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Table of contents

SBA # AIM TOPIC SKILL PAGE


PLAN & DESIGNS (situations)
1 A student wants to know whether the shape of a parachute affects the rate Statics PD 23
of descend of a parachutist. Plan and design an experiment to determine
the best shape for a parachute.
2 A form 4 student concluded that the weight of an object affects the rate at Dynamics PD 45
which that objects rolls down an incline plane. Plan and design an
experiment to investigate weight ant rate of an object down an incline
plane
3 The shape of a core does not affect the emf induced in the secondary coil Electromagnetism PD 67
of a transformer. Plan and design an experiment to investigate this
relationship between the shape of a core and the induced emf
4 During a lesson on transverse waves, a student asks the question: is Waves PD 89
periodic time affected by the tension in a slinky? Plan and design an
experiment to investigate the relationship between periodic time and
tension
5 Plan and design an experiment to determine whether the specific heat Thermal energy PD 10 11
capacity of a liquid depends on its density
6 A student wants to find out whether ice melts faster in alcoholic beverages Properties of matter PD 12 13
than non alcoholic beverages. Plan and design an experiment to investigate
this statement

7 Plan and design an experiment to investigate whether the strength of an Electromagnetism PD 14 15


electromagnet is affected by the number of turns in a solenoid
8 Plan and design an experiment to determine which of three sealed boxes, Current Electricity PD 16 17
A, B and C, each with terminals at both ends, contain nothing, a resistance
wire and a working diode.
9 Peter wants to know whether the shape of an object affects the rate at Properties of matter PD 18 19
which it rolls down an incline plane. Plan and design an experiment to
investigate this relationship.
10 If the angle of incidence doubles, the angle of refraction also doubles said Refraction PD 20 21
a fifth form physics student. Plan and design an experiment to test this
relationship.
11 Design an experiment to find out what makes an object more stable Statics PD 22 23

12 Design an investigation to determine whether an object will slide down an Statics PD 24 25


incline plane first before toppling at all angles of inclination and hence
determines the conditions for the object to slide first or topples.

13 You are provided with four rods: aluminum, copper, iron and brass. Plan Thermal energy PD 26 27
and design an experiment to determine which of the four rods conduct heat
energy best
14 To determine the cross-sectional area, a, of a boiling tube Measurement ORR 28 29
15 To determine the weight of a meter ruler using the principle of moments Statics ORR 30 31
16 To determine the specific latent heat of vaporization of water Thermal energy ORR 32 32
17 To investigate the relationship between voltage and current for a filament Current electricity ORR/ 34 35
lamp. AI
18 To determine the magnification & focal length for a convex lens Action of lenses ORR/ 36 37

0
1

AI
19 To determine the resistance for unit length of a wire AB Current electricity ORR/ 38 39
AI
20 To determine the center of gravity for an irregular shape object Statics ORR 40 41
21 To determine the density of an irregular shaped object: Properties of matter ORR 42 43
22 To locate the images formed by two plane mirrors placed at right angles to Reflection ORR 44 45
each other
To locate the image in a plain mirror by ray tracing Reflection ORR
23 To determine the refractive index, n, of a glass block Refraction MM/ 46 47
AI
24 d Refraction MM 48 49
To investigate whether the ratio i is a constant

25 to determine the SHC of a given metal using the methods of mixtures Thermal energy MM 50 51
26 To plot a magnetic field of a bar magnet using a plotting compass Magnetism MM 52

27 To determine the resistance, R, of an unknown resistor Current electricity MM 53 54


28 To investigate whether the periodic time of a simple pendulum is affected Measurement MM 55 56
by the type of material
29 To determine the thickness of a glass, x, of a boiling tube Measurement MM 57 58

30 To find the resistance, R, of a carbon resistor Current electricity AI 59 60


31 To investigate whether the rate of flow decreases with time Radioactivity AI 61 62
32 To determine the spring constant for a helical spring Statics AI 63 64
33 To determine the power output of a candle Thermal energy AI 65 66
34 To determine the acceleration of free falling, g, objects using a pendulum Statics AI 67 68
35 To determine whether force is directly proportional to acceleration and Dynamics AI 69 70
inversely proportional to mass
36 To find an unknown mass using a spring balance Statics AI 71 72
37 To determine the volume of a drop of water Measurement AI 73 74
AI 75 76

FORM 4
Term 1 Term 2
SBA# SKILL PAGE DATE SBA# SKILL PAGE DATE

Term 3
SBA# SKILL PAGE DATE

SBA# SKILL PAGE DATE


FORM 5
SBA#
SBA# SKILL
SKILL PAGE
PAGEDATE
DATE

Term 1 Term 2
1
2

SCHOOL BASED ASSESSMENTS

Plan and designs

SBA#1
Date:

Skill: P/D

Title: terminal velocity

Aim: to determine the best shape for a parachute

Hypothesis: the best shape for a parachute is rectangular

Materials: string, glue, nylon, scissors or blade, sticks/straws, weight, stop clock,
measuring tape

Diagram:

Canopy

Suspending
strings

Weight

Procedure:

Design a parachute in the shape of a square, circle and rectangle from


nylon, glue, sticks and thread
Design a parachutist from card board or any suitable material
Then move to a height to about 10m (the roof of the school)
Drop the parachute and time until it reaches the ground
Drop the two other designs and record time
Measure the height of the building using a measuring tape
A second measurement conferment was to measure the height using a
long piece of string
Average the two measurement to obtain height value

Precautions:

avoid parallax error when using the measuring tape and ruler
checked for zero error when using the stop clock

2
3

count down method is used when releasing the parachute

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After the experiment, the following results were obtain

Table of results
Mark scheme
Error:
1. App. Hypothesis with
Shape Height/c Time Speed/m
reason ..2
m /s s-1
2. Workable method
2
3. Manipulating variable
Rectangu 1
lar 4. Controlled variable
.1
5. Responding variable
..1
Square 6. At least 2precautions
.1
7. Appropriate
design..1
Circle 8. App. selection of materials
1
Weight = 9. Possible source of
error.1
10. App. Labeled
Diagrams 2
11.Suggest suitable
Discussion: one should discuss formula.1
12.Data
the reason for design a parachute in a presentation
particular way .1
the effects/purpose of air resistance on the 13.Indicate readings to be
parachutist taken & observations to be
terminal velocity and its importance to the made.2
14.Outline how the
parachutist
readings/observations are
why a considerable height is necessary for
to be used to test the
testing
hypothesis/solve the
how would one know which shape is best
problem
for designing a parachute
how can the experiment be improved or ..1 Total 23
modify
errors encountered and methods of
minimizing these errors
VARIABLES

Conclusion: the best shape for the parachute Controlled


was hence my hypothesis was supported Manipulatin
or rejected according to the results obtained g
Responding
3
4

SBA #2

Skill: P/D

Title: Energy

Aim: To investigate whether the weight of an object affects the rate at which it
rolls down an incline plane

Hypothesis: does weight affects or does it not affects the rate at which it rolls
down an incline plane

Materials/apparatus: three different weights or slotted masses, namely 5kg,


0.5Kg and 100g, a plank, retort stand, stop clock

Diagram:

Diagram showing weight rolling down an incline plane

Procedure:

Set up or construct incline plane using retort stand and plank


Obtain three different weights (100g, 0.5kg and 5kg)
Roll each weight down plane & record time until weight reaches base
Make sure that each weight commences at same position in incline plane

Precaution:

Check for zero error in stop clock


Use countdown method for precision
Plane should be smooth as possible to reduce resistive forces like friction
Height and length of plane must be kept constant

4
5

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After carrying out the plan & design, the following results were
obtained

Results

Error: Error: Error:


Mark scheme
0.1g 0.1s 0.5mm
-1
Speed/ms
1. App hypothesis with reason
Mass/Kg Time/s Height/m
2
2. Workable method
..2
0.5 3. Identifies & controls
variables app..3
4. At least 2precautions
1
5 5. Appropriate design
1
6. App. selection of materials
0.100 ..1
7. Possible source of
error..1
8. Indicate readings to be taken
& observations to be
made.2
Discussion: One can discuss
9. Outline how the
The energy transformations that occur readings/observations are to
when the object is set in motion be used to test the
The forces acting on the object in motion hypothesis/solve the
The effect of these forces on the motion problem.1
10.App. Labeled Diagrams
of the weights
How can these forces be diminished 2
11.Suggest suitable formulas
The importance and application of this
..1
experiment
12.Data presentation
How can the experiment be modified
1
The errors encountered and methods of
minimization Total Total
23
A reflection of gathering and collecting 18 marks
data, strengths and weaknesses
List variables

Conclusion: weight does/does not affect the speed at which an object rolls down
an incline plane; hence my hypothesis was supported/rejected according the
collected data

