experiment to

investigate this relationship.

10 If the angle of incidence doubles, the angle of refraction also doubles said Refraction PD 20 21

a fifth form physics student. Plan and design an experiment to test this

relationship.

11 Design an experiment to find out what makes an object more stable Statics PD 22 23

incline plane first before toppling at all angles of inclination and hence

determines the conditions for the object to slide first or topples.

13 You are provided with four rods: aluminum, copper, iron and brass. Plan Thermal energy PD 26 27

and design an experiment to determine which of the four rods conduct heat

energy best

14 To determine the cross-sectional area, a, of a boiling tube Measurement ORR 28 29

15 To determine the weight of a meter ruler using the principle of moments Statics ORR 30 31

16 To determine the specific latent heat of vaporization of water Thermal energy ORR 32 32

17 To investigate the relationship between voltage and current for a filament Current electricity ORR/ 34 35

lamp. AI

18 To determine the magnification & focal length for a convex lens Action of lenses ORR/ 36 37

0

1

AI

19 To determine the resistance for unit length of a wire AB Current electricity ORR/ 38 39

AI

20 To determine the center of gravity for an irregular shape object Statics ORR 40 41

21 To determine the density of an irregular shaped object: Properties of matter ORR 42 43

22 To locate the images formed by two plane mirrors placed at right angles to Reflection ORR 44 45

each other

To locate the image in a plain mirror by ray tracing Reflection ORR

23 To determine the refractive index, n, of a glass block Refraction MM/ 46 47

AI

24 d Refraction MM 48 49

To investigate whether the ratio i is a constant

25 to determine the SHC of a given metal using the methods of mixtures Thermal energy MM 50 51

26 To plot a magnetic field of a bar magnet using a plotting compass Magnetism MM 52

28 To investigate whether the periodic time of a simple pendulum is affected Measurement MM 55 56

by the type of material

29 To determine the thickness of a glass, x, of a boiling tube Measurement MM 57 58

31 To investigate whether the rate of flow decreases with time Radioactivity AI 61 62

32 To determine the spring constant for a helical spring Statics AI 63 64

33 To determine the power output of a candle Thermal energy AI 65 66

34 To determine the acceleration of free falling, g, objects using a pendulum Statics AI 67 68

35 To determine whether force is directly proportional to acceleration and Dynamics AI 69 70

inversely proportional to mass

36 To find an unknown mass using a spring balance Statics AI 71 72

37 To determine the volume of a drop of water Measurement AI 73 74

AI 75 76

FORM 4

Term 1 Term 2

SBA# SKILL PAGE DATE SBA# SKILL PAGE DATE

Term 3

SBA# SKILL PAGE DATE

FORM 5

SBA#

SBA# SKILL

SKILL PAGE

PAGEDATE

DATE

Term 1 Term 2

1

2

SBA#1

Date:

Skill: P/D

Materials: string, glue, nylon, scissors or blade, sticks/straws, weight, stop clock,

measuring tape

Diagram:

Canopy

Suspending

strings

Weight

Procedure:

nylon, glue, sticks and thread

Design a parachutist from card board or any suitable material

Then move to a height to about 10m (the roof of the school)

Drop the parachute and time until it reaches the ground

Drop the two other designs and record time

Measure the height of the building using a measuring tape

A second measurement conferment was to measure the height using a

long piece of string

Average the two measurement to obtain height value

Precautions:

avoid parallax error when using the measuring tape and ruler

checked for zero error when using the stop clock

2

3

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

Table of results

Mark scheme

Error:

1. App. Hypothesis with

Shape Height/c Time Speed/m

reason ..2

m /s s-1

2. Workable method

2

3. Manipulating variable

Rectangu 1

lar 4. Controlled variable

.1

5. Responding variable

..1

Square 6. At least 2precautions

.1

7. Appropriate

design..1

Circle 8. App. selection of materials

1

Weight = 9. Possible source of

error.1

10. App. Labeled

Diagrams 2

11.Suggest suitable

Discussion: one should discuss formula.1

12.Data

the reason for design a parachute in a presentation

particular way .1

the effects/purpose of air resistance on the 13.Indicate readings to be

parachutist taken & observations to be

terminal velocity and its importance to the made.2

14.Outline how the

parachutist

readings/observations are

why a considerable height is necessary for

to be used to test the

testing

hypothesis/solve the

how would one know which shape is best

problem

for designing a parachute

how can the experiment be improved or ..1 Total 23

modify

errors encountered and methods of

minimizing these errors

VARIABLES

was hence my hypothesis was supported Manipulatin

or rejected according to the results obtained g

Responding

3

4

SBA #2

Skill: P/D

Title: Energy

Aim: To investigate whether the weight of an object affects the rate at which it

rolls down an incline plane

Hypothesis: does weight affects or does it not affects the rate at which it rolls

down an incline plane

0.5Kg and 100g, a plank, retort stand, stop clock

Diagram:

Procedure:

Obtain three different weights (100g, 0.5kg and 5kg)

Roll each weight down plane & record time until weight reaches base

Make sure that each weight commences at same position in incline plane

Precaution:

Use countdown method for precision

Plane should be smooth as possible to reduce resistive forces like friction

Height and length of plane must be kept constant

4

5

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After carrying out the plan & design, the following results were

obtained

Results

Mark scheme

0.1g 0.1s 0.5mm

-1

Speed/ms

1. App hypothesis with reason

Mass/Kg Time/s Height/m

2

2. Workable method

..2

0.5 3. Identifies & controls

variables app..3

4. At least 2precautions

1

5 5. Appropriate design

1

6. App. selection of materials

0.100 ..1

7. Possible source of

error..1

8. Indicate readings to be taken

& observations to be

made.2

Discussion: One can discuss

9. Outline how the

The energy transformations that occur readings/observations are to

when the object is set in motion be used to test the

The forces acting on the object in motion hypothesis/solve the

The effect of these forces on the motion problem.1

10.App. Labeled Diagrams

of the weights

How can these forces be diminished 2

11.Suggest suitable formulas

The importance and application of this

..1

experiment

12.Data presentation

How can the experiment be modified

1

The errors encountered and methods of

minimization Total Total

23

A reflection of gathering and collecting 18 marks

data, strengths and weaknesses

List variables

Conclusion: weight does/does not affect the speed at which an object rolls down

an incline plane; hence my hypothesis was supported/rejected according the

collected data

5

6

SBA #3

Skill: P/D

Title: magnetism

Aim: To investigate whether the shape of a core affects the emf induced in the secondary coil of a

transformer

Materials/apparatus: 2soft iron cores, insulated copper wire, voltmeter, crocodile clips, connecting

wires, battery replacement power supply

Diagram:

Procedure:

Obtain two horse shoe shape soft iron and wind insulated copper wires around each

differentiating the number of turns in each, forming a transformer

Alter the shapes but maintaining connections to the voltmeter and power supply

Record the induce emf in the voltmeter

Precautions:

Avoid parallax error when reading the voltmeter

Checked for zero error on voltmeter

6

7

Make sure polarity connections are correct

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After carrying out the plan & design, the following results were

obtained

Results

Mark scheme

Shape

Induced voltage

1. App hypothesis with

reason2

2. Workable method

.2

3. Identifies & controls variable

app..3

4. At least 2precautions

.2

5. Appropriate design

..1

6. Indicate readings to be taken

& observations to be

made.2

7. Outline how the

readings/observations are to

be used to test the

hypothesis/solve the

problem1

8. App. selection of materials

.1

9. Possible source of

Discussion: one can discuss

error.1

10. App. Labeled cct

Michael Faradays law of electromagnetic induction

Diagrams2

Induced magnetism

11. Data

Induced emf

presentation

The conditions for emf to be induced

.1

Electromagnets Total 23

Reducing power loss in the transformer

The best shape of the core and why

Errors encountered and methods of minimization

Strengths, weaknesses, sources of errors, limitations

Conclusion: the shape of the core does/does not affects the emf induced in a

core; hence my hypothesis was supported/rejected according to results

7

8

SBA #4

Skill: P/D

Title: waves

Aim: To determine whether the periodic time and speed of a slinky is affected by

its tension

Hypothesis:

Diagram

Measure the mass on a bath room reason.2

scale if too heavy for an electrical 2. Workable method

balance ..2

Stretch the slinky from one point to 3. Identifies & controls variables

the next using a spring balance app.3

Measure the stretch length using a 4. At least 2precautions

meter ruler ..2

Generate a small pulse by slightly 5. Appropriate design

pulling one end and releasing .1

6. Indicate readings to be taken

Start stop watch as soon as pulse is

& observations to be

produce and time for 10 oscillations

Repeat method using three different made..2

7. Outline how the

tensions

readings/observations are to

Precautions: be used to test the

hypothesis/solve the

Small amplitude when producing the problem.1

pulse 8. App. selection of materials

Check for zero error in timer 1

Avoid parallax error when reading the 9. Possible source of

meter ruler error1

Read spring balance accurately 10. App. Labeled Diagrams

Avoid stretching the spring beyond its ..2

11.Suitable

elastic limit

formulas

1

12.Data

presentation

..1 Total 24

8

9

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

Results

20

Length/m Periodic Direct Standing Theoretical

oscillation

time/s method wave speed

Error: s

nL v =f

0.01m

v=

t v=

T

travel one wavelength

Discussion: one should discuss standing wave, ts

Propagation/vibration of waves

Types of waves/ how does tension affects wave speed nL

v=

t

Discuss findings/ account for differences in values of wave speed

Errors encountered & methods of minimization

Improvement/modification of experiment v =f

Wave parameters/properties

Conclusion: does tension affects or does not affect speed & periodic

slinky

v =time of

T

9

10

SBA #5

Skill: P/D

Aim: To investigate whether the specific heat capacity of a liquid depends on its

density

Hypothesis: The specific heat capacity is influenced by the density of the liquid

block/bob, Styrofoam cup

Diagram:

Thermometer

Beaker

Styrofoam

cup

Water

Metal

Burner

Procedure:

Measure the mass of a known volume of water in the Styrofoam cup

Calculate the mass of water in the cup

m

Find the density of the water by applying the formula;

d=

v

Fill the beaker with a known volume of water and measure the initial

temperature

Put the beaker to boil

Measure the mass of a piece of metal and insert it into the beaker of

boiling water via string

After about 10minutes, remove the metal from the beaker of boiling water,

shake off the excess water and insert it into the Styrofoam cup of cold

water

measure the final steady temperature of the mixture

repeat method using the two other substances

10

11

Precautions:

A Styrofoam cup is used to prevent heat loss during the experiment

Reduce time to transfer block to Styrofoam cup

Excess water shaken off from the metal before the transfer

Avoid metal to touch the sides of the beaker which could be above 100 0C

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

Results

1

e m3 temperat temperat y y/J )

ure ure

(kg/m

3)

Water 25 Mark

scheme

1. Appropriate hypothesis

..1

Ethanol 2. Workable method

2

3. Identifies & controls

variables .3

Oil 4. At least 2precautions

vegetabl .1

5. Appropriate design

e

.1

Mass of metal = . 6. Indicate readings to be

taken & observations to be

Calculations: made.2

7. Outline how the

Heat lost by metal = heat gained by liquid readings/observations are

to be used to test the

McT = mcT

hypothesis/solve the

problem

Temp. drop = temp. of boiling water temp. of final steady mixt.

..1

Temp. rise = temp. of boiling water initial temp. of cold water

8. App. selection of materials

1

Discussion: 9. Possible source of

error.1

The importance and application of SHC 10. App. Labeled

Other factors influencing SHC Diagrams 2

Represent data on bar graph 11.Suggest suitable formulas

..1

12. Data

11

presentation.

1

12

Conclusion:

SBA #6

Skill: P/D

Aim: to determine whether ice melts faster in coolaid than in soft drink

Hypothesis:

stirrer, soft drink and coolaid solution, cube ice.

Diagram:

T Stirrer

Stirrer

T h

h e Styrofoam

Styrofoam r cup

e

cup m

r

Ice Ice

m

Procedure:

Measure the initial temperature of both solutions

Insert simultaneously two ice cubes of approximate mass in the different

solutions

Stir the solutions continuously and uniformly, recording the temperature

every thirty seconds until a steady temperature was obtain

Precautions:

Avoid parallax error when reading the thermometer

Check for zero error in timer

Stirring must be continuous and uniform per solution of liquid

Increase precision in recording time

12

13

Results:

s /0C melting(0C/s)

30

60

90

Mark scheme

2

Discussion:

2. Workable method

Plot a graph of temperature against .2

3. Identifies & controls

time for the two solutions, make sure

variables app.3

to include a key

4. At least 2precautions

The factors affecting the rate of

..2

melting 5. Appropriate design

Modification/improvement of the 1

experiment 6. Indicate readings to be

Variables taken & observations to be

Errors encountered & methods of made.2

minimization 7. Outline how the

The slope of each graph readings/observations are

How the slope can determines in to be used to test the

which solution ice will melt faster? hypothesis/solve the

problem....1

8. App. selection of materials

.1

9. Possible source of

error..1

10. Suitable

formulas

.1

11. App. Labeled

Diagrams .2

13 12. Data

presentation

1

14

Conclusion:

SBA #7 Total 25

Title: Electromagnetism

number of turns in a solenoid

Hypothesis:

stand, staples, crocodile clips, 10inch nail and Petri dish

.2

2. Workable method

2

3. Identifies & controls variables

app3

4. At least 2precautions

.1

5. Appropriate design

.1

6. Indicate readings to be taken &

observations to be

made

.2

7. Outline how the

readings/observations are to be

used to test the hypothesis/solve

the problem..