5
6

SBA #3

Skill: P/D

Title: magnetism

Aim: To investigate whether the shape of a core affects the emf induced in the secondary coil of a
transformer

Materials/apparatus: 2soft iron cores, insulated copper wire, voltmeter, crocodile clips, connecting
wires, battery replacement power supply

Diagram:

Procedure:
Obtain two horse shoe shape soft iron and wind insulated copper wires around each
differentiating the number of turns in each, forming a transformer
Alter the shapes but maintaining connections to the voltmeter and power supply
Record the induce emf in the voltmeter

Precautions:
Avoid parallax error when reading the voltmeter
Checked for zero error on voltmeter

6
7

Make sure connections are tight


Make sure polarity connections are correct
FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After carrying out the plan & design, the following results were
obtained

Results

Mark scheme
Shape
Induced voltage
1. App hypothesis with
reason2
2. Workable method
.2
3. Identifies & controls variable
app..3
4. At least 2precautions
.2
5. Appropriate design
..1
6. Indicate readings to be taken
& observations to be
made.2
7. Outline how the
readings/observations are to
be used to test the
hypothesis/solve the
problem1
8. App. selection of materials
.1
9. Possible source of
Discussion: one can discuss
error.1
10. App. Labeled cct
Michael Faradays law of electromagnetic induction
Diagrams2
Induced magnetism
11. Data
Induced emf
presentation
The conditions for emf to be induced
.1
Electromagnets Total 23
Reducing power loss in the transformer
The best shape of the core and why
Errors encountered and methods of minimization
Strengths, weaknesses, sources of errors, limitations

Conclusion: the shape of the core does/does not affects the emf induced in a
core; hence my hypothesis was supported/rejected according to results

7
8

SBA #4

Skill: P/D

Title: waves

Aim: To determine whether the periodic time and speed of a slinky is affected by
its tension

Hypothesis:

Materials/apparatus: slinky, spring balance, meter ruler, stop clock

Diagram

Procedure: Mark sheet

Obtain a working slinking 1. App hypothesis with


Measure the mass on a bath room reason.2
scale if too heavy for an electrical 2. Workable method
balance ..2
Stretch the slinky from one point to 3. Identifies & controls variables
the next using a spring balance app.3
Measure the stretch length using a 4. At least 2precautions
meter ruler ..2
Generate a small pulse by slightly 5. Appropriate design
pulling one end and releasing .1
6. Indicate readings to be taken
Start stop watch as soon as pulse is
& observations to be
produce and time for 10 oscillations
Repeat method using three different made..2
7. Outline how the
tensions
readings/observations are to
Precautions: be used to test the
hypothesis/solve the
Small amplitude when producing the problem.1
pulse 8. App. selection of materials
Check for zero error in timer 1
Avoid parallax error when reading the 9. Possible source of
meter ruler error1
Read spring balance accurately 10. App. Labeled Diagrams
Avoid stretching the spring beyond its ..2
11.Suitable
elastic limit
formulas
1
12.Data
presentation
..1 Total 24
8
9

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After the experiment, the following results were obtained

Results

Time for Speed


20
Length/m Periodic Direct Standing Theoretical
oscillation
time/s method wave speed
Error: s
nL v =f
0.01m
v=
t v=
T

Time of travel of pulse along spring, t

No. of times pulse travels along spring, n Tension in spring, T

Length of stretch spring, L Mass of spring, M

Time for oscillations to


travel one wavelength
Discussion: one should discuss standing wave, ts

Definition of waves/pulse Calculations:


Propagation/vibration of waves
Types of waves/ how does tension affects wave speed nL
v=
t
Discuss findings/ account for differences in values of wave speed
Errors encountered & methods of minimization
Improvement/modification of experiment v =f
Wave parameters/properties

Conclusion: does tension affects or does not affect speed & periodic
slinky

v =time of
T

9
10

SBA #5

Skill: P/D

Title: relationship between SHC & density

Aim: To investigate whether the specific heat capacity of a liquid depends on its
density

Hypothesis: The specific heat capacity is influenced by the density of the liquid

Materials: beakers, Bunsen burners, thermometer, piece of metal (aluminum


block/bob, Styrofoam cup

Diagram:

Thermometer

Beaker
Styrofoam
cup
Water
Metal

Burner

Procedure:

Measure the mass of an empty Styrofoam cup


Measure the mass of a known volume of water in the Styrofoam cup
Calculate the mass of water in the cup
m
Find the density of the water by applying the formula;
d=
v
Fill the beaker with a known volume of water and measure the initial
temperature
Put the beaker to boil
Measure the mass of a piece of metal and insert it into the beaker of
boiling water via string
After about 10minutes, remove the metal from the beaker of boiling water,
shake off the excess water and insert it into the Styrofoam cup of cold
water
measure the final steady temperature of the mixture
repeat method using the two other substances

10
11

Precautions:
A Styrofoam cup is used to prevent heat loss during the experiment
Reduce time to transfer block to Styrofoam cup
Excess water shaken off from the metal before the transfer
Avoid metal to touch the sides of the beaker which could be above 100 0C

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After the experiment the following results were obtain

Results

Substanc Mass/g Volume/c Initial Final Densit Energ SHC(JKg-1K-


1
e m3 temperat temperat y y/J )
ure ure
(kg/m
3)

Water 25 Mark
scheme

1. Appropriate hypothesis
..1
Ethanol 2. Workable method
2
3. Identifies & controls
variables .3
Oil 4. At least 2precautions
vegetabl .1
5. Appropriate design
e
.1
Mass of metal = . 6. Indicate readings to be
taken & observations to be
Calculations: made.2
7. Outline how the
Heat lost by metal = heat gained by liquid readings/observations are
to be used to test the
McT = mcT
hypothesis/solve the
problem
Temp. drop = temp. of boiling water temp. of final steady mixt.
..1
Temp. rise = temp. of boiling water initial temp. of cold water
8. App. selection of materials
1
Discussion: 9. Possible source of
error.1
The importance and application of SHC 10. App. Labeled
Other factors influencing SHC Diagrams 2
Represent data on bar graph 11.Suggest suitable formulas
..1
12. Data
11
presentation.
1
12

Reflection on process/strengths & weaknesses

Conclusion:

SBA #6

Skill: P/D

Title: thermal physics/melting

Aim: to determine whether ice melts faster in coolaid than in soft drink

Hypothesis:

Materials/apparatus: 2thermometers, 2Styrofoam cups/calorimeters, stop clock,


stirrer, soft drink and coolaid solution, cube ice.

Diagram:

T Stirrer
Stirrer
T h
h e Styrofoam
Styrofoam r cup
e
cup m
r
Ice Ice
m

Soft drink solution Coolaid solution

DIAGRAMS SHOWING EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND RESULTS EXTRAPOLATION

Procedure:

Pour 50cm3 of soft drink & coolaid in a Styrofoam cup separately


Measure the initial temperature of both solutions
Insert simultaneously two ice cubes of approximate mass in the different
solutions
Stir the solutions continuously and uniformly, recording the temperature
every thirty seconds until a steady temperature was obtain

Precautions:

Styrofoam cup used to prevent heat lost to the environment


Avoid parallax error when reading the thermometer
Check for zero error in timer
Stirring must be continuous and uniform per solution of liquid
Increase precision in recording time

12
13

FEASIBILITY OF THE EXPERIMENT

After the experiment, the following results were obtain

Results:

Coolaid Soft drink

Time/ Temperature Rate of Temperature/0C Rate of melting(0C/s)


s /0C melting(0C/s)

30

60

90

Mark scheme

1. App hypothesis with reason


2
Discussion:
2. Workable method
Plot a graph of temperature against .2
3. Identifies & controls
time for the two solutions, make sure
variables app.3
to include a key
4. At least 2precautions
The factors affecting the rate of
..2
melting 5. Appropriate design
Modification/improvement of the 1
experiment 6. Indicate readings to be
Variables taken & observations to be
Errors encountered & methods of made.2
minimization 7. Outline how the
The slope of each graph readings/observations are
How the slope can determines in to be used to test the
which solution ice will melt faster? hypothesis/solve the
problem....1
8. App. selection of materials
.1
9. Possible source of
error..1
10. Suitable
formulas
.1
11. App. Labeled
Diagrams .2
13 12. Data
presentation
1
14

Conclusion:

SBA #7 Total 25

Title: Electromagnetism

Aim: To investigate whether the strength of an electromagnet is affected by the


number of turns in a solenoid

Hypothesis:

Materials/apparatus: insulated copper wires, power supply/9V battery, retort


stand, staples, crocodile clips, 10inch nail and Petri dish

Diagram: Mark scheme

1. App hypothesis with reason


.2
2. Workable method
2
3. Identifies & controls variables
app3
4. At least 2precautions
.1
5. Appropriate design
.1
6. Indicate readings to be taken &
observations to be
made
.2
7. Outline how the
readings/observations are to be
used to test the hypothesis/solve
the problem..
Diagram showing set up for results extrapolation