Diagram showing set up for results extrapolation

..1

Procedure: 8. App. selection of materials

Hammer a 10inch nail into a piece 1

9. Possible source of

of cylindrical wood

error1

Clamp the combination on a retort

10. App. Labeled Diagrams

stand

..2

Wind a long piece of insulated soft

11. Data presentation

iron around the nail 1

Connect the ends of the wire to a

9V battery or power supply thus Total 17 marks Total 23

creating a circuit

Put some staples in a petri dish

and slowly raise it to the

suspending nail

Remove the petri dish with nails

and put an empty one to collect 14

the attach staples

Repeat method using different

15

Precautions:

Tight connections in circuit

Make sure the nail is long enough

For best results, electromagnet must be vertical/suspending

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

Results

turns up

10

40

70

100

Variables:

Discussion:

Factors affecting the strength of an electromagnet

Induced magnetism

Errors encountered & methods of minimization

Sources of errors

Improvement/modification

Reflection on process

Conclusion:

15

16

SBA #8

Skill: P/D

Aim: To determine whether the contents in three sealed boxes A, B & C contains

(a) a resistor (b) a diode (c) nothing

Hypothesis: box A contains a diode, box B contains a resistor and box C contains

nothing

connecting wires, ammeter, and power supply

Diagram:

EXTRAPOLATION

Procedure:

Test the sealed boxes on the stations for the inside contents by building a

circuit

If a reading appears on the ammeter, likewise if the polarities are

interchange and same reading appears, then content inside is a

wire/metallic conductor

If a reading appears in one direction but not in the opposite direction, then

the inside content is a diode

If nothing appears on the ammeter in both directions, then the box is

empty

Precautions:

Make sure the box contains a working diode (diode should be tested for

defectiveness)

Ensure polarities are connected properly

Check for zero error in ammeter

16

17

error/cheap equipment)

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

Results:

A B C

BOX

Variables:

Controlled:

Manipulating:

Mark scheme

Responding:

1. Appropriate hypothesis

Discussion: ..1

2. Workable method

Diodes definition, function and importance in industry ..2

Resistors definition, importance and application 3. Identifies & controls

How one can test for a defective diode? variables.3

4. At least 2precautions

1

5. Appropriate design

1

Conclusion: according to my results, box A 6. Indicate readings to be

contains a , box B contains a taken & observations to be

. And box C contains a ., made.2

hence my hypothesis is supported/rejected. 7. Outline how the

readings/observations are

to be used to test the

hypothesis/solve the

problem..

.

.1

8. App. selection of materials

..1

9. Possible source of

error1

17 10. App. Labeled cct.

Diagrams .2

11. Data presentation

..1

18

SBA #9 Total 23

Skill: P/D

Title: viscosity

Aim: To investigate whether the shape of an object influences the rate at which it falls through a

viscous liquid

Hypothesis:

Materials: measuring cylinder, test tube, play dough or clay, stop clock, meter ruler, viscous liquid

Diagram:

Viscous

liquid

Measuring

cylinder

Shap

e

Procedure:

measure the height

Cut three different shapes from play dough or clay of approximate mass or

use the same shape each time

Drop one shape from the measured height & time until the shape reaches

the base of the cylinder

Pour shape & viscous liquid in a beaker

Remove shape & pour liquid back in the cylinder, maintaining the same

height

Repeat method using the other shapes

Precautions:

Try not to lose any viscous liquid when removing shape

18

19

Avoid parallax error when measuring the height of the cylinder

Check for zero error in timer

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

Results

-1

m s

1. App hypothesis with reason

2

2. Workable method

..2

3. Identifies & controls

variables3

4. At least 2precautions

1

5. Appropriate design

1

6. Indicate readings to be taken

& observations to be

made2

7. Outline how the

readings/observations are to

Calculations

be used to test the

Variables: hypothesis/solve the problem..

Controlled: 1

8. App. selection of materials

Manipulative: .1

9. Possible source of

Responding:

error..1

Discussion: 10. Suitable

formulas

What is meant by a viscous liquid .1

How would test the viscosity of a liquid 11. App. Labeled Diagrams

The advantages of viscosity .2

The importance and application of viscosity 12. Data presentation

Total 20

Discuss and compare the speeds of the various shapes & arrive at a

conclusion

How can the experiment be improved for better extrapolation of results

Methods of minimizing errors

Discuss the relationship between viscosity and friction

Discuss the arrangement of particles/molecules in the viscous liquid

19

20

Conclusion:

SBA #10

Skill: P/D

Title: Refraction

Aim: to investigate whether the angle of refraction will double when the angle of

incidence of incidence doubles for light passing through a glass block.

Hypothesis:

Materials: glass block, optical pins, blank paper, card board, protractor, ruler

Diagram:

Incident

ray

Norma

l

Refracted

ray

Glass

block

Emergent

ray

Procedure:

Remove the glass block and draw a normal 4cm from the top left corner of

the outline

Using a protractor, draw an incident ray 30 0

Place two optical pins 3cm apart on the incident ray

Put the glass block back on the traced outline

Look through the glass block and block off the image seen from the other

side with two other optical pins. A straight line should be form at the end

Remove the glass block and connect the holes produced from the pins to

the base of the traced outline (this is the emergent ray)

Draw a normal at the point of intersection

Connect the two normals by a thin line to produce the refracted ray

Repeat method using two other angles

Precautions:

20

21

Avoid parallax error when blocking off the images & reading the protractor

Place glass block accurately on traced outline

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

Results:

Tabel1

incidence/i refraction/r

1. App hypothesis with reason

20 2

2. Workable method

.2

3. Identifies & controls

30

variables3

4. At least 2precautions

..1

5. Appropriate design

40

1

6. Indicate readings to be taken

& observations to be

made..2

7. Outline how the

readings/observations are to

Variables:

be used to test the

Controlled: hypothesis/solve the problem..

Manipulating: 1

8. App. selection of materials .

Responding: ..1

9. Possible source of error

Discussion:

.1

10. App. Labeled Diagrams

Definition of refraction .2

Effects of refraction 11. Data presentation

.1

Benefits of refraction/application

Methods of minimizing errors Total 17 marks

Improvement/modification

Total 23

Conclusion:

21

22

SBA #11

Skill: P/D

Title: stability

Aim: design an experiment to find out what makes an object more stable

Hypothesis:

Diagram:

G

Procedure:

(i) One object has a wide base

(ii) One object has a narrow base

(iii) One object has a high center of gravity (this object has more weight

on top)

(iv) One object has a low center of gravity( this object has a more

weight at the bottom)

Every object must be tested (displaced slightly) to see how easily it

topples

Precautions:

Ensure that the experiment occurs in a windless environment

Variables:

Controlled:

22

23

Manipulating:

Responding:

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After carrying out the plan & design, the following results were

obtained

Results:

Object A was more stable and object C was the least stable Mark scheme

reason.2

2. Feasible/workable

method.2

3. Indentifies & controls

variables..3

4. At least 2

precautions.

2

5. Possible source of

error1

6. Select appropriate materials

.1

7. Indicate readings to be taken

& observations to be

made.2

8. Outline how the

readings/observations are to

be used to test the

hypothesis/solve the

problem....1

Total 13 marks

IF EXPERIMENT IS ATTEMPTED

9. Execute planned

procedure1

10.Modifies plan if

necessary1

Conclusion: 11.Select either width of base/height

of COG as the variable to

investigate, keeping the others

constant & forms a

hypothesis

2

23 12.Select a suitable object on which

to experiment & suggest how the

base of width/height of COG will

24

Total 25

SBA #12

Skill: P/D

incline plane first before toppling at all angles of inclination and hence

determines the conditions for the object to slide first or topples.