..1
Procedure: 8. App. selection of materials
Hammer a 10inch nail into a piece 1
9. Possible source of
of cylindrical wood
error1
Clamp the combination on a retort
10. App. Labeled Diagrams
stand
..2
Wind a long piece of insulated soft
11. Data presentation
iron around the nail 1
Connect the ends of the wire to a
9V battery or power supply thus Total 17 marks Total 23
creating a circuit
Put some staples in a petri dish
and slowly raise it to the
suspending nail
Remove the petri dish with nails
and put an empty one to collect 14
the attach staples
Repeat method using different
15

Precautions:

The wire must be tightly winded around the soft iron


Tight connections in circuit
Make sure the nail is long enough
For best results, electromagnet must be vertical/suspending

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After the experiment, the following results were obtain

Results

Number of Staples/pins picked


turns up

10

40

70

100

Variables:

Discussion:

Electromagnet definition, function, importance/application in industry


Factors affecting the strength of an electromagnet
Induced magnetism
Errors encountered & methods of minimization
Sources of errors
Improvement/modification
Reflection on process

Conclusion:

15
16

SBA #8

Skill: P/D

Title: diodes and resistors

Aim: To determine whether the contents in three sealed boxes A, B & C contains
(a) a resistor (b) a diode (c) nothing

Hypothesis: box A contains a diode, box B contains a resistor and box C contains
nothing

Materials/apparatus: three sealed match boxes with the materials inside,


connecting wires, ammeter, and power supply

Diagram:

DIAGRAM SHOWING EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND RESULTS


EXTRAPOLATION

Procedure:

Test the sealed boxes on the stations for the inside contents by building a
circuit
If a reading appears on the ammeter, likewise if the polarities are
interchange and same reading appears, then content inside is a
wire/metallic conductor
If a reading appears in one direction but not in the opposite direction, then
the inside content is a diode
If nothing appears on the ammeter in both directions, then the box is
empty

Precautions:

Make sure the box contains a working diode (diode should be tested for
defectiveness)
Ensure polarities are connected properly
Check for zero error in ammeter

16
17

An unavoidable error is pointer sticking due to friction (manufacture


error/cheap equipment)

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After the experiment, the following results were obtain

Results:

A B C

BOX

Variables:

Controlled:

Manipulating:
Mark scheme
Responding:
1. Appropriate hypothesis
Discussion: ..1
2. Workable method
Diodes definition, function and importance in industry ..2
Resistors definition, importance and application 3. Identifies & controls
How one can test for a defective diode? variables.3
4. At least 2precautions
1
5. Appropriate design
1
Conclusion: according to my results, box A 6. Indicate readings to be
contains a , box B contains a taken & observations to be
. And box C contains a ., made.2
hence my hypothesis is supported/rejected. 7. Outline how the
readings/observations are
to be used to test the
hypothesis/solve the
problem..
.
.1
8. App. selection of materials
..1
9. Possible source of
error1
17 10. App. Labeled cct.
Diagrams .2
11. Data presentation
..1
18

SBA #9 Total 23

Skill: P/D

Title: viscosity

Aim: To investigate whether the shape of an object influences the rate at which it falls through a
viscous liquid

Hypothesis:

Materials: measuring cylinder, test tube, play dough or clay, stop clock, meter ruler, viscous liquid

Diagram:

Viscous
liquid

Measuring
cylinder
Shap
e

Procedure:

Pour a viscous liquid (detergent/sucrose) in a measuring cylinder and


measure the height
Cut three different shapes from play dough or clay of approximate mass or
use the same shape each time
Drop one shape from the measured height & time until the shape reaches
the base of the cylinder
Pour shape & viscous liquid in a beaker
Remove shape & pour liquid back in the cylinder, maintaining the same
height
Repeat method using the other shapes

Precautions:

Use countdown method when dropping the shape in the liquid


Try not to lose any viscous liquid when removing shape

18
19

Gentle pour viscous liquid to avoid spillage


Avoid parallax error when measuring the height of the cylinder
Check for zero error in timer

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After the experiment, the following results were obtain

Results

Shape Height/c Time/ Speed/ms Mark scheme


-1
m s
1. App hypothesis with reason
2
2. Workable method
..2
3. Identifies & controls
variables3
4. At least 2precautions
1
5. Appropriate design
1
6. Indicate readings to be taken
& observations to be
made2
7. Outline how the
readings/observations are to
Calculations
be used to test the
Variables: hypothesis/solve the problem..

Controlled: 1
8. App. selection of materials
Manipulative: .1
9. Possible source of
Responding:
error..1
Discussion: 10. Suitable
formulas
What is meant by a viscous liquid .1
How would test the viscosity of a liquid 11. App. Labeled Diagrams
The advantages of viscosity .2
The importance and application of viscosity 12. Data presentation
Total 20
Discuss and compare the speeds of the various shapes & arrive at a
conclusion
How can the experiment be improved for better extrapolation of results
Methods of minimizing errors
Discuss the relationship between viscosity and friction
Discuss the arrangement of particles/molecules in the viscous liquid

19
20

Conclusion:

SBA #10

Skill: P/D

Title: Refraction

Aim: to investigate whether the angle of refraction will double when the angle of
incidence of incidence doubles for light passing through a glass block.

Hypothesis:

Materials: glass block, optical pins, blank paper, card board, protractor, ruler

Diagram:
Incident
ray
Norma
l
Refracted
ray
Glass
block
Emergent
ray

Procedure:

Trace the outline of a glass block on a piece of paper


Remove the glass block and draw a normal 4cm from the top left corner of
the outline
Using a protractor, draw an incident ray 30 0
Place two optical pins 3cm apart on the incident ray
Put the glass block back on the traced outline
Look through the glass block and block off the image seen from the other
side with two other optical pins. A straight line should be form at the end
Remove the glass block and connect the holes produced from the pins to
the base of the traced outline (this is the emergent ray)
Draw a normal at the point of intersection
Connect the two normals by a thin line to produce the refracted ray
Repeat method using two other angles

Precautions:

Ensure glass block is not defaced of cracked

20
21

Ensure pins are straight


Avoid parallax error when blocking off the images & reading the protractor
Place glass block accurately on traced outline

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After the experiment, the following results were obtain

Results:

NB: you must attached result sheet in lab book

Tabel1

Angle of Angle of Mark scheme


incidence/i refraction/r
1. App hypothesis with reason
20 2
2. Workable method
.2
3. Identifies & controls
30
variables3
4. At least 2precautions
..1
5. Appropriate design
40
1
6. Indicate readings to be taken
& observations to be
made..2
7. Outline how the
readings/observations are to
Variables:
be used to test the
Controlled: hypothesis/solve the problem..

Manipulating: 1
8. App. selection of materials .
Responding: ..1
9. Possible source of error
Discussion:
.1
10. App. Labeled Diagrams
Definition of refraction .2
Effects of refraction 11. Data presentation
.1
Benefits of refraction/application
Methods of minimizing errors Total 17 marks
Improvement/modification
Total 23
Conclusion:

21
22

SBA #11

Skill: P/D

Title: stability

Aim: design an experiment to find out what makes an object more stable

Hypothesis:

Materials: three objects of same characteristics (square/rectangle),

Diagram:
G

Procedure:

Obtain four different objects of approximate mass such that


(i) One object has a wide base
(ii) One object has a narrow base
(iii) One object has a high center of gravity (this object has more weight
on top)
(iv) One object has a low center of gravity( this object has a more
weight at the bottom)
Every object must be tested (displaced slightly) to see how easily it
topples

Precautions:

Ensure that the same force needed to displace each object


Ensure that the experiment occurs in a windless environment

Variables:

Controlled:

22
23

Manipulating:

Responding:

FEASIBILITY OF EXPERIMENT

After carrying out the plan & design, the following results were
obtained

Results:

Object A was more stable and object C was the least stable Mark scheme

Discussion: 1. App hypothesis with


reason.2
2. Feasible/workable
method.2
3. Indentifies & controls
variables..3
4. At least 2
precautions.
2
5. Possible source of
error1
6. Select appropriate materials
.1
7. Indicate readings to be taken
& observations to be
made.2
8. Outline how the
readings/observations are to
be used to test the
hypothesis/solve the
problem....1

Total 13 marks

IF EXPERIMENT IS ATTEMPTED

9. Execute planned
procedure1
10.Modifies plan if
necessary1
Conclusion: 11.Select either width of base/height
of COG as the variable to
investigate, keeping the others
constant & forms a
hypothesis
2
23 12.Select a suitable object on which
to experiment & suggest how the
base of width/height of COG will
24

Total 25
SBA #12

Skill: P/D

Title: toppling vs sliding

Aim: design an investigation to determine whether an object will slide down an


incline plane first before toppling at all angles of inclination and hence
determines the conditions for the object to slide first or topples.
Mark scheme
Hypothesis:
1. App hypothesis with
Materials: reason..2
2. Feasible/workable
Diagram: method.2
3. Indentifies & controls
variables..3
4. At least 2
precautions
.2
5. Possible source of
error1
6. Indicate readings to be taken &
observations to be
made.2
Procedure: 7. Outline how the
readings/observations are to
Design an incline plane be used to test the
hypothesis/solve the problem..
Measure the height and the adjacent
Calculate the angle of inclination using 1
trigonometry 8. Data
presentation/collection
Place an object on the plane, namely a
2
ball, cube, cone, cone & cube/cylinder
combine
Vary the height for three other set of Total 12 marks
values
IF EXPERIMENT IS ATTEMPTED
Maintain constant adjacent,
hypotenuse and the same object 9. Execute planned
procedure1
Calculate the angle of inclination per 10.Modifies plan if
variation necessary1
11.Skills employed to minimize
Precautions: errors2
12.State conditions for sliding &
Avoid parallax in measurements Total 25
toppling2
Ensure plane is smooth
24 13.Select a suitable object on which to
experiment & suggest how the
25

FEASIBIITY OF EXPERIMENT

After the experiment, the following results were obtained

Height/cm Angle of Slide Topple


Key:
inclination
Slide first
Topple
first

Calculations:

Conditions for sliding & toppling (steepness):

Toppling: what factors contribute perfect steepness?

Sliding: what factors contribute perfect sliding?

Variables:

Controlled:

Manipulating:

Responding:

Discussion:

The importance of the experiment in designing roads/hills


Discuss results/findings and implication to civil engineers
Explain stability in the three different circumstances (stable, neutral &
unstable equilibrium)
What makes an object topples (refer to moments of the weight)

25
26

Skills employed to minimize errors

Conclusion: the conditions for toppling are where as the conditions for
sliding are

SBA # 13

Skill: PD

Title: conductivity/heat energy

Aim: to determine the best conductor among four different rods

Hypothesis:

Materials: copper rod, aluminum rod, brass rod, iron rod, heat source (candle or
open flames), tripod stand and mesh, Bunsen burner, wax, match stick

Materials 2: ceramic bowl, 4rods, Vaseline, hot water, thumb tax

Diagram:

A B C

Method:

1. Obtain 4 rods same thickness and length


2. Drop equal amounts of wax to the edge of the rod to adhere the match
stick (or use Vaseline)
3. Place all rods equidistance from heat source
4. Record in order the rod from which the match stick or thumb tacks first fall

Precautions:

Ensure rods same thickness, length and mass


Ensure rods equidistance form heat source
Ensure each rod receives equal amount of attachment wax or Vaseline

Expected results

Rod type Order of fall


Copper 1 Treatment of results
Brass 2

26
27

Aluminum 3
Iron 4
Discussion:

Heat transfer in solids, liquids and gases


The effect on heat transfer on the length and thickness of the material
The effect of heat on the type of material
Errors encountered and skills employed to minimize these errors
Improvements or modification of experiment
Sources of errors and method of elimination
Alternative approaches to the experiment
5.

27
28

OBSERVATION RECORDING AND REPORTING

SBA#14

Skill: ORR

Title: cross sectional area

Aim: To determine the cross-sectional area, a, of a boiling tube

Materials/apparatus: boiling tube/test tube, measuring cylinder, half meter ruler, retort stand

Diagram:

Procedure:

mark the curve base of the boiling tube


fill water up to that height
pour 2cm3 of water in the boiling and measure the height from the mark point
Repeat method using other known volumes of water and recording the immediate height

Precautions:

NB: plot
Avoid parallax error when reading a graph
volume andof meter
height/cm
ruleron y axis against
Read off volume in measuringvolume/cm3 on x -the
cylinder below axis
meniscus
Retort stand must be on a flat surface and in a vertical position
Calculations:

Find gradient/slope of line


1
Area(A) = slpoe

i.e. A = 1/s
Discussion:

definition of cross sectional area


practicability of experiment
strengths and weaknesses
Results:
modification/improvement
what you would change if experiment was to
be repeated
28

Conclusion: the area of the boiling tube was found


to be
29

Error: Error:

Height/c Volume/c
m m3

Mark scheme

1. Used appropriate sub-


headings...1
2. Placed sub-headings in logical
order..1
3. Used appropriate subject matter under respective
headings...1
4. Logical sequence of steps in
procedure..1
5. A clear and concise
procedure................................................1
6. Procedure written in good English (Correct spelling and
grammar)

SBA#15

29
30

Skill: ORR

Title: moments

Aim: To determine the weight of a meter ruler using the principle of moments

Materials/apparatus: meter ruler, retort stand, string, slotted masses

Diagram:

Mark scheme

1. Neat app
table
1
2. Correct headings &
units.1
3. Consistent significant figures in
table.1
4. Correct
graph
1
5. Correct quantities on
axis.1
6. Label axes correctly with quantities &
units2
7. Title for
graph
..1
8. Best fit

Procedure:

locate the centre of mass/gravity of the meter ruler


tie a string unto the clamp of a retort stand and to the centre of the meter ruler
attach a 100g(1N) weight on one end of the ruler
shift the weight and the attach string along one half of the ruler so that the ruler balances
measure value x (the distance from the centre to the string) and y (the distance from the
weight to the string)
obtain six pairs of values for x and y

Precautions:

avoid parallax error when reading the meter ruler


make sure the ruler is leveled before the weight is attached
slightly adjust the weight for best results

Results:

Error in length:

30
31

Values
of x

Values
of y

Plot a graph of y values against x values

Calculations:

find the slope/gradient


the slope represent the weight of the meter ruler

Discussion:

define moments & the principle of moments


application/importance of moments in construction
improvements of experiment
methods of minimizing errors
reflection on the process (likes & dislikes, strengths and weaknesses)
reflection should be a separate sub heading

Conclusion: the weight of the meter ruler was found to be.

SBA#16

Skill: ORR

Title: latent heat of vaporization

Aim: To determine the specific latent heat of vaporization of water

31
32

Materials/apparatus: kettle, beaker, thermometer, candle, tripod stand, stop


clock, water, electrical balance, measuring cylinder

Diagram:

Method1 (kettle)

Find the mass of water in the kettle by subtraction method


Put kettle to boil for 10 minutes
Weigh again and find difference in mass (this difference equals the mass of water
vaporize)

Method2 (beaker)

Measure the initial temperature of water in the beaker


Find the mass of water in the beaker by subtraction method
Put beaker of water to boil via candle flames
After 10 minutes re weigh water
Measure the final temperature
Find the mass of water vaporize

Method3 (alternative method)

If kettle is too heavy to be weighed, measure mass of water in a beaker by


subtraction method
Pour known mass of water in kettle
Put kettle to the boil
After 10 minutes pour water from kettle to the beaker to be weigh again
Find the mass of water lost/evaporated

Precautions:

Avoid parallax error when reading thermometer


Check for zero error in stop watch and record exact time obtained
Try to prevent heat loss as much as possible by preventing the wind from
interacting with the candle
Cover the beaker to prevent heat loss

Results:

Mass Mass + Initial Final Volume/c


when temperatur temperatur

32
33

empty water e/0C e/0C m


3

Grams Grams

Beaker

Kettle

Calculations:
Mark scheme
For beaker:
1. Neat app
Energy (E) = mcT (m = mass of water) table
1
Hence, E = mlv (m = mass of water evaporated)
2. Correct headings &
E units.1
3. Consistent significant figures in
lv = m
table.1
For kettle: 4. Appropriate format of
presentation1
2
V 5. Sub headings
Energy (E) = IVt or I2Rt or R t identify.
1

Hence, E = mlv (m = mass of water


evaporated

E
lv=
mDiscussion:

Definition of latent heat of vaporization


Usefulness of latent heat of vaporization
Improvements/modification
How errors can be minimized
Factors affecting latent heat of vaporization
Reflection

Conclusion: the specific latent heat of vaporization of water was found to be


..

SBA#17

Skill: ORR

33
34

Title: ohms law

Aim: to investigate the relationship between voltage and current for a filament lamp.

Materials/apparatus: ammeter, voltmeter, connecting wires, rheostat, battery replacement power


supply, switch, bulb/lamp.