Mark scheme

Hypothesis:

1. App hypothesis with

Materials: reason..2

2. Feasible/workable

Diagram: method.2

3. Indentifies & controls

variables..3

4. At least 2

precautions

.2

5. Possible source of

error1

6. Indicate readings to be taken &

observations to be

made.2

Procedure: 7. Outline how the

readings/observations are to

Design an incline plane be used to test the

hypothesis/solve the problem..

Measure the height and the adjacent

Calculate the angle of inclination using 1

trigonometry 8. Data

presentation/collection

Place an object on the plane, namely a

2

ball, cube, cone, cone & cube/cylinder

combine

Vary the height for three other set of Total 12 marks

values

IF EXPERIMENT IS ATTEMPTED

Maintain constant adjacent,

hypotenuse and the same object 9. Execute planned

procedure1

Calculate the angle of inclination per 10.Modifies plan if

variation necessary1

11.Skills employed to minimize

Precautions: errors2

12.State conditions for sliding &

Avoid parallax in measurements Total 25

toppling2

Ensure plane is smooth

24 13.Select a suitable object on which to

experiment & suggest how the

25

FEASIBIITY OF EXPERIMENT

Key:

inclination

Slide first

Topple

first

Calculations:

Variables:

Controlled:

Manipulating:

Responding:

Discussion:

Discuss results/findings and implication to civil engineers

Explain stability in the three different circumstances (stable, neutral &

unstable equilibrium)

What makes an object topples (refer to moments of the weight)

25

26

Conclusion: the conditions for toppling are where as the conditions for

sliding are

SBA # 13

Skill: PD

Hypothesis:

Materials: copper rod, aluminum rod, brass rod, iron rod, heat source (candle or

open flames), tripod stand and mesh, Bunsen burner, wax, match stick

Diagram:

A B C

Method:

2. Drop equal amounts of wax to the edge of the rod to adhere the match

stick (or use Vaseline)

3. Place all rods equidistance from heat source

4. Record in order the rod from which the match stick or thumb tacks first fall

Precautions:

Ensure rods equidistance form heat source

Ensure each rod receives equal amount of attachment wax or Vaseline

Expected results

Copper 1 Treatment of results

Brass 2

26

27

Aluminum 3

Iron 4

Discussion:

The effect on heat transfer on the length and thickness of the material

The effect of heat on the type of material

Errors encountered and skills employed to minimize these errors

Improvements or modification of experiment

Sources of errors and method of elimination

Alternative approaches to the experiment

5.

27

28

SBA#14

Skill: ORR

Materials/apparatus: boiling tube/test tube, measuring cylinder, half meter ruler, retort stand

Diagram:

Procedure:

fill water up to that height

pour 2cm3 of water in the boiling and measure the height from the mark point

Repeat method using other known volumes of water and recording the immediate height

Precautions:

NB: plot

Avoid parallax error when reading a graph

volume andof meter

height/cm

ruleron y axis against

Read off volume in measuringvolume/cm3 on x -the

cylinder below axis

meniscus

Retort stand must be on a flat surface and in a vertical position

Calculations:

1

Area(A) = slpoe

i.e. A = 1/s

Discussion:

practicability of experiment

strengths and weaknesses

Results:

modification/improvement

what you would change if experiment was to

be repeated

28

to be

29

Error: Error:

Height/c Volume/c

m m3

Mark scheme

headings...1

2. Placed sub-headings in logical

order..1

3. Used appropriate subject matter under respective

headings...1

4. Logical sequence of steps in

procedure..1

5. A clear and concise

procedure................................................1

6. Procedure written in good English (Correct spelling and

grammar)

SBA#15

29

30

Skill: ORR

Title: moments

Aim: To determine the weight of a meter ruler using the principle of moments

Diagram:

Mark scheme

1. Neat app

table

1

2. Correct headings &

units.1

3. Consistent significant figures in

table.1

4. Correct

graph

1

5. Correct quantities on

axis.1

6. Label axes correctly with quantities &

units2

7. Title for

graph

..1

8. Best fit

Procedure:

tie a string unto the clamp of a retort stand and to the centre of the meter ruler

attach a 100g(1N) weight on one end of the ruler

shift the weight and the attach string along one half of the ruler so that the ruler balances

measure value x (the distance from the centre to the string) and y (the distance from the

weight to the string)

obtain six pairs of values for x and y

Precautions:

make sure the ruler is leveled before the weight is attached

slightly adjust the weight for best results

Results:

Error in length:

30

31

Values

of x

Values

of y

Calculations:

the slope represent the weight of the meter ruler

Discussion:

application/importance of moments in construction

improvements of experiment

methods of minimizing errors

reflection on the process (likes & dislikes, strengths and weaknesses)

reflection should be a separate sub heading

SBA#16

Skill: ORR

31

32

clock, water, electrical balance, measuring cylinder

Diagram:

Method1 (kettle)

Put kettle to boil for 10 minutes

Weigh again and find difference in mass (this difference equals the mass of water

vaporize)

Method2 (beaker)

Find the mass of water in the beaker by subtraction method

Put beaker of water to boil via candle flames

After 10 minutes re weigh water

Measure the final temperature

Find the mass of water vaporize

subtraction method

Pour known mass of water in kettle

Put kettle to the boil

After 10 minutes pour water from kettle to the beaker to be weigh again

Find the mass of water lost/evaporated

Precautions:

Check for zero error in stop watch and record exact time obtained

Try to prevent heat loss as much as possible by preventing the wind from

interacting with the candle

Cover the beaker to prevent heat loss

Results:

when temperatur temperatur

32

33

3

Grams Grams

Beaker

Kettle

Calculations:

Mark scheme

For beaker:

1. Neat app

Energy (E) = mcT (m = mass of water) table

1

Hence, E = mlv (m = mass of water evaporated)

2. Correct headings &

E units.1

3. Consistent significant figures in

lv = m

table.1

For kettle: 4. Appropriate format of

presentation1

2

V 5. Sub headings

Energy (E) = IVt or I2Rt or R t identify.

1

evaporated

E

lv=

mDiscussion:

Usefulness of latent heat of vaporization

Improvements/modification

How errors can be minimized

Factors affecting latent heat of vaporization

Reflection

..

SBA#17

Skill: ORR

33

34

Aim: to investigate the relationship between voltage and current for a filament lamp.

supply, switch, bulb/lamp.