Diagram:

Procedure:

Set up circuit using the electrical components shown above


Make sure to connect ammeter in series to lamp (component) and voltmeter in parallel
Adjust rheostat for six pairs of values for current and voltage

Precautions:

Tight connections in set up


Correct polarity connections
Check for zero error in voltmeter and ammeter
Avoid parallax error when reading measuring cylinder

Results:

34
35

Error =

Ammeter/A

Error =

Voltmeter/V

Plot a graph of current against voltage

Discussion:

Define current, its origin


Voltage
Why it is necessary for an ammeter to have a very low internal resistance
Why is it necessary for a voltmeter to have a very high internal resistance
The function of the rheostat
Determines whether ohms law applies to the filament lamp
What are the factors affecting the resistance of the filament lamp
Strengths and weaknesses/reflection
How can the experiment be improved
Errors encountered
Skills employed to minimize errors

Conclusion: the relationship between voltage and current was found to be either directly proportional,
inversely proportional, linear, non linear, quadratic etc.

Mark scheme

1. Neat app
table
1
2. Correct headings &
units.1
3. Consistent significant figures in
table1
4. Correct
graph
..1
5. Correct quantities on
axis..1
6. Label axes correctly with quantities &
units.2
7. Title for
graph
1
8. Correct diagram & labeling..
SBA#18

35
36

Skill: ORR/AI

Title: focal length

Aim: To determine the magnification & focal length for a convex lens

Materials/apparatus: convex/converging lens, lens holder, screen, candle/bulb, meter ruler,

Diagram:

Diagram showing experimental setup

Procedure:

Make a bright light source and engulf it in a box (lamp box)

Place the converging lens in the lens holder & put the combination in the light path from the
lamp box
Adjust lens to produce a sharp image on screen

The adjustment was done six times

Measure x (the distance from the lens holder to the lamp box) and y (the distance from the
lens holder to the screen).

Precautions:

Ensure lamp source produces a bright source

Avoid parallax error when reading the meter ruler

Adjust lamp box and lens such that a sharp image is produce on the screen

36
37

Results:

Values of x
Mark scheme AI
Object
distance (u) 1. Large triangle showing how gradient was
determined.1
Values of y 2. Indicating on the graph the co-ordinates used to

Image determine x and y and correctly reading


distance (v) them from the graph2
3. Correct formula to find
Magnificatio Average
gradient..1
n 4. Correct formula for focal
length1
M = v/u
5. Correct substitution of read offs into slope
Focal length formula..1 Average
6. Correct calculation of slope (magnification).
u+ v ..1
f= /
uv 7. Calculation of focal
length1
cm 8. Correct units for
slope
Power of lens Average

1
Calculations:
F=
f
Plot a graph of image distance against object Mark scheme ORR
distance.
/cm-1 Find the slope/gradient of the graph to
confirm the magnification of the lens obtained in 1. Neat app
the table above. table
1
Discussion: 2. Correct headings &
units.1
Focal length and its importance 3. Consistent significant figures in
table.1
Explain the lens properties 4. Accurate values in
Discuss the function of a fat lens compared table.2
5. Correct
to a thin lens graph
Modifications/improvement 1
6. Correct quantities on
Far sightedness, near sightedness, axis1
accommodation, 7. Label axes correctly with quantities &
units..2
Conclusion: the focal length of the convex lens was 8. Title for
found to be the magnification was found to 37 graph
be and the power of the lens was found to be . ..1
9. Best fit
line
38

SBA#19

Skill: ORR/AI

Title: resistivity

Aim: To determine the resistance for unit length of a wire AB

Materials/apparatus: potentiometer, connecting wires, ammeter, jokey

Diagram:

A B

Procedure:

Set up the circuit shown above with (AB) the potentiometer and power supply set at 1.5V
Slide the jockey 10cm starting from one end up to 100cm
Measure the current on the ammeter per 10cm slide
If current deflections are too great, insert a resistor in the circuit

Precautions:

Ensure correct polarity connections


Avoid parallax error in reading ammeter
Increase precision and sensitivity when shifting the jockey across the potentiometer
Ensure tight connections
Check for zero error on meter ruler

38
39

Results:

Length/cm 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Current/A

1 1
/A
A

Plot a graph of A-1 against m

Resistivity or resistance per unit length = slope x voltage (V = 1.5v)

Units for slope = A-1m-1 ; since V = IR = A

Then it follows that A-1m-1 x A = m-1 resistivity or resistance per unit length

Discussion:

Definition of resistivity
Advantages, disadvantages
Applications
Mark scheme
Modifications/improvements
Reflection/strengths, weakness
1. Neat app
The relationship between resistance and length and the implications to power grid designers
table
..1
Conclusion: the resistance per unit length of the wire AB was found to be ..
2. Correct headings &
units..1
3. Consistent significant figures in
table..1
4. Correct
graph
1
5. Correct quantities on
axis.1
6. Label axes correctly with quantities &
units2
7. Title for 39
graph
..1
8. Best fit
40

SBA#20

Skill: ORR

Title: centre of gravity/mass

Aim: to determine the center of gravity for an irregular shape object

Materials/apparatus: flat irregular shape lamina (card board/Bristol board), puncher, mounted pin,
retort stand, plumb line & scissors

Diagram:

Procedure:

Cut an irregular shape from a piece of cardboard using a pair of scissors/blade


Pierce three widely spaced holes near to the edge of the lamina
Labe the holes A, B & C
Attach a mounted pin to the clamp of the retort stand
Hang the lamina (hole A) in the mounted pin and attach a plumb line
Trace the path of the plumb line
Repeat method using holes A & B
Where the three lines intersect would be the centre of mass/gravity of the object

Precautions:

The holes must be pierced near the edge of the lamina


The holes must be widely spaced

40
41

Irregular shape must swing freely in suspension on the mounted pin


Retort stand must be on a flat surface

Results:

NB: glue or stick irregular shape in lab book for assessment, clearly indicating the three points of
suspension or lines drawn.

Discussion:

Definition of center of gravity or center of mass

Explain how the COG of regular objects are obtained

Applications of center of gravity

Implications or usefulness of center of gravity

How can the center of gravity be altered?

Conclusion: the center of gravity of the irregular shaped


Mark object
schemewas found to be the intersection of the
three lines.
1. Appropriate sub-headings
1
2. Subject matter under each sub-
headings..1
3. Subject matter in logical
order..1
4. State 2
precautions
2
5. Clear & concise
41 method.1
6. Logical sequence of steps in
method1
7. Good English (grammar & spelling) in
42

SBA#21

Skill: Density

Title: ORR

Aim: to determine the density of an irregular shaped object:

Materials: irregular object (rock), string, measuring cylinder, electrical balance, water

Diagram:

42
43

Procedure:

Measure the mass of the irregular rock on an electrical balance

Tie a string to the rock and submerge it in a beaker of known volume of water

Record the volume rise in the cylinder

Find the final volume of the liquid

Repeat method using two other known volumes of liquid

Precautions:

Gently displace the rock down the cylinder of water

Avoid parallax error when reading the volume of the rock

Read below the meniscus

Avoid breathing over the electrical balance because it invokes the final measurement
of the mass

43
44

Results:

Object Initial Final Volume of rock Density/Kgm-3


3 3
volume(V1/cm ) volume(V2/cm
V 2V 1 )/c
(

m3

Rock

Average:

Mass of rock =

Calculations:

m
d=
v

Discussion:

Density definition
Importance/application of density
Archimedes principle/discovery
Relative density
Why some objects float whilst others sink

Conclusion: The density of the rock was found to be


Mark scheme

1. Neat and appropriate


table1
2. Appropriate headings with quantities and
units.1
3. Consistent significant figures in each
column..1
4. Use of good English (grammar & spelling)
.2
5. Clear & concise
method
..1
6. Logical sequence of steps in
method..1
7. Repeat method to find the volume and then find
average.1
8. Accurate readings (+ or -1) of mass 44and
45

SBA#22

Skill: ORR

Title: images in a plane mirror

Aim: To locate the images formed by two plane mirrors placed at right angles to each other

Materials: 4optical pins, card board, blank paper, ruler, 2mirrors,

Diagram:

P2 P3

6cm

X Z

4cm

P1

Y P4

Procedure:

Place two mirrors at right angles to each other


Place an object pin P1 6cm from the mirror YZ and 4cm from the mirror XZ
The images of P1 was obtain 4cm behind mirror XZ (P2) and 6cm behind mirror YZ (P4)
Produce P4 vertical and P2 horizontal until they intersect at image P3

Precautions:

Ensure distances measured are accurate


Incline position of the eye to view images through mirror
Ensure lines drawn are straight
Ensure optical pins are straight

45
46

Results:

NB: stick/glue result paper in lab book

Table of measurements

Distance Distance P2-P3/m Distance P3-P4/m Distance Z-P4/m


XY/m

Discussion:

Properties of the images formed in a plane mirror


Uses of mirrors
Uses of reflection/mirror reflection
Errors encountered and methods of minimization
Improvements/modification
Reflection on process of conducting experiment/gaining data

Conclusion: the images were located in two plane mirrors placed at right to each were located as
shown on the result paper.