Diagram:

Procedure:

Make sure to connect ammeter in series to lamp (component) and voltmeter in parallel

Adjust rheostat for six pairs of values for current and voltage

Precautions:

Correct polarity connections

Check for zero error in voltmeter and ammeter

Avoid parallax error when reading measuring cylinder

Results:

34

35

Error =

Ammeter/A

Error =

Voltmeter/V

Discussion:

Voltage

Why it is necessary for an ammeter to have a very low internal resistance

Why is it necessary for a voltmeter to have a very high internal resistance

The function of the rheostat

Determines whether ohms law applies to the filament lamp

What are the factors affecting the resistance of the filament lamp

Strengths and weaknesses/reflection

How can the experiment be improved

Errors encountered

Skills employed to minimize errors

Conclusion: the relationship between voltage and current was found to be either directly proportional,

inversely proportional, linear, non linear, quadratic etc.

Mark scheme

1. Neat app

table

1

2. Correct headings &

units.1

3. Consistent significant figures in

table1

4. Correct

graph

..1

5. Correct quantities on

axis..1

6. Label axes correctly with quantities &

units.2

7. Title for

graph

1

8. Correct diagram & labeling..

SBA#18

35

36

Skill: ORR/AI

Aim: To determine the magnification & focal length for a convex lens

Diagram:

Procedure:

Place the converging lens in the lens holder & put the combination in the light path from the

lamp box

Adjust lens to produce a sharp image on screen

Measure x (the distance from the lens holder to the lamp box) and y (the distance from the

lens holder to the screen).

Precautions:

Adjust lamp box and lens such that a sharp image is produce on the screen

36

37

Results:

Values of x

Mark scheme AI

Object

distance (u) 1. Large triangle showing how gradient was

determined.1

Values of y 2. Indicating on the graph the co-ordinates used to

distance (v) them from the graph2

3. Correct formula to find

Magnificatio Average

gradient..1

n 4. Correct formula for focal

length1

M = v/u

5. Correct substitution of read offs into slope

Focal length formula..1 Average

6. Correct calculation of slope (magnification).

u+ v ..1

f= /

uv 7. Calculation of focal

length1

cm 8. Correct units for

slope

Power of lens Average

1

Calculations:

F=

f

Plot a graph of image distance against object Mark scheme ORR

distance.

/cm-1 Find the slope/gradient of the graph to

confirm the magnification of the lens obtained in 1. Neat app

the table above. table

1

Discussion: 2. Correct headings &

units.1

Focal length and its importance 3. Consistent significant figures in

table.1

Explain the lens properties 4. Accurate values in

Discuss the function of a fat lens compared table.2

5. Correct

to a thin lens graph

Modifications/improvement 1

6. Correct quantities on

Far sightedness, near sightedness, axis1

accommodation, 7. Label axes correctly with quantities &

units..2

Conclusion: the focal length of the convex lens was 8. Title for

found to be the magnification was found to 37 graph

be and the power of the lens was found to be . ..1

9. Best fit

line

38

SBA#19

Skill: ORR/AI

Title: resistivity

Diagram:

A B

Procedure:

Set up the circuit shown above with (AB) the potentiometer and power supply set at 1.5V

Slide the jockey 10cm starting from one end up to 100cm

Measure the current on the ammeter per 10cm slide

If current deflections are too great, insert a resistor in the circuit

Precautions:

Avoid parallax error in reading ammeter

Increase precision and sensitivity when shifting the jockey across the potentiometer

Ensure tight connections

Check for zero error on meter ruler

38

39

Results:

Length/cm 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Current/A

1 1

/A

A

Then it follows that A-1m-1 x A = m-1 resistivity or resistance per unit length

Discussion:

Definition of resistivity

Advantages, disadvantages

Applications

Mark scheme

Modifications/improvements

Reflection/strengths, weakness

1. Neat app

The relationship between resistance and length and the implications to power grid designers

table

..1

Conclusion: the resistance per unit length of the wire AB was found to be ..

2. Correct headings &

units..1

3. Consistent significant figures in

table..1

4. Correct

graph

1

5. Correct quantities on

axis.1

6. Label axes correctly with quantities &

units2

7. Title for 39

graph

..1

8. Best fit

40

SBA#20

Skill: ORR

Materials/apparatus: flat irregular shape lamina (card board/Bristol board), puncher, mounted pin,

retort stand, plumb line & scissors

Diagram:

Procedure:

Pierce three widely spaced holes near to the edge of the lamina

Labe the holes A, B & C

Attach a mounted pin to the clamp of the retort stand

Hang the lamina (hole A) in the mounted pin and attach a plumb line

Trace the path of the plumb line

Repeat method using holes A & B

Where the three lines intersect would be the centre of mass/gravity of the object

Precautions:

The holes must be widely spaced

40

41

Retort stand must be on a flat surface

Results:

NB: glue or stick irregular shape in lab book for assessment, clearly indicating the three points of

suspension or lines drawn.

Discussion:

Mark object

schemewas found to be the intersection of the

three lines.

1. Appropriate sub-headings

1

2. Subject matter under each sub-

headings..1

3. Subject matter in logical

order..1

4. State 2

precautions

2

5. Clear & concise

41 method.1

6. Logical sequence of steps in

method1

7. Good English (grammar & spelling) in

42

SBA#21

Skill: Density

Title: ORR

Materials: irregular object (rock), string, measuring cylinder, electrical balance, water

Diagram:

42

43

Procedure:

Tie a string to the rock and submerge it in a beaker of known volume of water

Precautions:

Avoid breathing over the electrical balance because it invokes the final measurement

of the mass

43

44

Results:

3 3

volume(V1/cm ) volume(V2/cm

V 2V 1 )/c

(

m3

Rock

Average:

Mass of rock =

Calculations:

m

d=

v

Discussion:

Density definition

Importance/application of density

Archimedes principle/discovery

Relative density

Why some objects float whilst others sink

Mark scheme

table1

2. Appropriate headings with quantities and

units.1

3. Consistent significant figures in each

column..1

4. Use of good English (grammar & spelling)

.2

5. Clear & concise

method

..1

6. Logical sequence of steps in

method..1

7. Repeat method to find the volume and then find

average.1

8. Accurate readings (+ or -1) of mass 44and

45

SBA#22

Skill: ORR

Aim: To locate the images formed by two plane mirrors placed at right angles to each other

Diagram:

P2 P3

6cm

X Z

4cm

P1

Y P4

Procedure:

Place an object pin P1 6cm from the mirror YZ and 4cm from the mirror XZ

The images of P1 was obtain 4cm behind mirror XZ (P2) and 6cm behind mirror YZ (P4)

Produce P4 vertical and P2 horizontal until they intersect at image P3

Precautions:

Incline position of the eye to view images through mirror

Ensure lines drawn are straight

Ensure optical pins are straight

45

46

Results:

Table of measurements

XY/m

Discussion:

Uses of mirrors

Uses of reflection/mirror reflection

Errors encountered and methods of minimization

Improvements/modification

Reflection on process of conducting experiment/gaining data

Conclusion: the images were located in two plane mirrors placed at right to each were located as

shown on the result paper.