Mark scheme

1. Neat and appropriate


table.1
2. Appropriate headings with quantities and
units..1
3. Consistent significant figures in each
column.1
4. Use of good English (grammar & spelling)
2
5. Clear & concise
method
.1
6. Logical sequence of steps in
method1
7. Correct measurement of
lengths1
8. Correct conversion of
units.1

46
47

SBA# 22

Skill: ORR

Title: Reflection

Aim: To locate the position of an image in a plane mirror by ray tracing

Materials: plane mirror, adhesive tape, blank sheet of paper, plasticine, 3 optical pins

Diagram:

A
P2
B
P P1 P4
P3

M1 R M2
S

Procedure:

Fix a sheet of blank paper on the table using adhesive tape


Draw the line M1M2 in the center of the paper. Stand a plane mirror vertically on its edge.
Use plasticine if necessary
Stick an optical pin (the object pin) vertically at some point in front of the reflecting surface
of the mirror and about 5 cm from it
look into the mirror from eye level as shown in the diagram and stick two sighting pins into
such positions such that P1 & P2 and the image of the object seems to form a straight line
Draw small circles round the pins P1P2. Remove sighting pins
Repeat steps 4 and 5 using sighting pins P3P4 and from a different position. Remove sighting
pins
Produce line P1P2 beyond the mirror line M1M2.
Produce line P3P4 beyond the mirror line M1M2
Mark the point of intersection of the produced lines behind the mirror. This is the position of
the image of the object at P

Precautions

Ensure paper is stuck and mirror vertically placed on horizontal line M1M2

47
48

Reduce parallax error when observing from positions A & B


For good accuracy, second sighting pin should be fairly far away from the first sighting pin P 1

Results (stick in lab book)

Blank
sheet A
P2
B
P P1 P4
P3

M1 R M2
S

Table

Image height form Object height form


M1M2 M1M2

Discussion: Mark scheme

Definition of light reflection 1. Neat and appropriate


Purposes of plane mirrors table.1
2. Appropriate headings with quantities and
Properties of images form in a
units.1
plane mirror 3. Accurate measure of image height & object
Application of light reflection height .1
Errors encountered and methods of 4. Use of good English (grammar & spelling)
minimization 2
Improvements/modification 5. Clear & concise
Reflect on the process of conducting method1
experiment/gaining data 6. Logical sequence of steps in
method1
Conclusion: The image of object P was 7. Neat result sheet with images
located..2
located as shown in the results
8. Sub-headings
named

48
49

MEASUREMENT & MANIPULATION

SBA#23

Skill: M & M/ A&I

Title: Refractive index

Aim: To determine the refractive index, n, of a glass block

Materials: glass block, optical pins, protractor, blank paper

Diagram:

Procedure:

Trace the outline of a glass block on a blank sheet of paper


Draw a normal 4cm from the top left corner of the glass block
Using a protractor, measure 200 from the normal and draw an incident ray
Place two optical pins (P1 & P2) on the incident ray 2cm apart
Put the glass block exactly back on the trace outline
Look through the glass block and block off the image seen from the previous pins P 1 & P2
with two other pins P3 & P4
Produce P3 & P4 to the base of the trace outline (this is the emergent ray)
Draw a normal at the point of intersection and connect it to the previous normal
This would be the refracted ray
Measure and record the refracted angle
Repeat method using two other angles, namely 400 and 300

Precautions:

Make sure optical pins are straight


Make sure glass block is not defaced
Make sure the images of the object is directly blocked or form a straight line with the search
pins
Make sure glass block is directly placed on traced outline

49
50

Results

Angle of
incidence/ i
10 20 30 40 50 60

Angle of
refraction/
r

sini
Average of sinr
Sin i

Sin r

Plot a graph of sini against sinr

Calculations:
Discussion: Find gradient/slope
Definition of refractive
What does index
the gradient/slope represent?
Importance/application
Compare the refractive index for different materials
Difficulties experienced during the lab exercise and how did you overcome these difficulties
Strengths
Errors encountered and methods of minimization

Conclusion: the refractive index of the glass block was found to be ..

Mark scheme

1. Follows
instruction
.1
2. Prepares material for observation/investigation
correctly1
3. Sets up apparatus for
measurement.1
4. Use glass block correctly
..1
5. Correct measure of incident
angles2
6. Places optical pins on incident
ray..1
7. Check for unavoidable
errors..1

50
51

SAB#24

Skill: M/M

Title: lateral displacement

d
Aim: To investigate whether the ratio i is a constant

Materials: optical pins, protractor, glass block, cardboard, blank paper

Diagram:

Procedure:

o The reflected ray is found using the same method as describe in SBA#22 above
o Produces the incident ray until it passes the base of the trace outline
o Measure the distance d from the normal to where the projected incident ray cuts the base

of the trace outline corresponding to its value i .

o Repeat method using different values of i

Precautions:

o Make sure optical pins are straight


o Make sure glass block is not defaced
o Make sure the images of the object is directly blocked or form a straight line with the search
pins
o Make sure glass block is directly placed on traced outline

51
52

Results

Angle of incidence

20 30 40

Distance/m

d
Ratio i

Discussion:

o Definition displacement
o The effects of lateral displacement
o Importance of lateral displacement
o Reflection on the process

d
Conclusion: the ratio i is .

Mark scheme

1. Follows
instruction
.1
2. Prepares material for observation/investigation
correctly.1
3. Sets up apparatus for
measurement.1
4. Use glass block correctly
..1
5. Correct measure of
angles..2
6. Places optical pins on incident
ray.1
7. Check for unavoidable
errors.1
8. Outline traced with
normals1
9. Correct measure of angles of
refraction1

52
53

SBA#25

Skill: M/M

Title: specific heat capacity

Aim: to determine the SHC of a given metal using the methods of mixtures

Materials: water bath, thermometer, bob, string, Styrofoam cup, water, beaker, tripod stand and mesh,
candle/gas flames, matches, tiles and electrical balance.

Diagram: metal

Procedure:

Fill the water bath with water and set it to boil


Tie a string to the bob and submerge it in the water bath until the temperature reached 100 0C.
When the water bath reach this temperature, remove the bob, shake off the excess water and
quickly transfer it to the Styrofoam cup of cold water
Make sure to measure the initial temperature of the cold water with a thermometer before
transferring the heated bob
Stir the solution continuously and measure the final steady temperature

Method2

Heat a beaker of water with a pendulum bob inside or any piece of metal up to about a
temperature of 1000C
Measure the initial temperature of water in the Styrofoam cup of water
Quickly transfer the metal from the beaker of water to the Styrofoam cup
Stir the solution and measure the final steady temperature

Precautions:

Quickly transfer the metal/bob to the Styrofoam cup to prevent heat lost
Avoid parallax error when reading the thermometer
Avoid splashing water
Stir well before reading temperature

53
54

Ensure container is well insulated

Results

Mass of metal =

Temperature of boiling water = 1000C

Mass of cold water =

Temperature of the cold water =

Final temperature of mixture =

Temperature rise of cold water = final temperature of mixture temperature of cold water

Heat lost by metal = temperature of metal in water bath (100 0C) final temperature of mixture

Specific heat capacity of water = 4200JKg-1K-1

Calculations:

Heat lost by metal = heat gain by cold water

mc T =mc T

Discussion:

Define SHC
Applications of SHC
Differentiate between objects with high SHC compared to objects with low SHC
Discuss the advantages of reducing energy loss in the environment
Improvements
Methods of minimizing errors
Source of errors/unavoidable errors & limitations
Reflection

Conclusion: the specific heat capacity of a metal was found to be


Mark scheme

1. Follows instruction
correctly1
2. Prepares material for
investigation.1
3. Sets up apparatus (water bath)
correctly1
4. Balance placed level & check for deflections in
mass.1
5. Thermometer not touching glass/water
bath..1
6. Water bath handle with
care1
7. Read thermometer avoiding parallax error/eye
level1
8. Hold the thermometer54
55

SBA#26

Skill: M/M

Title: magnetic fields

Aim: To plot a magnetic field of a bar magnet using a plotting compass

Materials: plotting compass, bar magnet, blank paper

Diagram:

Procedure:

Trace the outline of a bar magnet on a blank paper


Place a plotting compass near the north pole of the magnet (the north pole is indicated by an
arrow pointing north in the plotting compass)
Place a dot with a pencil on the arrow pointing north
Place the center of the compass on the dot and place another dot on the arrow pointing north
Repeat this method until the compass reaches the other end of the magnet
Connect each dot with a smooth curve

Results:

NB: stick or glue result sheet in lab book Mark scheme

Precautions: 1. Trace around the


magnet2
Ensure magnets are not defaced 2. Indicate the position of
Ensure compass is working properly compass1
3. Plot points
accurately
.2
Discussion:
4. Points are joined using a thin
Define magnetic fields
How the poles are located
Application/ importance of magnets
How north pole is define

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Conclusion: the magnetic field was plotted as shown in the results

SBA#26

Skill: M/M

Title: resistance

Aim: To determine the resistance, R, of an unknown resistor

Materials: unknown resistor, power supply, ammeter, voltmeter, connection wires, switch

Diagram:

Procedure:

Connect the positive end of the connecting wire to negative terminal of the power supply
Connect the other end to the top terminal of the rheostat
Connect the bottom terminal of the rheostat with another connecting wire and the other end to
the unknown resistor via crocodile clips
Clip the other end of the unknown resistor and connect it to the ammeter
Then connect the voltmeter in parallel with the unknown resistor
Test the working of the circuit by switching on the power supply
If the needles in the ammeter & voltmeter deflects in the opposite direction, reverse polarity
Slide the rheostat to obtain six pairs of values of current(A) and voltage(V)

Precautions:

Ensure polarities are connected properly


Ensure tight fittings/connections
Check for zero error in both ammeter & voltmeter
Ensure rheostat slides freely

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Results:

Current/A Voltage/V Resistance/


Mark scheme

1. Follows
instruction
1
2. Sets circuit
correctly.
..1
3. Place ammeter/voltmeter in correct
position2
4. Connect ammeter/voltmeter with correct
polarity..2
5. Read correct scale on ammeter (0-1)
..1
6. Read ammeter/voltmeter scale to avoid
Plot a graph of voltage against current parallax
error
Calculations:

V
V =IR R=
[ I ]

Find gradient to confirm resistance

Find the equation of the straight line and use this equation to find the value of the resistance when the
current is 2.5A

Discussion:

Definition of resistance
Importance of resistance
Relationship between resistance and current
Skills employed to overcome errors
How length affects resistance and the implications to device manufacturers

Conclusion: the resistance of the unknown resistor was found to be

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58

SBA#28

Skill: M/M

Title: periodic time

Aim: To investigate whether the periodic time of a simple pendulum is affected by the type of
material

Materials: pendulum bob, stop clock, insulated wire, string, chain of paper clips, nylon string, retort
stand and cork pads

Diagram:

Procedure:

Set up the pendulum shown above or if already set up


Attach two wooden cork pads between the clamp of the retort stand
Then cut three different materials of approximate length
Attach a pendulum bob to one of the materials and time for twenty oscillations
Repeat method using the other materials using same bob

Precautions:

Use countdown method


Check for zero error in timer or reset stop watch
Use small and approximate amplitudes per material
Retort stand must be on flat surface
Pendulum must oscillate in a vertical and perpendicular position

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Results:

Material Time for 20 Periodic time


oscillations

String

Nylon string

Insulated
wire

Discussion:

Factors affecting the periodic time of a pendulum


Importance of periodic time/uses
Strengths and weaknesses(reflection)
Skills employed to minimize errors

Conclusion: the periodic time is affected/is not affected by the type of material

Mark scheme

1. Follows
instruction
..1
2. Prepare materials for
investigation.1
3. Set up apparatus
correctly
.1
4. Oscillations of pendulum in a vertical
position.1
5. Pendulum oscillate with small
amplitudes..1
6. Used countdown method in
timing..1

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SBA#29

Skill: M/M

Title: thickness of glass tube

Aim: To determine the thickness of a glass, x, of a boiling tube

Materials: boiling tube, vernier caliper, measuring cylinder, retort stand, half meter ruler

Diagram:

Procedure:

Measure the outer diameter of the boiling tube(D)


Clamp the boiling tube onto the retort stand
Fill the tube with a known volume of water
Measure the height of the water in the boiling tube

Results:

Outer Inner Volume/cm3 Height/cm


diameter(D)/cm diameter(d)/
cm

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Calculations:

d2h 2 2
V= V = r h , where r =area
4 d2
Area = 4

d=
4V
h

Dd
Therefore,
x=
2

Discussion:

What is meant by thickness of a material


Importance of thickness
Implications to glass designers and manufacturers
Errors encountered and methods of minimization
Reflection

Conclusion: thickness of a glass boiling tube was found to be

Mark scheme

1. Follows
instructions
...1
2. Sets up apparatus
correctly....1
3. Correct reading of vernier
caliper..1
4. Avoid parallax errors when reading the
caliper.1
5. Add reading of caliper to that of the main
scale...1
6. Check for zero error on
caliper..1
7. Fill boiling tube to the
top.1
8. Pour water carefully into the measuring

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ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

SBA#30

Skill: A/I

Title: resistance

Aim: to find the resistance, R, of a carbon resistor

Materials: 6carbon resistors, connecting wires, battery replacement power supply, ammeter, crocodile
clips

Diagram:

Procedure:

Set up the circuit shown in the above diagram


Connect six resistors in series by tight twisting
Connect a crocodile clip the wire leaving the ammeter
Connect the first crocodile clip to the end of the first resistor (record the reading on the
ammeter)
After taking down the first reading, detach connection from first resistor and connect to the
end of the second resistor (record the reading)
Continue this method to the end of the last resistor

Precautions:

Tight connections for current flow


Tight connected twist of resistors
Check for zero error in ammeter
Test circuit for accurate flow of current by noting deflection of needle

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Results: Calculations:
Number of Current/A Plot graph of number of resistors against current
resistors/n
Find slope/gradient

Gradient x voltage = resistance [V = 1.5V]

Discussions:

Purpose of experiment and implications


Discuss the value of the resistance obtain and
devices suitable for its usage
Errors encountered and methods of
minimization
Strengths and weakness (reflection)

Conclusion: the resistance of a carbon resistor was


found to be .

Mark scheme

1. Large triangle showing how gradient was


determined.1
2. Indicating on the graph the co-ordinates used to
determine x and y and correctly reading
them from the graph2
3. Correct formula to find
gradient..1
4. Correct substitution of read offs into slope
formula..1
5. Correct calculation of
slope..1
6. Correct units for
slope
..1
7. Correct read off
intercept
..1

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64

SBA#31

Skill: A/I

Title: rate of flow

Aim: To investigate whether the rate of flow decreases with time

Materials: burette, water, stop watch, funnel, beaker and retort stand

Diagram:

Funnel

Burette

Retort stand

Tap

Conical flask

Procedure:

Mount a burette vertically on a retort stand


Insert a funnel on the mouth of the burette
Fill the burette with water up to 50cm3
Put a beaker under the tap to catch the flow of water
Switch on the tap
Record the time every 5cm3 of water reached

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65

Results:

Volume/cm3 Time/s
Calculations:
50
Plot graph of volume on the y-axis against time on x-axis

45 Answer the following questions; calculate

1. the rate of flow for the first 5cm3 & the last 5cm3
40 2. read of the time for the first 42cm3 of flow
3. read of the first three half lives from the graph
4. what is the rate of flow for 12 seconds
35

30
Mark scheme
25
1. Calculate the rate of flow of water for the
20 first 5cm3 and last
5cm3
15
..2
10 2. Explain what happens to the rate of
flow1
5 3. Read off the first three half lives from
graph...2
0 4. Indicate on graph & read off time for the
first 42cm3 of
flow
Discussions:

Definition of radioactivity
Why atoms explode
Explain shape of curve
Extract meaning from curve/curve implications
Uses of radioactivity
What happens when the rate of flow decreases
Explain half lives
Give four precautions when dealing with radioactivity

Conclusion: does the rate of flow decreases with time?

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66

SBA#32

Skill: A/I

Title: spring constant Hooks Law

Aim: To determine the spring constant for a helical spring

Materials: retort stand, helical spring, slotted mass, meter ruler

Diagram:
Mark scheme

1. Large triangle showing how gradient


was
determined
1
2. Indicating on the graph the co-
ordinates used to determine x

and y and correctly reading them


from the
graph2
3. Correct formula to find
gradient..1
4. Correct substitution of read offs into
slope
formula
1
5. Correct calculation of
slope.1
6. Correct units for
Procedure: slope.1
7. Correct read off
Measure the natural length of the spring intercept.1
Suspend the spring on the retort stand 8. Correct equation of
Attach the mass hanger (mass hanger weighs 100g) to the spring
Measure the stretch length of the spring using the meter ruler
Calculate the extension by subtracting the stretch length from the natural length
Add 100g slotted mass to the hanger and measure the stretch length, hence find the extension
Repeat method until six slotted masses are place on the mass hanger

Precautions:

Retort stand must be on a horizontal surface


Retort stand in vertical position
Avoid parallax error when reading the meter ruler

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67

Results:

Stretch Spring
length constant
Mass/g Mass/kg Force/N Extension/
m F
K=
e

100

200

300

400

500

Calculations:

Find gradient or slope; slope = spring constant

Discussion:

Explanation of Hooks law


Define the limit of proportionality
What happens beyond that limit
What happens to objects under the action of forces
Application/uses/importance of Hooks law
Why manufacturers need to consider the spring or elastic limit for the design of materials
using elastics/springs
Skills employed to minimize errors such as appropriate length reading
Modifications/implications
Reflection on process

Conclusion: the spring constant of a helical spring was found to be ..