Mark scheme

table.1

2. Appropriate headings with quantities and

units..1

3. Consistent significant figures in each

column.1

4. Use of good English (grammar & spelling)

2

5. Clear & concise

method

.1

6. Logical sequence of steps in

method1

7. Correct measurement of

lengths1

8. Correct conversion of

units.1

46

47

SBA# 22

Skill: ORR

Title: Reflection

Materials: plane mirror, adhesive tape, blank sheet of paper, plasticine, 3 optical pins

Diagram:

A

P2

B

P P1 P4

P3

M1 R M2

S

Procedure:

Draw the line M1M2 in the center of the paper. Stand a plane mirror vertically on its edge.

Use plasticine if necessary

Stick an optical pin (the object pin) vertically at some point in front of the reflecting surface

of the mirror and about 5 cm from it

look into the mirror from eye level as shown in the diagram and stick two sighting pins into

such positions such that P1 & P2 and the image of the object seems to form a straight line

Draw small circles round the pins P1P2. Remove sighting pins

Repeat steps 4 and 5 using sighting pins P3P4 and from a different position. Remove sighting

pins

Produce line P1P2 beyond the mirror line M1M2.

Produce line P3P4 beyond the mirror line M1M2

Mark the point of intersection of the produced lines behind the mirror. This is the position of

the image of the object at P

Precautions

Ensure paper is stuck and mirror vertically placed on horizontal line M1M2

47

48

For good accuracy, second sighting pin should be fairly far away from the first sighting pin P 1

Blank

sheet A

P2

B

P P1 P4

P3

M1 R M2

S

Table

M1M2 M1M2

Purposes of plane mirrors table.1

2. Appropriate headings with quantities and

Properties of images form in a

units.1

plane mirror 3. Accurate measure of image height & object

Application of light reflection height .1

Errors encountered and methods of 4. Use of good English (grammar & spelling)

minimization 2

Improvements/modification 5. Clear & concise

Reflect on the process of conducting method1

experiment/gaining data 6. Logical sequence of steps in

method1

Conclusion: The image of object P was 7. Neat result sheet with images

located..2

located as shown in the results

8. Sub-headings

named

48

49

SBA#23

Diagram:

Procedure:

Draw a normal 4cm from the top left corner of the glass block

Using a protractor, measure 200 from the normal and draw an incident ray

Place two optical pins (P1 & P2) on the incident ray 2cm apart

Put the glass block exactly back on the trace outline

Look through the glass block and block off the image seen from the previous pins P 1 & P2

with two other pins P3 & P4

Produce P3 & P4 to the base of the trace outline (this is the emergent ray)

Draw a normal at the point of intersection and connect it to the previous normal

This would be the refracted ray

Measure and record the refracted angle

Repeat method using two other angles, namely 400 and 300

Precautions:

Make sure glass block is not defaced

Make sure the images of the object is directly blocked or form a straight line with the search

pins

Make sure glass block is directly placed on traced outline

49

50

Results

Angle of

incidence/ i

10 20 30 40 50 60

Angle of

refraction/

r

sini

Average of sinr

Sin i

Sin r

Calculations:

Discussion: Find gradient/slope

Definition of refractive

What does index

the gradient/slope represent?

Importance/application

Compare the refractive index for different materials

Difficulties experienced during the lab exercise and how did you overcome these difficulties

Strengths

Errors encountered and methods of minimization

Mark scheme

1. Follows

instruction

.1

2. Prepares material for observation/investigation

correctly1

3. Sets up apparatus for

measurement.1

4. Use glass block correctly

..1

5. Correct measure of incident

angles2

6. Places optical pins on incident

ray..1

7. Check for unavoidable

errors..1

50

51

SAB#24

Skill: M/M

d

Aim: To investigate whether the ratio i is a constant

Diagram:

Procedure:

o The reflected ray is found using the same method as describe in SBA#22 above

o Produces the incident ray until it passes the base of the trace outline

o Measure the distance d from the normal to where the projected incident ray cuts the base

Precautions:

o Make sure glass block is not defaced

o Make sure the images of the object is directly blocked or form a straight line with the search

pins

o Make sure glass block is directly placed on traced outline

51

52

Results

Angle of incidence

20 30 40

Distance/m

d

Ratio i

Discussion:

o Definition displacement

o The effects of lateral displacement

o Importance of lateral displacement

o Reflection on the process

d

Conclusion: the ratio i is .

Mark scheme

1. Follows

instruction

.1

2. Prepares material for observation/investigation

correctly.1

3. Sets up apparatus for

measurement.1

4. Use glass block correctly

..1

5. Correct measure of

angles..2

6. Places optical pins on incident

ray.1

7. Check for unavoidable

errors.1

8. Outline traced with

normals1

9. Correct measure of angles of

refraction1

52

53

SBA#25

Skill: M/M

Aim: to determine the SHC of a given metal using the methods of mixtures

Materials: water bath, thermometer, bob, string, Styrofoam cup, water, beaker, tripod stand and mesh,

candle/gas flames, matches, tiles and electrical balance.

Diagram: metal

Procedure:

Tie a string to the bob and submerge it in the water bath until the temperature reached 100 0C.

When the water bath reach this temperature, remove the bob, shake off the excess water and

quickly transfer it to the Styrofoam cup of cold water

Make sure to measure the initial temperature of the cold water with a thermometer before

transferring the heated bob

Stir the solution continuously and measure the final steady temperature

Method2

Heat a beaker of water with a pendulum bob inside or any piece of metal up to about a

temperature of 1000C

Measure the initial temperature of water in the Styrofoam cup of water

Quickly transfer the metal from the beaker of water to the Styrofoam cup

Stir the solution and measure the final steady temperature

Precautions:

Quickly transfer the metal/bob to the Styrofoam cup to prevent heat lost

Avoid parallax error when reading the thermometer

Avoid splashing water

Stir well before reading temperature

53

54

Results

Mass of metal =

Temperature rise of cold water = final temperature of mixture temperature of cold water

Heat lost by metal = temperature of metal in water bath (100 0C) final temperature of mixture

Calculations:

mc T =mc T

Discussion:

Define SHC

Applications of SHC

Differentiate between objects with high SHC compared to objects with low SHC

Discuss the advantages of reducing energy loss in the environment

Improvements

Methods of minimizing errors

Source of errors/unavoidable errors & limitations

Reflection

Mark scheme

1. Follows instruction

correctly1

2. Prepares material for

investigation.1

3. Sets up apparatus (water bath)

correctly1

4. Balance placed level & check for deflections in

mass.1

5. Thermometer not touching glass/water

bath..1

6. Water bath handle with

care1

7. Read thermometer avoiding parallax error/eye

level1

8. Hold the thermometer54

55

SBA#26

Skill: M/M

Diagram:

Procedure:

Place a plotting compass near the north pole of the magnet (the north pole is indicated by an

arrow pointing north in the plotting compass)

Place a dot with a pencil on the arrow pointing north

Place the center of the compass on the dot and place another dot on the arrow pointing north

Repeat this method until the compass reaches the other end of the magnet

Connect each dot with a smooth curve

Results:

magnet2

Ensure magnets are not defaced 2. Indicate the position of

Ensure compass is working properly compass1

3. Plot points

accurately

.2

Discussion:

4. Points are joined using a thin

Define magnetic fields

How the poles are located

Application/ importance of magnets

How north pole is define

55

56

SBA#26

Skill: M/M

Title: resistance

Materials: unknown resistor, power supply, ammeter, voltmeter, connection wires, switch

Diagram:

Procedure:

Connect the positive end of the connecting wire to negative terminal of the power supply

Connect the other end to the top terminal of the rheostat

Connect the bottom terminal of the rheostat with another connecting wire and the other end to

the unknown resistor via crocodile clips

Clip the other end of the unknown resistor and connect it to the ammeter

Then connect the voltmeter in parallel with the unknown resistor

Test the working of the circuit by switching on the power supply

If the needles in the ammeter & voltmeter deflects in the opposite direction, reverse polarity

Slide the rheostat to obtain six pairs of values of current(A) and voltage(V)

Precautions:

Ensure tight fittings/connections

Check for zero error in both ammeter & voltmeter

Ensure rheostat slides freely

56

57

Results:

Mark scheme

1. Follows

instruction

1

2. Sets circuit

correctly.