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68

SBA#33

Skill: A/I

Title: thermal physics

Aim: To determine the power output of a candle

Materials: candle, tile, tripod stand & mesh, matches, beaker, water thermometer, electrical balance

Diagram:

Procedure:

Weigh the empty beaker on and electrical balance


Pour a known volume of liquid in the beaker and weigh again
Find the mass of liquid in the beaker by subtraction
Measure the initial temperature of the liquid with the thermometer
Place the beaker of water on the tripod stand and the candle beneath
Light the candle using the matches
After five minutes of consistent uniform heat record final temperature

Precautions:

Ensure heat is consistent & uniform by preventing wind interference


Check for zero error on timer be you begin to time
Avoid parallax error when reading the thermometer
An unavoidable error would be heat consistency; that is as candle melts, the heat distance to
the base of the beaker reduces, hence less heat applied to the beaker

Results:

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69

Mass of water =

Initial temperature =

Final temperature =

Time =

Specific heat capacity of water is 4200Jkg-1K-1

Calculation:

Thermal energy = mass x SHC x change in temperature

E=mc T

energy mc T
power= =
time t

Discussion:

Define SHC and its importance in water cooling most engines of motor cars and smaller
engines are usually air cooled
Power definition and interpretation of units J/s
Discuss how energy losses were diminish
What skills were employed to extrapolate accurate data
Modifications/improvements
Uses of power
Explain what can be powered by the fuel of a candle
Explain how did the distance from candle to beaker base was maintain
Reflections

Conclusion: the power output of a candle was found to be .

Mark scheme

1. Use correct formula to find power &


energy.2
2. Correct
substitution
.1
3. Correct conversion of units grams &
minutes...2
4. Correct
calculation
1
5. Correct
units
..1

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SBA#34

Skill: A/I

Title: acceleration due to gravity- free fall motion

Aim: To determine the acceleration of free falling, g, objects using a pendulum

Materials: bob, string, stop watch, meter ruler, retort stand, cork pads

Diagram:
Mark scheme

1. Correct values for T2 tabulated with correct units


(s2)...1
2. Accurate determination of the gradient from a
graph of T2 against l


.2
3. Large triangle showing how gradient was
determine1
4. Indicating on the graph the co-ordinates used to
determine x and y and correctly reading
them from the graph..2
5. Correct determination of the value of g from

Procedure:

Mount the retort stand


Attach a pair of cork pads to the clamp
Measure a string 120cm long
Mark with a pen every 20cm on the string
Attach the string length 120cm between the cork pads
Set the pendulum in oscillations using small amplitudes
Record time for 20 oscillations
Then pull string up between cork pads to the next mark point and record time for 20
oscillations
Repeat method using the other mark spots

Precautions:

Pendulum must oscillate in a vertical position


Pendulum must be on a flat surface
Use small & same amplitudes o displace pendulum
Check for zero error in timer

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Results:

Length/m Time for 20 oscillations Periodic time/s T2/s2

1 2 3 Mea 1 2 3 Mean 1 2 3 Mean


n

1.20

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

Plot a graph of length/m against T2/s2

Calculations:

time for 20 oscillations


periodic time=
20

Find gradient/slope

Gravity = gradient line x 42

Calculate the percent error in the experimental value and the actual value

Discussion:

Discuss the accuracy of the experimental value to the actual value


Explanation of free fall
Energy changes as pendulum oscillates
Importance of acceleration due to gravity
Discuss the consequences on the moon
What is the relationship between a falling object, its mass and acceleration
How does Newtons second law relate to the falling object and a pendulum in motion

Conclusion: the acceleration due to gravity was found to be

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72

SBA#: 35

Title: Newtons second law of motion

Skill: AI

Aim: To determine whether force is directly proportional to acceleration and


inversely proportional to mass

Materials: pulley, inextensible twin/string, weights, timer, pan/mass hanger, long


table (1m), trolley with smooth wheels

Diagram:

Method:

1. Place the trolley 1m in front of the pulley


2. Attach a light inextensible string to the pulley
3. Attach a mass hanger to the string
4. Add weights to the mass hanger and record the time and distance moved
by the pulley
5. Repeat method for additional weights up until at least 6 weights

The method can also be done by adding one weight to the mass hanger and
removing the weights on the trolley.

Precautions:

Check for zero error in timer


Parallax error in ruler

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73

Results:

Mark scheme
Mass/ Distance Time 2s F=ma
a= 2
kg traveled, /s t 9. Large triangle showing how gradient was
s/m determine..1
0.1 10.Indicating on the graph the co-ordinates
0.2
used to determine x and y and
correctly reading them from the
graph..
2
11.Formula for
gradient..1
Calculations: 12.Correct substitution of read offs into
formula1
1
Plot graph of mass vs. 13.Correct calculation of
acceleration
gradient1
Find gradient of graph with units 14.Correct units for gradient of
State the significance of the gradient graph1
15.Identification of sources of
Discussion: errors1
16.App steps to reduce sources of errors & or
Explain the importance of Newtons second recommendations for improving the
of motion in real life situations. accuracy of the
Discuss the errors encountered and identify experiment..2
methods of eliminating these errors 17.Explanation of
Identify sources of errors & ways of results2
reducing sources of errors
Limitations
Explanation of results (trends, patterns,
relationships in results)
Improvements or modifications of the
experiment

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74

SBA# 36

Title: relationship force and mass

Skill: AI

Aim: To find an unknown mass using a spring balance

Materials: spring balance, retort stand, slotted mass, mass hanger

Diagram:

Method:

Set up the apparatus as shown above


Hang the known masses on the spring balance and measure the force in
Newtons. Take at least six readings.

Table of results:

Mass/K X
g
Force/N

Calculations:

Plot a graph of force against mass


Find the gradient
Find y intercept
Find the equation of the straight line (y = mx + c)
Use the equation to find the force when the mass is 1.5Kg
Use the graph to find the unknown mass X

Source of error:

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75
Discussion Mark scheme
What is the significance of the gradient 18.Large triangle showing how gradient was
of the line? determine..1
Discuss the errors encountered and 19.Indicating on the graph the co-ordinates used to
identify methods of eliminating these
determine x and y and correctly reading
errors
Ways of reducing sources of errors them from the graph..2
Limitations 20.Formula for
Explanation of results (trends, patterns, gradient
relationships in results) ..1
Improvements or modifications of the 21.Correct substitution of read offs into
experiment formula..1
22.Correct calculation of
Conclusion: the unknown mass was found to gradient1
be 23.Correct units for gradient of
graph.1
24.Identification of sources of
errors..1
25.App steps to reduce sources of errors & or
recommendations for improving the accuracy of
the experiment..2
26.Explanation of
results.

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76

SBA#

Skill: AI

Title: specific heat capacity

Aim: To determine the specific heat capacity of a liquid using the electrical methods

Materials/apparatus: calorimeter, thermometer, ammeter, voltmeter, connecting wires, stirrer, heating


coil (about 6 resistance), distilled water, other liquid

Diagram

Alternative connections

+
A
+ Connected
+
V to 24v A +
supply
V

Stirrer
+ +
+
+

Insulation

Heating
coil

Procedure

Find the mass of the copper calorimeter


Half fill the calorimeter with water. Find the mass of the
calorimeter + water. Hence find the mass of water
Place the thermometer, stirring rod and heating coil in the
calorimeter.
Measure the temperature of the water
Connect the circuit as shown. Allow the current to flow until
a rise in temperature of at least 10K occurs (t). During this
process it is essential to keep stirring the water in order to
ensure that the heat is mixed thoroughly. Use the stop watch
to measure the time taken to heat the water in seconds (t).
Measure the current and the potential difference
Repeat using another liquid to be provided
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77

Precautions:

Ensure tight connections


Ensure that the positive of he ammeter is connected to the positive of the voltmeter and the
negative of the calorimeter is connected to the negative of the voltmeter
Continuous stirring for heating uniformity
Prevent heat looses

Results

mass Time Temperature Current/A Voltage/V


Calorimeter Calor. + water Water Minutes Seconds T1 T2

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78

SBA#

Skill: AI

Title: volume of drop of water

Aim: to find the volume of a drop of water

Materials: pipette dropper, water, beaker, 10cm3 measuring cylinder

78
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80

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81