..1

3. Place ammeter/voltmeter in correct

position2

4. Connect ammeter/voltmeter with correct

polarity..2

5. Read correct scale on ammeter (0-1)

..1

6. Read ammeter/voltmeter scale to avoid

Plot a graph of voltage against current parallax

error

Calculations:

V

V =IR R=

[ I ]

Find the equation of the straight line and use this equation to find the value of the resistance when the

current is 2.5A

Discussion:

Definition of resistance

Importance of resistance

Relationship between resistance and current

Skills employed to overcome errors

How length affects resistance and the implications to device manufacturers

57

58

SBA#28

Skill: M/M

Aim: To investigate whether the periodic time of a simple pendulum is affected by the type of

material

Materials: pendulum bob, stop clock, insulated wire, string, chain of paper clips, nylon string, retort

stand and cork pads

Diagram:

Procedure:

Attach two wooden cork pads between the clamp of the retort stand

Then cut three different materials of approximate length

Attach a pendulum bob to one of the materials and time for twenty oscillations

Repeat method using the other materials using same bob

Precautions:

Check for zero error in timer or reset stop watch

Use small and approximate amplitudes per material

Retort stand must be on flat surface

Pendulum must oscillate in a vertical and perpendicular position

58

59

Results:

oscillations

String

Nylon string

Insulated

wire

Discussion:

Importance of periodic time/uses

Strengths and weaknesses(reflection)

Skills employed to minimize errors

Conclusion: the periodic time is affected/is not affected by the type of material

Mark scheme

1. Follows

instruction

..1

2. Prepare materials for

investigation.1

3. Set up apparatus

correctly

.1

4. Oscillations of pendulum in a vertical

position.1

5. Pendulum oscillate with small

amplitudes..1

6. Used countdown method in

timing..1

59

60

SBA#29

Skill: M/M

Materials: boiling tube, vernier caliper, measuring cylinder, retort stand, half meter ruler

Diagram:

Procedure:

Clamp the boiling tube onto the retort stand

Fill the tube with a known volume of water

Measure the height of the water in the boiling tube

Results:

diameter(D)/cm diameter(d)/

cm

60

61

Calculations:

d2h 2 2

V= V = r h , where r =area

4 d2

Area = 4

d=

4V

h

Dd

Therefore,

x=

2

Discussion:

Importance of thickness

Implications to glass designers and manufacturers

Errors encountered and methods of minimization

Reflection

Mark scheme

1. Follows

instructions

...1

2. Sets up apparatus

correctly....1

3. Correct reading of vernier

caliper..1

4. Avoid parallax errors when reading the

caliper.1

5. Add reading of caliper to that of the main

scale...1

6. Check for zero error on

caliper..1

7. Fill boiling tube to the

top.1

8. Pour water carefully into the measuring

61

62

SBA#30

Skill: A/I

Title: resistance

Materials: 6carbon resistors, connecting wires, battery replacement power supply, ammeter, crocodile

clips

Diagram:

Procedure:

Connect six resistors in series by tight twisting

Connect a crocodile clip the wire leaving the ammeter

Connect the first crocodile clip to the end of the first resistor (record the reading on the

ammeter)

After taking down the first reading, detach connection from first resistor and connect to the

end of the second resistor (record the reading)

Continue this method to the end of the last resistor

Precautions:

Tight connected twist of resistors

Check for zero error in ammeter

Test circuit for accurate flow of current by noting deflection of needle

62

63

Results: Calculations:

Number of Current/A Plot graph of number of resistors against current

resistors/n

Find slope/gradient

Discussions:

Discuss the value of the resistance obtain and

devices suitable for its usage

Errors encountered and methods of

minimization

Strengths and weakness (reflection)

found to be .

Mark scheme

determined.1

2. Indicating on the graph the co-ordinates used to

determine x and y and correctly reading

them from the graph2

3. Correct formula to find

gradient..1

4. Correct substitution of read offs into slope

formula..1

5. Correct calculation of

slope..1

6. Correct units for

slope

..1

7. Correct read off

intercept

..1

63

64

SBA#31

Skill: A/I

Materials: burette, water, stop watch, funnel, beaker and retort stand

Diagram:

Funnel

Burette

Retort stand

Tap

Conical flask

Procedure:

Insert a funnel on the mouth of the burette

Fill the burette with water up to 50cm3

Put a beaker under the tap to catch the flow of water

Switch on the tap

Record the time every 5cm3 of water reached

64

65

Results:

Volume/cm3 Time/s

Calculations:

50

Plot graph of volume on the y-axis against time on x-axis

1. the rate of flow for the first 5cm3 & the last 5cm3

40 2. read of the time for the first 42cm3 of flow

3. read of the first three half lives from the graph

4. what is the rate of flow for 12 seconds

35

30

Mark scheme

25

1. Calculate the rate of flow of water for the

20 first 5cm3 and last

5cm3

15

..2

10 2. Explain what happens to the rate of

flow1

5 3. Read off the first three half lives from

graph...2

0 4. Indicate on graph & read off time for the

first 42cm3 of

flow

Discussions:

Definition of radioactivity

Why atoms explode

Explain shape of curve

Extract meaning from curve/curve implications

Uses of radioactivity

What happens when the rate of flow decreases

Explain half lives

Give four precautions when dealing with radioactivity

65

66

SBA#32

Skill: A/I

Diagram:

Mark scheme

was

determined

1

2. Indicating on the graph the co-

ordinates used to determine x

from the

graph2

3. Correct formula to find

gradient..1

4. Correct substitution of read offs into

slope

formula

1

5. Correct calculation of

slope.1

6. Correct units for

Procedure: slope.1

7. Correct read off

Measure the natural length of the spring intercept.1

Suspend the spring on the retort stand 8. Correct equation of

Attach the mass hanger (mass hanger weighs 100g) to the spring

Measure the stretch length of the spring using the meter ruler

Calculate the extension by subtracting the stretch length from the natural length

Add 100g slotted mass to the hanger and measure the stretch length, hence find the extension

Repeat method until six slotted masses are place on the mass hanger

Precautions:

Retort stand in vertical position

Avoid parallax error when reading the meter ruler

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67

Results:

Stretch Spring

length constant

Mass/g Mass/kg Force/N Extension/

m F

K=

e

100

200

300

400

500

Calculations:

Discussion:

Define the limit of proportionality

What happens beyond that limit

What happens to objects under the action of forces

Application/uses/importance of Hooks law

Why manufacturers need to consider the spring or elastic limit for the design of materials

using elastics/springs

Skills employed to minimize errors such as appropriate length reading

Modifications/implications

Reflection on process

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68

SBA#33

Skill: A/I

Materials: candle, tile, tripod stand & mesh, matches, beaker, water thermometer, electrical balance

Diagram:

Procedure:

Pour a known volume of liquid in the beaker and weigh again

Find the mass of liquid in the beaker by subtraction

Measure the initial temperature of the liquid with the thermometer

Place the beaker of water on the tripod stand and the candle beneath

Light the candle using the matches

After five minutes of consistent uniform heat record final temperature

Precautions:

Check for zero error on timer be you begin to time

Avoid parallax error when reading the thermometer

An unavoidable error would be heat consistency; that is as candle melts, the heat distance to

the base of the beaker reduces, hence less heat applied to the beaker

Results:

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69

Mass of water =

Initial temperature =

Final temperature =

Time =

Calculation:

E=mc T

energy mc T

power= =

time t

Discussion:

Define SHC and its importance in water cooling most engines of motor cars and smaller

engines are usually air cooled

Power definition and interpretation of units J/s

Discuss how energy losses were diminish

What skills were employed to extrapolate accurate data

Modifications/improvements

Uses of power

Explain what can be powered by the fuel of a candle

Explain how did the distance from candle to beaker base was maintain

Reflections

Mark scheme

energy.2

2. Correct

substitution

.1

3. Correct conversion of units grams &

minutes...2

4. Correct

calculation

1

5. Correct

units

..1

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70

SBA#34

Skill: A/I

Materials: bob, string, stop watch, meter ruler, retort stand, cork pads

Diagram:

Mark scheme

(s2)...1

2. Accurate determination of the gradient from a

graph of T2 against l

.2

3. Large triangle showing how gradient was

determine1

4. Indicating on the graph the co-ordinates used to

determine x and y and correctly reading

them from the graph..2

5. Correct determination of the value of g from

Procedure:

Attach a pair of cork pads to the clamp

Measure a string 120cm long

Mark with a pen every 20cm on the string

Attach the string length 120cm between the cork pads

Set the pendulum in oscillations using small amplitudes

Record time for 20 oscillations

Then pull string up between cork pads to the next mark point and record time for 20

oscillations

Repeat method using the other mark spots

Precautions:

Pendulum must be on a flat surface

Use small & same amplitudes o displace pendulum

Check for zero error in timer

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71

Results:

n

1.20

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

Calculations:

periodic time=

20

Find gradient/slope

Calculate the percent error in the experimental value and the actual value

Discussion:

Explanation of free fall

Energy changes as pendulum oscillates

Importance of acceleration due to gravity

Discuss the consequences on the moon

What is the relationship between a falling object, its mass and acceleration

How does Newtons second law relate to the falling object and a pendulum in motion

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72

SBA#: 35

Skill: AI

inversely proportional to mass

table (1m), trolley with smooth wheels

Diagram:

Method:

2. Attach a light inextensible string to the pulley

3. Attach a mass hanger to the string

4. Add weights to the mass hanger and record the time and distance moved

by the pulley

5. Repeat method for additional weights up until at least 6 weights

The method can also be done by adding one weight to the mass hanger and

removing the weights on the trolley.

Precautions:

Parallax error in ruler

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73

Results:

Mark scheme

Mass/ Distance Time 2s F=ma

a= 2

kg traveled, /s t 9. Large triangle showing how gradient was

s/m determine..1

0.1 10.Indicating on the graph the co-ordinates

0.2

used to determine x and y and

correctly reading them from the

graph..

2

11.Formula for

gradient..1

Calculations: 12.Correct substitution of read offs into

formula1

1

Plot graph of mass vs. 13.Correct calculation of

acceleration

gradient1

Find gradient of graph with units 14.Correct units for gradient of

State the significance of the gradient graph1

15.Identification of sources of

Discussion: errors1

16.App steps to reduce sources of errors & or

Explain the importance of Newtons second recommendations for improving the

of motion in real life situations. accuracy of the

Discuss the errors encountered and identify experiment..2

methods of eliminating these errors 17.Explanation of

Identify sources of errors & ways of results2

reducing sources of errors

Limitations

Explanation of results (trends, patterns,

relationships in results)

Improvements or modifications of the

experiment

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74

SBA# 36

Skill: AI

Diagram:

Method:

Hang the known masses on the spring balance and measure the force in

Newtons. Take at least six readings.

Table of results:

Mass/K X

g

Force/N

Calculations:

Find the gradient

Find y intercept

Find the equation of the straight line (y = mx + c)

Use the equation to find the force when the mass is 1.5Kg

Use the graph to find the unknown mass X

Source of error:

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75

Discussion Mark scheme

What is the significance of the gradient 18.Large triangle showing how gradient was

of the line? determine..1

Discuss the errors encountered and 19.Indicating on the graph the co-ordinates used to

identify methods of eliminating these

determine x and y and correctly reading

errors

Ways of reducing sources of errors them from the graph..2

Limitations 20.Formula for

Explanation of results (trends, patterns, gradient

relationships in results) ..1

Improvements or modifications of the 21.Correct substitution of read offs into

experiment formula..1

22.Correct calculation of

Conclusion: the unknown mass was found to gradient1

be 23.Correct units for gradient of

graph.1

24.Identification of sources of

errors..1

25.App steps to reduce sources of errors & or

recommendations for improving the accuracy of

the experiment..2

26.Explanation of

results.

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76

SBA#

Skill: AI

Aim: To determine the specific heat capacity of a liquid using the electrical methods

coil (about 6 resistance), distilled water, other liquid

Diagram

Alternative connections

+

A

+ Connected

+

V to 24v A +

supply

V

Stirrer

+ +

+

+

Insulation

Heating

coil

Procedure

Half fill the calorimeter with water. Find the mass of the

calorimeter + water. Hence find the mass of water

Place the thermometer, stirring rod and heating coil in the

calorimeter.

Measure the temperature of the water

Connect the circuit as shown. Allow the current to flow until

a rise in temperature of at least 10K occurs (t). During this

process it is essential to keep stirring the water in order to

ensure that the heat is mixed thoroughly. Use the stop watch

to measure the time taken to heat the water in seconds (t).

Measure the current and the potential difference

Repeat using another liquid to be provided

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77

Precautions:

Ensure that the positive of he ammeter is connected to the positive of the voltmeter and the

negative of the calorimeter is connected to the negative of the voltmeter

Continuous stirring for heating uniformity

Prevent heat looses

Results

Calorimeter Calor. + water Water Minutes Seconds T1 T2

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78

SBA#

Skill: AI

78

79

79

80

80

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81

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